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There are several layers of halos that surround the figure on the scroll, adding an aura to the image that is not available to the sculptor. Although the museum has attempted some duplication of the effect as you can see by the shadows created behind statue. By using perspective the artist of the scroll has given a great deal of dimensionality to the drawing. The crossed legs of the Buddha as they join with the fountain have a certain feeling of tangibility and depth. This effect bestows an ethereal quality to the scroll, as if the image has the ability to float above the material of the frame and hang in space directly in front of you.
Both images project and aura of serenity and sacredness, both in somewhat different mediums requiring differing styles to achieve the same result. The one image that both artists capture well is the famous…
The demon even sent beautiful women to tempt the Buddha, but nothing would sway him from his determination to find the ultimate meaning of life (Editors).
Therefore, the truth is that historians do not know exactly how Buddha actually attained enlightenment. They know the event occurred, and Buddha left the tree and began his teachings, but the actual event has survived history in many different forms. Perhaps the how and why of his enlightenment is not that important, but it is interesting to note how many different versions there are of the tale. Clearly, it is an important event in the history of Buddhism. That so many versions of the tale exist is a testament to Buddha's own importance to the religion and its roots. While there can be many Buddhas in Buddhism, there is only one Supreme Buddha so far, and his enlightenment helped others move on their own…
Buddha Leaves Spiritual Connection; Five Symbols Represent His Love, Teaching." The Washington Times 6 Nov. 2006: A02.
Carrithers, Michael. The Buddha: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Editors. "About Buddha." AboutBuddha.org. 2007. 27 April 2007. http://www.aboutbuddha.org/english/life-of-buddha-4.htm
Griffiths, Paul J. On Being Buddha: The Classical Doctrine of Buddhahood. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.
At first he "went forth," literally walking away from the Brahmin society he knew, by joining the "forest monks," a group of honored rebels, seekers of truth, and engaged in many yogic trances and ascetic deprivations with them. This proved unfruitful, however, and only by seeking out his own self-liberation, with a determination to find the truth within himself, did he realize the way out of the cycle of constant suffering. Like his contemporaries, he discovered that the "truth that lies within" led to a universal understanding of the need for "compassion" to set a person free. That is, when one gave up the "self" or ego-binding grasping, and discovered the truth of the emptiness of "self," simultaneously embracing all sentient beings with loving kindness, equanimity and compassion, then, and only then, could one achieve true freedom from suffering. Not keeping his discoveries to himself, he spent the rest of…
Armstrong, Karen. Buddha. New York: The Penguin Group, 2001
Why you selected book
The book has adequate referencing and based on science, the book provides enough practical knowledge and techniques that can be used to keep revitalizing our brain in day-to-day life. The brain is an important organ that most influence your personality and your existential experience. Therefore, getting knowledge to keep it healthy, making it strong and using it in the positive direction that benefit you maximum, is a precious treasure for yourself, and for all those people whom you interact in your life. Prominent scholars, psychologists and teachers such as, Jennifer Louden, Jerome Engel, Joseph Goldstein, Sharon Salzberg Walsh, Tara Brach, ichard Miller, Fred Luskin, Phillip Zelazo, James Baraz, Wes Nisker, Christina Feldman and many others, have admired Buddha's Brain. The book summarizes that how anxiety or inner strength, sorrow or love, annoyance and calmness, confusion or clarity, anguish or relief is created by your…
Hanson, R., & Siegel, D. J. (2009). Buddha's Brain: The Practical Neuroscience of Happiness, Love, and Wisdom. New Harbinger Publications.
Litterski, N. (2011, July 11). Buddha's Brain: The Practical Neuroscience of Happiness, Love, and Wisdom. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from Good Reads: http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/6796675-buddha-s-brain
Rick Hanson. (2016). Buddha'S Brain. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from Rick Hanson: http://www.rickhanson.net/writings/books/buddhas-brain/
Roughgarden, C. (2009, November 30). Improving Our Lives from the Inside Out: A Review of Buddha's Brain. Retrieved February 21, 2016, from The Greater Good Science Center at the University of California, Berkeley: http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/article/item/improving_our_lives_from_the_inside_out_a_review_of_buddhas_brain
Cast in the Khasa Malla Kingdom of the western Himalayas made of gilt copper alloy with inlay and is a superb example of Newar artistry without the elaborate embellishments. The historical uddha is seated in the lotus or meditation posture (vajrasana) with one hand resting in the lap and the other in a gesture that calls the earth to witness his great resolve. Earrings inlaid with turquoise adorn the uddha's elongated ear lobes and are said to symbolize his royal background.
The Shakyamuni uddha is depicted in a most typical pose, that of meditation. There are other symbolic representations as well. There is the cranial protuberance (ushnisha) symbolizing supernatural wisdom. The mark between the eyes (urna) is symbolic of spiritual illumination. The helmet-like headpiece (ushnisha) is topped by a knob representing a symbolic jewel (cudamani). His monk's robe hosts decorative borders reminiscent of former princely raiment.
When first studying the…
"Art & Culture Summary." Buddha Minders. Accessed November 11, 2011.
Buddhapia. Hyundai Bulkyo Media Center. Accessed November 11, 2011.
Bronze Buddha in 12th century art, in philosophy and in image: Nagapattinam
The image of the bronze, standing Buddha Nagapattinam from the Buddhist tradition of the 12th century belies some of the common popular assumptions about Buddhist iconography a contemporary esterner might hold, if he or she was unfamiliar with the history of the Buddhist tradition of images in Asiatic art. The most popular image of the Buddha in America is that of the beatific, Enlightened and seated Buddha. This popularity, however, says as much about American cultural assumptions of Buddhism as it does about the much more wide spanning Asiatic philosophy of Buddhism itself. The Nagapattinam depicts, for instance, not the Enlightened Buddha but a teaching Buddha marked for Enlightenment, although it is of the earlier Theravada tradition of Buddhism, as famously discussed by the monk Dr. alpola Rahula in his classic treatise to the est on Buddhist philosophy…
Asian Art and Architecture." (2004) Art and Design. http://www.public.iastate.edu/~tart/arth382/lecture15.html
Buddhist art." (2004) Chennai Museum. Buddhist Art Website. http://www.chennaimuseum.org/draft/gallery/01/05/051/budd1.htm
Rahula, Walpola. (1986) What the Buddha Taught. New York: Evergreen.
Weinu, Jin. (1999) "Buddhist Art: The mission of harmonious culture." Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts, New Delhi
The True Buddha Diamond Temple is located in a residential neighborhood in Flushing (3332 148th Street), allowing it to be intimately connected with the community and fully integrated with it. As with many Buddhist organizations, the True Buddha society is a global one and this temple is a branch of a worldwide organization known as True Buddha. The True Buddha Diamond Temple in New York is therefore part of a global community with strong roots in Asia.
In addition to its exemplifying the globalization of Buddhism, the True Buddha Diamond Temple also exhibits the different ways languages are used in liturgical and community settings. This temple is multilingual, with their website in both English and Chinese, in addition to the languages of all the other countries the organization is located in including South American nations and nations throughout Asia. The True Buddha Diamond Temple has a globalized business model,…
Tillie K. [Yelp Review]. Retrieved online: http://www.yelp.ie/biz/true-buddha-diamond-temple-of-new-york-inc-flushing
"True Buddha Diamond Temple of New York." Retrieved online: http://macaulay.cuny.edu/eportfolios/drabik10website/neighborhoods-2/flushing/houses-of-worship/true-buddha-diamond-temple-of-new-york/
True Buddha School Net. Retrieved online: http://tbsn.org/english2/#
True Buddha School Seattle. Retrieved online: http://www.tbsseattle.org/english/
Teachings of the Buddha
Life in Perspective
According to the Buddha, the most important aspect of human life is the path toward morality, mindfulness, and the achievement of greater levels of understanding throughout one's lifetime. More particularly, the Buddha taught that mindfulness refers to the concept of becoming more aware of our internal thoughts and of the ways that our internal thoughts affect and drive our external behavior. In principle, the unexamined life consists of petty earthly goals and shallow desires that bring no greater happiness when they are achieved. Through mindfulness, the individual makes a continual attempt to eschew the pettiness of human desires and to derive internal satisfaction and contentment through self-understanding.
One principal component of that perspective is the realization and acceptance that, like all biological life, human exists for only a moment in time in comparison to the eternal passage of time. Ultimately, the finite and…
Gyatso, G.K. (2005). Living Meaningfully, Dying Joyfully: The Profound Practice of Transference of Consciousness. Toronto: Tharpa Publications.
Lopez, D.S. (1995). Buddhism in Practice. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Renard, J. (2004). The Handy Religion Answer Book. Canton: Visible Ink Press.
Buddha or the Enlightened One existed in many incarnations before his final lifetime as Siddhartha or Gautama Buddha, who was born in 563 BC in Nepal. He had already been a king in many of his previous lifetimes and he always "descended on earth like a religious, social and cultural reformer" (Sharma, 2002, p. 18). Almost all of Buddha's life is "legendary," however, and based not on contemporary records but stories written down 800 to 1,000 years after his death (Lux and Michaels, 2006, p. 4). His father was King Sudhodana of Sakya and his mother Queen Maya, had a dream that he was going to be born as a magnificent white elephant. According to legend, when his parents took him to the temple five days after his birth, all the other gods bowed down to him as the universal savior. Asita, the greatest ascetic of the age,…
Lux, U. And A. Michaels (2206). Encountering Jesus and Buddha: Their Lives and Teachings. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press.
Sharma, S.K. (2002). Life Profile and Biography of Buddha. New Dehli: Diamond Pocket Books.
Schober, J. (1997). Sacred Biography of the Buddhist Traditions of South and Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press.
In the U.S., for example, even a very modest income provides a standard of living that is more comfortable, privileged, easier, and luxurious than the vast majority of human beings living on the planet. However, because human nature is to continually judge one's contentment in relation to what others may have, few people are truly content or satisfied with their respective situation in life. Middle class people envy upper middle class people, upper middle class people envy the comparatively wealthy, and even the very wealthy covet the homes, possessions, and status of the immensely wealthy. In that respect, the Buddha's analysis of the human condition would be tremendously useful in connection with the importance of realizing that seeking contentment through the accumulation of material possessions or achievement of social status is analogous to trying to fill a cup full of holes.
As a general principle, the application of Buddhism would…
Life of the Buddha:
What was the Buddha's name? How else do Buddhists refer to him?
His name is Siddhartha Gautama and he is often referred to as the 'awakened' or 'enlightened' one.
What are the circumstances in which the Buddha grew up?
Siddhartha was born in 563 B.C. He lived in a place called Lumbini and then was raised in Kapilavashtha, Sakya Kingdom's capital. During this time, Northern India was made up of various small and independent states. It is during this period, people came to challenge and question Vedic philosophy through a number of new religious and philosophical schools. There was a strong moral vacuum present.
What are the "four passing sights"?
The first is an old man that reminded Buddha of aging. The second was a sick person that reminded Buddha of pain and disease. The third was a corpse that reminded Buddha of…
D.). Rather than standing alone and interacting with the gazer, this Buddha holds back and is flanked by attendants, creating his own scene in the context of the relief. The Buddha's divinity, rather than his humanness is stressed in the design. The Buddha's hand is in a gesture of reassurance, conveyed from on high, as he sits upon an elevated platform.
Three seated Buddhas in the halo symbolize the deity's eternal nature, a concept that gained importance in China in the fifth century a.D" ("Seated Buddha with Attending Bodhisattvas," Early 6th century a.D.). Rather than being of the moment, and simplicity, the unique and eternal nature of the divine Buddha is stressed. The man's extraordinary, rather than ordinary qualities are at the forefront of the work. The limestone work is also embedded with scenes of the life of the historical Buddha and fantastical legends about his many incarnations over the…
Schumacher, Mark. "Overview of Zen Buddhism and Its Influence on Japanese Art."
21 Feb 2007] http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/zen_art_tour.shtml
Seated Buddha with Attending Bodhisattvas." Early 6th century a.D. [21 Feb 2007] http://www.worcesterart.org/Collection/Chinese/1934.34.html
Shaka Nyorai: Historical Buddha Enlightened One." [21 Feb 2007] http://www.onmarkproductions.com/html/shaka.shtml
Theravada Buddhist & Mahayana Buddhist views Buddha. In essay, I a concept practice religious tradition compare/contrast a similar related concept practice religious tradition ( case comparison arhant Theravada Buddha bodhisshatva Mahayana Buddha).
"Thus have I heard"
Buddhism incorporates three traditions: Theravada or the Southern Tradition (spread in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Thailand, Laos and Burma/Myanmar), Mahayana or the Northern Tradition (Tibet, China, Taiwan, Japan, Korea and Mongolia) and Vajrayana also known as the Tibetan Tradition.
We would be focusing mainly on studying several aspects of the Theravada and Mahayana schools. Each of these two- although both strongly rooted in the fundamental teachings of Buddha Siddhartha and focused on the liberation of an individual from the circle of Samsara (birth, death, rebirth)- contains methods and practices different from one another. To best illustrate the connections between the two traditions and also to see where exactly they take different paths, we would be…
Akira, H. (1990). A history of Indian Buddhism [From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana]. United States of America, USA: University of Hawaii Press
Bullitt, J.T. (2005-2011). "What is Theravada Buddhism?" Retrieved from http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/bullitt/theravada.html
Kung, C. (2001). Buddhism: The Awakening of Compassion and Wisdom. Retrieved from http://www.abrc.org.au/page50.html
Wangu, M.B. (2009). World religions. Buddhism, Fourth Edition. New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers.
Preliminary Report follow a, B, C . The temple: True Buddha Diamond Temple New York Inc. located Murray Hill, Flushing; The current revered grand master (Living Buddha Lian Shen), lineage guru True Buddha School.
The True Buddha Diamond Temple of New York Inc. provides visitors with the opportunity to interact with Buddhism in a series of ways. One does not necessarily have to be a Buddhist in order to access its services or to acknowledge the effect that its values has on a person. I chose to study this location as a consequence of observing its tendency to change people and make it possible for them to gain a more complex understanding of their role in the world. The temple is both aimed at changing matters on a local level and at being a part of a larger process of change.
b. The temple's address is 3332 148th Street Flushing,…
Senzaki, Nyogen, "Like a Dream, Like a Fantasy: The Zen Teachings and Translations of Nyogen Senzaki," (Wisdom Publications Inc., 31 Aug 2005)
"True Buddha Diamond Temple of New York," retrieved November 8, 2014, from http://www.tbdtny.org/index.html
"True Buddha Diamond Temple Of New York Inc.," Retrieved November 8, 2014, from http://www.yelp.ie/biz/true-buddha-diamond-temple-of-new-york-inc-flushing
Compare and contrast Siddhartha Gautama's (uddha's) "going forth" into the monastic life with that of Maechi Wabi, based on the reading of "Journey of One uddhist Nun."
In his account of the story of uddha, Jonathan Landaw writes "As Siddhartha stood alone in the forest, ready to begin his great adventure, he thought, "From today onwards I am no longer a prince. Therefore, it is not right that I continue to look and dress like one." (Story, p 14). So began Siddhartha's journey of knowledge and enlightenment which would lead him to learning "the way to end all suffering" and becoming a uddha.
Like, Siddhartha, the uddhist nun, Maechi Wabi, also began her journey into uddhism from a background that otherwise would not shun, and not expect her to change her way of life so drastically. As a woman, Wabi's decision to become a nun was not initially acceptable…
Brown, S. The Journey of One Buddhist Nun: Even
Against the Wind
State University of New York Press, 2001
Gyatso, T. Dalai Lama My Land and My People
St. Augustine and the Buddha
A Comparison of orld Views
ere St. Augustine and the Buddha to have a conversation, they might find their points-of-view quite interesting. Of course, Augustine might feel a bit inconvenienced by having to crouch down under a bodhi tree, but once there he could easily find common ground with this introspective Easterner. Both the Buddha and Augustine were in agreement regarding the deplorable conditions faced by much of humanity in this world. At the core of the Buddha's teaching was the belief that the physical world represents little more than an aspect of continual suffering and trial. Imperfect beings all, we human beings desire too much, and it is because of our desires that we imprison ourselves in this physical shell. e will suffer so long as we want, and so long as we want we shall remain moored in this imperfect world. Yet the…
Saint Augustine. Confessions. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991).
Corless, Roger J. The Vision of Buddhism: The Space under the Tree. 1st ed. New York: Paragon Press, 1989.
Keown, Damien. Buddhism A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& ; d=48034343
BUDDHISM vs. HINDUISM
Describe essential teachings Buddha. How Buddhism modify Hinduism? How explain appeal Buddhism? eference
Describe the essential teachings of Buddha. How did Buddhism modify Hinduism? How can we explain the appeal of Buddhism?
Both Buddhism and Hinduism share many similar features. Both possess the doctrine of karma, or the notion that one's actions in this life affect what transpires later on. However, while Hinduism preaches the doctrine of anatma, or self, Buddhism preaches the doctrine of non-self (Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism, 2012, difference between.net). The first noble truth of Buddhism is that there is suffering and the second noble truth of the Buddha is that the cause of suffering is our delusion that we possess a self. For Hindus, the self is a static, unchanging and eternal thing. For Buddhism, what we believe to be the self is merely a conglomeration of the five aggregates: matter, sensation,…
Difference between Buddhism and Hinduism. (2012). difference between.net. Retrieved:
Eng, Tan Swee. (2006). Differences between Mahayana and Theravada Buddhism. A Basic
Buddhism Guide. Retrieved: http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/snapshot02.htm
How the respective societies responded to the various ideas?
Socrates would have a dramatic impact upon society, as the various ideas he presented would become a part of the moral code that is often cited, as a part of basic sociology. A good example of this can be seen with social contract theory. This simply states that humans are motivated by conscious / unconscious actions and the experiences, they have from different events. The ideas of good and justice can be directly seen with how humans react to various situations they face, either consciously or unconsciously. The underlying positive or negative experiences will shape how someone views the world around them. Those who can associate goodness and justice, to their actions will have the most positive effect, on the individual and within society. Over the centuries, this sense moral goodness has become a part of the moral standards within Western…
Buddhism. n.d. 198 -- 199. Print.
Buddhism. n.d.. 193 -- 201.Print.
"Social Contract Theory." IEP, 2004, Web. 13 Jul. 2010
Brown, Ju. "Buddhism." China, Korea, Japan Cultures and Customs. Charleston, SC: Book Surge, 2006. 34 -- 36. Print.
Christianity and Buddhism to Health
One of the most glaring aspects of this paper, Kramer Jr.'s "Worldview of Christianity and Buddha," is that it does not appear to have a hypothesis or a claim. The paper's theme, however, is clarified in the first paragraph as the author explicitly denotes that he will discuss aspects of Christianity and of Buddhism. But in doing so he never expressly writes a thesis statement, or tells the reader the single point to which all the others in this document relate. As such, there is a definite sense of confusion in reading this paper, since the reader understands that the author is detailing aspects of Christianity, Buddhism, and healthcare. Nonetheless, the reader is largely ignorant as to what the author's overriding reason for discussing this topic is, as well as his opinion about the subject. Essentially, the author has clarified the fact that the subject…
Kramer Jr., M. (2015). Worldview of Christianity and Buddhism. Grand Canyon University.
This provided a pathway for spirituality to the early Vedic thinkers. For these founding ideologists, this pathway led to the notion that there are multiple deistic beings which can occupy all manner of space and mental plane, a sharp-departure from the 'ethical monotheism' that underscores most western religious traditions.
This, perhaps, more than any other quality, helps to illustrate the common ground between Hinduism and Buddhism, which Prothero goes to even greater lengths to show are distinctly eastern in their theological orientation. Due to its origins in India, Buddhism was perceived in its earliest form by many as a mere sect of Hindu rather than a philosophy of its own foundations. Its practitioners, leading into the Common Era, were a statistically modest population of Indians who placed a spiritual emphasis "on experience over belief. Buddhism never had a creed or catechism until the American convert Henry Steel Olcott decided in…
Neusner, J. (2003). World Religions in America. Westminster John Knox Press.
Prothero, S. (2010). God Is Not One: The Eight Rival Religions the Run the World. HarperOne.
Buddha-Nature and Enlightenment
Buddhism is a unique religion: it doesn't worship any deity nor does it require any individual to live their lives through divine will. Approximately 2,500 years ago, when Buddha achieved enlightenment he spent the next forty-five years teaching others that personal growth and awakening is possible through finding the truth within themselves. This concept is very alien in comparison to Western religions. There are many aspects of Buddhism, but what is essential is that personal awakening is possible personal experience and that suffering can be ceased through changing behavior, meditation, and transcendent wisdom. We are grateful to Siddartha Gautama for institutionalizing the practices we call Buddhism today so that we may better understand what Buddha experienced, and what he taught to the people along the Ganges River. Two essential understandings in the teachings of Buddhism are Buddha-nature and Enlightenment.
To understand Buddha-nature we must first to come…
Buddha the founder of the Buddhist faith lived in India, Bihar, from 563-483 BCE. As the Buddha or enlightened one he preached his doctrine of the four great truths. Sorrow is inherent in life, it arises from desire, and only by eliminating desire can man be released from sorrow. This may be achieved by following the noble eight-fold path of right conduct in vision, thought, speech, action, giving, striving, vigilance and meditation. He preached that this middle path would lead to nirvana. There are now 4 distinctive types of Buddhism.
Theravada - or "way of the elders" - is the sole remaining form of conservative Buddhism, of which there were once at least 18 schools, or nikaya. It originated in India during the centuries after the final nirvana of the Buddha and was probably the dominant form of Buddhism in India. Theravada is now the dominant form of Buddhism in…
Similar to how Keanu Reaves's character in Little Buddha is determined to achieve his goal, so are all Buddhists devoted to achieving enlightenment through intense meditation. Buddhists are constantly reminding themselves that life is but a small element in a much longer process, and, that life passes uncontrollably.
Both in Little Buddha and in heel of Time, the audiences are presented with the world of Buddhism shown from an outsider's point-of-view. To them, Buddhist monks appear to be mysterious and intriguing in the same time. Furthermore, most people are likely to feel an attraction to Buddhism consequent to viewing both movies. hile the general public considers Buddhist monks to be exceptional people, with an incredible dedication for their religion, Buddhists think of themselves as being nothing more than simple people, with goals that are different than the normal ones in society.
hile both movies succeed in promoting Buddhism, they also…
1. Little Buddha. Dir. Bernardo Bertolucci. Miramax Films, 1994.
2. Wheels of Time. Dir. Werner Herzog. 2003.
America's engagement with China, with historic ice-breaking between the two countries carried out by Henry Kissinger, has been complicated. I would suggest that it were the U.S. domestic preoccupations and compulsions that did not allow me to take any bold stance on the issue of Dalai Lama. I disagree with notion that U.S. betrayed the cause of human rights while not choosing to visit Dalai Lama.
It must not be forgotten that unlike ussia, China's geography allows her to exert much more influence than the former. In the words of Kaplan (2010), China is both a land and a sea power. Thus, my foreign policy towards China has been reflective of this potential next power of the world. The U.S. has benefited from the Chinese market significantly in the wake of financial crisis. The author failed to acknowledge the huge compulsions that China faces in meeting its energy and other…
Barber, BR 1992 "Jihad vs. McWorld," the Atlantic Monthly 269, no. 3 (March 1992): 53 -- 65.
Cohen, MA, 2011, 'Think Again: The Two State Solution', Foreign Policy, Viewed on 18 June 2013, [ http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/09/14/think_again_the_two_state_solution ]
Gettleman, J 2010, 'Africa's Forever Wars,' Foreign Policy, 22 Feb 2010.
Gilboy, GJ and Read, BL 2008, 'Political and Social Reform in China,' Washington Quarterly, summer 2008, pg 143-164.
Religious doctrine usually includes some form of salvation as a reward for good behavior and for keeping to the tenets of the religion. Each religion treats this general idea in its own way. For the Christian, right behavior lead to salvation from permanent death and promises an afterlife in heaven. In uddhism, the promise is not of an afterlife but of a reward in this world, a reward in the form of perfect peace through a mind free of craving and unwanted emotion. Nirvana is a state of mind and an achievement in itself, for nirvana is that state of mind to which the adherent aspires. It is considered the highest form of happiness and is achieved only by the most dedicated follower of the uddha.
The conception of salvation usually relates to the idea of some ultimate value or being, and it can be thought of as an…
Ames, Van Meter. "Zen." In Japan and Zen, Betty Ames and Van Meter Ames (Cincinnati: University of Cincinnati, 1961.
Corless, Roger J. The Vision of Buddhism: The Space under the Tree. St. Paul, Minnesota: Paragon House, 1989.
Gowans, Christopher W. Philosophy of the Buddha. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Griffiths, Paul J. On Being Buddha: The Classical Doctrine of Buddhahood. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Reflection activity: Ashoka
hy is the reign of the third Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, important to the study of early Indian and Buddhist art?
Ashoka was one of India's greatest emperors whose reign covered a vast region. He conquered Kallinga which had not been done by any of his predecessors. However, this conquest claimed massive numbers of casualties and was destructive. He later converted to Buddhism after some of his experiences in the war which introduced Buddhism and its art to a vast population in India.
Discussion activity: Stupas
To what extent do these examples share the core characteristics of all stupas, and in what ways do they differ from each other? Bodhnath, Nepal (example 1) and Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka (example 2)
The stupa generally has six parts that have symbolic meaning that the stupas share. The Bodhnath stupa appears to be more modern and contains cables that connect…
British Museum. (N.d.). Sandstone figure of the seated Buddha. Retrieved from British Museum: http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/asia/s/sandstone_figure_of_the_seated.aspx
Dhejia, V. (1990). On Modes of Visual narration in Early Buddhist Art. The Art Bulletin, 374-392.
Smart History. (N.d.). The Stupa. Retrieved from Smart History: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/the-stupa.html
Mahayana Buddhism was one of the earliest schools of Buddhism to develop after the death of the Buddha, along with Theravada Buddhism. One of the leaders in this new movement was Nagarjuna, who lived between the first and second centuries and who founded what is known as the Madhyamaka philosophy, or the philosophy of the Middle Way. The Mahayana was divided into two schools as well, and the Madhyamaka was one of these philosophical traditions. Nagarjuna was a monk who was likely associated with one of the four ordination lineages of the Mahsurpghika, Theravada, Sarvastivada, or Sammatiya, though which was his is not known. His philosophical tradition was a way of viewing the world and "would have crossed the boundaries of the various ordination lineages of the Sangha" (Gethin, 238). Some have seen the doctrines of Nagarjuna as subverting the original teachings of the Buddha, but this is not so.…
The Vairocana Buddha on the back wall has a Bodhisattva to his left wearing a crown and pearls. Bodhisattvas were still 'of the world,' beings in Mahayana Buddhism who temporarily did not seek Enlightenment to bring Enlightenment to the rest of the world. On his other side, a "divine general treads an evil spirit underfoot" ("acred Destinations," Longmen Caves, 2010). The combined images of the most spiritual and enlightened of all manifestations of the Buddha, a spiritual deity still striving to Enlighten those in the world, and national symbolism illustrate how Buddhism was not seen as innately contradictory with the aims of the nation-state.
"Longmen Caves." acred Destinations. March 1, 2010.
O'Brien, Barbara. "The Five Dhyani Buddhas: Vairocana Buddha" About.com.
ummarize the history of the porcelain traditions in China from the Yuan to the present. Give examples.
The Yuan Dynasty saw the development of what…
"Japanese architecture." Asian Info. March 2, 2010.
"Temples and Shrines." Japan Culture. March 2, 2010.
Indeed Tezuka takes great liberties with Buddha, invents scenarios, but his Manga generally stays true to the life of Buddha (Siddhartha) and his spiritual journey to battle injustice (including the caste system), to help those in need during famine, warfare and drought.
Hence, Buddha is editorially far, far apart in style and in concept from Dark Knight, which in comparison, is frivolous and cliched. Aside from the superhero antics -- and saving people from villains -- Dark Knight is a pithy formula-riddled comic that delights readers in a totally different way from the readers' pleasure while going through the many volumes of Buddha. Indeed, many people who are not Buddhists, and have no real knowledge of Buddha and his travels, have been getting an education of sorts by reading Buddha.
Tezuka has brilliant story-telling abilities but his ability to combine the story with the dramatic visual effect brings out a…
In the reading, Maya has been given different meanings by the Upanishads. From my understanding, the world contains both magic and matter. Therefore, the world is real because it takes many different forms and accommodates diversity. Therefore, God is our creator who directs us to the concept of Maya when dealing with nature. For the Shvetasvatara this implies that God is the one who rules over Maya and this includes human beings and all other things found on earth. The world can be looked at as something stable and permanent, but some disparity can be drawn from the aspect that makes movements. This move has enabled it to shift and change all the time and is similar to the world of one’s thoughts and dreams where changes also take place. Time is also seen by people to be something that is real and the distinct divisions in this element…
Siddhartha a Buddhist?
Originally published in 1922 by German writer Hermann Hesse, the classic novel of personal discovery Siddhartha has since become one of the most widely read works of religious fiction ever written. By presenting the tale of a young man named Siddhartha coming of age in ancient India, the European-born and Christian-raised Hesse manages to portray mankind's collective yearning for spiritual satisfaction through a highly readable and relatable narrative. hile the novel focuses on the age of Gautama Buddha, whose teachings attracted millions of followers and eventually formed the foundations of modern Buddhism, Siddhartha himself is the son of a respected Hindu Brahmin and has trouble identifying with any particular system of belief. Embarking on an epic journey of reflection and awakening, Siddhartha experiences both self-sacrifice and the temptation of worldly pleasures as he grows into manhood, before eventually encountering Gautama Buddha in the flesh. After gaining firsthand…
Hesse, Hermann. Siddhartha. New York: Bantam Books, 1951. Print.
Mossman, Robert. "Education About Asia." Education About Asia. 2.1 (1997): 117-125. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. .
The quote urges a return to the simple essence of Buddhism. Related to the three turnings, the quote refers to the unity of Buddhist doctrine from the expression of the Four Noble Truths to the Maitreya's complex explication of Buddha nature.
The term revolution applies to both doctrine and path in the Mahayana. Revolution implies a transformation of consciousness, a possibly instantaneous awakening of the Buddha-mind. A revolution of consciousness can extricate the mind from the wheel of samsara. Alternatively, consciousness can evolve gradually with the ultimate goal of ceasing the revolution of the wheel. As doctrine, revolution suggests continual application of Buddhist teachings throughout successive revolutions of the karmic wheel. As path, revolution is the active step toward consciousness change. Meditation and contemplation of the sutras are such active steps that are revolutionary in character because they lead to a revolution of consciousness.
Before the lecture starts,…
In addition, this door panel, composed of cedar wood, may represent a type of social event which was rather prominent during the Early Christian period, circa 430 C.E. Since one can make out some kind of brick background behind the three figures, the panel might not have been designed to teach or provide instruction on a spiritual event like the crucifixion of Jesus but may be images "from an early passion play, possibly one performed outside the city walls" of Rome. This type of play was part of what is known as Roman mime theater which "specialized in short scenes of gory violence, irony, satire and sarcasm" for the delight of audiences which still clung to and appreciated some of the worst social aspects of the Roman Empire, a good example being the killing of Christians in the coliseum (Storage, "The Door Panels of Santa Sabine," Internet).
Around the year…
Flowering of Faith: Christianity and Buddhism." Chapter 8.
De la Croix, Bertrand. History of Western Art. New York: Prentice-Hall, 2003.
Storage, Bill. "The Doors Panels of Santa Sabine." 2006. Internet. Retrieved May 3, 2008 from http://www.rome101.com/Christian/Sabina .
Gandharan Art." 2008. Internet. Retrieved May 3, 2008 at http://www.afghan-network.net/Culture/gandhara.html.
Western civilization has been developing according to a set of coordinates that are entirely separated from the ones of its Eastern counterpart. The focus of this paper is to propose subjective psychologically-minded interpretations to a series of Asian stories and poems extracted from the traditions of Hinduism, Buddhism and Taoism.
The storyline of Searching for Buddha begins with the account of a monk's lengthy and arduous journey towards finding Buddha. When he finally locates Buddha's whereabouts, he finds that he needs to cross a river in order to reach the region of destination. Therefore, he solicits the help of a boatman. On waiting to get across, the monk notices something floating on the river, right towards the boat. As it gets closer, the floating object is revealed to be the monk's very own dead body, and the shock of the realization sends the traveler into a fit of distress. The…
Chinese First Emperor as with the Egyptian pharaohs, the tomb was a microcosm of the world that they knew in life, and filled with the objects that they would use in the afterlife. In early times, servants, soldiers, concubines and entertainers were even put to death so they could serve the monarch in the next world, although later these were mostly represented by statues and replicas. For the First Emperor of China, the tom was an elaborate "analogue of life," reportedly constructed by 700,000 men over many years -- far more than the number of workers used by the Egyptian pharaohs to build their tombs and pyramids (awson, 2007, p. 123). He even had a terracotta army with cavalry, archers, chariots and thousands of troops buried in pits to defend him from his enemies in the next world, along with stone armor to protect against evil spirits. Pit 1 had…
Burstein, S.M. (2009). Ancient African Civilization: Kush and Axum. Markus Wiener Publishers.
Krishan, Y. (1996). The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development. New Dehli: Munshiran Manoharlal Publishers.
Mitchell, S. (ed). (2000). Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. NY: Three Rivers Press.
Rawson, J. (2007). "The First Emperor's Tomb: The Afterlife Universe" in Portal, J. (ed), The First Emperor: China's Terracotta Army. British Museum Press: 114-51.
The book speaks to a kind of estern application of generalized Buddhist principles and maxims: the quest for enlightenment, the lack of satisfaction to be had from a life of material pleasures, and the importance of the individual in achieving wisdom divorced from the teachings of others. Though the film lacks much of the artistic style of the novel, it nevertheless manages to provide audiences with a loose sense of the same meaning that Hesse outlined originally in the novel. Perhaps if the film had managed to present that message and the overall narrative with more than a "plodding piety," the overall impact of the film might have achieved a similar weight as the novel still manages (Canby).
As for following the life of the Buddha, neither the book nor the film manages this save but in the most cursory fashion. Like the novel's Siddhartha, the Buddha did leave his…
Canby, Vincent. "Movie Review: Siddhartha (1972)." The New York Times 19 July 1973. 25 July 2008 http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9406E5DB133DE63ABC4152DFB1668388669EDE .
Schneider, Dan. "Featured Book Review of Herman Hesse's Siddhartha." Monsters and Critics. 13 July 2007. 25 July 2008 http://www.monstersandcritics.com/books/reviews/article_1329679.php/Featured_Book_Review_Of_Herman_Hesse%92s_Siddhartha .
Dogen's Great Doubt
Both exoteric and esoteric Buddhism teach the primal Buddha-nature [or harma-nature] and the original self-awakening of all sentient beings. If this is the case, why have the buddhas of all ages had to awaken the longing for and seek enlightenment by engaging in ascetic practice? [Masao Abe, A Study of Dogen, 19]
How did Dogen's "Great Doubt" influence his approach to the philosophy and practice of Zen? How is this approach reflected in his conception of zazen (seated meditation) as "just sitting" (shikan taza)? Contrast Dogen's "just sitting" with the koan style of zazen that developed in the Rinzai school of Zen.
To understand his primal Buddha-nature, the Buddha of all ages paradoxically had to stand outside of the material world of suffering. Through meditation, he was able to break within himself the chain of infinite actions or desires that make up the material world. Dogen's great…
The base that supports the vase refers to the five forces in Buddhism, known as Bala. These are the force of Faith, the force of Energy, the force of Attention, the force of Concentration and the force of Knowledge. The particularities of the vase symbolize the seven branches of Buddhist awakening, referred to as Bodhyanga: total memory (of past lives), perfect knowledge of all Dharmas, diligence, ecstasy, concentration, tranquility and perfect mastery of all disciplines. The Tre located above the vase symbolizes the noble eightfold path made up of perfect view, understanding, speech, action, living, effort, attention and concentration. The tree of life symbolizes the tenfold knowledge of phenomena, mind, interdependent links, illusion, suffering, the origin of suffering, the cessation of suffering, the path leading to the cessation of suffering, destruction, non-appearance and the ten transcendental branches of knowledge. The umbrella and its support represent the State of a victorious…
Ray, Reginald A. Buddhist Saints in India: A Study in Buddhist Values and Orientations. Oxford University Press U.S., 1999.
"Symbolic meaning of stupas." The Stupa Information Page.
The most striking difference of this painting is the extensive use of gold leaf. A matured use of shadow and detail can be seen in this tangka, indicating a later, more developed art form. It lacks the detail to symmetry found in the other two examples as well. This piece provides an excellent contrast to the earlier two Tangka that were examined. it's attention to shading, clear outlines, and accents in gold may indicate the Menris school of the 1500s (Tibetanartschool.com).
Tangka paintings are an important part of Tibetian life. Many regional differences exist in the painting styles and techniques that are employed in the paintings. It might be noted that Tangkas in western Tibet take on a Chinese flavor. Tangkas of the religious nature are divided into three major portions. They are the top, middle and lower portions of the painting, representing the heaven, earth and underworld (U-wayttours.com).…
Asianart.com. Desire and Devotion: Art From India, Nepal, and Tibet in the John and Berthe
Ford Collection. < http://www.asianart.com/exhibitions/desire/tara.html > Accessed
November 23, 2010.
Rumsey, D. Green Tara.
Crouching Tiger Hidden Dragon
The film, documentaries and the last docudrama are exceptional production pieces by notable directors and producers. Crouching tiger-hidden dragon defies the usual mantra of strength only attributed to men. Jen effectively acts as person having higher morals. The martial arts performance was exceptional, an unusual feature in Hollywood. Islam, the empire of faith is another documentary made on the rise of Islamic empire and the life of Prophet Mohammad having a great impact on establishment of religion. 'Gandhi' also remains an unquestioned production classic that eloquently portrays Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the unquestioned leader of India. The film sheds light on Hinduism as a religion and its faith and dogmas. Lastly, Kundan is a docudrama based on life of Dalai Lama. 'Kundan' might not have justified the stature of Buddhism in history of mankind but the piece of production remains an earnest effort on part of Martin…
Bowker, J. & Bowker, D. (1997). World religions. Dorling Kindersley.
Chan, K. (2004). The Global Return of the Wu Xia Pian (Chinese Sword-Fighting Movie): Ang Lee's Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon. Cinema Journal, 43(4), 3-17.
Conze, E. (2004). Buddhism: Its essence and development. Windhorse Publications.
Driver, M.W. & Ray, S. (2004). The medieval hero on screen: representations from Beowulf to Buffy (Vol. 56). McFarland & Company Incorporated Pub.
From its tribal stages in Jerusalem to the conversion of Augustus,
from the Crusades and Inquisition to the splintering Americanization of the
U.S. antebellum era, Christianity would be the province of both the
conquered and the conqueror over history, with either of these conditions
serving the cause to stimulate Christian faith. This would help us to
attach Christian history, importantly, to the moments at which human
movements, political systems or social parameters would invoke the
magnification of its influence. This is meaningful to us as a
demonstration of the crucial role played by the historical context in
framing the relationship between man and faith.
Barrett, David B. (2001). orld Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University
Hooker, Richard. (1996). Buddhism. orld Civilizations. Online at
Rahula, Ven. Dr. . (2002). A View on Buddhism. Buddhism. Online at
Sotkin, Joan. (1978) Vedanta Vedanta Society of Southern California: hat
is Vedanta? Online at…
Barrett, David B. (2001). World Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University
Hooker, Richard. (1996). Buddhism. World Civilizations. Online at
Rahula, Ven. Dr. W. (2002). A View on Buddhism. Buddhism. Online at
Essentially, science utilizes the power of reason and logic in its search for the truth while religion depends almost wholly upon faith, being a belief in something without any evidence whatsoever to support it. In the realms of science, investigators seek to understand natural phenomena through direct observation and experimentation which makes it mandatory that all interpretations of the facts be provisional and testable. Statements made by any authority, revelation or appeal to the supernatural are not part of this process, due to the absence of supporting evidence.
Thus, in the eyes of religious scholars and authorities, all opposition to what science has uncovered is based on faith and mythological revelation which takes precedence over evidence. Also, the tenets of religion have not, for the most part, changed much over time and cannot be validated when subjected to the scientific method.
Like many others that study the natural world, scientists…
Experiencing the Sacred
Compare St. Teresa's experience of the spiritual marriage with both Muhammad's Night Journey and the Buddha's Enlightenment. The focus should clearly identify similarities and differences.
Teresa of Avila, Muhammad, and the Shakyamuni Buddha all had intense spiritual experiences. Their experience can all be classified as numinous and ecstatic, because they each surrendered their physical selves to experience union with a spiritual dimension. They were each subsumed by their spiritual experiences, imparting either fear or joy. Moreover, each of these individuals made a great impact on religious, philosophical, and spiritual teachings.
There are some distinct differences between these three figures, though. The obvious differences are cultural, geographic, and temporal. St. Teresa of Avila is the most modern of the three figures. She lived during the 16th century in Spain, and her upbringing was steeped in Catholicism. Muhammad lived during the 7th century CE, nearly a thousand years prior…
Kessler, Gary. "Experiencing the Sacred." 2008.
Pojman, Louis. "The Argument from Religious Experience." Chapter 5 in Philosophy of Religion.
Instead, the practice bhakti-style devotion to various Buddhas and other supramundane figures (Protehero, 2010, p. 177). These are not manifestations of one God, as might be understood by practitioners of most Western religions, but more similar to spirit guides.
Another aspect of Buddhism that might be surprising is the understanding of "karma." The word is commonly used in our current lexicon and refers to the good or bad that comes one's way based on one's own good or bad deeds. It is thought of as a reward or, conversely, payback. It helps people make sense of the world if they can conceive of such cosmic justice. However, karma is more complicated and really has to do with cause and effect. The idea is that everything one does has consequences, which must be dealt with constructively before one can move on (Martin, 2011). It is about learning and personal growth rather…
Bailey, S.P. (2010). American zenophilia. Humanities 31(2).
Martin, S. (2011). 10 things you didn't know about Buddhism. The Boomington Post. Retrieved from http://www.sharpseniors.com/blog/10-things-you-didnt-know-about-buddhism/
Prothero, S. (2010). God is not one: Eight rival religions that run the world -- and why their differences matter. New York: HarperOne.
Wilson, J. (2011). The popularity of selected elements of Buddhism in North America. Dharma World. Retrieved from http://www.rk- world.org/dharmaworld/dw_2011julysept selectedelements.aspx
Because of his distress with what he had seen, Guatama is said to have ventured on his search to find an answer (religion). The four Noble Truths that were taught by Guatama were the truth of suffering, the truth of the origin of suffering, the truth of the cessation of suffering and the path that leads to the cessation of suffering (Hopfe & Woodward, 2009). What is said to keep humanity bound to the endless cycle of life is desire and a need to determine causation. King Asoka, the third monarch of the Mauryan dynasty, 3rd century B.C. was the first distinguished ruler of a unified India, and was considered one of the greatest political figures ever. He embraced the teachings of the Buddha, and subsequently transformed his polity from of focused on military conquest to one of victory by truth and righteousness (Dharmavijaya). His royal association with Buddhism helped…
Hamilton, S. Early Buddhism: a new approach: the I of the beholder. Routledge.
Hopfe, L., & Woodward, M. (2009). Religions of the world. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Pearson Ed. Inc.
Slaughter of the Innocent
This is a paper on the article 'Slaughter of the Innocent'. There are two references used for this paper.
Ethical and animal rights issues raised by experimentation are important to many people today. It is interesting to look at the article 'Slaughter of the Innocent' and compare it with the principles of Buddhism.
Vivisection is the "term now used to apply to all types of experiments on living animals, whether or not cutting is done. Broadly, it is any form of animal experimentation, especially if considered to cause distress to the subject. The term also applies to experiments done with the administration of noxious substances, burns, electric or traumatic shocks, drawn-out deprivations of food and drink, and psychological tortures leading to mental imbalance (Ruesch)."
Many scientists torture thousands of animals every day under the pretense of medical research. They assert that through this…
Ruesch, Hans. Slaughter of the Innocent. Matters of Ethics, Philosophy and Religion, Chapter 11.
Unknown. "Buddha-nature" and "The Way of Purification." The Buddha.
Not only does the self not exist in the Buddhist tradition, but the delusion of the self is the foundation of "all of the evil in the world" (Ibid). Because the self does not exist in a real way, the will does not function as an expression of the self, but only as an expression of a temporary and relative state of being. There is no such thing as "free will" springing from a pure place and setting itself up in opposition to the external world.
Both the Christian tradition and the Buddhist tradition envision an eventual human destination of unity with a higher existence that in some way negates the singularity of corporeal existence. But the similarity ends there. For Augustine, the path to this existence involves not only a recognition of his unique spiritual will, but an active exercise of that will (with the help of divine grace)…
Nietzche, Friedrich. On the Genealogy of Morals: A Polemical Tract, trans. Ian Johnston. Vancouver: Vancouver Island University, 2009. Web.
Rahula, Walpola. What the Buddha Taught. New York: Grove Press, 1974.
Saint Augustine. The Confessions of Saint Augustine, trans. Edward Pusey. Rockville, MD: Arc Manor, 2008.
Today, the Dalai Lama works tirelessly to bring attention to the Tibetan cause, to illuminate human rights abuses by China and to move forward in creating an autonomous, if not independent Tibet. The quest for Tibetan independence and, subsequently, the quest for Tibetan autonomy, have both been informed by this distinct orientation of the Buddhism. The Tibetan mode of Buddhism has historically been a channel for political resistance and the vocalization of protest against injustice. As the text by Fisher indicates, Buddhists have "often been non-violent social activists, protesting and trying to correct injustice, oppression, famine, cruelty to animals, nuclear testing warfare, and environmental devastation. E.F. Schumacher preached what he called 'Buddhist economics,' to restore willingness to live simply, generously, and humanely with each other." (p. 161)
These are the very principles which underlie the global endeavors of the 14th Dalai Lama and which have garnered support from international human…
Fisher, M.P. (2011). Living Religions, Eighth Edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson
WHEN COLORS LEND
Cultural Informant Interview
What is your cultural and personal background? I am Priscilla, a native of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. I am a 74-year-old widow of an American native from Indiana. We have two grown children and two grandchildren by each of them. I migrated into the United States in 1973 where I have lived and worked up to the present. efore my migration, I worked in my country until I found a job in Vietnam where I met my husband. I always dreamed of living and working in the United States although I have kept emotional ties with my native country. The Philippines has been through a lot of crises, especially economic, and I wanted to help. I have been able to vacation in my country a number of times.
What are Your Cultural Values, Habits, Holidays and Other Observances? Tradition dies…
Sue, D.W. And Sue, D. (2013). Counseling the culturally diverse: theory and practice.
6th edition. Wiley, John & Sons, Inc.
Buddhism is one of the world's major religions -- yet many dispute whether it should be called a religion at all. Buddhism has been called a 'philosophy' as much as a faith, because of its non-theocratic nature. Although the Buddha is revered as a historical figure, and many Buddhist traditions invest his persona with a kind of miraculous power, it is not necessary to believe in a god or gods to be a Buddhist. Buddhism could be defined as a way of coping with some of the perplexing problems that all religions grapple with to some degree: injustice and suffering. In contrast to the caste system of India, which stressed how karma could determine the cycle of one's birth or rebirth, Buddhism stressed the adherent's need to escape from the endless karmic cycle and to find a sense of peace and detachment called Nirvana.
The first noble truth of Buddhism…
Sumedho, Ajahn. (2012). The Four Noble Truths. Retrieved:
Religious Reflections." Please respond: Identify (3) 1) Judaism, 2) Shinto, 3) Buddha, things discussed fully, explain learned (3) things Identify (3) surprising things learned quarter, explain surprised.
The phrase 'Judeo-Christian ethic' is often used as a broad-based term to describe the philosophy of most residents of the United States. But this is rapidly changing. It can no longer be assumed that the majority of United States residents grew up in a household where either Judaism or Christianity was the predominant faith. As a member of a workplace where there is a high percentage of Asian and Asian-American employees who were brought up in households with Buddhist, Confucian, and Shinto traditions, I would liked to have learned more about these different faith and philosophical perspectives. However, what I did learn has proven useful in seeking to understand and empathize with my colleagues' worldviews.
It is often said that Buddhism…
I Ching Classical Understand vs. Aleister Crowley
Any belief, whether it is a self-made system or is bestowed upon us from above, can be taken as a religious view, for how does one define religion except as a system which sets upon humans a certain lifestyle to follow. The definition might seem vague at the least, but to define religion is becoming increasingly difficult, as more and more new sources of religious believes emerge. In all sense of the world, there is a message, however it may or may not be from an omnipotent, invisible God; it can be from a messiah or a man who has been raised to the level of a Messiah by his/her followers, as is the case of Buddha. [1: END NOTES Connelly, Paul. Definition of Religion and Relates Terms. 1996. 23rd March 2012 .]
The same has been the fate of many of the…
Myth of Marriage and Children
Joseph Campbell's The Power of Myth is a book that can potentially transform the reader's consciousness. Beyond being informative, Campbell's analysis of cultural myths is profound; it provokes genuine introspection. The author refers to the spiritual in whatever he speaks about, and yet he never lapses into religious diatribe or dogma. Subjects like marriage are elevated beyond the social to the psycho-spiritual. For example, he calls marriage "primarily a spiritual exercise, and the society is supposed to help us have the realization. Man should not be in service to society, society should be in the service of man," (8).
In light of modern society, Campbell's words hold new meaning. In America, we have few true rituals because we have turned our attention outward instead of inward. The wisdom of life is being denigrated through a preoccupation with technology and material goods. There is little…
Pilgrimage is a central element in religion. Ancient polytheistic religions like those in Greece and Rome used pilgrimage at certain times of year, often creating massive festivals. hile many pilgrimages have a social dimension, others can be profoundly personal and mystical too. Pilgrimage is inherently difficult, and the travails of the journey are part of the process. It is necessary to undertake pilgrimage as a rite of passage. This is especially true in Islam, in which hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, is one of the Five Pillars. There are several elements of religious pilgrimage, including the personal, political, and the spiritual.
Motivations for pilgrimage range from a need to prove one's spiritual strength and merit to a need to conform to the dictums of society. In some cases, the pilgrimage serves as an act of communion, prayer, or meditation. Buddhist approaches to pilgrimage, such as those described in Journey…
From the Diary of Ennin, 838-847.
From Journey to the West, or The Monkey-King, 17th century.
Modern Portrait of Xuanzang.
From Naser-e Khosraw, Book of Travels.
"All those ascetics and brahmins who construct systems about the past or the future, or both, who hold theories about both, and who make various assertions about the past and future, are all caught in this net of sixty-two subjects. There they are, though they plunge and plunge about. There they are caught in the net, though they plunge and plunge about." The apparent elaborateness of the scheme becomes clearer when it is analysed. The views fall into two classes, speculations about the past and about the future:
I. There are those who hold views about the beginnings of things in eighteen ways: (1) Some hold in four ways 2 that the self or soul (?tman) and the universe (loka) are eternal. (2) Some hold in four ways that the self and universe are in some respects eternal and in some not.(3) Some hold that the universe is finite, or…
Miller, F.M. editor Davis, T.W.Rhys Translator Sacred Books of the Buddhists, Sutta Pitaka, Digha Nikaya, Brahmajala Sutta, 1956, [electronic version, ND] http://metta.lk/tipitaka/2Sutta-Pitaka/1Digha-Nikaya/Digha1/01-brahmajala-e.html#q-001
Morgan, Kenneth W., ed. The Path of the Buddha Buddhism Interpreted by Buddhists. New York: Ronald Press, 1956.
Thomas, Edward J. The History of Buddhist Thought. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner, 1933.
Early Judaic religion also has a long extensive history. The ancient beginnings of Judaism come from the sands of the Syro-Arabian desert. Ancient ancestors of the later Hebrew people moved from the Mesopotamian desert towards the coast, moving into what is now known as Jerusalem and Palestine. Abraham was born into a family which still practiced early forms of animism. Through a religious epiphany, he began to worship only one deity, which he named El-Shaddi, meaning "the rock of the mountain," (383). He was encouraged by God to move to better grazing grounds, "The Lord had said to Abram [Abraham], leave your country, your people and your father's household and go to the land I will show you. I will make you a great nation and I will bless you; I will make your name great and you will be a blessing," (Gen. 12:1-2). After proving his loyalty, God rewarded…
King James Bible. Genesis. Found at http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/KjvGene.html . On October 13, 2007
Powers, John. A Concise Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Oneworld Publications. Oxford.
Noss, David S. History of the World's Religions. Prentice Hall. 12th ed. 2008.
Smith, Jean. The Beginner's Guide to Zen Buddism. Bell Tower. New York. 1999.
This view is expressed in the Mahayana doctrine of the triple body (trikaya), of the Buddha. Such a view of Buddha also gave rise to the Mahayana concept of an infinite number of Buddhas, or transformation bodies of the essential Buddha, appearing in innumerable worlds to help others reach enlightenment. ("Mahayana Buddhism" para on Doctrine)
The Theravadians consider the Pali Canon -- the earliest recording of Buddha's oral teachings -- as the sole authoritative scripture of the Buddhist religion and philosophy. In contrast, the Mahayanas, while not disputing the Pali Canon, consider a number of other "sutras" that were written much later as Buddhist scripture. These include the Perfection of isdom (Prajna-Paramita) Sutra, the Avatumsaka sutra, the Lotus sutra, and the Nirvana sutra. The Mahayana Buddhists justify the validity of these writings as scriptures by the argument that these sermons of Buddha were initially hidden but were revealed several centuries…
Akira, Hirakawa. A History of Indian Buddhism. Trans. Groner, Paul. Ed. Paul Groner. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1990.
Hooker, Richard. "Mahayana Buddhism." World Civilizations Web site. 1999. March 20, 2005. http://www.wsu.edu:8000/~dee/BUDDHISM/MAHAYANA.htm
Mahayana Buddhism." BELIEVE Religious Information Source. n.d. March 20, 2005. http://mb-soft.com/believe/txh/mahayana.htm
Theravada Buddhism." BELIEVE Religious Information Source. n.d. March 20, 2005. http://mb-soft.com/believe/txh/theravad.htm
Mellencamp goes on to say - and Smith clearly relates to this - that many critics did not (and do not) understand the "rigorous discipline (and years) it takes" to achieve the transcendence that Paik has achieved. "Truth and meaning can be found in silence and understood through experience," Mellencamp writes (and Smith quotes) on page 361 of the journal article.
Yet another critique of the TV Buddha was published in 1986 by Philippe Sohet, who sees the TV Buddha as "autobiographical" and represents to Sohet "a blending or confrontation of Eastern tradition and estern technology," Smith explains. But that's where Smith's acceptance of Sohet's interpretation of the Buddha ends; from there, Sohet's spin is "inventive yet contrived," because Sohet believes the tension of a living live image of the Buddha, that is "fixed and immutable" is shallow. The Buddha and the video camera "never really look at one another"…
Green, Ronald J. 1996. At the Crossroads: Paik's Electronic Superhighway. Afterimage 23 (6):
Smith, Walter. 2000. Nam June Paik's TV Buddha as Buddhist Art. Religion and the Arts 4 (3):
Strosnider, Luke. 2006. Nam June Paik: 1932-2006. Afterimage 33 (5): 5.
Qualifications of the divine and the nature of supreme reality are core concepts of any religious tradition. Hinduism and Buddhism conceptualize the divine and the nature of reality in complementary yet distinct ways. Buddhism emerged from Hinduism, in a manner not wholly unlike the way Christianity emerged from Judaism. Therefore, there are several core similarities in the cosmologies and the conceptualizations of divine reality between these two faiths. Moreover, the religious practices and philosophies of Buddhism and Hinduism tend to be more similar than they are different. These similarities should not obscure the real and practical differences in the ways Hindus and Buddhists conceptualize and communicate matters related to the nature of the divine, and the nature of supreme reality. In particular, Buddhism avoids distinctions between a divine and a profane realm; there are no actual Buddhist deities or gods. Hinduism boasts a plethora of gods and goddesses, although…
Cline, Austin. "Hinduism: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Holy Texts, Sacred Places." About.com. Retrieved online: http://atheism.about.com/od/bookreviews/fr/Hinduism_2.htm
"Basics of Buddhism." Retrieved online: http://www.letusreason.org/Buddh1.htm
Freeman, Richard. Interview data received February 21, 2013.
The Heart Sutra. Translated by Kumarajiva and Pevahouse. Retrieved online: http://www4.bayarea.net/~mtlee/heart.txt
Narrative in Asian Art History
Exporting Buddhism's Moral Authority
Whether or not one accepts Hayden White's assertion that the will to narrativize history is inseparable from a will to impose moral authority in a specific social reality, a brief survey of the artworks of several important Asian religious sites shows that there were narrative works. A further look reveals that those narrative works took as their subject matter the most significant entity in the region, the Buddha.
In addition, the fact that the Buddha and the ideas of the Buddha were exported to sites beyond the Indian subcontinent, to Jakarta, Indonesia for example, does indicate that perhaps White is correct. Perhaps by exporting the ideas attributed to the Buddha, those who commissioned the artworks were attempting to impose their own moral authority on a specific social reality, as well as reinforcing it at home.
Author Jean Johnson of New York…
Johnson, Jean. "Decoding Borobudur," http://www.askasia.org/frclasrm/lessplan/l000070.htm,1 June 2003. http://www.hydonline.com/people/Kids_Corner/kingsibi.html