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Aside from President Lincoln's issuance of the "Emancipation Proclamation," it had been the first part of government ever to generate such a far-reaching public statement. This one had occurred, not during a war or a huge disaster, however, in a time of tranquility and prosperity with no noticeable social activities and under an administration that had been the most conservative in twenty years (Gary, 2004).
Casey and David (2004) in their analysis assert that majority of the urban structures are unwilling to create the sort of fundamental transformation, which are fundamental to guarantee that each and every child gets what Brown v. Board assured. Brown v. Board of education assured that all children would gain access to high-quality education that is of identical value, irrespective of where that child had been educated, whether it had been an uptown, countryside, or an inner-urban neighborhood. It is clear that this had not…
Charles J.O. (2004). Remembering Brown V. Board of Education: This Month Marks the 50th Anniversary of the Landmark Decision Eliminating the Separate-but-Equal Doctrine. This Excerpt, from the Book All Deliberate Speed, Examines the Initial Resistance by the Local, State, and Federal Governments. Black Enterprise. 34, 10.
Gary Orfield. Renewing our commitment: A New Debate. In James, a and Dara, N.B. (2004). The Unfinished Agenda of Brown v. Board of Education. Wiley. Hoboken, NJ.
Casey, L and David, S. (2004). Educational Freedom in Urban America: Brown V. Board after Half a Century. Cato Institute. Washington, DC.
Genna Rae Mcneil. (2005). Silent Covenants: Brown V. Board of Education and the Unfulfilled Hopes for Racial Reform. Journal of Southern History. 71, 4.
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)
This case presented the U.S. Supreme Court on the issue of de jure segregation. Black children in Topeka were denied admission to public schools attended by white children. The Supreme Court had previously ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that segregation was allowable under the separate but equal doctrine. In Brown the Supreme Court re-examined this doctrine and, in doing so, also examined the general issue of segregation.
Facts: The Brown case was actually a compilation of five cases but the lead case arose out of a class action filed against the Topeka, Kansas Board of Education. The plaintiffs challenged the district's rule that required that black children attend segregated schools. The Topeka schools were arguably equal in terms of buildings, curricula, qualifications, and teacher salaries.The case was originally heard by the Federal istrict Court and resulted in the Court's ruling that…
Dissenting Opinion: There was no dissenting opinion as the decision was unanimous.
Personal Opinion: The Brown decision overruled a decision that should have been abolished much earlier but it started the process of ending segregationist practices and policies that had been in operation for centuries in the United States. It not only began the process of ending segregation in the nation's public schools it also contributed to ending it in other areas of American life. Most experts point toward the Brown decision as marking the beginning of the social justice movement that resulted in the eventual passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Although the Fourteenth Amendment came into existence shortly after the end of the Civil War, its true effectiveness was not realized until nearly a century later as the Warren Court discovered a way to apply it in an effort to end segregation in America's schools. Fortunately, once the amendment was used in Brown the Supreme Court began applying it more broadly to expand the Bill of Rights to the states.
Brown v. Board of Education
Brown vs. Board of Education
A landmark court case that occurred in the early 1950's resulted in the desegregation of public schools. This historic Supreme Court case was known as Brown vs. Board of Education. The place was Topeka, Kansas, 1951. A little girl named Linda Brown and her father, Oliver Brown, attempted to enroll Linda in a neighborhood elementary school that accepted whites only. The request was denied, by the hite elementary school. The little girl only lived a few blocks from the hite elementary school, which would have been a good fit for her. Instead, she ended up traveling about a mile each day to attend the nearest Black school.
Brown decided to request the help of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The NAACP was glad to help in the fight. Mr. Brown and the NAACP moved forward and challenged the segregation law.…
Brown vs. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483. 1954. Appeal from the United States
District Court for the District of Kansas [online]. Washington, DC: The National
for Public Policy Research; available from
When Brown vs. Board of Education came to the courts the judges ruled that the school law allowing "separate but equal educations" was unconstitutional which set the stage for the later examination of special education students being "separate but equal" in the district's treatment of their education.
I agree with the decision that was handed down and believe that one justice decision summed up the facts when it comes to any student, including racially divided or special educationally divided or gender divided students when he said:
Today it is a principal instrument in awakening the child to cultural values, in preparing him for later professional training, and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment. In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken…
Brown vs. Board of Education (accessed 4-23-07)
Brown vs. Board of Education (accessed 4-23-07)
Like other forms of discrimination and bigotry in the United States, racism has thankfully started to tail off and reduce over the years and generations. However, this is happening at a pace that is frustratingly slow and plodding. Court decisions and new laws passed throughout the 20th and 21st centuries have led to more inclusion and less institutional racism and other bigotry. However, de facto racism and other forms of bigotry still remain present and problematic. This report shall cover a lot of the facets of all of this including how Brown vs. Board of Education changed things, what President Kennedy perhaps should have done at the time of his Presidency to address racism head-on and more adeptly, examples of how things have gotten better, stayed the same or gotten worse, detailed reasons why it is important to keep a keen eye on society and what is going…
Brown v. Board of Education
On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, meaning that soon afterward white and black students would attend public schools side by side, with no administrative restrictions remaining on black students. The title of the Brown court case was Oliver L. Brown et al. v. The Board of Education of Topeka (Kansas) et.al., which was filed in federal district court in Kansas on Feb. 28, 1951, by Charles Bledsoe/NAACP of Topeka (Clark, Chein and Cook 497).
The number of plaintiffs affected by the U.S. Supreme Court ruling were 13 parents on behalf of 20 children. In summary, a black male, Oliver Brown, sued a Kansas school board on behalf of his daughter Linda who was in third grade, on the basis of racial discrimination in her schooling. Mr. Brown was…
Clark, K.B., I. Chein, and S.W. Cook. "The Effects of Segregation and the Consequences of Desegregation: A (September 1952) Social Science Statement in the Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka Supreme Court Case." Am Psychol 59.6 (2004): 495-501.
Fine, M. "The Power of the Brown V. Board of Education Decision: Theorizing Threats to Sustainability." Am Psychol 59.6 (2004): 502-10.
Hogan, T.D. "Evaluating the Demographic Impact of Societal Events through Intervention Analysis: The Brown Vs. Board of Education Decision." Demography 21.4 (1984): 673-82.
Pettigrew, T.F. "Justice Deferred a Half Century after Brown V. Board of Education." Am Psychol 59.6 (2004): 521-9.
Brown v Board of Education is one of the most famous landmark cases in American court history. Set against the backdrop of the early 1950s, just as the civil rights movement was beginning to heat up, Brown v Board of Education changed the face of American schools in a significant way and set the stage for further more sweeping reforms in other areas, such as worker discrimination and fair labor laws.
The stage for the conditions that led to Brown v Board of Education was a set of laws that rose out of the civil war restoration period called the Jim Crow laws. These laws varied from state to state and existed primarily in the South. These laws created separation of whites from blacks. Some of these laws include that blacks must sit at the back of the bus and relinquish their seat if a white passenger needed, blacks were…
Bolling v Sharpe U.S. District Court, Washington D.C. (1947)
Briggs v Elliott U.S. District Court. (1950)
Brown v. Board of Education, 349 U.S. 294 (1955) (USSC+) Syllabus
Cozzens, Lisa. "Brown v. Board of Education." African-American History. (Online) May 25, 1998. http://fledge.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html . Accessed November, 2002.
In addition to the highly qualified mandates of NCLB there are also requirements to use research-based education practices over effective-based education practices.
The different levels of ability combined with the various qualifiers of special education students present a difficulty in determining the best course of research-based learning. In addition the ability to track and report such learning becomes difficult at best, impossible at worst.
Given the wide spectrum of students that qualify for special education services there is a demonstrable difference in the services they are provided.
The students in special education today, receive a combination of education instruction. When they are able to appropriately benefit and learn in a mainstream environment the federal government dictates that they do. If their particular disability provides the need for accommodations to that mainstream education, such as oral testing, or un-timed lessons the school has provided that as well through…
____(2005) Special Education Teachers Up in Arms Over NCLB Certification Requirements Atlanta Journal
Chambless, D.L., & Hollon, S.D. (1998). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 7-18.
Cobb, P., Confrey, J., diSessa, a., Lehrer, R., & Schauble, L. (2003). Design experiments in educational research. Educational Researchers, 32(1), 9-13.
Davies, P. (1999). What is evidence-based education? British Journal of Educational Studies, 47, 108-121
IS THE AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM IN TROULE?
The United States has enjoyed a long history of providing public education for all students. However, many people believe that our educational system does not function well and that it has not for some time. Although multiple ways to improve public education have been tried, the belief persists that our schools produce under-educated students who are under-prepared for college or work. The goal of education is to teach students, but not all the students learn well, and for those who do not learn, we cannot always find either adequate explanations or solutions.
For some decades, the United States has attempted to use group testing to track the success of our educational programs. One attempt was by use of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) tests (Ipka, 2003). These tests provide raw scores of from 0 to 500. The Department of…
Ipka, V.W. 2003. "At Risk Children in Resegregated Schools: An Analysis of the Achievement Gap. Journal of Instructional Psychology, Vol. 30.
Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities. 1992: Harper Perrenial.
McQuillan, Jeff. 1998. "Seven myths about literacy in the United States." Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 6(1). Accessed via the Internet 8/23/05.
Schrag, Peter. 2004. "What's Good Enough? Advocates Are Demanding Not Just Equal but Decent Schools for All Children." Magazine article by Peter Schrag; The Nation, Vol. 278, May 3.
ace, Discrimination and Education
acism and discrimination have been long-lasting impediments to equality of education in the United States. It was only in the mid-20th century that African and Native Americans won legal access to equal education. Much of America's early history of racism still lingers within the educational system. Today, poverty and poor literacy skills often plague African-American and Hispanic students, and Native American groups continue to pressure the government for self-determination and equality in educational attainment. Groups like the NAACP continue to work to see racism and discrimination in education eliminated in the United States, and significant progress has been made over the last decades, although racism continues to be a problem in American schools.
The history of racism and discrimination in the United States is almost as long as that of America itself. The fledgling nation of the United States reserved education largely for its white, male,…
American Indian Education Foundation. History of Indian Education in the U.S. 02 May 2004. http://www.aiefprograms.org/history_facts/history.html
Corley, Mary Ann. Poverty, Racism and Literacy. ERIC Digest, Publication Date: 2003-00-00. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education Columbus OH. 02 May 2004. http://www.ericdigests.org/2003-5/poverty.htm
Francisco, Richard P. 2001. Racism: the real enemy that will destroy the United States. Black Issues in Higher Education, Oct 11, 2001. 02 May 2004. Available at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m0DXK/17_18/80087603/p1/article.jhtml
McLean Donaldson, Karen B. 1987. Through Students' Eyes: Combating Racism in United States Schools. Greenwood Publishing Group, Incorporated.
S. educational system. The impact of such law is very noticeable among teachers, students and even to the school administrators. However, there are a number of issues that have been continuously arising as people try to avail of their rights to education.
State legislatures attempting to comply with state Supreme Court mandates to reform their education finance systems should strive to meet the demands of both adequacy and equity. The experiences of some schools and/or states regarding the influx of enrollees suggest that regardless of the catalyst for reform, education reform can and should include elements of both equity and adequacy.
More so, it should be noted that whether a state is in the initial stages of implementing court-mandated reform, like the Equal Education Opportunities Act, or whether it has been in the process for decades, modern reform should incorporate the lessons of the last thirty years of reform efforts…
Buzuvist, Erin E. 2001. "A" for effort: evaluating recent state education reform in response to judicial demands for equity and adequacy. Cornell Law Review. Cornell University
Crofton, Ian. (1992). The Guinness Encyclopedia. Guiness Publication.
Education Quotes. (2006). Retrieved January 17, 2007, at http://www.wisdomquotes.com/cat_education.html
Gylfason, Thorvaldur. (2000) Natural Resources, Education, and Economic Development.
Graham vs. Florida Focal Point Analysis
There are many issues involved in the Supreme Court decisions especially with regard to the Constitution. One important assumption is that the court is moving to create a situation where the rights of humans are being protected and arbitrariness being curbed. In the light of the fact that human rights are now a universal concept and is globally acknowledged, the fact that constitutions and laws that abridge the human rights have to go or be amended cannot be argued against. While the constitution may be supreme, the rights of humans take priority, especially in the global context. In such a case the case of Graham vs. Florida can be seen as a landmark judgement so far as the way prisoners have to be treated is concerned.
The problem is more of legal rationality because the laws are rules that a society creates for the…
Anderson, James; Byrne, Dara N. (2004) "The Unfinished Agenda of Brown v. Board of Education." Wiley: Hoboken, NJ.
Ashworth, Andrew; Wasik, Martin. (1998) "Fundamentals of Sentencing Theory: Essays in Honour of Andrew von Hirsch." Clarendon Press: Oxford.
Cornell. Edu. (2010) "Supreme Court of the United States Graham v. Florida. certiorari to the district court of appeal of florida, 1st district No. 08 -- 7412. Argued November 9, 2009 -- Decided May 17, 2010." Retrieved 10 August 2011 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/08-7412.ZS.html
Cornell University Law School. (2010) "Thomas, J., dissenting Supreme Court of the United
statistics showing that English boys are performing worse than their oversees counterparts. Then I list some of the possible reasons boys are falling behind and some of the solutions. I end with what I feel is a viable solution to the problem of boys falling behind.
Are boys in England falling behind there female counterparts? If the answer to this question is yes, then why, and what can be done to address the problem. In an age of fierce competition, it is no longer enough to just let "boys be boys" The question is How can we balance the learning needs of boys with the needs of girls. It seems society is on a pendulum, first favoring boys, then favoring girls. We cannot go back and forth, favoring one gender at a time. The pendulum needs to stop swinging, but how do we balance the needs of boys with the…
Burke, Peter. "Gender Identity, Sex, and School Performance." Social Psychology
Quarterly 52(2): 159-169.
Chanstang, Carol. " Private All-Girl Schools Are Gaining Favor in Light of Reports That
Public Education Suffers From Gender Bias Favoring Male Students." Los
Formally, 'Aparthied' may have been dispersed inside the United States and South Africa. On the other hand, there is still the illegal version, in every way that is still bad, every bit as evil and just as belittling as all segregation was destined to be.
In "Little Rock Central: 50 Years Later," HBO's 2007 which was a documentary concerning the present-day Little Rock Central High School, a teenage girl mentions, "You [Caucasians] have it all fed on a silver spoon from the day you were born." The writer Jonathan Kozol makes this affirmation in his statement that was in a 2005 article from Harper's Magazine: "The current per-pupil expenditure level in the New York City [public] schools is $12,700, which can be linked with a per-pupil expenses equal in the additional of $23,000 in the wealthy suburban region of Manhasset, Long Island." Furthermore, he mentions that New York City schools…
6 Baer, Frances Lisa. Resistance to Public School Desegregation: Little Rock, Arkansas, and Beyond. 2008. 328.
7 Beals, M.P. "Warriors don't cry: A searing memoir of the battle to integrate little rock's central high." Simon & Schuster, 1994. 17
8 Reed, Roy. Faubus: The Life and Times of an American Prodigal (1997)
They will in turn pass on that legacy to their own children. Since that is the general rule and principle, why does it affect persons of color more fiercely?
Persons of color are disproportionately represented in the low strata of the SE ladder. Amongst the poor persons of color have higher percentages and are more likely to exist in extreme poverty. Since SES determines where you live to a large extent, and where you live will determine the schools to which your children can attend. Then SES becomes a limiting factor because person whose household income is low will live in government housing and may be on some government support program. These persons will also have their children attend schools within these communities' schools where there is high teacher absenteeism, poor results on standardized testing and generally poor conditions (Lee, 2002). Again, in this regard persons of color are over…
Achievement gap (2002) National conference for community and justice. Retrieved from http://www.kccjky.org/summaries/full_achieve.htm
Anderson M.L. & Taylor H.F. (2010) Sociology the essentials. NY, New York: Wadsworth
Brunner, B., & Haney, E. (2007). Civil Rights Timeline Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html#axzz0wJNCuRjZ
TAPE V. HURLEY
Exclusion of cildren of non-wite races from public scools was a major cause of concern for immigrants in late 18t century and for te first alf of te 19t century. Te issue reaced its peak wen in 1884 wen Josep and Mary Tape sougt admission in a public scool for teir U.S.-born girl, Mamie. In tose days, Cinese immigrants were seen in a negative ligt especially in California, as tey were considered "dangerous to te well-being of te state." Te court ruled in favor of Tapes but scool administration refused to abide by te ruling on grounds on "separate but equal" doctrine. Te court ruled tat cildren of all nationalities and races could seek admission in public scools except tose of "filty or vicious abits." Superior Court Judge McGuire ruled: "To deny a cild, born of Cinese parents in tis State, entrance to te public scools would…
Tape v. Hurley (1885) 66 Cal. 473: retrieved online 15th May 2004:
The historical context of this document (a verbatim transcript of governor Ross Barnett) perfectly reflects the resistance that southern states put up in order to avoid integrating schools -- in this case, the University of Mississippi -- because Jim Crow laws were still in effect in southern states like Mississippi and Alabama. The earlier context to this document is the iconic Supreme Court case, Brown vs. Board of Education, which officially meant that all schools should be integrated and that segregation in education ("separate but equal") was unconstitutional. However, southern states ignored this Supreme Court decision and kept schools segregated because racism against African-Americans was part of the culture and the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement did not change the minds of bigoted politicians. Black folks were considered to be less worthy than white folks in many places and in many instances.
Content -- Document
he standards were meant to provide access to the future successes of a UC-Davis education despite previous disadvantage, but were not without flaw.
In 1973 and the following year, Bakke applied to the medical school with a benchmark score of 468 out of 500. Each time he was rejected, as were all students in the regular applicant pool with a score below 470. Yet, four special admissions spots remained, and he was not considered to fill them. Bakke wrote a letter of complaint to the Chairman of the Admissions Committee, complaining about the program's admissions bias, but in 1974, his lowest review in committee was from the same chairman, who cited his opinions as too narrow minded for the UC-Davis standards. In both years, though, Bakke applied with a higher GPA and MCA score than his special admissions peers. Infuriated, he filed suit with the Superior Court of California seeking…
The decision went against the social flow of progressive American society, including that of the many of the Justices deciding the case. They understood that race was an issue that needed to be taken into consideration in admissions, but the unconstitutionality of the quotas could not be denied. Justice Powell stated that race could be used as a factor in admissions to mollify the social separation inherent in post-segregationist America, and he drew public attention to the Harvard College Admissions program which used race as part of "holistic review" of applicants. While he was in favor of the consideration of race but against the quotas at UC-Davis, the rest of the Justices were split firmly in half.
Since the case, the decision of the Court has affirmed Powell's approach to the admissions process and its treatment of race. In 2003, Grutter vs. Bollinger attacked the race processes used in admissions at the University of Michigan Law School, where Lee Bollinger, now the leader of Columbia University, presided over a process where race serves as a "predominant" factor of consideration. By establishing race as a point of "compelling interest," Bakke dealt directly with the problem of social hierarchy in the aftermath of the civil rights movement and segregation, and the ensuing concern with a modern reverse-prejudice, in a manner that remains relevant and valid thirty years later.
The Columbia Electronic Enyclopeida, 6th Ed. New York, Columbia University Press, 2005. [DVD]
Colonization vs. Anti-Slavery
The question asked for this brief report is whether the wants and demands of the pro-colonial folks and the anti-slavery folks that existed during the early days of the United States both had their demands and preferences met as far as end outcomes and such. The answer is "yes" but it did not really start until the Civil War, went a lot further in the 1960's and in some way continues to this very day. However, both parties should be at least fairly happy with the end outcome as slavery is gone and America is completely developed and "colonized" for all intents and purposes.
Slavery certainly didn't start with the United States as many European colonies and countries around the world used the practice and Great Britain in pre-United States history was certainly on exception. This continued even after the creation of the United States in the…
ace in Sociology
The sociology of racism, according to Clair and Denis (2015) is the study concerning racial inequality, racial discrimination, and racism and the associated features. acism basically is the domination of another race based on the percept and preconception that the dominating race is superior culturally or biologically. This thinking of superiority is used to justify the ill treatment of people from other races. acialization has led to people being divided into various groups based on physical appearances such as color of the skin, shape of the eye or hair and languages spoken, among others. These groups are then called races. acial discrimination involves unequal treatment meted to these groups and manifests itself prominently in such areas as education, income, and health.
ace is a construct of the society. It has no biological bearing, as there are no behavioral differences in humans that can be attributed to differences…
Clair, M., & Denis, J. S. (2015). Sociology of Racism. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Scholars at Harvard: https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/matthewclair/files/sociology_of_racism_clairandenis_2015.pdf
Crossman, A. (2016). Sociology Of Race And Ethnicity. Retrieved September 8, 2016, from About Education: http://sociology.about.com/od/Disciplines/a/Sociology-Of-Race-Ethnicity.htm
Delinder, J. V. (2004, January). Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka: A Landmark Case Unresolved Fifty Years Later. Prologue Magazine, Vol 36. Retrieved from The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration: http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2004/spring/brown-v-board-1.html
Library of Virginia. (2003). What Was Brown v. Board of Education? Retrieved September 8, 2016, from Library of Virginia: http://www.lva.virginia.gov/exhibits/brown/whatwas.htm
Under these circumstances, an ethical dilemma is born. Should society control its development or leave it to chance? And in the case that it should control it, which categories should it help?
If the person in the above mentioned example is helped, we could assume that in a certain way, the person who was not helped because he or she already disposed of the necessary means, the latter one might be considered as having been subject to reverse discrimination. Yet we ought to look at the picture from an utilitarian point-of-view. Under these circumstances we might state that society as an overall system has more benefits from helping the categories which are in bigger need of help (for example the ones mentioned in the principles of affirmative action).
ut what are the exact principles of affirmative action: let us take a look at them and analyze them. Title VI, section…
"Access, equity and diversity, American association for affirmative action," Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://www.affirmativeaction.org/resources.html
Anderson, TH. The pursuit of fairness: a history of affirmative action, Oxford University Press, 2005
"Affirmative action" in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved October 27, 2010 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/affirmative-action/
"Affirmative action- pros and cons, the origins of, legal treatment of, political and social debates, the future" in Encyclopedia. Jrank. Org., Retrieved October 25, 2010 from http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/5916/Affirmative-Action.html
By the late 1970s, the Cold War had wound down, and the Soviets posed less of a threat than they had over the past three decades. Many civil rights for blacks, women, and minorities in America had been won during the Cold War. Many other hard fights were still to come, but ultimately, the Cold War marked the height of American fear of aggression, and American gains in civil rights.
In conclusion, the Cold War was a major contributor to civil rights for a number of reasons. Civil rights were hard won, and many people gave their lives in the ultimate sacrifice to obtain freedom and equality. Civil rights came about for a number of reasons, but pressure from world forces on American democracy was one reason that civil rights became so important to many political leaders. Without pressure from much of the world, civil rights may have been even…
Dudziak, Mary L. Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Fairclough, Adam. "The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in the Global Arena." History Today Nov. 2002: 84+.
Graham, Hugh Davis. "The Civil Rights Commission: The First 40 Years." Civil Rights Journal 2.1 (1997): 6.
McAuliffe, Mary Sperling. Crisis on the Left: Cold War Politics and American Liberals, 1947-1954. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1978.
There have been several well-publicized incidents of blatant racism in the news lately, including the bigoted remarks by the owner of the Los Angeles Clippers, Donald Sterling, and the racist rant (suggesting that blacks were better off as slaves) by Nevada rancher, Cliven Bundy. Meanwhile other nationally known figures have also made statements about racism, including billionaire Mark Cuban, owner of the Dallas Mavericks NBA team, who claimed he, too, is bigoted against African-Americans (especially when he sees a black youth in a "hoody"). These remarks -- and the media's coverage of the verbally expressed racism -- have piqued my interest in the subject. So I have in this paper referenced the position of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) on racism, and have also presented some of my own views as well.
Section One: What is your person opinion on racism and what led you to this…
Remember the Titans is very much based on a true story; fact can back up most of the movie's dramatic events in some way. However, almost every time factual events are presented in the film, they are exaggerated or altered to help direct the audience towards a better understanding of the film's themes. For instance, T.C. illiams High School was an attempt at forced integration, but not to the extent portrayed in the film. The community was in turmoil, but not so violent in their reaction to the integration. These examples, in which the film takes certain liberties, help to create the environment of Alexandria, Virginia at the time. They over exaggerate that environment, but nevertheless are accurate in their general presentation of the sentiment among the different forces at play in 1971 Alexandria and T.C illiams High School.
From the film's point-of-view, these exaggerations are necessary to drive home…
Agnew, Jean. Triumph over Tragedy. Gerry Bertier. 16 Feb. 2007 http://ww.gerrybertier.com/Worddocs/TriumphoverTragedy.doc .
Bos, Carole. The Titans: Story Behind the Movie. Law Buzz. 18 Feb. 2007 http://www.lawbuzz.com/movies/remember_the_titans/the_titans_ch1.htm .
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) (USSC+). The National Center for Public
Policy Research. 16 Feb. 2007 http://www.nationalcenter.org/ .
School Finance: Its Economics and Politics
School financing in America
Revenue sources for federal and state governments
Judicial reviews of school finance policy with evolving standards of equality
School-based decision making
Family choice of schooling
Reform of schooling-finance
Providing equality in educational opportunities to all is one of the cornerstones of American democracy. The founding fathers of America were aware of the necessity of having a population, which is educated since it enables an opportunity for all the citizens of the country to be successful. The necessity and the desire to create an environment where all children have equal opportunities for education to achieve success are now creating fundamental challenges in the field of education in America. In the 20th century, the issues which concerned school finance was about dealing with how to overcome fiscal disparities with the use of state and federal resources within a public school system. The…
Alexander, Kern, & Salmon, Richard, G. Public school finance. Mass.: Allyn and Bacon.(1995)
Hertert, Linda, Carolyn Busch, and Allan Odden. "School Financing Inequities Among the States: The Problem from a National Perspective." Journal of Education Finance 19 (Winter 1994), 231-255.
Odden, Allan, R., & Busch, Carolyn, C, "Financing schools for high performance: Strategies for improving the use of educational resources." California: Jossey-Bass, Publishers. (1998)
National Research Council. "Making Money Matter: Financing America's Schools." Committee on Education Finance, Helen F. Ladd and Janet S. Hansen, eds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. (1999)
However, the doctrine of "states' rights," also stemming from the Constitution, encouraged the southern states to believe that they could deal with their Negro residents as they chose, as only slavery had been specifically banned. They began imposing more and more restrictive rules on their lack residents. The Ku Klux Klan formed after the federally managed "Reconstruction" ended. The KKK terrorized lacks who violated the views of the local Whites regarding how lacks should behave and conduct themselves.
At the end of the 19th century, in the ruling Plessy vs. Ferguson (p. 133), the Supreme Court ruled that a court ruling could not force equality if one race were inferior to the other, and refused to reverse segregation rules. This ruling justified all sorts of horrific practices, including segregated schools, which were separate but often not equal. Typically these schools did not have libraries, and typically the textbooks were outdated…
PBS, no date. "Dredd Scott case: The Supreme Court Decision, in Judgment Day. Accessed via the Internet 12/1/04. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2933.html
Russell, Thomas D.. 2003. "Slavery Under the Constitution," in American Legal History -- Russell. University of Denver College of Law. Accessed via the Internet 12/1/04. http://www.law.du.edu/russell/lh/alh/docs/slaverycon.html
(p. 52-54) (p. 216)
Tuskegee voting patterns among blacks and white are also significant and thematic in the work because the desire of white voters to withhold these rights stemmed from the fact that blacks held a high majority in the community and therefore could realistically turn any election they wished to with collective effort. This reality was realized early in Tuskegee, as compared to other places, in the 1970s when 80% of elected officials were black, corresponding to an above 80% black population. (p. 202) Yet, this ending is a culminated theme as many years of poll taxes, poll tests and overt disregard for the black vote often compiled with local violence against blacks wishing to and attempting to vote peppers the work. (p.20)
The work stresses individual identities and influences over change and resistance to it. One particular character, though the work stops short of deifying him which…
Norrell, R.L. (1998) Reaping the Whirl Wind: The Civil Rights Movement in Tuskegee. New York: Knopf.
National Educational Technology / State Leadership: The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) has released its 7th annual National Educational Technology Trends Report and it indicates that technology is playing "an increasingly important role" in K-12 school improvement efforts. Leadership in technology training in schools is vital if the future needs of all students are to be met, according to an article in Yacht Charters Magazine (Marketwire, 2010). The article quotes Secretary of Education Arne Duncan: "Schools can't be throw-backs to the state of education fifty, twenty, even ten years ago."
Peabody Faculty Recognized for Research, Leadership: Several faculty members from Vanderbilt University's Peabody Research Institute have been selected as American Education Research Association Fellows due to the leadership they demonstrated in scientific and scholarly educational research initiatives (Vanderbilt University). Meanwhile Robert Rodosky, who is adjunct professor of Leadership Policy and Organizations at Vanderbilt, has won the 2010 Excellence…
Brown, Linnea. (2010). Kaplan University Launches New Online Programs, Including Two New
Master's Degrees. Business Wire. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from http://www.businesswire.com.
Court, Marian. (2007). Changing and/or Reinscribing Gendered Discourses of Team Leadership
In Education? Gender and Education, 19(5), 607-626.
Anti-Miscegnation Statutes in the United States
Anti-Miscegenation Statutes in the United States
Previous to Loving v. Virginia, there were several cases on the subject of miscegenation. In Pace v. Alabama (1883), the Supreme Court made a ruling that the conviction of an Alabama couple for interracial sex, confirmed on the plea by the Alabama Supreme Court, did not disrupt the Fourteenth Amendment. Interracial marital sex was considered a felony, whereas adulterous sex ("infidelity or fornication") was just a misdemeanor. On plea, the United States Supreme Court made a ruling that the illegalization of interracial sex was not a defilement of the equal protection clause since whites and non-whites were penalized in equivalent amount for the wrongdoing of involving in interracial sex. The court did not see the need to sustain the constitutionality of the prohibition on interracial marriage that was likewise part of Alabama's anti-miscegenation law. After Pace v. Alabama,…
In the landmark decision Brown v. Board of Education in 1954, the United States Supreme Court overturned the "separate but equal" standard adopted by the 1892 Plessy v. Ferguson. Until Brown v. Board of Education passed, American public schools were segregated. Brown v. Board of Education transformed American society by outlawing racial segregation. Now that American schools are integrated, the Brown v. Board of Education decision seems immutable. However, the decision potentially represents an overstepping of the Judicial Branch's power. While most people would agree that the decision of Brown v. Board of Education was absolutely mandatory, others would note that from a purely rational standpoint, the Supreme Court overstepped its role as an interpretive body.
In its reasoning, the Court relies on the research conclusion of psychologists as one of the bases of its decision. Although psychology may be considered to be a "soft" science, it is…
The case snowballed and grew until the nation viewed Zelmanv Simmons-Harris as the test case to try the legal boundary between church and state. It was also looked to for the purpose of redefining the meaning and scope of public education in America.
Enacted by the Ohio legislature in 1995, the Cleveland Scholarship and Tutoring Program allows 4,000 low-income children to attend private religious and secular schools with up to $2,250 in public support (Vitteritti, 2002). Participating schools must cap their tuition at $2,500 a year; the state pays up to 90% of whatever the school charges, depending on family income (Vitteritti, 2002). Following a high-profile legal battle, the program was upheld by the Ohio Supreme Court in 1999, prompting opponents to take their case into federal court (Vitteritti, 2002). On the day before school was to open that year, federal district court judge Solomon Oliver struck down the program,…
Text of U.S. Supreme Court decision: Zelman, superintendent of Public Instruction of Ohio, et al. v. Simmons-Harris et al. (Features). Journal of Church and State | Date: June 22, 2002 | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris No. 00-1751 536 U.S. -- (2002) Argued February 20, 2002 Decided June 27, 2002
Vouchers on trail: will the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Zelman end the voucher debate? (Feature).(Statistical Data Included) Education Next | Date: June 22, 2002 | Author: Viteritti, Joseph P. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Zelman: the court gets it right. (Opinion).(school voucher case)
First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life | Date: January 1, 2003 | Author: Uhlmann, Michael M. | More results for: Zelman vs. Simmons-Harris
Prejudice and the Clark Doll test
Prejudice Today and the Clark Doll Study
I once witnessed an incident involving racial prejudice at a local Wal-Mart store. The store was located in a predominately white, suburban area of town. I was standing in a checkout line behind a white couple shopping with their young son. Standing right behind them was a well-dressed, African-American woman with a few items in her hand. A white cashier was quietly ringing up the family's items when I overheard the preschool age, little boy calling for his mom and saying that they needed to change lines. He was standing up in the shopping cart giving the African-American lady dirty looks. She stood quietly, ignoring him. The parents seemed completely oblivious; however, after several pleadings from the son, the mother turned and said, "What is it?" The little boy turned and boldly pointed at the African-American lady.…
Barreto, M., Ellemers, N., & Fiske, S.T. (2010). "What did You Say, and Who do You Think You Are?" How Power Differences Affect Emotional Reactions to Prejudice. Journal of Social Issues, 66(3), 477-492. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2010.01657.x.
Gee, C.L., & Heyman, G.D. (2007). Children's Evaluation of Other People's Self-Descriptions. Social Development, 16(4), 800-818. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00408.x.
However the term "mainstreaming" which is actually the cornerstone of LE was not used or defined in these laws. It was only in 1985 that this term came to the fore and underscored the need of integration of special students with regular students in classes that were least demanding.
For over two decades now, the practice of inclusion and integration has been growing constantly and it is now firmly held that students with special needs be placed in general academic courses with regular students. This concept of inclusion is defined by Friend & Bursuck (1999) as "physical integration, placing students in the same room as their non-disabled peers; social integration, nurturing student relationships with peers and adults; and instructional integration, teaching students based on their needs and not a predetermined set of curricular standards" (p.4).
LE is based on the belief that special students are otherwise placed in restrictive environment.…
Raines, J.C. (1996). Appropriate vs. least restrictive: Educational policies and students with disabilities. Social Work in Education, v18 p113-128
Friend, M., & Bursuck, W. (1999). Including students with special needs: A practical guide for classroom teachers (2nd edition). Boston: Allyn and Bacon
Supreme Court Chief Justices Warren and ehnquist
Compare and contrast approaches to criminal procedures by U.S. Supreme Courts:
The Warren vs. The ehnquist Court
A common philosophical debate within the legal community is when the approach advocated by so-called 'conservative' justices (often called strict constructionism) is pitted against more 'liberal' and freer interpretations of constitutional words and history. Throughout much of the 20th century, it was often said that the more liberal interpreters of the Constitution were 'winning the war' in regards to this issue, thanks to the presiding intelligence of Chief Justice Earl Warren. "Following his appointment in 1953 Chief Justice Earl Warren led the Court into a series of decisions that drastically affected sexual freedom, the rights of criminals, the practice of religion, civil rights, and the structure of political representation. The decisions of the Warren Court reflected its deep concern for the individual, no matter how lowly"…
Byellin, J. (2013). John G. Roberts: Conservative yet apolitical consensus building chief justice.
Legal Solutions. Retrieved from:
Liptak, A. (2012). Supreme Court upholds healthcare law 5-4, in a victory for Obama.
Many of the busts in the ghetto are drug-related, and Hilfiker notes that our society punishes petty drug offences far more severely than crimes committed by people who are wealthy. Meantime, the mandatory minimum sentence takes away the possibility of any plea bargaining; it takes away the judge's previous alternative of giving probation for a petty crime and hands the power to the prosecutor, who runs for office on a "law and order" theme.
"Deserving" poor vs. "Undeserving" poor:
It has been customary in America for society to attempt to separate the "undeserving" poor from the "deserving" poor. The deserving poor are those who have supposedly found themselves down on their luck through no fault of their own; while the undeserving are reportedly "lazy" and likely on some government assistance program (Hilfiker, pp. 69-71). As a token offer of help to the very poor the government makes "TANF" benefits available…
Hilfiker, David. (2002). Urban Injustice: How Ghettos Happen. New York: Seven Stories Press.
students opportunity discuss a key political science concept, show a basic understanding academic research reporting skills.
Define "loose construction" and "strict construction" methods of constitutional interpretation, and describe how each perspective aligns with formal vs. informal methods of change.
The 'strict construction' view of the Constitution has traditionally been aligned with conservatives such as Robert Bork who argue that "a judge interpreting the Constitution" should only consider "the words used in the Constitution [as] would have been understood at the time [of enactment]" (Linder, citing Posner, "Theories"). In contrast, the 'loose construction' view (traditionally aligned with more liberal politics) stresses the need to interpret the Constitution in a manner beyond the letter of the law. There are a number of factors which justices traditionally consider when making constitutional interpretations, including the text itself; likely intentions of the founders; precedents; consequences of the decision in the 'real world;' and so-called 'natural…
Chemerinsky, Erwin. "Conservatives embrace judicial activism in campaign finance ruling."
The L.A. Times. 2010 Jan 22. [2014 Apr 6]
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965). Exploring Constitutional Law. [2014 Apr 6]
Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat.
January 05, 1970
Blacks Move Out of Inner Cities: The Bureau of Census statistics show as the quality of life in poverty-stricken urban communities worsens, a continuous stream of middle-class blacks escape to higher-income neighborhoods and suburbs.
February 13, 1970
First Black Member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III becomes the first African-American to become a member of the New York Stock Exchange, starting his training as a floor partner with the firm of Newberger, Leob & Company.
June 16, 1970
Gibson Elected Mayor of Newark, New Jersey: Kenneth A. Gibson was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey on this date. He also became the first Black president of the Conference of U.S. Mayors during…
African-American male unemployment: Robert Carmona. (2007). Congressional Testimony.
Retrieved May 12, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P135839035.html
Algernon Austin. (2008, January 18). What a recession means for black America. EPI Issue Brief
#241. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/ib241/
On July 3, 1969, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals entered an order requiring the submission of new plans to be put into effect this fall to accelerate desegregation in 33 Mississippi school districts. On August 28, upon the motion of the Department of Justice and the recommendation of the Secretary of Health, Education & elfare, the Court of Appeals suspended the July 3 order and postponed the date for submission of the new plans until December 1, 1969. I have been asked by Negro plaintiffs in 14 of these school districts to vacate the suspension of the July 3 order. Largely for the reasons set forth below, I feel constrained to deny that relief. (396 U.S. 1218, 1218-1219).
Black pointed out that the Brown decision came 15 years before the Alexander case, but that Mississippi and other states had failed to desegregate. He blamed this on the fact that:…
Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education, 396 U.S. 1218 (1969).
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).
Novel Guide. "Black, Hugo 1886-1971." Novelguide.com. 1995. Novelguide.com. 28 Apr.
Instead of pretending that racism and its effects no longer exist, we need to strengthen affirmative action and devise a new set of policies that directly tackle the racial gap in wealth." (Derrity, 1).
That, in a nutshell, is the position of this paper. America has not given affirmative action enough time to act. Moving forward, we should continue our affirmative action policies, but with an end in mind. Economists and sociologists, along with help from America's captains of industry and human resources experts, should devise an ideal time frame whereby affirmative action will end, and set outside and inside goals for this time frame as well.
But for now, affirmative action must continue, and continue with gusto, to reverse the horrors that America's history has caused.
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW of RELATED LITERATURE
History of Affirmative Action review of the history associated with affirmative action is the first step to…
Gratz v Bollinger, No. 02-516, U.S. Supreme Court. (2003)
Grutter v. Bollinger, 539 U.S. 306. (2003)
Fordyce v Seattle, 55 F. 3d 436.
Jane Elliot Experiment
When teacher Jane Elliot decided to separate her class into two groups, those with blue-eyes and those with brown-eyes, and alternately deemed one of the groups as superior, she was not doing so simply to make young children feel bad. The first time she did the experiment, it was with the goal of answering a student's question about why any person would want to assassinate Martin Luther King, Jr. ([email protected], 2011). To the children in her third-grade class, the idea that anyone could hate another person, simply because of the color of his skin and how his vision threatened the racially-biased status quo was incomprehensible. Elliot's goal was to demonstrate how bias develops and why the privileged group would fight to keep that status. However, she did not anticipate that the effect of the experiment would be so dramatic or pervasive; not only did the privileged group…
. (2010, Mar. 21). Brown eyes vs. blue eyes: Discrimination in a third-grade classroom. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Wordpress website:
Frontline. (1985). A Class Divided. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from PBS website:
Conservatives, on the other hand, have many passions and one of them is a color-blind government. Most of them believe that all policies of discrimination should be discarded. They view these policies as unwise, immoral and unconstitutional. Three conservative organizations submitted a collective brief to the Supreme Court on the Michigan cases. These organizations were the Center for Equal Opportunity, the Independent Women's Forum and the American Civil Rights Institute. Their brief succinctly stated that racial preferences were incompatible with the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment, according to them, clearly states that no person within its jurisdiction would be denied the equal protection of the laws. The silence of the justices to this statement was perceived to indicate insufficient interest in the original understanding than in their own case law. In 1865 and 1866, radical Republicans proposed a constitutional amendment that no State could set distinctions in civil rights and…
Katznelson, I. (2006). When is affirmative action fair? 19 pages. Social Research: New School for Social Research
National Review (1995). Courting trouble. 2 pages. National Review, Inc.: Gale Group
O'Sullivan, J. (2003). Affirmative action forever? 5 pages. National Review: National Review, Inc.
Paul, P. (2003). The legacy of affirmative action. 2 pages. Media Central, Inc.: PRIMEDIA Company
As a result, Gibbons was providing a service and was helping ensure the free flow of ideas. The licensed that he received from Congress is regulating these principals. ased on this interpretation along with the previous case law decided in McCulloch v Maryland and the Supremacy Clause of the Constitution; New York State does not have the power to regulate trade. Instead, this power is solely reserved for Congress with the court saying, "The power to regulate commerce, so far as it extends, is exclusively vested in Congress, and no part of it can be exercised by a State. State inspection laws, health laws, and laws for regulating the internal commerce of a State, and those which respect turnpike roads, ferries, & c. are not within the power granted to Congress. The laws of N.Y. granting to R.R.L. And R.F. The exclusive right of navigating the waters of that State…
"Cohens v Virginia." Oyez. 2010. Web. 6 Apr. 2010.
"Gibbons v. Ogden." Social Studies for Kids. 2010. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
"Gibbons v Ogden." Find Law. 2010. Web. 5 Apr. 2010.
"Securities and Exchange Act of 1934." Investopedia. 2010. Web. 6 Apr. 2010.
S. news magazines between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1998. They concluded that the images of the poor in these news magazines "do not capture the reality of poverty, but instead provide a stereotypical and inaccurate picture of poverty that results in a misconception of beliefs about the poor, antipathy toward blacks and lack of support for welfare programs.
Similarly, Dixon and Linz (2000) researched the content of a random sample of local TV news programming in Los Angeles and Orange counties to determine representations of blacks, Latinos, and whites as lawbreakers and law defenders. "Intergroup" comparisons of perpetrators found that blacks and Latinos are significantly more apt than whites to be shown as lawbreakers. "Interrole" comparisons, lawbreakers vs. law defenders, similarly found that blacks and Latinos are more likely to be shown as lawbreakers than as defenders, whereas whites are significantly more apt to be portrayed as defenders…
Chavous, T.M., Green, L., Harris, a, Lumas, H., and Rivas, D. (2004). Racial Stereotypes and Gender in Context: African-Americans at Predominantly Black and Predominantly White Sex Roles. A Journal of Research. 51(1-2), 1.
Clawson, R.T., (2000) Poverty as we know it; Media portrayals of the poor. Public Opinion Quarterly 64(1) 53-65
Dixon, T., and Linz, D.(2000) Overrepresentation and Under representation of African-Americans and Latinos as Lawbreakers on Television. Journal of Communication. 50 (2), 131
Fogel, R.W. (1989).Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery New York W.W. Norton.
Adds Tindall and Shi (1242-1242), the Court cited current sociological and psychological findings that were presented by Kenneth Clark, a noted black psychologist. "It might as well have cited historical evidence that Jim Crow facilities had been seldom equal and often not available to blacks at all." A year later, the Court further directed "a prompt and reasonable start toward full compliance" where the process should move "with all deliberate speed." The white South's first response was "relatively calm," says Tindall & Shi 1243). "Eisenhower refused to take any part in leading white southerners toward compliance. Privately he remarked: 'I am convinced that the Supreme Court decision set back progress in the South at least fifteen years. The fellow tries to tell me that you can do these things by force is just plain nuts'" (1243).
In the early 1960s, blacks rebelled throughout the South, and in the late 1960s…
Johnson, Paul. History of the American People. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
Tindall, George Brown and Shi, David. America. A Narrative History. New York:
Zinn, Hoard. People's History of the United States. New York: Harper Collins, 1999.
By allowing his children to address him by hist first name, Atticus is dismantling one of the many traditions that serve to reinforce and perpetuate traditions that ultimately only serve to delegitimize the experience and perspective of certain people. This forces the viewer to take Scout's recollections and narration more seriously, because although they are the memories of a relatively young child, the viewer cannot help but treat them with a little more respect in recognition of the respect that Atticus, as the most idealized character in the entire film, grants them.
Thus, taking a cue from Atticus, Scout and Jem are respectful and relatively well-behaved, but are never hesitant to question or challenge attitudes and behaviors that they perceive as unjust or unjustified, and particularly in the case of Scout, are especially sensitive to behaviors that hypocritically contradict the ostensible moral standards of society. hile is worth noting that…
Edgerton, Gary. "A Visit to the Imaginary Landscape of Harrison, Texas: Sketching the Film
Career of Horton Foote." Literature/Film Quarterly 17.1 (1989): 2-12.
Foote, Horton. To kill a mockingbird, the screenplay: and related readings. Boston: McDougal
America: A nation of paradoxes
America is a nation of paradoxes. On one hand, it is a nation that has symbolized freedom to many immigrants, as poignantly illustrated in Emma Lazarus' poem "The New Colossus," a poem included on the famed Statue of Liberty that greeted so many refugees as they strove to escape from Europe and avoid intolerable situations. The Lazarus poem proclaims the dawning a new America, free of class restrictions, which can offer prosperity even to the poorest new arrival. Yet federal policies in regards to African-Americans and Native Americans have been marked by injustice and prejudice. The American Dream of egalitarianism exists next to an ugly strain of racism that has run through the thread of American history since its inception.
Emma Lazarus' poem is perhaps the most explicit, famous rendition of the American dream: "Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp... / Give me your tired,…
Aldrich, Thomas Bailey. "Unguarded Gates." 1895. Print.
Hawk, Walter Echo. In the Courts of the Conqueror. Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum, 2010.
Hirschman, Charles. "Immigration and the American century." Demography (pre-2011) 42.4
(2005): 595-620. ABI/Inform Complete. Web. 19 Sep. 2014.
Q3. What was the purpose of Prohibition? Which groups and areas generally supported the movement? Why?
The purpose of Prohibition was ostensibly to reduce alcohol-related crimes and the suffering perpetrated by alcoholism on individuals, families (particularly women and children), and society as a whole. The Temperance Movement was widely supported by women’s rights activists and abolitionists throughout its existence. Yet it was largely made up of rural, native-born Protestants and there was also a strong anti-immigrant sentiment within the movement. The virulently racist Klu Klux Klan, for example, also supported Prohibition.
In urban locations, the sentiment towards Prohibition was far different. In general, religion was less influential in cities, and many people profited from selling alcohol. Also, for European immigrants, particularly those from Catholic countries, alcohol had a very important place in their cultural worldview. Although Prohibition may have seemed like a benign attempt to protect women and children from…
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…
Nurse, Legislation and egulation
Identify a legislative issue/policy change related to a workforce/patient care issue that you believe to be a priority. Describe legislative efforts surrounding your interest.
The developments and strides in distance education has proved to be a worthwhile evolution in educating as well as practice of modern nursing construct that now requires some really fast and accurate means of knowledge dissemination (Benner et al., 2010; IOM, 2010; Jones & Wolf, 2010). The advanced technology helps in extending the reach of multifaceted nursing faculty, where the students might be placed in remote areas and lack access to quality education in pursuing their nursing dreams as a career option (Jones & Wolf, 2010). The predicaments faced in these newly evolved settings, as envisaged by Board of Nursing (BON), are noted as under:
BON needs that the local educational regulations match with their own while approving distance education programs.
Anderson, K. M., & Avery, M. D. (2008). Faculty teaching time: A comparison of Web-based and face-to-face graduate nursing courses. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 5, 1-12.
Benner, P., Sutphen, M., Leonard, V., & Day, L. (2010). Educating nurses: A call for radical transformation. Retrieved from www.carnegiefoundation.org/newsroom/press-releases/educating-nurses-call-radical-transformation
Billings, D. (2000). A framework for assessing outcomes and practices in web-based courses in nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 39(2), 60-67.
Chappy, S. L., Stewart, S. M., & Hansen, T. S. (2010). Eliminate border wars. Nursing Education Perspectives, 31(6), 392-394.
acial discrimination is a term that signifies treating people with different skin tone and cultural heritage and not only different but also as inferior. This feeling or societal approach is not limited to just one area of the world, it is a habit being carried from generation to generation in all the countries of the world. Each skin color whether white, black, pin k or brown all view themselves as someone important while considering the other as subordinate or lower in rank to them. Discrimination has been the curse of the nineteenth and twentieth century's. This is the reason that this era is full to the brim with violent protests, wars, conflicts and civil rights movement, some of which have been quiet successful. The paper will look at the place of Hispanics in the U.S. And more specifically Houston society. It will examine their condition in the city…
Acuna, R.F. (2003). U.S. Latino Issues. Retrieved 25 July, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113036521
Chomsky, A. (2007). "They Take Our Jobs!"and 20 Other Myths about immigration. Retrieved 25 July, 2012, fromhttp://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=116694607
CRM (2011) Hispanics in the Civil War. (Vol: 20, I: 11). Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://crm.cr.nps.gov/archive/20-11/20-11-31.pdf
Emerson, M.O, Bratter, J, et al., (2010). Houston Grows More Racially / Ethnically Diverse, With Small Declines in Segregation. Retrieved July, 25, 2012, from http://kinder.rice.edu/uploadedFiles/Urban_Research_Center/Media/Houston%20Region%20Grows%20More%20Ethnically%20Diverse%202-13.pdf
If students are misbehaving, they are not engaged in their lessons. Behavior management is, unfortunately, a priority focus at Springfield Gardens, to the detriment of instruction. This is the point that the three interviewees continued to stress. None of them blamed the teachers for failing to engage students; the fault, as they see it, lies squarely with the students whose families apparently do not place a high value on education. The students, as Gordon, Benton and Johnson see it, are products of the culture in which their parents live.
The three frequently compared and contrasted the students of today with students of generations past. Students in "the good old days" did not misbehave the way students do "these days." That point was made clear, particularly in interviews with Benton and Gordon. Benton recalled a childhood outside the United States where school, he implied, was much more rigorous. It would appear…
Bali, V.A., & Alvarez, R.M. (2003). Schools and educational outcomes: What causes the "race gap" in student test scores? Social Science Quarterly 84 (3)
Biddle, R. (March 7, 2011). The condemnation of black children to dropout factories must end. Dropout Nation. Retrieved from http://dropoutnation.net/2011/03/07/condemnation-black-children/
Lewis, a.E. (2001). There is no race in the schoolyard: Color-blind ideology in an (almost)
all-white school. American Educational Research Journal 38 (4), 781-811.
Brief Overview of School Desegregation
The article, "A Brief Historical Overview of School Desegregation" by Walter G. Stephan, covers the desegregation of the nation's schools from the beginning of black slavery in America to the present times. It explains how blacks became an "inferior" race in the nation's eyes, the lack of educational opportunities for black children, and the rise of the public school system in the North. After the Civil War, blacks were still not guaranteed an education, and it was not until the Brown vs. The Board of Education ruling in 1954 that blacks were guaranteed the same education as whites, and on the same turf. Before that, their education had been stipulated as "separate but equal," meaning they must attend their own black schools - usually not enjoying the same amenities white schools offered their students. Of course, segregation did not happen overnight, and there were…
Stephan, Walter G. "A Brief Historical Overview of School Desegregation."
share with you my life story and some American History. Throughout this paper we will discuss the many changes that took place in America between orld ar I and the 1970's. e will discuss the causes of the war and its aftermath. e will also present facts about orld ar II, the Cold ar, the Korean ar and Vietnam. In addition we will explore the ways in which the Civil Rights Movement changed America forever. The conclusion will be an analysis of the event that has been the most significant in reshaping American life forever. First lets discuss how I arrived in America.
The year was 1916 and I was 9 years old, the war was in progress and we were living in Russia. At the time Russia was in political chaos it was being transformed from a Czarist monarchy to a Communist one and the nation was at war…
Cold War," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2002
http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2002 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
Conflicting National Interest. http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/civil_n2/histscript6_n2/wwcause.html
Russia in Transition: The Diplomatic Papers of David Rowland Francis, U.S. http://www.lexisnexis.com/academic/2upa/Iss/RussiaTransition.htm
They also had the power to decide the merits of evidence and arguments. In the 19th century, judges gained greater control over juries and the role of juries became what it is currently; hearing evidence presented on both sides and determining the guilt or innocence of the accused.
The advantages of the jury system lie in the foundational elements articulated and supported by amendments and the Supreme Court. The Sixth Amendment provides that "in all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial" (Landsman & Hastings 1992). A speedy trial was emphasized to avoid the accused languishing in prison for extended periods of time prior to a trial, or have the accused fate put off for an indeterminate amount of time. Further, the Sixth Amendment guarantees every citizens right to an impartial jury. The intent is that the prospective juries not enter into the…
Ackerman, B. (1993). Neo-federalism? Constitutionalism and Democracy, Cambridge:
Allan, T. (2001). Constitutional justice: A liberal theory of the rule of law, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Decent, E. (2010). Democratizing common law constitutionalism, McGill Law Journal, 55(3), 511-535.
Hogue, A. (1986). Origins of the common law. Indianapolis: Liberty Press.
Employment Discrimination esearch Project
Employment Discrimination in the United States
What I already knew/What I wanted to know
The Federal Employment Opportunity (EEO) laws were established, during the civil rights movement, to protect employees from discrimination. According to Title VII of the Civil ights Act, employment discrimination because of race, color, religion, gender, and national origin is illegal. The Equal Pay Act protects workers against sex bias and salary discrimination. In addition, there are laws which protect people with disabilities, and employees over 40 years old from discrimination; such as, The Age Discrimination in Employment Act, the ehabilitation Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Discrimination against people on the basis of their genetic information is also illegal. The Civil ights Act of 1991 allows employees who are intentionally discriminated against to receive monetary damages (U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2009).
In my opinion, the government has made significant…
(Biskupic J. 2011330)Biskupic, J. (2011, 3/30) retrieved April 22, 2011, from http://www.usatoday.com/money/workplace/2011-03-29-supreme-court-wal-mart_N.htm
(Donohue P. Marzulli J. 2010929)Donohue, P., & Marzulli, J. (2010, September 29). Retrieved April 22, 2011, from http://www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2010/09/29/2010-09-29_transit_workers_headgear_suit_gets_judges_nod.html
(Fieler A 20091103 Baltimore Jewish Times) Fieler, A. (2009, November 3). Baltimore Jewish Times. Retrieved April 22, 2011, from http://www.jewishtimes.com/index.php/jewishtimes/news/jt/local_news/brothers_allege_workplace_anti-semitism/15407
(Hardin M. 2010 EEOC sues Brown Palace Hotel) Hardin, M. (2010). EEOC sues Brown Palace Hotel. Retrieved April 25, 2011, from http://www.bizjournals.com/denver/stories/2010/07/19/daily39.html
C.O.R.E. And Its Role in the Black Freedom Struggle
Nearly one hundred forty years ago, a tall, and not very good-looking, bearded man stepped out onto a great, open field. His tired eyes wandered over the bloody ground, over the earth covered with corpses, over the scene of one of the greatest battles in American History, and his words rang out true and clear -."..Our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal."
Abraham Lincoln's famous address gave meaning and purpose to all those young lives so tragically cut short. It etched forever in the minds of posterity the real aim behind that great war. e were a nation of free people. Subjection and slavery were banished for all time from our shores. Or were they? The Civil ar freed the slaves. A piece of…
http://www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=22777836"Anderson, Terry H. The Movement and the Sixties. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. De Leon, David, ed. Leaders from the 1960s: A Biographical Sourcebook of American Activism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. Eskew, Glenn T. But for Birmingham: The Local and National Movements in the Civil Rights Struggle / . Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997. Jasper, James M. The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography, and Creativity in Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997. King, Richard H. Civil Rights and the Idea of Freedom. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. Levy, Peter B. The Civil Rights Movement. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. Peake, Thomas R. Keeping the Dream Alive: A History of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference from King to the Nineteen-Eighties. New York: Peter Lang, 1987. Pinkney, Alphonso. Black Americans. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prenitice-Hall, 1975.
Amendments to the Constitution
In any criminal cases, the individual will be arraigned before the judge. This is when they will be informed about the charges and given the chance to enter a plea. Once this takes place, is the point a preliminary hearing is scheduled. It focuses on the evidence and if there is enough to warrant a trail. If the judge is convinced there is enough evidence, they will schedule a date and time for a jury trial. This is when there will be series of hearings challenging the discovery process, the evidence and any that could have been collected in violation of the Constitution. In these situations, the judge will rule on the evidence and determine which items can be included at trial. During the process, both sides will call witnesses and try to prove their case. (Hess, 2014) (Parpworth, 2012)
At the heart of these issues…
Hess, J. (2014). Constitutional Law and the Criminal Justice System. Mason, OH: Southwestern.
Parpworth, N. (2012). Constitutional and Administrative Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Stering, R. (2004). Police Officers Handbook. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.
Strauss, D. (2010). The Living Constitution. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Jefferson Davis Views Towards Slavery
Jefferson Davis was the president of the confederation of America during the civil war when some states of the South threatened to form a separate State of America. He served as president from 1861 to 1865.[footnoteRef:1] [1: Spartacus Educational. Jefferson Davis. n.d. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASdavisJ.htm (accessed April 1, 2012).]
Jefferson Davis is famous for his controversial role during the war and his proslavery stance which is viewed in a negative light today. Although is views were led by good intentions on his behalf and his quest to protect the blacks from any oppression, it the ideology that drove these actions that have been controversial throughout history. His politeness, compassion and generosity towards his slaves and the black community in general were driven from the view that the blacks were an uncivilized community and that they needed to be tamed through slavery. In that respect he did not…
DeLombard, Jeanine Mary. "African-American Cultures of Print." In Cultures of Print, by David D. Hall, 360. Boston: University of Massuchusetts, 1996.
Fleming, Walter L. "Jefferson Davis, the Negroes and the Negro Problem." The Sewanee Review 16, no. 4 (October 1908): 407-427.
Gundaker, Grey. "Africans Americans, Print, and Practice." In An Extensive Republic: Print, Culture, and Society in the New Nation, 1790-1840, by Robert A. Gross and Mary Kelley, 483-495. North Carolina: UNC Press Books, 2010.
Spartacus Educational. Jefferson Davis. n.d. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USASdavisJ.htm (accessed April 1, 2012).
The Freedom Information Act of 2002 reported 2,351 occurrences of forcible sex offenses on campus and 1,670 in residence halls; 2,953 aggravated assaults on campus; 2,147 robberies on campus and 29,256 burglaries also on campus; and 1,098 arsons on campus in that year alone. This was the summary of campus crime statistics released by the U.S. Department of Education (Security on Campus 2004).
This document and national studies reveal the prevalence of sexual assault on both male and female college and university students. In a number of these recent surveys conducted in approximately 6,000 schools, one of four female students admitted to having been subjected to forced sexual contact or forced sexual intercourse and that 90% of them knew their offenders. At the time of assault, 75% of these male students and 55% of the female were either drunk or under the influence of drugs (Security on Campus).…
Clery, Connie and Howard. (2001). What Jeanne Didn't Know. Security On Campus, Inc. http://www.securityoncampus.org/aboutsoc/didntknow.html
Security on Campus. (2004). Campus Crime Statistics Summary. http://www.securityoncampus.org/crimestats/index.html
2002). What to Do If You Become a Victim of Campus Sexual Assault. Security on Campus, Inc. http://www.securityoncampus.og/victims/campussexualassault.html
United States Congress. (2001). Campus Sexual Assault Victims' Bill of Rights. Higher Education Amendments of 1992.Victim Assistance: Security on Campus, Inc. http://www.securityoncampus.org/victims/billofrights.html
It is the last thing Mama carries out of the apartment when the family moves, symbolizing the family's failure to thrive in their neighborhood. Both the plant and the Younger family are expected to blossom in their new surroundings.
alter Jr. wants to use the money to buy a liquor store with his friends. He believes that owning a business will give the family the financial freedom that will make a better life possible for all of them. alter's sister, Beneatha, attends college and dreams of being a doctor. She very much wants the money to attend medical school. In a way, her dream distances her from her brother and the rest of the family. She is better educated than they are and her dream, if fulfilled, would take her much farther than a new home or a family business ever could. She is eager to forge her own identity…
"A Raisin in the Sun." Wikipedia. 1 May 2011. Web. 6 May 2011.
Ardolino, Frank. 'Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun.' Explicator. 63.3 (2005): 181-183. Online. 5
Gordon, Michelle. "Somewhat Like War": The Aesthetics of Segregation, Black Liberation, and 'A Raisin in the Sun.'" African-American Review 42.1 (2008): 121-133.