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Bush Case Study
Case Study in Decision Making
Onlookers often assume that a man who has a firm mindset, and a strong will does not go through what onlookers would consider a "traditional decision making process" Men with strong minds, and a sense of moral right and wrong often take much more time considering a course of action than other who make decisions based on personal agendas. Men with moral mindsets are simply not easily persuaded once a new decision is firmly made on the basis of what the decision make considers moral grounds. For the moral decision maker, the moral right and wrong of a situation dictate the course of action once the somewhat rigid boundaries are crossed. It is the moral absolutism which the on looking world does not understand.
When George W. Bush decided that the country would go to war against those responsible for the 9-11…
The buck stops here: The Bush administration at war
Journal article by Bob Woodward; Harvard International Review, Vol. 25, 2003
ush Administration - Job Creation
The ush Administration is doing a great job of hyping a recent report published by C News and other media showing that the economy had added an extra 308,000 jobs in March, 2004, almost three times more than had been forecasted. However, a closer examination of the underlying numbers shows several reasons for skepticism in this supposedly rosy economic data. The old adage, "All that glitters is not gold," appears to more accurately describe the job creation figures.
In the positive C report, there are several signs that lead one to believe that the job additions are a woefully inadequate measure of the complete job situation. According to C, the U.S. professional and business services sector added 42,000 jobs, education and health 39,000, leisure and hospitality 28,000, and government 31,000. The services and leisure and hospitality sector or noted for lower wages vs. other sectors…
US Job Creation Finally Under Way." BBC News 2 Apr. 2004. 07 Apr. 2004 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/3594109.stm .
ith the production of Dolly, we also entered a vast technological frontier of possibilities. The cloned sheep "was born after nuclear transfer from a mammary gland cell, the first mammal to develop from a cell derived from adult tissue." Taking a cell containing 98 per cent of the DNA, or its genetic blueprint, from the udder of a six-year-old adult sheep, they fused it to the egg of another sheep to produce a lamb that is virtually an exact copy." (Marsh, 1) Equally as groundbreaking as the creation of the world's first clone was the implication of its process, which indicated that there is a way to employ adult cells, already differentiated and specialized to their own organic functions, in order to fabricate new, un-differentiated genetic material. For researchers battling such diseases as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and paralysis all around the world, such a possibility began to hint at countless opportunities…
Albu, M. (2004). Bush's gay marriage ban is unjust. The Channels Online. Online at http://media.www.thechannelsonline.com/media/storage/paper669/news/2004/03/03/Opinion/Editorial.Bushs.Gay.Marriage.Ban.Is.Unjust-625066.shtml
Bazinet, K.R. (2009). President Obama Reverses Bush's Stem Cell Research Ban; Debate Rages Along Abortion Fault Lines. New York Daily News. Online at http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/2009/03/09/2009-03-09_president_obama_reverses_bushs_stem_cell.html
Campbell, D.E. (2007). A Matter of Faith: Religion in the 2004 Presidential Election. The Brookings Institute.
Chaddock, G.R. (2006). Veto Clash Looms for Stem Cell Bill.
The most worrying aspect in this case is the fact that the Patriot Act seems to be endangering some of the fundamental liberties of the American individual. The motivation seems simple: the country is at war and, in any such conditions, it is allowed to resort to all means to achieve victory. On the other hand, the fact that certain governmental practices (many of which have probably been going on in the past, but had never been exposed) are now out in the open and even regulated.
The case of the American citizen Yaser Hamdi is quintessential for the application of policies in times of war. Yaser Hamdi was captured in Afghanistan, deemed to be a member of al Qaeda and was categorized as an "enemy combatant." He had been held imprisoned without being charged for almost two years, with no access to attorneys or trials.
His case brings about…
1. Cassel, Elaine. Yaser Hamdi gets a lawyer: he just can't do anything. December 2003. On the Internet at http://buffaloreport.com/articles/031207.cassel.hamdi.html
ush Administration's Section 8 voucher program may be to limit the number of lower-income people who can enter the housing market for the first time. ush's plan reduces the amount of money available to rehabilitate multi-housing buildings. That will reduce the number of multi-housing buildings available to be bought and sold in the real estate market (Castellanet, 2003).
In addition, the plan would limit the amount of money available to pay rent in improved housing (Castellanet, 2003). This could reduce the attractiveness of buying depressed housing for the purpose of renovating it and making it either more salable or more rentable, because the owners would have more difficulty renting the units.
The ush administration maintains that too much fraud is present in the current program (Goldstein, 2003), and wants to turn control of Section 8 housing over to the individual states. It is not clear how this would reduce fraud,…
Castellanet, Craig. 2003. "NHLP Preservation e-News #3." National Housing Law Project, Oct. 27. Accessed via the Internet 10/27/03. http://www.nhlp.org/html/pres/email/pres_3.htm
Goldstein, David. 2003. "Bush plans scrapping HUD 'section 8' voucher program for state grants." Northern Illinois University (Knight-Kidder News Service). Accessed via the Internet 10/27/03. http://www.star.niu.edu/national/articles/050503-bush.asp
As President ush argued, the intervention set forth a mission to "to bring freedom to the Middle East, a freedom that wasn't "America's gift to the world," but "God's gift to mankind." (Smoltczyk and Zand, 2010)
The dilemma appears from the fact that morality seats on rules, and these were not respected. If one would take as fair and moral for states to invade others that do not preserve international human rights, for example, the international system would transform itself into an anarchy. There is no higher authority that can identity those that are meant to exercise power over others as all is a matter of perception and information. If no such higher power exists, the international system has to adapt and create new types of morals. An ethics of nation building and re-building might be a solution, as episodes like the Iraq invasion might happen again. As Noah Feldman…
Berman, E. et. al. 2010. Human Resource. Management in Public Service, Sage Publications
Smoltczyk, a and Zand, B. 2010. "A 'Dumb War' Taking Stock of the Iraq Invasion," Spiegel Online International retrieved on 5th December 2010 from http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,725090,00.html
Feldman, N. 2004 "What We Owe Iraq: War and the Ethics of Nation Building," the New York Times, retrieved on 5th December 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/11/14/books/chapters/1114-1st-feldman.html?_r=1
Bush administration's crowning contribution to the American educational system was to be the program known as "No Child Left Behind," however, from its beginning the program has been the subject of acrimonious debate with many educators arguing that it must be abandoned. Those educators advocating against the program argue that No Child Left Behind (NCLB) is fundamentally flawed and is punitive in nature and results in too many schools being identified as failures and that such schools are subsequently sanctioned. Sanctions that publicly embarrass the school and vindicate anyone associated with the school. These educators suggest that a better approach would be the enactment of a law and establishment of an educational program that is supportive of school improvement and is truly dedicated to leaving no child behind.
In theory, many of the educational concepts supposedly promoted by the NCLB program are admirable and largely concepts which few can oppose.…
Darling-Hammond, L. (2007). Evaluating 'No Child Left Behind'. The Nation, 1-7.
DeBray-Pelot, E. (2009). The New Politics of Education: Analyzing the Federal Education Policy Landscape in the Post NCLB Era. Educational Policy Journal, 15-42.
Fusarelli, L.D. (2004). The Potential Impact of the No Child Left Behind Act on Equity and Diversity in American Education. Educational Policy Journal, 71-94.
Gatto, J.T. (2010, June 19). Against School. Retrieved November 5, 2011, from LewRockwell.com: http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig11/gatto1.1.1.html
Instead a violent transfer of power occurred, in 2004, with an armed rebellion led by former military and paramilitary leaders sweeping through the country, all with the veiled support of the Bush administration of the supposedly non-violent political opposition parties ("The International epublican Institute").
In this most recent Haiti operation, in 2004, the U.S. Treasury Undersecretary, John Taylor, noted that the United States would contribute $232 million and the Inter-American Development Bank would contribute $400 million. However, American federal funds had already been flowing into the country since the late 1990s. Through the II, $3 million had already been funneled into Haiti in an effort to destabilize Aristide, mostly funds from taxpayer money from the U.S. Agency for International Development. Harsh sanctions, coupled with the II's training of Aristide's political opponents and the rejection of internationally-sanctioned power sharing agreements, escalated the Haitian political crisis to the eventual political coup that…
Did the Bush Administration Allow a Network of Right-Wing Republicans to Foment a Violent Coup in Haiti?" Africa Speaks. 20 July 2004. Democracynow.org. December 30, 2006 http://www.africaspeaks.com/haiti2004/2007.html .
The International Republican Institute: Promulgating Democracy of Another Variety." Council on Hemispheric Affairs. 15 Jul 2004. Council on Hemispheric Affairs. December 30, 2006 http://www.coha.org/2004/07/15/the-international-republican-institute-promulgating-democracy-of-another-variety/.
IRI Home Page. 2005. International Republican Institute. December 30, 2006 http://www.iri.org/ .
Robinson, Randall. "Bushwhacked in the Caribbean: America's Contempt for the World." Africa Speaks. 22 May 2004. Africa Speaks. December 30, 2006 http://www.africaspeaks.com/haiti2004/2205.html .
Soon U.S. invasion Afghanistan 2001, Bush administration developed a plan holding interrogating prisoners
Niday, I.A. (2008). "The War against Terror as War against the Constitution." Canadian Review of American Studies, 38(1), 101-117.
There are a number of essential elements that make up the article written by Jackson A. Niday, "The War against Terror as War against the Constitution." The principle point of this article is to explore the question of whether or not the civil rights of Yaser Esam Hamdi, who was a United States and Saudia Arabian citizen detained at Guantanamo Bay during 2002 after being captured in Afghanistan in the initial stages of the War on Terror, were violated. While seeking to answer this question, the author examines the 2004 Supreme Court lawsuit Hamdi v. Rumsfield in which legal counsel on behalf of Hamdi alleged that his rights were violated as a U.S. citizen -- particularly his right…
One of the fundamental questions I have after thoroughly reading this article is a point that was made in the abstract and was not quite sufficiently explained in the rest of the body of the paper. Specifically, it has to do with the legal philosophy known as pragmatism. I do not understand what this concept is and could not find a sufficient explanation in the remainder of the paper. I would like to know why the author claims that pragmatism was forsaken for "judicial and constitutional coherency" (Niday, 2008, p. 101).
An examination of a number of sources regarding various facets of the domestic and foreign policy propagated by the U.S. government unequivocally reveals that there is a definite incongruence with the values of liberty and justice that is reserved for conventional U.S. citizens, and that which is reserved for people from other parts of the globe. Quite simply, many of the notions that the U.S. contends to champion and preserve for its own people, it directly violates for the citizens in other parts of the world.
[…] With the U.S. now mired in a Mesopotamian morass because of what is described as a 'unilateralist' foreign policy, the UN's multilateralist approach is gaining unearned prestige and unwarranted credibility" (Grigg, 2006). While the UN might not have masterminded the war, they certainly participated in the events that led up to the invasion, so they did play an important role in arguments for the invasion, and now they are benefiting, which does not seem right, somehow.
Many members of NATO, including France, Germany, and Belgium opposed the war, and they protested sending any NATO troops into Iraq for any cause. Another writer notes, in July during a trip to Washington, obertson told U.S. lawmakers that NATO would not go beyond providing logistical support for the Polish-led force in Iraq" (Dettmer, 2003). The Polish forces were peacekeepers sent in to assist British and American forces. While NATO seems to have…
Dettmer, J. (2003). NATO suffering from identity crisis. Retrieved 7 May 2010 from the FindArticles.com Web site: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_2003_Sept_16/ai_107543546/ .
Editors. (2004). The invasion of Iraq. Retrieved 7 May 2010 from the Frontline Web site:
Grigg, W.N. (2006, January 9). Bring 'em home! The New American, 22, 12+.
Condoleezza Rice's current job title is Secretary to the President on National Security Affairs. This job is alternatively called "National Security Advisor." She was appointed to this position by President George W. ush after his inauguration in January 2000. This appointment was historic. This is the first time a woman and an African-American has a position of national importance. (Wade, 2003)
The 48-year-old Dr. Rice brings to the position impeccable credentials. She is a brilliant tactician and considered a genius in foreign affairs and matters of National Security. In 1989, she was director of Soviet and East European affairs with the National Security Council. She also was appointed special assistant President George ush (Sr.) for national security affairs. She was senior director for Soviet affairs at the National Security Council at a critical moment in World History when glasnost and perestroika were just taking root in the former Soviet Union.…
Dao, James. "Rice More Ally Than Enemy to Former General Powell." Sydney Morning Herald June 30, 2003. http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2003/06/29/1056825280095.html
ExpandNATO.org. The Biography of Dr. Condoleezza Rice. 2003. 2003. ExpandNATO.org. Available:
http://www.expandnato.org/ricebio.html . August 20, 2003.
King, John. Dr. Condoleezza Rice Discusses the Roadmap for Peace in the Middle East. 2003. State.Gov. Available:
S. soldiers of the 4th Armored Infantry Division. He surrendered, spitting and cursing -- in French, reportedly." (Dale, 2003)
Somehow the president survived the recent election and many democrats have hinted that maybe the fix was in again. No matter, the president survived and his approval rating were down, they were high enough to beat Senator Kerry and the Democrats.
Date Organization Approve Disapprove No Opinion Sample Size Notes 11/7-10/04
LV (the oper Center, 2004)
Media coverage of the Bush administration has been too busy jumping from one topic to the next so there has been little overall damage to the Bush administration. When ever the situation gets too hot there seems to be a new story to take the heat off of the last one. Unlike the Monica Lewinski situation for Bill Clinton, there has yet to be a sustained…
Dale, Helle (December 17, 2003). Saddam Found. The Washington Times
The Roper Center. (n.d.). General Approval Trend for President Bush (2001-). Retrieved on November 24, 2004, at http://www.ropercenter.uconn.edu/cgi-bin/hsrun.exe/Roperweb/PresJob/PresJob.htx;start=HS_fullresults?pr=Bush (the Roper Center, 2004)
The Bush administration has not welcomed dissenting opinions or multiple points-of-view because ostensibly it is "easier and more efficient" to act unilaterally and bypass the bureaucracies of multinational organizations like the United Nations. Thus, a seemingly blatant disregard for the input and opinions of other nations has characterized the Bush Revolution and has drawn criticism from foreign leaders.
The Bush Revolution reflects the cowboy mentality also through its spirit of independence. In principle, acting unilaterally and independently helps to quickly and efficiently accomplish American goals. Yet one of the consequences of the Bush Revolution is that unilateral action could also isolate the United States in the long run and could in fact work against the nation through the development of the anti-American sentiment that fuels terrorism in the first place. For example, to outright refuse to participate in any multilateral coalition on principle signifies arrogance, not wisdom, in the eyes…
Daalder, I.H.. "Bush's Foreign Policy Revolution: A Radical Change." Minneapolis-St. Paul Star Tribune. Sept 2004. Retrieved Sept 17, 2006 at http://www.brookings.edu/views/op-ed/daalder/20040926.htm
Daalder, I.H. & Lindsay, J.M. "America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy." The Brookings Review 21(4) Fall 2003, p. 206. Retrieved Sept 17, 2006 online at http://www.brookings.edu/press/review/fal2003/daalder.htm
Daalder, I.H. & Lindsay, J.M "The Bush Revolution: The Remaking of America's Foreign Policy." The Brookings Institute. May 2003. Retrieved Sept 17, 2006 at http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/about/pdfs/bush_revolution.pdf#search=%22bush%20revolution%22
Daalder & Lindsay "America Unbound."
Bush's Invasion Of Iraq
At the first whisper of invading Iraq, there have been expressions of concern and outrage the world over. In September 2002, Nelson Mandela said of the Bush administration, "They think they're the only power in the world ... they're following a dangerous policy, One country wants to bully the world ... e must not allow that" (Bleier Pp). The next day on September 23rd, Al Gore, sharply criticized Bush's plan to invade and complained that he "is proclaiming a new, uniquely American right to preemptively attack whosoever he may deem represents future threat" (Bleier Pp). In December 2002, Ronald Bleier wrote in "Middle East Policy" that Bush's determination to attack Iraq "absent a legitimate casus belli" and his administration's signals of embarking on a course of "perpetual war suggest that world civilization is facing a threat similar in significant ways to the one it faced 60…
Bleier, Ronald. "Invading Iraq: the road to perpetual war. Middle East Policy;
"What U.S. Newspapers are Saying." United Press International; 8/3/2002; Pp.
"Question of credibility." The Register-Guard; 6/18/2004; Pp.
ush and Iraq
According to the original reasoning behind ush's war on Iraq, Saddam Hussein's regime posed a terrorist threat to the free world, however (subsequent to evidence emerging in the press that this threat was exaggerated, if not fabricated) in more recent statements the ush administration has strongly implied that the war was justified not on the basis of freeing the world of terrorists but because Hussein was a brutal dictator and Iraq needed to be freed from his rule. The idea that the war on terror is actually a war to bring democracy to the world is one which may coincide somewhat with the controversial ideas espoused by Fukuyama, who taught that History (which is to say the evolution of society, not the happening of events) would end when all nations were converted to western liberal democracies and engaged in the global consumerist culture. Perhaps, some might argue,…
Glaser, James. "Puppet governments don't need fair and honest elections" Reader Weekly, Issue 286, September 30, 2004.
Hersh, Seymour. 'Selective Intelligence', The New Yorker, Oct 14, 2003
Kaplan, Robert. 'Calling Out Colin', Slate 2003.
ush's State Of The Union Address
Critically analyzing U.S. President George W. ush's State of the Union Address in 2003, it is evident that the rhetoric of fear dominates his speech. Using the rhetoric fear is the speaker's way of extending to the public that the issue being discussed at hand is not only of great importance to the ush Administration, but to the whole nation of United States as well. Evidence of the use of this kind of rhetoric is initially established in the first part of the speech. The speaker enumerates a list of the potential dangers that the Iraqi president Saddam Hussein poses for the security of the country and the whole world. ush mentions statistics to give validity to his claims, mentioning from time to time the active participation and cooperation of the United Nations (UN) with the ush administration in order to assess and gauge…
Bush's State Of The Union Address
Critically analyzing U.S. President George W. Bush's State of the Union Address in 2003, it is evident that the rhetoric of fear dominates his speech. Using the rhetoric fear is the speaker's way of extending to the public that the issue being discussed at hand is not only of great importance to the Bush Administration, but to the whole nation of United States as well. Evidence of the use of this kind of rhetoric is initially established in the first part of the speech. The speaker enumerates a list of the potential dangers that the Iraqi president Saddam Hussein poses for the security of the country and the whole world. Bush mentions statistics to give validity to his claims, mentioning from time to time the active participation and cooperation of the United Nations (UN) with the Bush administration in order to assess and gauge the security threat that Hussein presents to the country. Examples of instances wherein the rhetoric of fear is evident is in the speaker's use of terms used in describing chemical and biological forms of warfare, such as "25,000 liters of anthrax," "38,000 liters of botulinum toxin," "500 tons of sarin, mustard, and VX nerve agent," and "30,00 munitions capable of delivering chemical agents." In order to alleviate the state of emotional fear that his speech may entice, Bush also used subtle forms of the rhetoric of fear, informing his audience about the bigger implication that the statistics about biological and chemical warfare may mean to the citizenry -- that is, that these statistics show that Hussein has made every measure possible in order to "intimidate" the security of its enemy nation, the United States. The speech ends with a resolution to continue with the war the country has waged against the Iraqi president, and this time, Bush mentions the large participation and role of the UN Security Council in the administration's pursuit to maintain the country and world's security from further terrorist attacks.
Bush's Invasion Of Iraq
invasion of Iraq was surrounded by controversy even before it began on March 20, 2003 as several countries including key NATO allies of the United States like France and Germany were opposed to it. Almost twenty months later, the critics are still busy questioning the necessity of the military action in Iraq and calling for a quick withdrawal of the U.S. forces from the country. A dispassionate review of the causes for the invasion, the developments during the U.S. occupation, and the likely future of Iraq would, however, reveal that the decision by the Bush administration to Iraq was correct. This essay gives arguments in support of Bush's invasion of Iraq.
One of the main arguments against U.S. invasion is that the U.S. And British governments had accused Saddam Hussain of developing eapons of Mass Destruction (MD) before the war but the U.S. forces have not…
Brookes, Peter. "The World is a Safer Place." The Heritage Foundation. September 12, 2004. December 13, 2004. http://www.heritage.org/Press/Commentary/ed091304a.cfm
Eberle, Bobby. "Bush Firm on January Elections in Iraq." Talon News. December 7, 2004. December 13, 2004.
Phillips, James. "Iraq: One Year Later." The Heritage Foundation. March 22, 2004
Proponents of stem-cell research believe that it may be the secret to curing infertility, genetic imperfection and neurological degeneration, and on the premise of this supposition, have lobbied vigorously to prevent legislation that would protect embryos from harvest and use in research, espousing the idea that:
"Criminalizing human reproductive cloning in the United States will only make it less safe and more costly for these infertile couples. They will be forced to travel outside the United States to pursue their dream of creating a family. After all, according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), infertility is a disability and reproduction is a major life activity for the purposes of the ADA (Bragdon v. Abbott, 118 S.Ct 2196; 1998). In light of this, it is the right of each and every American citizen to bear a child." (Speeches, 21)
In spite of this, there were very few legislative efforts which…
Brannigan, Michael C. Ethical Issues in Human Cloning: Cross-Disciplinary
Perspectives. New York; Seven Bridges Press, 2001.
Brownback, Sam. James Greenwood. Symposium. Insight on the News.
Vol. 17, Issue
hen Cheney is seen, it is because he is usually attending a Republican fundraiser and attacking Democrats who criticize Bush's war in Iraq. Gore was seen as a very open vice president whose work achieved very high visibility; Cheney works behind the scenes, and is believed to be very influential in the Bush administration in matters of fighting terrorism and war strategy in Iraq.
Bush is very much aware of one of his main political constituencies, the conservative Christian movement; this movement is anti-abortion and very negative about gay people. In fact, Bush has supported a constitutional amendment (which makes his conservative Christian supporters happy) that would ban gay marriage. Clinton, meanwhile, reached out to the gay community and initiated the "Don't ask, don't tell" policy toward gays in the military. Many gays were being pushed out of the military based on old suspicions and values.
Clinton was involved in…
Miller Center University of Virginia. "Governing American in a Global Era: Presidential Oral
History / Bill Clinton." Retrieved April 10, 2007, at http://millercenter.virginia.edu.
Wikipedia. "George W. Bush." Retrieved April 10, 2007, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_W_bush .
First, this brings Social Security's promises close to what Social Security can afford to pay. Second, this focuses benefits on people who need it the most, the ones who are least likely to have other types of retirement plans." says an analyst at the Heritage Foundation, David John (Lambro, 2005).
It is believed that people making about $110,000 or more would have benefits based on price increases which in turn tend to rise more slowly than wages while benefits of people making $25-000 or less would continue to be calculated on wage growth. Mr. Michael Tanner, Director of the Cato's Social Security privatization project, is a little apprehensive is however all the more optimistic:
like it. Something has to be done to restrain the growth of benefits. Personal accounts help solvency, but they don't solve the entire problem. This seems to be the best of a lot of tough choices."…
Michael D. Tanner, "Chapter 12: Perspectives on the President's Commission to Strengthen Social Security," Social Security and Its Discontents: Perspectives on choice, Washington D. C: Cato Institute, 2004, pg 1, 201-204.
Kate O'Beirne, June 5, 2000, A Politician steps up: Why Bush decided to do it, NATIONAL REVIEW, vol: 52, issue: 10.
Bill Sammon, January 27, 2005, Bush focusing on Social Security; Case for reform to go on Road, The Washington Times, pg: A04.
Donald Lambro, May 2, 2000, Bush wins support on social security, The Washington Times, pg: 1.
S. military to stabilize the violent uprising by the 'opposition' thugs, many of whom were former members of the Duvalier-era military or members of the death squad known as the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti, who were responsible for a multitude of human rights violations during the three years following the coup d'etat in 1991 (ater pp). Moreover, aters and others want to know why the Bush Administration refused to negotiate a peaceful settlement to the crisis, and forced Aristide, "who had agreed to a peace plan worked out by the international community, to resign and leave his country" (aters pp). Prior to Aristide's departure, Bush's only concern was to make sure that all Haitian refugees were turned back at sea before they could reach the U.S. (aters pp).
Hallinan, Conn M. "Haiti: dangerous muddle." Foreign Policy in Focus. March 08
2004. Retrieved October 29,…
Hallinan, Conn M. "Haiti: dangerous muddle." Foreign Policy in Focus. March 08
2004. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Kidder, Tracy. "The trials of Haiti: why has the U.S. government abandoned a country it once sought to liberate?" The Nation. October 27, 2003. Retrieved October 29, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Rice, Jim. "Regime change in Haiti: the Bush doctrine strikes again." Sojourners.
The administration's disregard for international norms led to the excesses at Abu Ghraib Prison in Iraq, and attempts to circumvent congressional oversight over the activities of the Administration backfired. Faced with increasing criticism at home and the inability to stabilize Iraq, the Bush Administration began to temper its approach with realism. The Administration agreed to a bipartisan Iraq Study Group, led by former Secretary of State James Baker and Democratic Congressman Lee Hamilton (Baker & Hamilton, 2006). The report prepared by the group was quite critical of the Bush Administration's policies in Iraq, and though many of those criticisms were rejected, the Administrated still took the criticism seriously, and a year later began to pursue a new approach, which eventually helped to decrease the level of violence in Iraq.
The Obama Administration's approach to Iraq War reflects the liberal views of Obama who warned in 2002 that "a U.S. occupation…
Ahmad, I. (2010). The U.S. Af-Pak Strategy: Challenges and Opportunities for Pakistan. Asian Affairs: An American Review, 37(4), 191-209.
Bacevich, a. (2010) Washington Rules: America's Path to Permanent War. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Bacevich, a., (November 6, 2005) the Realist Persuasion. The Boston Globe, retrieved on March 13, 2011, from http://rempost.blogspot.com/2006/04/realist-persuasion.html
Baker, J.A., & Hamilton, L.H. (2006) the Iraq Study Group Report: The Way Forward -- a New Approach. New York: Vintage Books.
Primarily, both Bushes wanted to show the world that America is a powerful force with which to be reckoned -- even if not a single or sole superpower, a force that can at least militarily have its way in the world, especially with regard to rogue, weaker states.
Also, both Bushes believed in cut-and-dried reactions. Communism and Saddam Hussein are simply "bad" without complicating factors such as reasons or motivations for their actions. Going hand in hand with that assessment, communism and Saddam Hussein must be defeated thoroughly, recognizing that even small victories on the part of Iraq, for instance, could draw support to Hussein's ranks and erode America foreign policy world opinion.
However, that is where the similarities ended. For George Bush, the homeland in the United States was never under a serious threat. The most perilous years of the Cold War were behind America when Bush took the…
Bush, the primary
strategy for U.S. engagement of partners revolved on the conditions
provoked by the ar on Terror. This is evident in the ends, ways and means
of addressing the situation in Somalia, where Bush cites as the primary
priority for all partners involved to end war. Indeed, the intended ends
of the strategy are the transformation of Somalia into a peaceful
democracy. The ways proposed have seen the formulation of a regional
alliance helmed by the United States, which such partners as Kenya,
Djibouti, Ethiopia and Yemen have come together to assist Somalia in
extracting the cause of its conflict. To the perception of the Bush
administration, this cause is the presence of terrorism, with the means of
strategy implementation centering on the need to "eliminate the terrorist
threat and promote political stability by supporting the establishment of a
functioning central government." (Bush, 7)
4. The strategy described…
Bush, G.W. (2007). Report on U.S. Strategy Toward Somalia. Report to
Gates, R.M. (2008). International Institute for Strategic Studies. U.S.
Department of Defense.
S. forces. Another is that a preemptive strike in Iraq was illegal as per international law. The financial cost of the war, the American casualties, and the terrorist violence in the post-Saddam are also quoted as evidence that the U.S. ar in Iraq was a mistake. (Scheer)
hile it is true that no eapons of Mass Destruction have been found in Iraq, it must be remembered that MDs were not the only reason for the Iraq ar. The most compelling reason was the need to remove Saddam, a savage tyrant who had killed hundreds of thousands of his own Iraqi people who opposed him, as evident in the more than 300,000 bodies found in mass graves after the war. As for the legality of the war, the Iraqi regime was in violation of a number of Security Council resolutions and continued to defy them; hence military action against the regime…
Krauthammer, Charles. "Three Cheers for the Bush doctrine." Time Magazine. Mar. 07, 2005. May 4, 2005. http://www.time.com/time/columnist/krauthammer/article/0,9565,1035052,00.html
Scheer, Christopher. "Ten Appalling Lies We Were Told About Iraq." AlterNet. June 27, 2003. Mar. 07, 2005. http://www.alternet.org/story/16274
Schorr, Daniel. "The Iraq effect? Bush may have had it right." Christian Science Monitor. March 4, 2005. May 4, 2005. http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0304/p09s03-cods.html
This was an improvement even over the 1st Gulf War, generally considered as "very successful" but in which most oil fields in Kuwait were set on fire triggering an ecological disaster.
The narrative, reporting-driven style of this book also draws criticism for rarely making conclusions or passing judgment on the characters and actions that he recounts in such detail. Some of Woodward's critics accuse him of abandoning critical inquiry to maintain his access to high-profile political actors.
Others praise his detached and evenhanded style for allowing readers to absorb the facts and come to their own conclusions. From a factual standpoint, Woodward's balanced account of the events seems to agree with other sources, such as Ari Fleischer's Taking Heat.
No reporter has more talent for getting Washington's inside story and telling it cogently.
In a Washington Post review of the book, Fouad Ajami said in 2002, "Why Woodward's sources divulge to him the deep inner workings of government shall remain a mystery of the craft. He lives by the leak, and the leaks are here in ample supply - memos and…
Ajami, Fouad. "Bush at War' by Bob Woodward." The Washington Post. November 24, 2002.
Fleischer, Ari. Taking Heat: The President, the Press, and My Years in the White House. New York: William Morrow, 2005.
Michiko Kakutani. "Inside Bush's War Room." The New York Times. November 22, 2002. http://query.nytimes.com/search/full-page?res=9D00E1DF1539F931A15752C1A9649C8B63 .
Bush's Judicial Appointments
At the onset of the framing of the American Constitution, there was considerable desire to change the manner in which the Kings of Europe had the prerogative to appoint, demote, or fire members of the Judicial branches on a whim. They believed that, at least when it came to the appointment of Supreme Court Justices, there would be less politization involved, a way to limit executive power, and allow Judges to feel less partisan in their approach to policy. The original purpose for appointing the Judges for life, then, was so that regardless of the current administration's views or leanings, the Judges would be able to interpret the Constitution based on their legal views, not the views of the current President or staff. This keeps the High Court relatively stable so that there are not swings every four years in liberal or conservative interpretations (McCloskey and Levinson,…
How Judges and Justices Are Chosen. (2012). The Judicial Branch -- American Government. Retrieved from USHistory.org: http://www.ushistory.org/gov/9d.asp
Biskupic, J. (March 14, 2008). Bush's Conservatism to Live Long in the U.S. Courts. USA Today. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-03-13-judges_N.htm #appointments
McCloskey, R. And Levinson, S. (2010). The American Supreme Court. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Savage, D. (January 2, 2008). Conservative Courts Likely Bush Legacy. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from: http://articles.latimes.com/2008/jan/02/nation/na-judges2
morality of the George Bush administration. The writer looks at classic texts to garner a sense of what political morality should be about and then holds the administration of Bush against the measurement to illustrate the lack of morality and the fact that it failed to promote the happiness of the United States people. In addition, the author explores the negative impact that was felt by other nations under the watchful lack of morality by the Bush administration.
According to the Two Treatises by Locke political power has no other purpose than for the greater good. He wrote that it was the right to make decisions and laws but that it was always and should only be for the greater good of the people that it served.
"Political power, then, I take to be a right of making laws, with penalties of death, and consequently all less penalties for the…
The Bush doctrine.(From The Editor)(Editorial)
Sojourners; 3/1/2005; Wallis, Jim
AGAINST WAR, OR JUST BUSH?(OPINION)(Letter to the Editor)
Wisconsin State Journal (Madison, WI); 3/20/2003
But elections alone are not enough. Effective democracies honor and uphold basic human rights, including freedom of religion, conscience, speech, assembly, association, and press. They are responsive to their citizens, submitting to the will of the people." Taking into account the perspective given by these statements, the regime in Iraq was inconsistent to either of the elements pointed out, therefore it was a potential sheeted for terrorism. In the light of the American experience however, there are more and more opinions arguing that such a precedent would open the way for new similar interventions in areas considered to be dangerous for the survival of democracy.
This messianic mission is however not new for the American foreign policy. The Cold War and particularly the eagan Administration are relevant examples in this sense. The period following the end of the Second World War can rightfully be described as an era of direct…
Calvocoressi, P. (1987). World politics since 1945. New York: Longman.
Gordon, P.H. (2006). The End of the Bush Revolution. Foreign Affairs. 10 Feb. 2008
Kissinger, H. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.
The White House. (2006). National Strategy for Combating Terrorism. National Security Council. September 2006. 10 Feb. 2008.
ush justified to invade Iraq
Incontrovertibly, one can assert that Iraq had not been invaded for social or political reforms by the ush and lair Administration. Their objective had not been to liberate or free Iraq, but instead to occupy it and abuse the massive quantities of oil it holds. If truth be told, the aspiration to conquer Iraq and have power over the oil fields has not been a latest development.
Historic tendencies have revealed that all colonial states and super powers, for example America, ritain, Russia, France etc., have worked as a team and sometimes challenged each other depending on the state-of-affairs to achieve control over the oil wealth within Iraq. Abbas Alnasrawi (2001) writes, "It is a historical fact that the home governments of multinational oil corporations (U.S., UK, France) have all played significant roles in enabling their companies to acquire oil concessions, to penetrate markets and…
Abbas Alnasrawi. Oil, Sanctions Debt and the Future. Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 23, 2001
Barry Schweid. Powell: Iraq Evidence May Have Been Wrong. Associated Press
April 4, 2004.
Dr. Ferruh Demirmen. Oil in Iraq: The Byzantine Beginnings. Global Policy Forum. April 25, 2003
George W. Bush White House [...] Bush's appointment of Condoleezza ice and her success in the George W. Bush cabinet. The Bush White House has been shedding cabinet members since re-election in November, but one member who has stayed and moved up the ranks is Secretary Condoleezza ice. She seems to be the most strategic choice to replace Colin Powell as Secretary of State, and her tenure should bring cohesiveness to the President's Cabinet that may have been lacking before.
Elected in 2000 after eight years of Democratic leadership in the White House, George W. Bush began his first term as president in January 2001. One of his first appointments was his National Security Advisor, Condoleezza ice. Dr. ice was born on November 14, 1954 in Birmingham, Alabama. She graduated cum laude in political science from the University of Denver in 1974, received her Master's in 1975, and her PhD.…
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is the second man in the history of the United States to have followed in his father footsteps and become the President. Bush served two consecutive terms as President, starting with January 2001. He was born in 1946 in New Haven, Connecticut, but most of his childhood, he spent in Midland, and then his teenage years in Huston, Texas. George W. Bush was the first child born in George and Barbara Bush's family. At the time of his birth, his father was an undergraduate at Yale (Bush, A Charge to Keep, 15). George W. Bush enrolled at the same university where his father studied and received a BA in history there. ater, he graduated from Harvard, receiving a MBA at Harvard Business School, in 1975. Between his studies at Yale and Harvard, Bush activated as a pilot in the Texas Air National Guard (The…
Lobe, Jim. The Bush Team Reloaded. Middle East Report, No. 234 (Spring, 2005), pp. 10-16 Published by: Middle East Research and Information Project
King, D.S. Edwards III, G.C. The Polarized Presidency of George W. Bush. Oxford University Press, 2007
Hamilton, W. Bush Began to Plan War Three Months After 9/11. Washington Post. April 17, 2004; Page A01
aid President George W. ush in policy formulation. It is an all-inclusive paper dealing with a wide range of issues such as the American economy in general- discussing issues such as budget deficits, tax cuts, medical assistance and benefits for retired people, the weakening American dollar, allocations for the military, intelligence and homeland security, job growth and the regime and policies of free trade. With regards to security, it features the recent American initiate on the war on terrorism. The issue of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and nuclear proliferation are discussed quite at length.
Another aspect listed in the paper is the 'future', as it was viewed from the era of the Vietnam War. The relevance of the cold war is also outlined as a great American victory. Compelling issues such as the role of oil, OPEC, the Middle East and the socio-political and economic situation after the incidents…
Bush's tax cut' Retrieved from;
http://amateurpundit.hypermart.net/features107_bushtaxing.htm Accessed on March 5, 2004
Economy: Job Creation' Retrieved from;
http://ipsnews.net/africa/interna.asp?idnews=22469 Accessed on March 5, 2004
Reelecting President George W. ush
George W. ush became president under some of the most unusual circumstances in U.S. history, with the legitimacy of his claim to victory a matter of heated public debate (Mansfield, 2003). Despite the highly contested election that brought him to power, ush came into office motivated and ready to act, surprising many of his critics with a successful early push for tax reduction and other domestic initiatives. However, the shattering events of September 11, 2001 forced the ush administration to change the focus of its agenda. Since that day, the power of the presidency -- as well as its limitations -- have been criticized and praised by the public and the media.
George W. ush is the 43rd President of the United States (Mansfield, 2003). He was elected in 2001 after a campaign in which he outlined sweeping proposals to reform America's public schools, transform…
Bothwell, T. (February 22, 2004). Why George W. Bush will win in 2004. Town Hall Magazine.
Mansfield, S. (2003). The Faith of George W. Bush. Tarcher.
Powell, B. (April 22, 2003). Assessing George W. Bush: From a "caretaker president" to a "revolutionary" of "missionary zeal." Public Affairs.
Bush's Judicial Appointments
An Examination of President George W. Bush's Judicial Appointments
During the eight years of his presidency George W. Bush appointed two Supreme Court justices, 61 Appeals Court judges, and 261 Federal District Court judges. Judicial appointments can be one of a president's longest lasting legacies. The people President Bush named to the judiciary will be making decisions and affecting policy long after he leaves office. Courts today, especially the Supreme Court and appeals courts, make policy that has just as much of an impact on Americans' lives as do the laws that Congress passes. President Bush recognized this fact and took his power to appoint judges very seriously.
According to Christopher Miles (2010) it is hard to know exactly how the nomination process worked in the White House because those involved in the process have remained relatively silent; however some details have come to light.…
American University (2009, July 10) George W. Bush's appointments emphasized ideology over diversity. Newswise. Retrieved August 16, 2011, from http://www.newswise.com/articles/george-w-bushs-court-appointments-emphasized-ideology-over-diversity
Biskupic, J. (2008, March 14). Bush's conservatism to live long in the U.S. courts. USA Today. USATODAY.com. Retrieved August 16, 2011, from http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-03-13-judges_N.htm
Eggen, D. (2008, October 7). Bush stresses judicial nominations. The Washington post. Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved August 16, 2011, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpdyn/content/article/2008/10/06/AR2008100602851.html
Miles, C. (2010). Cases and controversies: George W. Bush's appeals court nominations. Student pulse academic journal. 2.06. Retrieved August 16, 2011, from http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/255/cases-and-controversies-george-w-bushs-appeals-court-nominations
hen a president of the United States begins incorporating religious rhetoric into his speeches, alarm bells must sound. hen that same president allocates taxpayer monies to religious groups, then citizens should be experiencing widespread panic.
Bush's No Child Left Behind Act is no less frightening than the faith-based initiative. Hiding behind good intentions, the No Child Left Behind Act fails to take into account a major factor: reality. Jim Donlevy notes, "It simply is not reasonable to continue to identify thousands of failing schools throughout the United States and then to see through to completion the sanctions written into the Act." The Act includes provisions for annual testing for schools, with progress requirements in core subjects such as English, math and science. "The idea is to be sure that all students are learning at higher standards," (Donlevy). However, the Act demands too much too soon. Forcing some schools to shut…
Anders, Christopher E. 2001. They must remain separate. The World & I. Washington: Jul 2001.Vol.16, Iss. 7; pg. 55 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=74767508&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=12334&RQT=309&VName=PQD .
Dobbins, James. 2005. Iraq: Winning the Unwinnable War. Foreign Affairs. New York: Jan/Feb 2005.Vol.84, Iss. 1; pg. 16 http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=7&did=805099671&SrchMode=1&sid=1&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1114122900&clientId=12334 .
Donlevy, Jim. 2003. Teachers, Technology and Training: No Child Left Behind: Failing Schools and Future Directions. International Journal of Instructional Media. New York: 2003.Vol.30, Iss. 4; pg. 335, 4 pages http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=549016431&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=12334&RQT=309&VName=PQD .
Patterson, Thomas E. We the People. 5th edition. McGraw-Hill.
President Bush's ar On Iraq
President Bush feels the United States should launch a preemptive strike on Iraq, rather than waiting for sanctions by the United Nations.
He has received support from some political groups while facing opposition from others. Each side presents valid arguments on why they believe the U.S. should or should not go to war with Iraq.
In 1990, the United Nations imposed sanctions on Iraq after it invaded Kuwait. The invasion eventually lead to the Gulf ar in 1991.
The U.N. agreed to lift the sanctions if Iraq would allow international inspectors to certify it had removed its weapons.
However, since 1998, Baghdad has refused to allow inspectors into the country until the sanctions are lifted, claiming the weapons no longer exist (Yacoub, 2002).
In May 2002, a new Security Council resolution dealing with U.N. sanctions was accepted by Iraq for a period of 6…
COVER EDITORIAL / Convince Us / 4 Questions Bush Must Answer Before Deciding to Invade Iraq. Newsday. (2002): 03 August. Pp.B01.
DON'T BLAME THEH SANCTIONS. Denver Rocky Mountain News. (2001):
03 December. Pp. 38A.
IRAQ CALLS FOR INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE TO IDENTIFY TERROR.
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
administration as also a majority of other western administration witnessed the collapse of corporate giants like Enron & Worldcom in the aftermath of noticeably fraudulent executive actions of these companies. This led to shareholders losing confidence and stringent laws was felt necessary in the form of new legislation to avoid repetition of Enron and Worldcom like incidents. The then President George W. Bush entrusted Senator Paul Sarbanes and Congressman Mike Oxley to come up with stringent new laws which would arrest or at least diminish probability of corporate scandals from repeating which came to be known as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, of 1992. (Holt, 2008)
Key components of SOX Act covered under major Sections of the Act:
Sec 406 of the Act mandates every senior Financial Executive to be signatories of a Code of Ethics. Sec 409 mandates that companies make adequate disclosure regarding material financial alterations…
Coates, John C. (2007) "The Goals and Promise of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act" Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 21, no. 1, pp: 91-116.
Holt, Michael F. (2008) "The Sarbanes-Oxyley Act: Costs, Benefits and Business Impact"
Mehera, Madhav. (n. d.) "Sarbanes-Oxley Three Years On" Retrieved 9 May, 2012 from www.wcfcg.net/Sarbanes-Oxley%20Three%20Years%20On.pdf
hen he, representing the de facto shareholders the American taxpayers, found the executive compensation plans were out of line with the objectives of said shareholders, he acted.
In the free market system, this is the only response. Shareholders have rights and duties as the owners of companies. The executive team acts as their agents. The shareholders have not only the right but the capability to fire boards of directors and by extension executives whose compensation does not match their performance. The public outcry with respect to excessive compensation typically occurs when shareholders neglect their duty. Yet, there are examples where the shareholders have upheld their duty. These firms -- the majority -- do not make headlines, giving the impression that executive compensation is a rampant problem in society. If a company dares to pay bonuses will laying off workers or reducing their wages, the outcry hits the front page. However,…
Quijano, E. (2009). Obama tries to stop AIG bonuses. CNN. Retrieved December 3, 2009 from http://edition.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/03/16/AIG.bonuses/index.html
Mehran, H. (1995). Executive compensation structure, ownership and firm performance. Journal of Financial Economics. Vol. 38 (2), 163-184.
Mullen. E. & Guigliano, G. (2009). Recoverability of equity-based compensation deferred tax assets. Journal of Accountancy. Retrieved December 3, 2009 from http://www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2009/Jan/JanTPC.htm
Lagace, M. & Khurana, R. (2002). The irrational quest for charismatic CEOs. Harvard Business School. Retrieved December 3, 2009 from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/3095.html
ush's presidential judicial appointments Web. Students read ush's appointments assess President made judicial appointments. Use http://www.usatoday./news/washington/2008-03-13-judges_N.
ush's judicial appointments
There is much controversy concerning the George W. ush Presidential administration and the judicial appointments it performed throughout its two terms. ush's inauguration influenced a great deal of people to express fear with regard to how the new President would mainly focus on nominating conservative jurists. ush apparently wanted to adopt a similar attitude to Reagan and even though he made fewer judicial appointments, he concentrated on appointing conservative jurists to lifetime posts, thus meaning that his actions would reflect on the American judicial system for decades consequent to his administration.
ush's nomination of John G. Roberts Jr. was an effective move from the President, as he chose someone whom he knew Senate was likely to confirm. Furthermore, ush intended to have power over the judiciary long after the end of…
Baker, Peter, "Bush Nominates Roberts as Chief Justice," Retrieved May 12, 2013, from the Washington Post Website: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/09/05/AR2005090500173.html
Biskupic, Joan, "Bush's conservatism to live long in the U.S. courts," Retrieved May 12, 2013, from the U.S.A. today Website: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-03-13-judges_N.htm
"Janice Rogers Brown," Retrieved May 12, 2013, from the People for the American Way Website: http://www.pfaw.org/issues/fair-and-just-courts/janice-rogers-brown
President George Bush has recently won reelection as the President of the United States. While he has remained clear and concise on many of his political stances, his position on Social Security has been one of at least marginal variation. His overall belief that the Social Security system should be reworked has not altered, but his position on the best way to do that seems to have changed from month to month. This paper will follow statements from President Bush since November of last year through the election, and will show that while his overall ideas have remained stable, the details of those ideas have changed.
It is important to note that the issue of Social Security reform is not new to President Bush. As early as July of 2000, President Bush was redesigning the Social Security system, beginning to introduce ideas of how to revamp the system to provide…
Allen, Mike. "Bid to Change Social Security is Back." Washington Post, 21 Nov 2003: A14.
Andrews, Edmond L. "To Trim Deficit, Greenspan Urges Social Security and Medicare Cuts." New York Times, 26 Feb., 2004: A10.
Andrews, Edmund L. "Tough Issues, Awaiting their Turn." New York Times 13 April 2004: online. Retrieved 13 Nov 2004 from New York Times.
Associated Press. "Social Security Shortfall Disputed." Washington Post 12 June, 2004: A09.
Speech by President Bush
Prospective Deliberative Speech to the Republican National Convention in July, Directed on Television to the American Nation as a hole
Nods, smiles, acknowledges audience)
My fellow Americans, this November every one of you will be faced with a seemingly simple choice, but a choice that will affect this entire nation's future -- should you vote to change the current administration and vote democratic? Or should you vote Republican and stay the course this nation has followed over the past four years?
e have been through many difficult times together, you and I, my fellow Americans, over the course of my administration. Together, we have weathered a terrible attack on our nation's security, a devastating economic recession, and a just but sorry war against a brutal dictator. The war for our nation's security on all these fronts has yet to be won, but it will be won.…
BBC. (2004) Iraqi Q&A. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/3543595.stm
This site explains the new interim government of Iraqi and the history of the United States' recent engagement with the nation
Chaddock, Gail Russell. (November 21, 2002). "Security Act to Pervade Daily Lives." The Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/1121/p01s03-usju.html
This news article provides an analysis of the new provisions of the Home Security Act and how they affect all Americans.
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…
Frederickson, G. (1986). "New public administration." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Rice, M.F. (2003). "Organizational Culture, Social Equity & Diversity: Teaching Public
Administration." Texas A& M. University, Bush School Working Paper #314. 14, November, 2004: http://bush.tamu.edu/content/research/working_papers/mrice/teach-post-modern.pdf
Christopher, G.C., Rutledge, P.J. (2001). "Reinvigorating the Social Equity Debate."
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…
Antos, Joseph. (2008). "Medicare's Bad News: Is Anyone Listening?" American Institute for Public Policy Research. April, No. 3.
American Public Health Association (2009). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from American Public Health Association Web Site: http://www.apha.org aphanet. (2001). Senators' Introduce Bill to Prepare For Possibility of Biological Warfare. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.aphanet.org
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/sick.htm .
Center for Disease Control. (2009). State and Local Infrastructure. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center for Disease Control Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/programs
It becomes more and more likely that by the middle of this century, all those hard-earned dollars that today's twenty- and thirty-year-olds have paid into Social Security will simply not be there.
Privatizing social security ensures the post-baby boomers that their money will be there for them when they retire. It takes the control out of the government's hands, which has notoriously not been the best financial advisor in history, and places in the hands of the individuals who earned it. In addition, eventually, it will reduce the expenses of the Social Security Administration as more and more workers no longer have to rely on the system. In addition, it puts money into the U.S. economy, not sitting stagnant in the U.S. treasury.
Disadvantages of President Bush's Plan:
Both aspberry (2005) and Weisman and White (2005) see one major flaw in the President's plan. The future scenarios that lead to…
Ehrenfeld, T., Atkins, a., Ozols, J.B., Crowley, P., Grimes, L., Joseph, N., Raymond, J., Reno, J., Shenfeld, H., Shulman, K., Skipp, C., & Quinn, J.B. (14 Feb. 2005). How to land on your feet. Newsweek, 145(7). Retrieved February 22, 2005, from Academic Search Premier database.
Raspberry, W. (7 Feb. 2005). A test of faith on social security. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 22, 2005, from Proquest database.
Sloan, a., Berman, a., Macbride, E., Reno, J., & Riccitiello, R. (12 Apr. 2004). Why your tax cut doesn't add up. Newsweek, 143(15). Retrieved February 22, 2005, from Academic Search Premier database.
Weisman, J. & White, B. (9 Feb. 2005). Bush's social security plan assumes much from stocks. The Washington Post. Retrieved February 22, 2005, from Proquest database.
Kant was no exception to the paradigmatic priorities (i.e. objectivity as knowledge) of the era, and brief reference to the episteme is serves accuracy in discursive analysis of this heritage within American politics and policy thought. For instance, Kant's Critique of Judgment is enormously influential in establishing a connection between judgment and political and moral precepts to conduct in communities. Intellectual lineage to Kant's model of Enlightenment 'reason" combines ritish Empiricism with Continental Rationalism; and partly explains why his philosophical proposition that the existence of persistent war against non-liberal states is a requirement to perpetual peace is reiterated in scholarly expiation since the Enlightenment period, making Perpetual Theory of War as lasting as seminal reference (ehnke, 2009, Caranti, 2006 and Murray, 2003). Discourse Analysis toward the study's cause-and-effect analysis is derived from speeches and interviews taken from the ush administration in Table 1.
President ush -- Speeches and…
Behnke, a. (2009). Eternal Peace, Perpetual War? A Critical Investigation into Kant's Conceptualisation of War. Conference Papers -- International Studies Association, 1-18.
Bolton, J. (2010). Obama's Next Three Years. Commentary, 129(1), 24-28.
Brose, C. (2009). The Making of George W. Obama. Foreign Policy, (170), 52-55.
Caranti, L. (2006). Perpetual War for Perpetual Peace? Reflections on the Realist Critique of Kant's Project. Journal of Human Rights, 5(3), 341-353. doi:10.1080/14754830600812357.
Other Congressional Democrats too are withdrawing their support of the president, including Senator Paul Kirk, Jr. Of Massachusetts. Health care reform too has seen a parting of the ways for some Democrats and the president.
Health care reform was one of the primary issues President Obama focused on during his campaign. The historic vote in the House of epresentatives brought him one step closer to seeing this reform come to fruition. However, the vote revealed a significant decline in the president's support. Whereas all but one epublican voted for the bill, almost 20% of Democrats voted against Obama's flagship piece of legislation, allowing to pass by a very slim 220-215 vote ("Final vote," 2009). The Senate has yet to vote on the bill, but with a similar composition as the House, the vote is certainly to be close. Immigration reform too was a topic Obama espoused to voters along the…
Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA history). (2009). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.nyse.tv/dow-jones-industrial-average-history-djia.htm .
Final vote results for roll call [HIDDEN] (10 Oct 2002). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2002/roll455.xml .
Final vote results for roll call [HIDDEN] (7 Nov 2009). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2009/roll887.xml .
Groen, J. & Polivka, A. (Mar 2008). Hurricane Katrina evacuees. Monthly Labor Review Online, 131(3). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/03/art3exc.htm .
Prosecuting a former President for illegal activity in his role as President would certainly increase partisan bickering; making it less likely that Obama could effectuate meaningful change in his administration. Doing that might actually cause people greater harm. For example, the economy is having a direct impact on Americans right now, diverting funds into an expensive investigation that might not even result in a realistic possibility of prosecution for Bush or other high-level officials, would be a waste of taxpayer money. Obama must consider all of those issues when making the decision whether or not to investigate Bush. The most reasonable conclusion is for him not to instigate a criminal investigation against Bush, but to correct the illegal behavior, compensate victims, and move forward.
ABCNews. "Sawyer Interviews Ford: Pardoning Nixon was 'Absolutely Essential.'" Good
Morning America. 2006. ABCNews Internet Ventures. http://www.abcnews.go.com/GMA/story?id=2753606.
The Children of the Camps Project. "Internment…
ABCNews. "Sawyer Interviews Ford: Pardoning Nixon was 'Absolutely Essential.'" Good
Morning America. 2006. ABCNews Internet Ventures. http://www.abcnews.go.com/GMA/story?id=2753606 .
The Children of the Camps Project. "Internment History." Children of the Camps. 1999.
Satsuki Ina. 25 Jan. 2009 http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/history/index.html .
Strike before being struck is the rallying cry of this form of foreign policy and Kaplan and Kristol would be in complete agreement. Secondly, the alleged harboring of the Al-Quaeda, the terrorist organization responsible for the 9/11 bombings, provided an additional justification which was also in line with the preemptive argument offered by Kaplan and Kristol. The Al-Quaeda were, according to the thinking of these two writers and the leaders of the Bush administration, obviously using Iraq as a platform for engaging in further attacks against the U.S. And the American government had a moral responsibility to be preemptive in its efforts to protect the American people by unilaterally invading Iraq. The potential for a possible attack similar to the events of 9/11 was there so the United States was morally justified in taking preemptive action. Finally, but not until after it was categorically established that Iraq did not have…
invasion and occupation of Iraq from three different perspectives. Firstly, the paper provides a historical background pertaining to the interest of energy-hungry countries such as France, America and Britain. The paper also provides a brief background of the relationship of Iraq with its neighbors and how oil has turned out to be a major source of attraction for the imperial powers. Secondly, the paper provides an in-depth perspective of the ongoing war in Iraq from an economic perspective. The paper briefly reveals the unstable relationship of Iraq with its neighbors. The paper also reveals the importance of the Iraqi oil reserves in the war waged on Iraq and how the American and European companies have lobbied with George Bush and Tony Blair to get contracts worth billions of dollars. Thirdly, the paper studies the political aspects of this war. The paper focuses on the impact that democracy and the recent…
(1) Abbas Alnasrawi. Oil, Sanctions Debt and the Future. Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 23, 2001.
(2) Ibid, 1.
(3) Dr. Ferruh Demirmen. Oil in Iraq: The Byzantine Beginnings. Global Policy Forum. April 25, 2003.
(4) Michael Dobbs. U.S. Had Key Role in Iraq Buildup. Washington Post. December 30, 2002.
The administration not only switched military leadership, they even swayed legal opinion and legal directives. Before the Panama invasion, the administration's Justice Department issued a legal opinion that overruled a Carter administration opinion. This new opinion allowed the President to order the FBI to seize a criminal in a foreign nation who had broken a U.S. law. This was dissimilar to international law, and it clearly was a reference to Noriega in Panama, who the administration accused of dealing in massive amounts of drugs that eventually reached U.S. soil.
It is interesting to note that throughout these chapters, Woodward portrays the military as much more cautious than the administration. He notes that the military are the people who actually have to carry out the invasions and covert operations were not as anxious to use force as the administration. While the media often portrays military leaders as "gung-ho" advocates of war…
Lagon, Mark P. "5 Elite Values." U.S.-Latin American Policymaking: A Reference Handbook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995. 67-89.
Nanda, Ved P., Tom J. Farer, and Anthony D'Amato. "Agora: U.S. Forces in Panama: Defenders, Aggressors or Human Rights Activists?" American Journal of International Law 84.2 (1990): 494-524.
Woodward, Bob. The Commanders. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.
Bob Woodward, The Commanders. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991) 98.
Vermont's Junior Senator, Bernard Sanders introduced to the Senate the Stop Outsourcing Security Act S. 2398. The Stop Outsourcing Security Act will help solve the lack of oversight of contractors in Iraq by requiring that by June 2008, "the President shall submit to each specified congressional committee a report on the status of planning for the transition away from the use of private contractors for mission critical or emergency essential functions by January 1, 2009, in all conflict zones in which Congress has authorized the use of force" (s 2398). This bill will examine contractor activities and ensure that renewals will only happen if the president certifies that contractors have undergone background checks and are clear of any crimes that could lead to additional problems with their work in the future. It will also allow congress to have access to information of private military companies including, the number of persons…
Addicott, Jeffrey F. "Contractors on the "Battlefield": Providing Adequate Protection, Anti-Terrorism Training, and Personnel Recovery for Civilian Contractors Accompanying the Military in Combat and Contingency Operations." Houston Journal of International Law 28.2 (2006): 323. Questia. 16 July 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015737160 .
Broder, John M. "Report critical of guard firm; Blackwater sought to cover up Iraq shootings, study finds." 3 October 2007: 4. Lexis Nexis 13 June 2008. http://www.lexisnexis.com/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T3963560559&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T3963560562&cisb=22_T3963560561&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=8357&docNo=5
Greenwald, Robert "Iraq for Sale" (Documentary Film) 2005 Information Website: http://iraqforsale.org/
Krugman, Paul. "Hired Gun Fetish." The New York Times. A29. 28 September 2007. Proquest. 5 July 2008. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1343375061&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1215612063&clientId=27893
Operation Just Cause was the United States (U.S.) military invasion of Panama that deposed Manuel Noriega in December 1989, during the administration of President George H.W. ush. The military incursion into Panama began on December 20, 1989, at 0100 local time. The operation involved 24,000 U.S. troops and over 300 aircraft - including AH-64 helicopter gunships, AC-130 aircraft and F-117A stealth aircraft, which was used for the first time in combat. These were deployed against the 16,000 members of the Panama Defense Force. This action was preceded by over a year of diplomatic tension between the United States and Panama, including an attempted coup against Noriega, and several months of U.S. troop buildup in military bases within the former Panama Canal Zone.
The operation began with an assault of strategic installations such as the civilian Paitilla airport in Panama City and military command centers throughout the country. The attack on…
Bob Woodward, The Commanders (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991).
Woodward, p. 83.
Woodward, p. 124.
Woodward, p. 124.
Ronald Regan is considered by many as one of the most influential American presidents in the last four decades. However, Carter was instrumental in how Regan ran his administration. n politics they both sought to exploit the aftermath of the civil right movement that led to "white backlash" and many white Southerners and Northerners to defect from the popular Democrats in order to support George Wallace, a former populist candidate. When his began his general election, he went to Neshoba County in 1980 and declared he believed in states' rights after white supremacists bombed a black church. Jimmy Carter spoke in a similar fashion, trying to fish votes from the "white ethnics" who did not want black people to move into their neighborhoods. n April 1976, Carter made a statement saying he saw nothing wrong with maintaining ethnic purity. From this kind of language, both presidents gained many supporters from…
It began with the bombings in Afghanistan in 2001 and then progressed into the Bush Administration accusing Iraq for concealing WMDs or weapons of mass destruction. United States government officials accused Saddam Hussein not only of the WMDs, but also the supporting and harboring of al-Qaeda. This unfounded suspicion came at the heels of the growing weariness of Afghanistan and Iraq in relation to potential terrorist threats. While nothing was found and the United States eventually left Iraq 2011, the continual attacks led to great instability and mismanagement of power of Hussein's death in the Iraq as well as Afghanistan.
In present times, the United States has very little influence in Iraq. The country is now Shia-dominated with a mistreated and alienated Sunni minority. There is no control of the Kurdish north and rampant violence everywhere. In Afghanistan, the Muslim world grew to distrust the United States with some 4,486 American service personnel murdered.
With ISIS growing each day, some attribute the demise of Hussein and the chaos that followed as fueling the formation of the terrorist group today. Regardless of the reasons for sending troops to Afghanistan and Iraq, the Iraq War and the war on terror were seen as a blunder in the Bush Administration that cost Americans money as debt grew, and growth in foreign policy declined. Whether or not Bush handled the situation well surrounding the 9/11 attacks, it shaped and molded the events of today and provided years of economic turmoil and suffering. The United States now more than ever is hesitant to deploy ground troops to a foreign country again.
The interview questions will be prepared based on the literature review. Merrian (2006) describes
4. Chapter Structure
The dissertations will be divided into five chapters. Chapter-1: Introduction will consist of an introduction of the research issues, problem statement, significance and scope of the research. Chapter 2-Literature eview will be review of the literature relevant to the research topic. The researcher will focus on discussing the conceptual framework or theory for the research, a detailed discussion of the concept of neoconservative and its connection to Iraq War, the views of opponent and supporters of neoconservative as well as its long-term impacts on United States.
Chapter 3-methodology will consist of research design, selection of research instrument, sample population and sampling techniques as well an elaboration of data collection and analysis methods will be described. Chapter 4-Discussion of esults in which results of study will be described and analyzed while chapter 5 will…
Adam Wolfeson. 2004. Conservatives and Neoconservatives. The public Interest
Art, Robert J.2003. A Ground Strategy for America. United States: Cornell University Press.
Clausewitz Karl Von 1943. On War, in the Book of War (2000). United States: The Modern Library.
Creswell, J. 2003. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sociological Class Theories - ush
In every society, people are grouped into a variety of categories in order to determine how they earn a living, and how much they earn that actually affects or is affected by the economy. This kind of social stratification is common in virtually all of modern societies, but social class theories can help explain or provide some insight as to why a certain economy works smoothly or inadequately. In effect, the real question becomes, is each social class being served fairly, or does one appear to have a class advantage over the others? The three primary theories of social class are 1) conflict, 2) functionalist, and 3) interactionist. If we examine George ush's economic policies we'd notice that these were implemented for the express purpose of benefiting the upper classes even though tax cuts may at first glance, seem like an equal benefit for all.…
Kornblum, William. Sociology in a Changing World Sixth edition New York: Thomson-Wadsworth, 2002.
Greider, William. "Bush's Touchy-Feely Economics: The Rich Still Get Richer and the Rest Get the Shaft, But It's Done in a Friendlier Way" The Nation (August 7, 2000) v271 i5 p24.
Herbert, Bob "There's A Catch: Jobs" New York Times (Oct 27, 2003) A21.
Graham Jill and Charlie Mitchell. "Pivotal Events in Congress" National Journal Feb 10, 2001 v33 i6 p416
First of all, the U.S. should "actively deter nations from "aspiring to a larger regional or global role." Second of all, preemptive force should be used to prevent countries from developing weapons of mass destruction and, third of all, the United States should "act alone if necessary." Clearly, all of these correlated ideas have been implementing in Iraq. Further more, all of ideas would be laid out in the founding statement of principles for the Project of the New American Century.
Evaluating what exactly the neoconservatives that have are now in the highest positions of the U.S. administration is a difficult and dangers job. Consternating the need for an objective evaluation, it is best to present all points-of-view. The least radical of these seems to be the one referring to its goal to promote the United States towards global leadership.
On the other hand, less moderate approaches see the Project…
1. Shank, Duane. September 2003. The project for a New American Empire. On the Internet at http://www.sojo.net/index.cfm?action=magazine.article&issue=soj0309&article=030911
2. Paul Wolfowitz - Highlights and Quotes. On the Internet at http://rightweb.irc-online.org/ind/wolfowitz/wolfowitz.php
3. Project for the New American Century. On the Internet at http://rightweb.irc-online.org/org/pnac.php
4. Harnden, Toby. March 2003. America's Dream for a New Middle East. News Telegraph. On the Internet at http://www.expat.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2003/03/18/wiplan18.xml
Capital gains and dividend taxes were both initiated in the early 1970's, by the Democratic Party. efore dividend taxes were enforced, the government made its money through higher aftertax yields, The dividend tax was originally supposed to be a progressive measure, so that the wealthiest paid correspondingly more than the poorest because they had benefited more. At this time, only the wealthy invested in stocks. This is no longer true. Most middle-class people today are investors in the market and they do not have the expensive accountants hired by the rich to shield their investments from tax.
Investing in the stock market has become far more widespread over the last two decades, as 84 million people - representing nearly half of all American households - owning stock. Tax-deferred investment tools such as 401(k) plans and individual retirement accounts (IRAs) have placed millions of Americans who make $60,000 or…
Beach, William. (January 23, 2003). Just what our economy needs. San Diego Union-Tribune. (Berlau, John. *February 6, 2003). Accounting firm fights dividend-tax cut. WorldNetDaily. Retrieved from the Internet at http://civilliberty.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.wnd.com/news/article.asp%3FARTICLE%5FID=30894.
Centre for International Co-operation and Development. (2003). Corporate Income Tax. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.gzs.si/ENG/busenv/financ61.htm .
Edwards, Chris. (January 7, 2003). Nearly All Major Countries Provide Dividend Tax Relief. The Cato Institute. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.cato.org/dailys/01-07-03-2.html .
Hall, Joshua. (January 31, 2003). Dumping fed dividend tax practical on several levels. Columbus Business First. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.bizjournals.com/columbus/stories/2003/02/03/editorial3.html .
attacks of September 11, 2001, we, as Americans learned that our country is not as invincible as we thought it to be. The United States can and has been hurt within this past year. Therefore, President George . Bush's plan to attack Iraq seems to be justifiable so that America has a lesser change of getting bombed again. And, subsequently, being weakened further. By attacking Iraq, Bush's intends to protect America and possibly keep from having furthers attacks on our country in the future. However, some disagree with Bush about going forward with his plan to attack Iraq which poses a major conflict among the nation's government. Some of the nation's leaders believe that the plan will do more harm than good. It may cause Iraq to attack America with a lot of power which could do extreme damage due to previous attacks the country. And, by attacking that country,…
Fraser, T.G. The Arab-Israeli Conflict. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.
Korn, David A. The making of the United Nations Security Council Resolution 242: Centerpiece of Arab-Israeli Negotiations.
Mitchell, Lena. "Locals support Bush's case for military action against Iraq." 9 October 2002 Northeast Mississippi Daily Journal http://www.djournal.com/djournal/site/articles/news/1289510.htm.
Crook, Olive. "Lets Give International Law All the Respect It Is Due." 15 October 2002. Atlantic Online http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/nj/crook2002-10-15.htm .
However, a variety of weaknesses still continue the most notable would include: a decentralized system, no standardized protocol for evaluating container packages and a lack of training. This is significant, because it highlights an obvious weakness that has not been addressed in the aftermaths of the September 11th terrorist attacks. If such issues are not addressed, it could mean that the improvements in other areas are ineffective, as terrorists can use this as a potential weakness they can exploit. ("Homeland Security, 2003)
The changes in Logistics and its impact on our global economy.
Logistics is having an impact upon the global economy, by making the world smaller and more competitive. What has been happening is a variety of companies have been using the increased amounts of reduced trade barriers and low transportation costs, to produce a variety of products inexpensively. To deliver these low cost goods to consumers requires: effectively…
The Bush Administration's Analysis of Homeland Security Legislation. (2002). Retrieved July 13, 2010 from Gov Exec website: http://www.govexec.com/dailyfed/0602/061802hsleg2.htm
The Freedom of Information Act. (2010). Retrieved July 13, 2010 from NFOIC website: http://www.nfoic.org/foi-act
Homeland Security. (2003). Retrieved July 13, 2010 from GAO website: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d04325t.pdf
Supply Chain. (2010). Retrieved July 13, 2010 from ASA Research website: http://www.asaresearch.com/ecommerce/supplychain.htm