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Budget DQ1a I Don't Need
Words: 1073 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89806186
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Looking over a spreadsheet can clarify when to make larger purchases, such as waiting until the start of a new billing cycle, or negotiating better payment terms offered by suppliers and any creditors, especially when interest rates are volatile.

Once the need for a budget is established then the organization can consider what type of budget it desires. For example, with zero-based budgeting, "all expenses must be justified for each new period. Every function within an organization is analyzed for its needs and costs. Budgets are then built around what is needed for the upcoming period, regardless of whether the budget is higher or lower than the previous one" (Zero-based budgeting, 2009, Investopedia). hile it is true that zero-based budgeting is more costly than traditional cost-based budgeting, it also favors enterprises specializing in areas "that achieve direct revenues or production" in the enterprise (Zero-based budgeting, 2009, Investopedia). For larger organizations,…

Works Cited

Activity-based budgeting.. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at  (Thebeauty of budgeting 2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at 

Budget. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at 

Capital budgeting. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at 

Cash budget. (2009). Investopedia. Retrieved February 25, 2009 at

Budget Building a Profit Plan
Words: 2893 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48166924
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Operating expenses include selling and administrative expense. Ordinarily, a forecast or budget for selling expenses is prepared together with the sales budget or profit target because selling efforts such as promotions, commissions and salaries of the sales staff are directly related to sales. Selling expenses may either be variable or fixed. Administrative expenses include projected administrative costs for other than production or selling activities. These expenses are mostly composed of fixed costs such as research and development, insurance payments and government taxes.

3. Calculate expected profits

Profit is the excess of revenue over total costs and expenses incurred in generating such revenue during the period of operation. Profit can be expressed in the mathematical equation:

Profit = Sales - Total Costs and Expenses]

Costs having been considered, the budgeted profit plan may now be established. Injecting the concept of 'revenue less expenses equals profit,' the profit may be calculated as…

Budgets in Order to Address
Words: 1145 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58811411
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125% to 6.0% would increase the estimated revenues by approximately $300 million, bringing this revenue to its highest level in history. This rate would still be lower than the state sales tax rate in neighboring Southwest states such as Arizona (6.6%), Texas (6.25%), Nevada (6.85%) and California (7.25%) (Sales Tax Clearinghouse, 2010). ith this increase, personal income tax rates would not need to be increased. Corporate income tax rates would also remain the same, as they are not a significant component of general revenues. hile the move to increase the state sales tax would prove unpopular, it would allow New Mexico to build for a more stable budget future, less reliant on federal transfers, while remaining competitive in terms of corporate and personal income taxes.

Appropriations will also need to be cut in order to save money. The main problem with appropriations in the budget is that a looming and…

Works Cited:

Massey, B. (2010). NM revenues weaken, more state budget cuts loom. Business Week. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from 

McCaffrey, S. (2010). State budget shortfalls may reach $180 billion this year. Boston Globe. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from 

McNichol, E.; Oliff, P. & Johnson, N. (2010). States continue to feel recession's impact. Center of Budget Policy Priorities. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from 

New Mexico 2011 Budget. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from

Budget Crisis How Current Budget Crisis Impact
Words: 904 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88676129
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Budget Crisis

How current budget crisis impact public Health & Community services individual states? 1) Colorado 2) South Carolina 3) New Hampshire 4) California 5) Arizona 6) Oklahoma 7) Virginia

How does the current budget crisis impact the public health & community services in the following individual states?


Even before the current crisis, Colorado ranked "near the bottom when compared to other states for covering families and children for health care" (Anderson 2011). Now, because of recent budget cuts, healthcare services are likely to suffer further. For some healthcare centers, cuts will comprise up to 20% of their annual operating budgets. The need for services has increased, given that job losses mean that more people are reliant upon state assistance. "Demand is up as much as 40% by Medicaid patients and 23% by the uninsured" (Anderson 2011). Public clinics are closing or laying off staff and reducing hours because…


Anderson, Polly. (2011). The crisis: Field perspective Colorado. NACHC.


Kaine's budget proposal: Cut mental health services, facilities. (2009). Hampton Roads.


Budget Qs the New Manager
Words: 572 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 32314613
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Decreasing purchases of the items that regularly expire, assuming that such a decrease does not dramatically increase the per-unit cost of each of these items, would definitely present a cost savings to the organization. The other major costs that the organization has some (though not total) control over are the lost balls and the cost of trainers; it is likely that a move to hiring permanent trainers would be more cost-effective than hiring them on an as-needed basis, but more regular participation levels will need to be established for this to be effective. Likewise, it is possible for the organization to reduce lost equipment costs by erecting a temporary barrier to contain wildly hit balls, but the cost of the barrier would need to be fairly low and its durability fairly high to justify this.

6)a. Sales price variance = (25x40000) -- (25x39200) = 20000

Sales volume variance = (20x40000)…

Budget Doing This Activity Provided Me With
Words: 449 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13541958
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Doing this activity provided me with information I was unaware of before doing the assignment. It seems amazing to me that more than half of the federal money is going to the military. Yet only 4% of the federal budget goes to education. his is a very sad state of affairs. Since September 11, 2001, the government of the United States has spent $635.9 billion on just homeland security. his doesn't even include the amount of money that has been spent in the war on terror. he website states that since 9/11, the government has spent $7.6 trillion on the military. his is a huge amount of money.

he budge projection for 2012 is that the United States government will spend another $3.7 trillion. hat means that the government will spend the same amount in one year that they have spend in the five years before. his is an…

The budge projection for 2012 is that the United States government will spend another $3.7 trillion. That means that the government will spend the same amount in one year that they have spend in the five years before. This is an obscene amount of money, especially since the country's economy is in such bad shape. Many people are out of work in this country. Higher education is costing so much money that people are having to drop out of college. Health insurance costs keep climbing so that very few people can afford health care. The country is in very bad shape and yet the government keeps investing in the war in another country instead of fixing the problems at home.

While I can see that spending money on security of the nation is important, I cannot imagine how the government could have used so much money on the war. Also, it seems to me that the budget should be redesigned. Education should take up far more than 4% of the federal budget money. The government's budgetary plans for the upcoming future are severely flawed. Not enough is being invested in the future of the American people and in their education. This is leading to further problems in the country.

The United States is a nation built upon the idea of individual freedoms. It is also based upon the idea that anyone can achieve the "American Dream." This is the idea that anyone can come from even the most poverty-affected background and through hard work and diligence, become a millionaire. One of the ways you pull yourself up from the dregs is by investing in your education. Consequently, those who do not take advantage of the education system have only themselves to blame for their failures. At least that was how the country was intended to function. In the United States, there is a correlation between education and criminality, education and poverty, and education and eventual hardship in adulthood. So, by not providing funds to help education, the United States is becoming part of the problem rather than helping people.

Budget and Finance 4235 1225
Words: 357 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85415842
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This contribution to fixed costs is the same for every customer. Thus, the breakeven point is 250,000 / 500 = 500 customers.

In another example, if the price is 200 and the variable costs are 110, and the fixed costs are 100,000, then the breakeven point is 1112 customers. The breakeven point is always rounded up because to have less than that the company would not yet have broken even. By rounding up, the company has officially passed the breakeven point.

4. The relative value scales are 150, 300, 568.75, 264 and 160 for a total of 1442.75

The relative value scales indicate how much effort goes into each type of acuity. The cost per RVU is relative to the total nursing costs, so it is a weighted-average:

$36,389 for Acuity Level 1

$72,777 for Acuity Level 2

$137,974 for Acuity Level 3

$64,044 for Acuity Level 4

$38,814 for…

Budgets City of Austin's 2007-2008
Words: 1726 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94747715
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The departmental and program breakdown of the information in the city of Detroit's budget does not provide quite the same level of detail or of annual change that the city of Austin's budget does, but this more than made up for by the ease of accessing what details are available, and by the different formats of the two cities' budgets almost necessitate these differences in clarity, but they do not entirely account for the lack of clarity in the city of Austin's budget. That budget is already organized by department and broken down into the individual programs; tabulating the department totals and providing a clear overview of the major expenditure and revenue items on the budget would not have entailed any undue extra effort. The city of Detroit's budget clearly shows that both detail and overall clarity are entirely achievable in a municipal budget, making it both more effective and…


Lee, R.; Johnson, R. And Joyce, P. (2008). Public budgeting systems. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Stenberg, C. (2007). Managing local government services: a practical guide. Washington. D.C.: ICMA.

Budget Problem Health Care Is
Words: 1819 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92902059
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S. debt.


Health care is a large part of the federal budget and it is increasing in importance. The rate of growth in health care outlays is greater than the rate of growth in the budget itself. The poses a problem, because the federal budget deficit is increasing in size. Debt service is going to be the most rapidly growing component of the federal budget over the next several years, highlighting the need to control costs in all aspects of the budget. The challenge, however, is that both demographic trends and health care cost inflation trends signal a dramatic increase in health care costs in the coming couple of decades. Health care reform is expected to help with cost containment, primarily through shifting some eligibility requirements, but greater solutions are required. Privatizing health care would take if off the government's books, but would have significant negative externalities with respect…

Works Cited:

Budget of the U.S. Government, fiscal year 2011. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from 

CBO. (2010). HR 4872. Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from 

Klein, E. (2010). Rep. Ryan proposes radical solution to budget problem. Washington Post. Retrieved December 9, 2010 from

Budget Cycle of the U S
Words: 1322 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70551006
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S. Government to make future or immediate monetary outlays. In the second subcomponent, the reporting and outlay phase lasts for the duration until the funds are canceled or until the funds are totally disbursed. One should note that these cancellations are in no way connected with cancellations that are connected with budget reductions. These are a separate congressional activity (ibid).

Sometimes spending adjustments are needed during the fiscal year. They may require special reporting and approval procedures by both Congress and OMB. In some instances, an agency can request supplemental funding by submitting a request to the Congress. Mostly, the departments and agencies are required to manage their funds according to their available resources and have only a limited monitoring by the OMB and the Congress during this particular phase of the budget process (Government Printing Office, 29-30).

hat is the effect of this system in theory as well as…

Works Cited

Government Printing Office, the budget cycle. Washington, DC: GPO. Retrieved


Keith, Robert. U.S. Congress, Congressional Research Service. (2008). Introduction to the federal budget process (CRS Publication No. 98-721 ). Washington DC: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from .

Keith, Robert. U.S. Congress, Congressional Research Service. (2008). Suspension of budget enforcement procedures (CRS Publication No. RL31068). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved from .

Budget Project Outline Environment the
Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63235339
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S. This has partially continued during the 90s as well, so protectionist barriers is one of the things Nissan needs to consider when exporting to its main partners.

There are two different actions Nissan may consider in the future in this sense. The first one refers to the fact that Renault, an European company, still holds a significant part of Nissan shares, which may facilitate exports on the European market. On the other hand, trade barriers can generally be avoided by direct implementation in the respective country, a measure which Japanese companies, especially Toyota, have successfully applied in the U.S. during the 80s.

2. Internal competencies

A. General Motor seems to be currently both the most important producer and the sales leader. However, this should come with several amendments. If we are referring to the market leader, there are several criteria worth mentioning. First of all, the number of cars…

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Budget & Finance the Occupancy
Words: 361 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63332264
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So 24 hours per day of care. With 24 hours and 8-hour shifts, 24/8 = 3 nurses are needed for each day.

If the agency works 365 days per year, and a shift is 7.5 hours, it will provide 16.43 hours of care per day, which will require 16.43 / 7.5 = 2.19 nurses per day.

4. The total workload in care hours is the weighted average of the different types of patients, so (.25)(.5) + (.25)(.8)+(.25)(1.2)+(.25)(2) = .125 + .2 + .3 + .5 = 1.125 * 5000-5625 care hours. This equates to 1.125 care hours per clinic visit.

If there were 6000 visits, divided equally among patients that require care of 0.4 hours, 0.9 hours, 1.0 hours and 2.2 hours. Under that scenario, the total workload care hours would be (.25)(.4) + (.25)(.9) + (.25)(1) + (.25)(2.2) = 1.125*6000 visits = 6750 total workload care hours, or 1.125…

Budget Analysis for the City of Lakeland
Words: 1416 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22882232
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Budget Analysis for the City of Lakeland: Executive Summary

In order to understand how a new performance-based budgeting process could be utilized by the City of Lakeland, it is essentially to conduct a review of the City's Annual Budget, with a detailed description of how the budgeting process works from beginning to end.

Lakeland's budgeting process is divided up into parts, with each part being designated a specific amount of time (in terms of a calendar month) in which it is to receive attention. The tasks associated with the budgetary process are thus sequential and proceed in an orderly manner; once the first steps are taken and accomplished, the next steps may be conducted.

Steps According to Monthly Division

The first steps begin in the month of February. The evenues Manual supplied by the City is utilized to understand and predict the City's revenue and revenue sources, using a systematized…


City of Lakeland, Florida. (2016). Fiscal Year 2016 Annual Budget.

Budget Process for Las Vegas Metropolitan Police
Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11927155
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budget process for Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (LVMPD). LVMPD was formed in 1973 as a result of the merger of the Las Vegas Police Department with the Clark County Sheriff's Department. LVMPD serves the city limits of Las Vegas along with unincorporated areas of Clark County.

LVMPD is funded by the City of Las Vegas and Clark County. Police department funding is based on a complex formula determined by population, calls for service, and the number of felony crimes from the previous year. Both city and county governments must approve not just the annual operating budget, but also their respective percentage of the budget. In addition to funding supplied by the two governments, the department itself generates approximately one-third of its funds though property tax and the charging for certain services, such as special events. A special sales tax to fund commissioned positions generates additional funding.

The Law Enforcement…

Works Cited

Haynes, B. (2011). Board votes to tap Las Vegas police reserves. Las Vegas Review-Journal. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (2011). Amended Final Budget FY 2011- 2012. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (n.d.). About Us Consolidation. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from: 

Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. (2011). Fiscal Year 2011-2012 Budget-in-Brief. Retrieved August 4, 2011 from:

Budget Analysis Sony
Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 17628384
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Breakeven Analysis

Sony Flexible Budget Analysis

Sony is a company that has long dominated the electronics market. However, in recent years, it has seemed to loose its primary grip over the market. Still, examining the financials of 2013, one can see that there have been new advancements in growth, especially in regards to net income, operating income, and financial and mobile sales revenues.

After several years of disappointing sales, Sony has seen some recent growth streams. Sales and operating revenue is up from the past two years by 4.7% (Sony, 2013). Additionally, net income is also up since 2012. There have also been increases in the sales of financial services and mobile devices over the past year (Sony, 2013). This has helped increase the overall operating revenue and net income overall, which was desperately needed by Sony after several years of the company loosing its grip on the marketplace. Numbers…


Accounting Tools. (2014). Flexible budget. Budgeting: A comprehensive guide. Web.

Sony (2013). Annual Report. Web.

Budgeted Cost Rates Rather Than
Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57349061
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A normal costing approach uses an annual average overhead rate consistently throughout the year, without accounting for day-to-day and month to month fluctuations. This average overhead rate is applied to the cost of a manufactured product, along with actual direct material and actual direct labor. Because the amount of overhead is computed as an average over the year, a department's applied overhead will rarely, if ever, be equal the actual incurred overhead. A department's applied overhead will rarely equal the actual overhead incurred. Why the reason for the variance? The most common reason is that the department is operating at a different level of volume than the level used in calculating the budgeted overhead rate. This can be the result of an over- or under-estimation of the hours which will be needed to produce goods or unexpected events like plant shutdowns. Still, even with the variances, companies prefer to use…

Budget Compare and Contrast
Words: 5190 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16976181
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budgets of any major size will get most, but not necessarily all, of their money from taxpayers of several many sorts but the main goal of the agencies regardless of size and structure is to provide basic and needed services to the area they serve, whatever and wherever that may be.

While all budgets are quite similar in one form or another, they are all different in their own ways and this can include the aim(s) of the money to be spent, where the money will come from and the overall fiscal policy exercised within the budget including investment, tax rates and savings strategies.

Basic Description of each budget

Differences and similarities of each budget

Sources of evenues of each budget

Change of revenue accounts in the future

e. Budget's fit with mission of the domain

f. How to improve budget and/or revenue estimation for each budget


Budget Comparison…


HHS. (2014, June 1). HHS Budget in Brief. Department of Health & Human Services.

Retrieved June 28, 2014, from -


IRS. (2014, June 26). Forms and Pubs. Internal Revenue Service. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from

Budget an Old Alliterative Adage
Words: 1112 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 32431090
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"Put it on paper," Cintron advises, and adds, "The first step to creating a budget is simple: put down on paper what you are spending your money on. That sounds easy, but it takes discipline and honesty -- in other words, do not omit anything, no matter how small" (76). In fact, many of the clients who seek out Cintron's advice simply guess at how much money they are spending each month without ever committing a single item to paper. By listing all expenses, though, even the trivial ones, people can make a decision concerning how important these expenditures are to their lifestyles and eliminate those that can add up without people realizing it. For example, Cintron also notes that, "Cut unnecessary expenses. Once you see [what you are spending] in black and white, you can figure out what you can cut. I call it going on a money diet"…

Works Cited

Cintron, Ivan. 2000, May. "The Art of Savvy Budgeting." Black Enterprise 30(10): 76.

Budget Analysis of School System
Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96028640
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5. What are the top 3 in monetary costs for capital improvement projects recommended for the ensuing fiscal year?

The top 3 costs for Special Warrant Articles for the upcoming budget are: The GMS site de-watering study (including design and cost) at $86,000, GMS/LMS safety locks and video surveillance at $56,431 and finally LMS Emergency Access Road at $44,000.

6. Excluding food service sales what are the top 3 revenue budget lines for the year 05/06?

The top three revenue line for the school year were: Federal Program Grant at $239,042, State School Building Aid at $238,392.16 and revenue from Other Local Sources at $165,049.

7. What is the total dollar amount for appropriations recommended by the School Board?

The total amount recommended by the School Board for the upcoming year is $19,514,314. This includes the $259,854 appropriated to Special Warrant Articles as well as the $19,254,460 appropriated for all…

Budgets When Discussing the Budgets
Words: 1101 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62275520
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Encourage more school districts to implement school breakfast programs by providing a 50% increase in the state's reimbursement rate for school breakfasts. (WG, 2006)

The California budget includes $400 million to implement a broad strategy to ensure that California is ready for public health emergencies and is properly equipped to handle them. This funding will enable the state to increase patient care capacity (also known as "surge capacity") to achieve the levels recommended by the federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Health esources and Services Administration (HSA). In the past, California has responded to "moderate" local or regional public health emergencies, such as a fire, flood, explosion, or earthquake, with up to 10,000 casualties over a limited period. Measured against federal HSA benchmarks, California needs to increase response capacity in some areas. Emergency planning experts agree that the most critical element in preparing for surge needs…


California Government (2006, May). Revised Budget Summary 2006-2007. Retrieved 9/7/06, at 

Wisconsin Government (2006, may). Wisconsin executive budget 2006-2007. Retrieved 09/07/06, at

Budget of New York State
Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 5825445
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April 1, 2015 and March 31, 2016, an estate of $3,125,000 is exempt.

April 1, 2016 and March 31, 2017, an estate of $4,187,500 is exempt.

April 1, 2017 and Dec. 31, 2019, an estate of $5,250,000.

Raising the estate tax rates will help the families of the most advantaged members of the population.

However, there were also provisions made for education that should increase funding for schools. However, most of these funding increases were geared strictly at charter schools. New York City charter schools will now enjoy some of the greatest protections in the country; under the new state budget agreement, for the first time ever, charter schools will be eligible for government funds (MYFOXNY, 2014). A $1.1 billion, or 5.3%, increase in education aid, with high-needs districts getting almost 70% of the hike; allocations of $340 million for universal pre-K during each of the next two years, with…

Works Cited

AP. (2014, March 24). NY budget talks continue in Albany as deadline nears. Retrieved from AP: 

MYFOXNY. (2014, March 30). Huge win for NY charter schools. Retrieved from Fox NY:

Weaver, T. (2014, March 29). 2014 NY State Budget. Retrieved from the Post-Standard: 

Weaver, T. (2014, March 29). NY Budget: Estate tax change. Retrieved from the Post-Standard:

Budget in a Project
Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73779763
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Project Budget and Control

Preparing a Budget

Top-down budgeting is business-planning system whereby the budgeting process begins with information flowing from the very top of the organization down to the departmental or divisional levels within the organization. The top down approach could be used in a large organization that deals with a project they have done before. The reason behind using this approach would be the fact that this is a big project. Therefore, an overall estimate would be made of task that are higher in level and then those estimates of higher-level tasks are then used in setting limits of the costs of lower level tasks. The advantage of using this method is the fact that there will be no need of relying on low-level managers to come up with information on budgeting. Therefore, the business will allow lower level managers focus on their specific departments and hence do…


Project (2012). Project Controls: What is it and why is it important ? Retrieved July 11, 2014 from

Budget Components Policy Document Financial Plan Operating
Words: 2813 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88811460
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budget components (Policy Document, Financial Plan, Operating Plan, Communications Device), rank them in order of importance in your opinion and justify your rank order.

ank 1: Policy Document: The Policy Document is synonymous with a Budget Document. The budget document can be a line item detailed listing of every expenditure for every department within the government operation. The document conveys the policies and procedures of the administration and outlines its funding.

The expenditure amount is a further clarification of the entity's commitment to their underlying cultural and operating practices which complement their specific organizational goals and organizational strategies. Organizational strategies in accordance to the Policy Document include the Strategic Planning Document which details how the organization will propel itself into the coming years as a strategic city seeking to attract the best and the brightest to start businesses and to be residents. As the underlying specific goals to the macro…


Blocksidge, Charles. "The Art of the Budget." The American City & County 110.3 (1995): 6-. ProQuest. Web. 18 July 2011.


Thomas, John. "Operational Plan Framework: A Step Toward Sound Management." Optimum 15.2 (1984): 76-.ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 18 July 2011.

Budget Creation Management and Actions for X Company
Words: 1616 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86490172
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Company is a corporate development, management, Information Communications Technology (ICT), and support consultancy firm, offering its clients solutions to confidently research, survey, set up, and profit from business, as well as other opportunities. The firm aids civil society, public, and private clients in developing required relationships, advances in bonds and securing the required support services and systems in a cost-effective manner, in order to run optimally and accomplish their specified goals. Our objective is providing our clients with essential professional services, to be utilized as a springboard for instituting their business, as well as offering them and others the flexibility of operating without an office; that is, they can simply avail themselves of our Virtual Office Service as a start. X Company's strengths include:

Human esource: Our Company is constituted of a esourceful Managers' team, with highly- qualified members having strong preference for knowledge generation, dissemination and utilization. As knowledge…


DoIT Project Management Advisor. (2006). Stage 2: Initiate the Project. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from

Personal finance at duke. (n.d.). What is a budget and why is it important? Retrieved August 4, 2015, from 

Shapiro, J. (n.d.). Budgeting Toolkit. Civicus.

Westland, J. (2011, June 23). Project Management: 4 Ways to Manage Your Budget. Retrieved from CIO:  -- 4-ways-to-manage-your-budget.html

Budget Outlook Projections and Implications
Words: 401 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34859510
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This type of policy is aimed at "stimulating total spending in the economy," through cutting taxes to leave businesses and individuals with more money to buy goods, thus raising demand and increasing production and generating increased spending (Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia).

Importantly, the authors note that these budget imbalances will have a significant negative impact on the general economy. They will reduce living standards and damage the economy, and bring the nation to a "real risk of a fiscal crisis" (p. 5). In large part, these effects will come from reducing national saving.

The authors note, however, that all is not lost if action is taken immediately to reduce budget deficits. Gale and Orszag write, "Significant changes in fiscal policy are needed to deal preemptively with the costs from low national saving and the risk of a fiscal crisis. The sooner we begin, the better" (p. 6).


Gale William…


Gale William G. And Orszag, Peter R. 2004. The Budget Outlook: Projections and Implications. The Economists' Voice: Vol. 1: No. 2, Article 6, October 27, 2004. November 2004. 

Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. 2004. Fiscal Policy. © 1997-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. 04 November 2004.

Budget Application
Words: 2511 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 90964918
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Control function, may it be management or accounting, plays the same key role. It is, in many ways, a two-way process. First of all, a top-bottom control flow, where the upper management or higher authorities oversee a certain process, but it is also a bottom-top process, as is the case when the feedback and follow-up actions come from the lower levels.

In the case of the expenditure process, the top-down circuit is, first of all, characterized by the budget restrictions that are imposed on the upper management levels of the company. In this sense, the top management defines a certain amount of money that can be spend and notifies accordingly the lower levels within the company. All acquisitions are thus limited by the expenditure levels fixed in the budget.

In many ways, the control function tends to be associated with management accounting. As we know, one of the most important…



2. Bookkeeping and Accounting. On the Internet at

On the Internet at

Budget and Financial Planning for Bhp Billiton
Words: 1415 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 40203093
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BHP Billiton Budget and Financial Planning

Company Overview

BHP Billiton is a global Anglo-Australian company specialized in petroleum, metal and mining. Headquartered in Melbourne, the BHP Billiton is one of the world largest mining company using the 2013 total revenue. The BHP Billiton was established in 2001, and has been ranked as a top performing mining company in the world. At the end of 2015 fiscal year, BHP Billiton recorded $44.6 Billion as the total revenue with the net income of $1.9 Billion. In 2010, the company recorded a net income of $12.7 Billion, and by the end of 2014 fiscal year, the net income increased to $13.8 Billion. However, the company net income drastically declines to $1.9 billion at the end of the 2015 fiscal year. (Annual Report, 2015).

This report carries out a financial and budget planning for the BHP Billiton to enhance a greater understanding on the…

Sources of data to evaluate effectiveness of financial management process are:

Tracking items such as utilities, inputs, salaries, and materials.

Evaluate whether costs are allocated by the cost centers.

Financial reports are linked to financial budgets

Cash flow statements are accurate.

Budget Proposal on the Cost
Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37023495
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Environmental Impact Requirements. As noted above, many citizens maintain that the aesthetic impact of cellular towers lowers their residential property values, but there are other concerns involved in such installations as well. According to Crowell (1996), there have been a number of concerns voiced about the potential health and environmental problems that electro-magnetic radiation from cellular communications towers and their supporting facilities may create. In an effort to protect the aesthetics of these communities as well as to ensure public health and safety, local governments have increasingly applied zoning powers to regulate tower installations by requiring setbacks from residential or commercial structures, imposing height restrictions, and requiring safe zones in the event the tower collapses or debris falls from the tower; in fact, some municipalities have specifically established setback requirements for towers based on health and environmental concerns (Crowell 6). Still other local governments have imposed moratoriums on issuing facility…

Works Cited

Cellular Tower Installations through Public/Private Partnerships." (2005). WEL Associates, LLC. Available:

Clark, Martha L. (2005). "Massachusetts: The Land." In Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].

Crowell, Anthony. (1996, June). "Local Government and the Telecommunications Act of 1996." Public Management, 78(6):6.

Czerniawski, June. (2000, March 19). "Fence Post: Police station needed." Daily Herald, 15.

Budget Concerns at Beacon College
Words: 1139 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: A2 Coursework Paper #: 82753662
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Beacon College, as a small institution, has encountered problems regarding its overall governance standards and accounting oversight. The empirical facts suggest that the entire organization did not have a culture of challenge and innovation. This seems at odds with the overall mandate of the college however. As a liberal arts college, it is by definition innovative and challenging. However, the empirical facts suggest that management was satisfied with the status quo. In any organization, one individual should not have all the information pertaining to a critical subject. This creates information asymmetry where the individual can use their informational knowledge to direct action from others who do not have access to the information. This appears to be an early problem of Beacon College. The CFO did not divulge information in a transparent manner and as a result, the overall financial performance of the organization suffered. Management was unable to make critical…


1) Cleveland, Frederick A. (1915)"Evolution of the Budget Idea in the United States." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. 15-35.

2) Rubin, Irene S. (1997) The Politics of Public Budgeting: Getting and Spending, Borrowing and Balancing. Third Edition, Chatham House Publishers: Chatham, New Jersey

3) Sullivan, Arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 502.ISBN 0-13-063085-3

4) Walsh, Mary Williams. "Richard A. Musgrave, 96, Theoretician of Public Finance, Dies." January 20, 2007. New York Times: Business

budget analysis of Affordable Care Act
Words: 3557 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40836351
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Affordable Care Act decreased the number of Americans without health insurance by the millions, which was its primary objective. It used three different mechanisms to achieve this goal -- the expansion of Medicaid, the insurance exchanges, and the extension of coverage to young adults up to age 26. These changes have also helped to stem the growth of health care costs, and have delivered greater health care savings throughout the system, even private insurance customers, than was originally expected. There were some initial costs to the ACA, running from 2014-2019 but after the point the Congressional Budget Office expects the ACA will have a net benefit in terms of its impact on the budget, because of the new taxes it created.

The incoming government is expected to unwind the ACA, as this has been a stated goal of Trump, and of the epublican party. What this means has been studied.…


Abbott, R. K. (2015). The Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Large Employers: A Retrospective. Benefits Quarterly, 31(1), 8-14.

CBO (2016) Budgetary and economic effects of repealing the Affordable Care Act Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from 

CBO (2016) Payment of penalties for being uninsured under the Affordable Care Act Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from (2016). The Affordable Care Act is working. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved December 4, 2016 from

Managing the Budget
Words: 1521 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46165015
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Budget Management Analysis

So much connected to the process of budgeting is difficult. It can be difficult to draft a budget which is accurate and which connects to all project needs. Moreover, it can be quite challenging to stay within the guidelines of a budget. However, organizations and projects must be held to that regardless for their present and future success, not to mention their own level of sustainability.

Thus, whenever finance teams draft budgets, there still need to be people on the accounting team who are specifically there just to enforce the budget and to ensure that all members of the team are able to follow the guidelines set forth. Even with these specific professionals involved with the project, there is still a need to engage in concerted steps to ensure that the project remains on budget. Specific measures need to be taken by the accounting and finance team…


Azevedo, J., Newman, J., & Pungiluppi, J. (2010, March). Benchmarking: A tool to improve the effectiveness . Retrieved from 

Hunt, S. (2013). Budgeting and Forecasting. Retrieved from 

Westland, J. (2011, June 23). Project Management: 4 Ways to Manage Your Budget. Retrieved from  -- 4-ways-to-manage-your-budget.html

Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Budget Plan
Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72196725
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Budget Proposal

Agency: Oregon Park and ecreation Department (OPD)

Agency's Mission: "To provide and protect outstanding natural, scenic, cultural, historic, and recreational sites for the enjoyment and education of present and future generations" (OPD, 2011).

To attain its mission, the agency organizes its operations into six work areas; direct services, community support and grants, park development, central services, Oregon exposition center, and director's office (OP, 2011). The agency operates a total of sixteen programs scattered across the six work areas. Of the sixteen, Park Experiences takes up the largest amount of funds - approximately 36% of the total lottery revenues - and accounts for 39% of the agency's total budget (OPD, 2011)

Proposal: Cut down spending on Interpretative program.

Identified Need: OPD does not receive any funding from the General Fund Tax kitty, and only relies "on a mix of Other Funds, Lottery Funds and a small amount of Federal…


OPRD. (2011). 2011-2013 Means and Ways Budget. OPRD. Retrieved 27 May 2014 from 

Oregon Parks and Recreation Commission. (2014). Parks and Recreation Department. OPRD. Retrieved 27 May 2014 from 

Rocco, K. & Hill, D. (2013). Legislative Fiscal Office. OPRD. Retrieved 27 May 2014 from

Miami Budget
Words: 975 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62015664
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Budgeting, particular during pressing economic periods, is critical to the overall solvency of public organizations. Budgeting and proper forecasting provides a means for organizations to remain viable irrespective of the economic circumstances prevailing. History has proven that businesses along with public enterprises must endure various economy cycles and environments. The past decade has provided substantial evidence as to the importance of proper budgeting. Organizations that have failed to budget properly have suffered immensely in regards to lost reputation, profit and productivity. The subsequent decade will be no different in that regard. Budgeting in the public domain, must provide adequate reassurance that the public organization can withstands a litany of economic and monetary circumstances (Parks, 1991)

A budget provides organizations financial priorities in dollar terms. Particular in recessions or depression, public budgets, when analyzed, provide an idea as to the organizations priorities. During periods of mass euphoria and over optimism, budgets…


1) Muir, Helen. (1953) Miami, U.S.A. Coconut Grove, Florida. Hurricane House Publishers. Pp. 33, 100

2) Parks, Arva Moore (1991). Miami: The Magic City. Miami, FL: Centennial Press. p. 12. ISBN 0-9629402-2-4

3) Sullivan, Arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 502. ISBN 0-13-063085-3

Government Budget
Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4789517
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Budget Deficit

Government Budget

What are the consequences of an ever-burgeoning federal deficit and debt? Will there ever be a solution or compromise?

One of the most hotly-contested issues in contemporary American political life is how to deal with the current budget deficit. Despite running surpluses during the 1990s, the current budget is widely considered out of control by both Democrats and epublicans. The reasons for the deficit include two costly wars abroad and increased defense spending overall after 9/11; tax cuts, and the recent recession which required federal spending in the form of unemployment assistance and assistance to the states (who are legally required to balance their budgets); and less income tax revenue because of job losses. There also systemic factors that have contributed to high budget deficits (Amadeo 2012). Overall, "mandatory spending has increased. Spending to pay benefits for Social Security, Medicare and other mandated programs has been…


Amadeo, Kimberly. (2012). U.S. Federal Budget deficit. Retrieved at: 

Economic effects of a budget deficit. (2012). Economics Help. Retrieved at: