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The idea of the business cycle goes back at least to Marx' description of capitalisms booms and busts in Das Kapital, and has been described in more detail by modern writers starting in the 1940s. Business cycles -- which do not occur at any sort of regular interval -- are generally understood in terms of when the direction of the economy changes (Romer, 2008). As Brad DeLong (2010) describes, Marx noted that business cycles occur when there is an overaccumulation of capital and overproduction of goods. In order to restore balance to the overheated economy, a crisis must follow. This crisis will create the depreciation of the value of assets. Marx further described what would happen to employment (it would go down). Real capital is destroyed, which means the equipment and factories must cease production, workers must be made unemployed and capital will inevitably sit on the sidelines…… [Read More]
Thus, recession can be defined as a cure to the ill-policies of government and central bank that caused boom in certain sectors such as housing market. Because of that boom, easy credit policies, subsidies, easy lending and many other government and central bank caused factors, the prices soars to extreme high and causes inflation and money gets trapped in mal-investment. As the recession acts as a cure to this situation of extreme falsehood, it starts decreasing the extent of false demand and tries to bring the market to its actual true situation. The prices start declining and the economy starts recuperating from the illness of false heights.
Since recession itself is the cure of problems of mal-investment that were caused by the government and central bank's ill easy money and credit policies, it cannot be cured by further stimulus. The stimulus will only sustain the recession for longer periods until…… [Read More]
Business Cycles: Phases, Indicators, Measures, Economic Evolution, Outlooks
is currently recovering from its worst recession in over 25 years. Most economists consider the rapid rise in housing prices (the bubble) and the subsequent collapse in that market to be the primary cause of the recession. Explain what housing market circumstances were responsible for the collapse of that market.
Observers attribute the 2001-2006 housing bubble to "everyone from home buyers to Wall treet, mortgage brokers to Alan Greenspan." (FactCheck.org.)
Causes were five-fold -- and all reducible to the consumer:
REALTOR encouraged people to buy (and sell)
Builders built more homes than were needed. This was fed by the media's emphasis on the American myth of each American needing a home to call himself. There was a home-buying mania.
Lenders created poorly designed loan products to fill demand. Economic derivatives, specially the "credit-default swap" were used irresponsibly in that swaps and other…… [Read More]
Business Cycle Analysis
Overview- rom the end of World War II to the early 1970s, China was relatively isolated from the global landscape. It was a part of the Soviet Communist Bloc, but remained inwardly focused on improving its own infrastructure and economy, all the while poised for rapid modernization. Openness towards the West began around 1978 with increased trade, a small amount of additional transparency internally, and at least the semblance of allowing more capitalistic templates like ownership of businesses, development of more modernized factories, etc., and less journalistic control. After 1978, Mao's successor Deng Xiaoping realized that the government had to increase the standard of living for its population, or face revolt. Deng's, and subsequent regimes, focused on market-oriented economic development. By the turn of the century, for instance, Chinese output had quadrupled, living standards improved as well as personal choices -- to a degree. There has been…… [Read More]
However, it is also necessary that everyone have a clear idea and common vision of why the party is being planned, and what is being celebrated. At the next meeting, some of the people who were at the company for a long time can talk about their involvement with the company like the 'rough times' they experienced early on during the organization's early years. The individuals with the most interest in event planning can talk about their ideas about what makes a quality event, and even the least committed members of the team can share with others what made other events they have attended in the past 'work,' what new things they would like to try, and also what working for the company means to them and how they would like to celebrate these values. Ideally, everyone should draw from one another's strengths, interests, and aptitudes.
4. What should she…… [Read More]
The Keynesian approach to recessionary gaps is to increase government spending and lower taxes -- run a deficit -- in order to spur aggregate demand. In the Keynesian model, aggregate demand is affected by a number of different factors -- consumer consumption, business investment, government spending and net exports. During a recessionary gap, consumer spending and business investment are probably both down, which leaves the other two factors to prop up the economy. Government spending is an efficient way of directly putting money into the economy, thereby giving consumers more money to spend and businesses more money to invest (FRBSF, 2013). Knowing that the government is working hard to spur economic growth can also change the underlying psychology of the market.
Lowering taxes is another means by which government can spur growth under this scenario. Lowering taxes allows for more spending from both consumers and businesses, since both…… [Read More]
Business cycle theories have been the topic of discussion for many years. There are several business cycle theories that are reliable and trustworthy, while others are controversial and easily disproved. The purpose of this discussion is to distinguish among the different theories of the business cycle. These theories include Keynesian aggregate demand theory, the Monetarist aggregate demand theory, and the new classical and new Keynesian theories of the business cycle and the real business theory. In addition, this discussion will describe the origins of, and the mechanisms at work during, the expansion of the 1990's, the recession of 2001, and the great depression.
Aggregate Demand Theory
Aggregate demand simply describes the correlation between the amount of aggregate output and the price height when every other variable is held constant.
According to an article entitled "Aggregate Demand and Supply Analysis" from the Keynesian point-of-view the aggregate demand is determined…… [Read More]
GDP and the Business Cycle; Government Financial Bodies, How Fiscal Policies Impact Production and Employment
This memo will address three issues commonly discussed when talking about the economy. First, it will explain and describe how gross domestic product can be used to measure the business cycle. Second, it will describe the roles of the government bodies that are responsible for determining national fiscal policies. Third, it will explain how national fiscal policies impact the economy's production and employment. Specifically, it will examine how changes in government spending and taxing impact the economy's production and employment. Considered together, these three explanations should lead to a better understanding of fiscal policy at a national level.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the monetary value of all of the finished goods and services that are produced in a country within a specific time period, usually each year. It includes all items, whether produced or…… [Read More]
UK Business Cycle and Current Economy
According to the basic tenets of the business cycle theory or model of economic trends, periods of high growth in GDP and rising prices (and wages) are followed by drops in economic activity as consumers/workers grow wary and spend less, producers start cutting back on supply and labor, and thus unemployment rises and consumers are able to spend less. As prices drop low enough and employment stabilizes, spending begins to resume, production and employment levels increase followed by wages, and a period of high growth is entered into again. The current economy in the United Kingdom is indicative of a nation at the bottom of a trough in the economic cycle, as various elements of the economy are beginning to stabilize yet a return to growth remains uncertain and very slow if it is occurring (BBC, 2012). Producer prices rose very slightly, which could…… [Read More]
GDP and the Business Cycle
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the economic measure which quantifies the production within a country's economy in a single period of time. The measure, which is usually on an annual or a quarterly basis, is usually calculated as the total market value of all the finished goods and services that country during the period (Nellis and Parker, 2000). In 2012 the GDP in the U.S. had reached $15,094 billion dollars, an increase on the 2011 figure of $14,582.4 billion (Trading Economics, 2013). This in turn was an increase on 2010, when the GDP was $14,043 billion. This would appear to indicate a growing economy, where there is an increase in output. However, this is the market value on current prices, each year the increase includes inflation, so the real growth, that is the actual growth less an allowance for inflation, is a better measure…… [Read More]
The business cycle, or the seemingly inexorable ups and downs of the economy, is inevitable—there will be both recessions and periods of growth. But predicting when these highs and lows will come is challenging and has eluded even some of the wisest investors. “The key is to invest one cycle phase ahead,” and “investors need to have a forward-looking mindset so they can prepare their portfolios to capitalize" (Hicks, 2017, par.12). The difficulty of predicting the business cycle is one reason why investing low-cost mutual funds is often suggested versus the investor attempting to second guess the business cycle.
For example, in regards to the current global economy, according to the World Economic Forum, although the world economy has rebounded from the global recession of 2008, “this has been the weakest post-recession recovery on record,” particularly in regards to productivity and investment (“Economic Storm Clouds,” 2018, par.1). In addition to…… [Read More]
Business and Corporate
business strategy analysis of kraft foods
Analysis of Business Level Strategy
Kraft Foods Inc. is the second largest food company in the world and makes annual revenues in excess of $54 billion (Kraft Foods Annual eport, 2012). It operates in a highly competitive consumer foods industry where high volume sales are essential for competitive success. Tapping into new markets and growing one's brand portfolio are also important for growth and success.
Kraft Foods Inc. pursues a number of business-level strategies to support its corporate level strategies. The business level strategies are determined by answering the question How do we compete? (Ireland, Hoskisson & Hitt, 2008). Kraft Foods Inc. has selected product differentiation and brand development as its primary business level strategy. Product differentiation involves creating and conveying to the consumer a unique feature of the product portfolio that distinguishes the company from the competition and…… [Read More]
In contrast with the mutual funds, 'Mutual funds trade hundreds of stocks in many unrelated industries, with very little of the total portfolio in any single stock. By contrast, when a company expands into a new area, its portfolio consists of two stocks, typically 90% in the core operation and 10% in the new businesses' (Tirole, 2005). The diversification in majority of the cases is responsible for lower return and maximal risk factor. esearchers have observed that there is possibility of higher failure rates and lower returns for unrelated acquisitions than for related acquisitions. When the company acquires businesses in their own industry, it is observed that lowest failure rates and highest returns phenomenon occur. The reason why the diversification into unrelated business is considered to be risky is that the corporate is unfamiliar about the industry itself, and therefore the corporate is likely to overlook critical risk factors during…… [Read More]
The Apple iWatch is centered in the smartwatch market. The market structure in which the product lies is oligopoly. Oligopoly refers to a market structure that is dominated by a few sellers. This is because the smartwatches are products which are produced by a few large companies, and every contribution of every company is considered substantial enough to be significant in the market. In addition, the companies in the market are cautiously aware of how rival companies react to change and particularly in association to price. This particular market structure is distinctive in the sense that the company's pricing as well as output decisions will also integrate the perceived or anticipated reactions of the competitors. For instance, in this case, the pricing and output decisions of iWatch will consider the anticipated reactions of other company products such as the Sony Smartwatch (Salvatore, 2015).
Elasticity of the product…… [Read More]
The Limitations of the National Income Accounts in How They Represent Our Standard of Living
The national income accounts have been the center piece in all matters concerning economics across the globe. These rules are a primary source of reference in determining the economic status of a given nation. It is the most preferred indicator of the rate of improvement and making comparison across nations. However, it is not the perfect indicator for the economic state due to its limitations that give a false image of the highlighted economy (McEachern, 448).
To start with, the national income accounts do not include other financial details such as the non-market productions in a given country. These include activities such as preparations in various productions. For instance, in preparing food in a restaurant, one does not include the energy used by the person preparing the food before taking it for sale.…… [Read More]
Global usiness Cultural Analysis: Singapore
The objective of this study is to answer the questions how the major elements and dimension of culture including religion, ethics, values, attitudes, manners, customs, social structures, and organizations integrated in Singapore by local conducting business. As well, this work will answer how these elements and dimensions compare with United States culture and business. Finally, this work will examine the implications for United States businesses that wish to conduct business in Singapore.
The work of Abeysinghe and Choy (2009) reports that the economy in Singapore has been undergone a transformation that has turned it into "…an Asian powerhouse…" due to the "far-sighted economic policies. The economy of Singapore is proof of the outcome of a market-driven economy taking place during fast development of high per capita income, and an environment free of corruption in which the workforce is both motivated and educated. The financial infrastructure…… [Read More]
However, while the majority of goods will see an increase in demand when prices decrease, the rate at which demand changes of will vary, and some products may see a faster increase than others (Baye, 2007). Additionally, in a few cases a decreasing price may undermine the value of the product, and may result in a decrease in sales, this is known as a Giffen good (Baye, 2007).
lasticity is a way of measuring the impact that a change in price will have on the demand for a product, and the revenues which are generated. If Will wants to maximize revenues, he can use the concept of elasticity in order to determine how prices for both the out of copyright and new books should be price.
The calculation of elasticity is relatively simple, if there is some historical data available indicating sales following a price change. lasticity can be calculated…… [Read More]
Additionally, businesses must anticipate seasonal shifts in demand when allocating and anticipating costs. A toy company cannot assume that the revenue it enjoys after a Christmas marketing a 'hot toy' will be sustained all year 'round.
In terms of taking a long-term view, a business should treat its employees in an ethical fashion. If employees are treated in a respectful manner, they are likely to perform better and show more loyalty to the organization. Additionally, if a company is found to be exploiting its employees, as was the case of Nike and the 'sweatshop'-type conditions of its offshore operations, this negative publicity can deter individuals from buying from the company. Employee costs in the long and short-term, in terms of compensating employees for overtime and giving them reasonable benefits, must also be included in the business plan. Also, the possibility of stock options, should the company incorporate, is another issue…… [Read More]
This means that you must continually monitor and communicate about possible changes, pertaining to the overall scope of the threat. Once this occurs, is when an entity will have an effective security procedure that will adapt to the various changes that are taking place.
This is significant, because this information can be used to corroborate the overall nature of security threats that could be faced by the SME. Where, this information is useful in helping to identify and address possible operational considerations that must be taken into account. As a result, this will help to provide not only a glimpse of possible security challenges that will be faced, but it will also help to establish an effective IT security protocol.
When you compare this with the previous source, this information can be used to highlight specific security threats that the company we are examining could face. Where, it discusses the…… [Read More]
UltiPro is an industry leader in HCM, delivering more out-of-the-box functionality than any other provider. UltiPro's continuous H and talent management functionality includes recruitment, onboarding, payroll, worker and manager self-service, benefits administration, compensation management, performance management and reviews, succession management, talent retention tools, time and attendance, workforce scheduling, rich reporting and analytical decision-making tools, and more. UltiPro's Web portal can serve as a company's communications center and the fundamental gateway for business activities because it conveys functionality for everyone in the company, from H and financial departments as well as executives, staff managers, and individual staff. With the UltiPro portal, H/payroll staff, managers, and administrators can complete daily worker administration tasks, administer benefits, manage staff, and access reporting in real-time, all from one central location. Managers and executives can access frequently requested reports and analyze workforce statistics and trends on-demand. Employees can access pay and benefits information, get questions answered,…… [Read More]
hen this happens, actuaries can use the data that was collected to provide a clear picture of what is taking place inside the various segments of the firm. ("Sarbanes-Oxley Act") (Holland)
Obtaining a complete list of all business units is where the off the books activities and any type of outside partnerships are disclosed to managers. This helps them to determine the extent of these arrangements on the company and the impact of the actions of other entities. Once this takes place, is when actuaries will have a better understanding of what is occurring and how this is contributing to the corporation's growth. ("Sarbanes-Oxley Act") (Holland)
Performing a risk assessment is when executives will determine if there are any kinds of actions that pose a threat to the firm. This allows them to see if questionable areas are a possible danger and the lasting impacts it will have on the…… [Read More]
This allows for greater levels of planning and cooperation, and fills in the information gap that currently exists between the factory floor and the rest of the supply chain.
Lexmark provides an example of waste. Recently, the company found itself with more than $1 million in scrap from one lot. Engineers had insufficient information to isolate and fix the problem, so were instead relegated to crisis control. With more accurate data from each step of the operation, the engineers could have been more involved in the process and made improvements along the way before it became a large-scale crisis.
Through web-based business applications, engineers can now examine a defective printer cartridge and then use a thin client to put a hold on the entire batch if necessary, regardless of its physical location (anywhere in the world)
In conclusion, it is apparent that e-business is making its mark on the business…… [Read More]
Where pricing integration typically fails however are in the handling of exceptions. Columbus (2003) makes the point that the use of automated approaches to managing special pricing requests can be one of the highest OI activities of any company. The focus for LOM then is in turning the one-off loan request specifically including a differing rate or structure into a competitive advantage by quickly being able to fulfill it. The use of automated special pricing requests applications and techniques as defined by Columbus (2003) are strong competitive tools that could be used as part of FlashQuote and BFOT overall.
FlashQuote Use Case Analysis
Identifier: FlashQuote Use Case Analysis
Name: BFOT System component that includes quoting, pricing, loan interest rates and the ability to electronically upload the loan, once approved, to the LOS.
Purpose: To more accurately and completely capture the quotes given to prospects over the telephone, the Web, and…… [Read More]
Assess the organisation in terms of its organisational strategy, objectives, mission and values.
Analyse the environment in which the organisation operates with regards to industry, business life cycle, etc.
Evaluate the organisation's current reward and pay strategies on two criteria: for meeting its overall organisational strategy and for maintaining competitive advantage in the face of new challenges and changing conditions.
Reach a reasoned and evidence-based conclusion about the level of success achieved by the organisation in motivating employees to reach organisational objectives and propose a reward and pay strategy that may better serve this purpose.
tarbucks: The Company and its Compensation ystem.
tarbucks is the largest coffee producing industry in the world with 19,555 stores in 58 countries. This includes 12,811 in the United tates, 1,248 in Canada, 965 in Japan, 766 in Great Britain, 580 in China and 420 in outh Korea (Location xcelrated). tarbucks has succeeded to…… [Read More]
Starbucks continues to use the music-to-emotion connection in the television spots to underscore their core messaging and differentiation.
Internet - Starbuck's Internet strategy stresses their environmentally friendly corporate policies, humanitarian efforts, and accentuates its health coverage for part-time employees. In short, the Internet strategy primarily focuses on showing global corporate responsibility, which is a critical messaging platform as the company moves into new Pacific im nations including Australia, Japan, and Korea. The global reach of the company is also exemplified in the use of maps to show where the various coffees are grown and sourced from.
Starbucks also supports their two core messages of delivering "reward" drinks on the one hand (Frappacinos) and getting a caffeine boost for a job (Double Shot) through the heavy use of graphics and downloadable computer art. For the summer promotion of "reward" drinks there is also the attempt to link music with the positioning…… [Read More]
Finally, Change in approach is a more tactical answer to Change Character. It is using specific techniques to engender change within and organization or population (Chapman, 2005).
Discuss the difference between business development based on problem solving vs. business development-based learning. Within any organization, individuals tend to see themselves as cogs in the wheel, not really making much of a difference to the success or failure of the organization as a whole. It is really at the micro level that change (learning, evolution, etc.) takes place. The enemy is not external; it is falling into an internal rut and seeing only the short-term, instead of broadening the picture. Learning is not easy; people, and therefore organizations, are sometimes resistant to movement. However, thinking about one's position within an organization as a critical part of the whole, dedicating oneself to team learning, "suspending assumptions and entering into genuine thinking together" allows…… [Read More]
The existence and specialization of these three competitors materializes in the need for Creativity Sure to excel in the offering of the three types of products and services offered by challengers Karina Advertising, Falling Agency and Dorna PLC.
4.2 PEST Analysis
Political forces: The development of a full legislation within the advertising field has yet to become a complete process. ecent efforts have however limited the operations of advertising campaigns in the meaning of having eliminated all features that are not compatible with the product or which promise unrealistic outcomes, such as the tremendous loss of weight. Other issues regulated by the new laws refer to truth-in-advertising, product labeling requirements, online advertising and marketing, the advertising of specific products, telemarketing and direct marketing, and finally, regulations relative to environmental marketing (The Official Business Link to the U.S. Government, 2009). The new Obama administration has yet to take a new stand…… [Read More]
One set of concepts from each area was utilized to explain how the situation at Grand Bois may have come about. The end goal of the authors was to "provide business practitioners, ethics teachers, and readers interested in corporate conduct with insights useful in understanding why managers may act the way they do."
It could be argued, according to Hamilton and Berken (2005), that Exxon managers had made a sound business judgment, based on facts that were not known, at the time. The industry still contends that the majority of exploration and production waste contains no harmful compounds, and that for this reason the disposal techniques that are used at the Grand Bois facility were not only cost effective, but also environmentally safe.
Just because the exemption of this waste for hazardous materials was brought about by political lobbying does not mean that it is not scientifically or justified.
Oftentimes,…… [Read More]
Reasons for Failure
usiness failures have become a properly investigated field of study in the past few years as a struggling economy and an overall difficult business environment have combined to discourage potential entrepreneurs from entering the market place and to cause many existing business owners / entrepreneurs from continuing their endeavors. This interest in business failures is precipitated by the fact that the number and nature of business failures impacts negatively on the overall business climate and examining possible causes in an effort to forestall further such failures is vital to maintaining a healthy business environment. The emphasis in recent years has shifted from examining why and how businesses fail toward an analysis of how to avoid and prevent business failures.
The failed business that I chose to review was a small ice cream / restaurant in my neighborhood. The name of the business was Charlie's Ice…… [Read More]
Business Transformation Strategy
GE Capital oodchester is a leading provider of motor car, equipment, and personal finance in the country of Ireland. They offer the most flexible packages for diverse financial needs and as such, have earned the position of leading the personal and capitol acquisition financial services. GE Capital oodchester also provides specialized financing and services and they focus on niches including equipment and car leasing, hire purchase and loans to businesses and individuals across Ireland. Headquartered in Dublin, GE Capital oodchester services the financial needs of its customers through its regional sales centers and extensive dealer and partner network.
GE Capital oodchester is a wholly owned subsidiary of GE Capital. ith assets of more than U.S.$425 billion, (gecapitol.ie, online) GE Capital is a global, diversified financial services company with 28 specialized businesses worldwide. GE Capital has had an enviable record of growth over the past decade delivering value…… [Read More]
For a product configuration system to be effective it must be able to submit orders directly into production while at the same time being able to determine what the Available-To-Promise (ATP) ship dates are (Mendelson, Parlakturk, 2008). Instead of just giving the standard four to six weeks I'd also integrate the product configuration systems to supply chain systems to ensure that accurate Available-To-Promise (ATP) dates (Gunasekaran, Ngai, 2009). I'd use this as a competitive differentiator to ensure that customers could be very well informed as to when their sofa or furniture was going to arrive. All of these systems would also be integrated to an analytics system so it would be possible to know what the status of orders and shipments were on a continual basis.
Gunasekaran, A., & Ngai, E.. (2009). Modeling and analysis of build-to-order supply chains. European Journal of Operational esearch, 195(2), 319.
Johansson, Johny K.,…… [Read More]
We have decided to take this option for several reasons. Firstly, the size of our restaurant will be able to entertain almost 500 people and with such a large space we need a huge market to fill it up. Secondly, Americans of all age-groups dine-out regularly (almost 4 times every week, according to last year's statistics.) thirdly and lastly, this figure is only going to increase with time.
Contending against both "informal-dining-steakhouses" and "family-steak-restaurants," we will be offering these benefits: (1) Low pricing for complete buffets, (2) customers will not be giving tips since the restaurant will be self-service, (3) giving speedy service to all customers at all times, (4) offering variety in meals all the way through the week and (5) diners can watch their favorite sports during their meals.
The sales annual projections for the next 3 years are summed up below in table 3 below.…… [Read More]
Coyne (ISO, 2007).
Under Mr. Coyne's direction, ISO maintains a regular cycle of community relations events with charitable themes emphasizing the corporate focus of benefiting the community. ISO also provides varied opportunities for employees to incorporate their families into ISO functions as well as recreational activities designed to promote good employee relations. At ISO, periodic progress reviews and regular feedback from supervisors allows employees to maximize their career potential by rewarding performance with regular financial raises and opportunities to advance up the hierarchical ladder (ISO, 2007).
Communication, Diversity, and Business Ethics:
ISO welcomes diversity in its workforce and encourages applications from all sectors and academic institutions. ISO corporate policy and employee handbook specifically stress the importance of maintaining a culturally diverse working environment where employees of all backgrounds and cultural practices are equally welcome. While New Jersey does not require employers to offer health insurance and other benefits to non-married…… [Read More]
usiness Report: Adelaide Convention Centre
How Resource Requirements Are Determined
Why resources are acquired and allocated
How resource usage is and reported
The Adelaide Convention Centre was founded in 1987 with an aim to promote tourism and industry related economic activities in the area of South Australia. The center hosts banquets, cocktail functions, conferences, exhibitions, green events, meetings, product launches, school formals, weddings, and corporate events[footnoteRef:1]. [1: Adelaide Convention Center. "Our Green Commitment," Adelaide Convention Center. n.d. (accessed January 14, 2014). http://www.adelaidecc.com.au/planning-your-event/event-types/green-events.]
Part A: How Resource Requirements Are Determined
The current operational plans are mainly targeted towards providing a place for the business and local community to organize their events in the center. The center provides the place for the event including food and beverages. There are various partnering suppliers for floral, lighting, music, and other special arrangements. The resources required for the center can be divided into…… [Read More]
At the same time, it helps to determine if these prices are increasing.
This is useful for management, because it helps them to determine if this decrease in prices will have an impact upon the overall bottom line. Once they have determined this, they can be able to take steps to protect the company's profit margin
This is important, because it highlights an effective tool that managers can use to address the underlying challenge they could face.
One of the assumptions underlying CVP analysis is that total costs remain constant over the relevant range of activity. What does this mean and how does fixed costs per unit per lamp unit change with increased production over the relevant range of activity? Provide your answer in about 200 words in the international memorandum mentioned below.
Subject: Fixed Cost per Unit
CVP production will help managers be able to effectively…… [Read More]
022 million was registered in 1998 and the lowest of $308.670 million was registered in 2001
The operating expenses fluctuated between the high value of $24.745 million in 2000 and the low value of $15.737 million in 1998
The operating profit also fluctuated between $21.250 million in 1997 to a negative 17.591 million in 2000
The net income followed a constant descendant trend, decreasing from $12.368 million in 1997 to -$26.393 in 2001 (Keystone Workbook, Historical Common Size Income Statements)
elative to financial ratios, the following must be considered:
All ratios of operational analysis are larger than the industry averages, meaning that the company operates at high levels of quality and performance
With the exception of payable turnover and cash conversion cycle, all resource management ratios are superior to the industry averages, meaning that Keystone is fairly able to use its resources and transform them into money
Profitability ratios are…… [Read More]
Perhaps they're put off by the cracked floor tiles or the cobwebs on the headless, foam-rubber mannequins. Whatever the reason, the store's rock-bottom prices and helpful service clearly aren't pulling in many shoppers" (Fairlamb and Cohn, 2003).
After nearly a decade of trying to penetrate the German market, Wal-Mart counted its losses and exited Germany. A Wal-Mart spokesman argued that, despite the million dollar losses, the experience was a positive one as it represented a turning point and a lesson for the future. The lesson was that in spite of its national success, Wal-Mart is vulnerable in the international context (Lander and Barbaro, 2006). Similar situations are also encountered in Asia, and the question that is being posed here refers to the future strategies Wal-Mart could implement in order to reduce its vulnerability and increase its position in the global context.
Two recommendations are of vital importance when…… [Read More]
According to the company, the concept of kyosei. extends to all of its business enterprises, including research and development, product manufacturing, marketing, sales, and product distribution.
Specifically, Canon strives to conserve energy, resources, and the minimization of potentially dangerous chemicals and industrial by-products. In principle, Canon hopes to preserve the environment and the earth's physical resources through implementing industrial conservation efforts and practices, recycling programs and policies, educational programs, and social initiatives consistent with the overall goal of "... building a better world for future generations" (Canon U.S.A., Inc., 2008).
The entire Canon corporate philosophy is expressed in eight fundamental tenants of corporate social responsibility: To continuously improve environmental assurance and performance throughout corporate operations at every level;
To comply fully with all applicable environmental laws and regulations and additional mandates of its corporate stakeholders;
To aggressively pursue pollution-prevention and minimization strategies and apply those equally to energy and other…… [Read More]
Despite these fluctuations in pricing levels, current projects indicate that demand for ginseng will continue to increase in the future due to greater demands from a burgeoning middle class Chinese market (How to grow ginseng, 2012). Although wild-grown ginseng commands higher prices, cultivated alternatives typically weigh more but the Chinese highly prefer the wild-grown version (How to grow ginseng, 2012).
As shown in Figure 1 below, West Virginia is located within the zones (3-8) that are regarded as being especially appropriate for cultivating wild-grown ginseng.
Figure 1. United States Zone Map for Planting Ginseng.
Source: Adapted from http://www.wildgrown.com/usazones.jpg
While West Virginia is located in a highly desirable geographic location for cultivating ginseng, the task is fraught with opportunities for failure, weather conditions can adversely affect the growing cycle, the plants are sparse and difficult to locate, and the actual growing process, as well as its clinical effects, remain better described…… [Read More]
In order to achieve this target, the personnel operating in a foreign subsidiary should take part in trainings regarding the locals' customs, traditions, way of thinking, language etc. Additionally, studies should be carried out for concluding if the company's products or services are adequate to a certain foreign market. For instance, a company wishing to sell beef on the Indian market where the cow is considered to be a sacred animal or an organization which designs white packages for its products sold in Japan where this color represents mourning will surely lead to collapse. Let's take, for example, the McDonald's case which has developed a successful transnational strategy. The king of fast-food chains has tailored its menus according to the gastronomic habits of the foreign markets it has entered. Just imagine the disastrous outcome of a hamburger with pork sold in an Arab country. In conclusion, molding over the foreign…… [Read More]
Specialists in the field have also identified other trends that they consider will affect the B2B market (Focus, 2010). Such trends refer to the fact that marketing is likely to be considered responsible for revenue objectives, B2B markets are likely to become more similar with consumer markets, the B2B sector will be characterized by a social media crisis, more attention granted to return on investments, the increased of automation, increased importance of Internet supported buying cycles, information overload, focus on lead quality, focus on branding and awareness, and others.
The following chart reveals B2B companies' interest in investments regarding several channels. Most of these companies intend to significantly increase investments in website design, social media, virtual events, search engines, email marketing, and paid search. The attention these companies pay to Public elations and telemarketing seems to remain constant. B2B companies estimate they will reduce investments in direct mail, trade shows,…… [Read More]
Moreover, FID technology has proven useful in other respects, such as ensuring the proper temperature of frozen and refrigerated goods in transit and even by facilitating the coordination of emergency supplies during disaster responses on the part of the federal government (Gordon, 2006).
In fact, the ability of FID to monitor other variables besides geographical location suggests additional valuable applications such as the incorporation into manufacturing processes. For example, (as in the case of transporting refrigerated goods), temperature can be monitored and adjusted automatically, improving the quality and safety of everything from crucial medical supplies to pop tarts.
Furthermore, potential cost savings provided by FID technology transcend the realm of production and supply chain management. Shippers can monitor compliance on the part of their truckers with speed limits and route restrictions, thereby saving additionally on the cost of insuring their employees and equipment, by virtue of the increased ability that…… [Read More]
While their backgrounds and personal beliefs are very different, they never take each other for granted. They are encouraged to express their thoughts and ideas and to treat each other with dignity.
Service to their Customers -- customers are the reason that they are in business, so they believe that they should treat them that way. They offer quality merchandise at the lowest prices, and do it with the best customer service possible. They look for every opportunity where they can exceed their customers' expectations. They believed that this is when they are at their very best.
Striving for Excellence -- They are proud of their accomplishments but are never satisfied. They constantly reach further to bring new ideas and goals to life. They model themselves after Sam Walton, who was never satisfied until prices were as low as they could be. They believe that a product's quality is as…… [Read More]
The government has rather low environmental expectations. In fact, the consultant found that they are about as lenient as the Mexican restrictions, though the Philippines presents no public relations nightmare as protestors are not rallying against health concerns, as they were in Mexico.
Although the conditions in the Philippines may seem even more ready for outsourcing then the conditions in Mexico, the ethical costs of operating the company in the country are once again too high. Like the situation in Mexico, workers in the Philippines may work for lower wages than workers in the United States, but owners are not being provided with the same level of skill that they would be if continuing to operate the factory in the United States. Because the factory workers would consist mainly of underfed adults and impoverished children, the company would be lucky if workers managed to produce sufficient amounts of products throughout…… [Read More]
usiness Marketing brand manager was quoted as saying, "You may think you define your relevant market." Comment.
rand management, as a recognized organizational objective, is attributed to Neil McElroy in 1931, who was then a junior marketing manager assigned to advertising Camay soap, and who later become Procter & Gamble's CEO. The intended purpose of brand management was to solve sales problems through the use of research to understand weakening sales in distinct markets, followed by the design and implementation of strategies to turn around these markets. Strategies used many marketing tools including advertising, pricing, promotion, packaging and displays (Aaker & Joachimsthaler, 2000). This desired objective of brand management has remained the primary role of brand managers since McElroy explicitly stated his intent in 1931. However organizations in general, and brand managers in particular, need to be aware that forces other than the strategies of brand managers will affect brands,…… [Read More]
Daily teleconferences with business officers and frequent irregular visits by the same and other business officers will ensure compliance and efficiency standards are being met. Key stakeholders in the factory could eventually include certain business users and clients, and in this event procedures for their own monitoring and inspection of manufacturing processes and conditions can of course be developed and implemented, allowing for a broader range of monitoring goals and entities,
The architecture of the proposed factory must primarily focus on cost-effectiveness and efficiency. Minimizing environmental impact, both in real terms and in aesthetics, must also be taken into consideration. In this latter regard, location can drastically effect architecture and associated costs. Design constraints, also, must be geared towards maximizing efficiency. Clean rooms will be needed for some of the components used in manufacturing, and these areas should be both separate yet easily accessible from the other areas…… [Read More]
On the other hand, applicable laws do have authority and under the concept of moral relativism, it may be justified that any duly passed law be complied with (Svensson & Wood, 2008).
One lesson from this case might be that laws between entities in different sovereign nations can be much harder to enforce than laws between entities within the same nation. In the future, Pakistan and other nations might want to make sure that their contractual agreements contain mechanisms that make them enforceable across international borders. On a broader level, another lesson might be that ill-gotten gains should not be promoted by governments in the first place. Those who believe in the supremacy of divine law might consider the position in which Pakistan found herself to be an example of God's reminding us of the obligation to conduct ourselves ethically toward our fellow man.
Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't…… [Read More]
Cash in advance is a method that often seems preferable to the selling entity in a typical exporting transaction, as they receive the agreed-upon amount of cash (or a credit card payment, which is equivalent to cash in this scenario) for their goods prior to shipping them, guaranteeing the cash flow needed for the next cycle (UNZCO 2010). This can create cash flow problems for the buy entity, however, as they must pay for the product before they receive cash from the end consumer and thus must carry the balance in the interim (UNZCO 2010). Letters of credit, which give a guarantee from a financial institution to the exporter that the goods will be paid for assuming all conditions are met, provided added assurance to exporters that the transaction will truly be profitable, while insulating importers from the cash flow issues described above (UNZCO 2010).
A draft operates n a…… [Read More]
Then they need to present the change to the employees as being realistic, reliable and measurable. There needs to be milestones set so that as the change process progresses the employees can see that the work that they are doing is actually accomplishing the goals that have been set forth.
8. What characteristics of Dr. Mimi Silbert, leader of the Delancey Street Foundation, make her approach to change so innovative and successful?
Mimi Silbert does not share the same background as her fellow residents but she lives at Delancey Street, abides by its rules, and takes no salary. Her determined spirit and unlimited energy have built an organization that is unique in its entrepreneurial and self-governing structure. Her dedication to enacting her vision of an educational community of change has inspired residents to break their destructive cycles and take responsibility for themselves and others. Dr. Silbert has gained national and…… [Read More]
This means that the client, executive management, the project team members, the project manager and all of the project stakeholders must be on the same page. In order to have a successful project there must be a well developed project plan from the beginning. The only way to have this well developed project plan is to know where you are, where you want to be and how you are going to get there. Without everyone agreeing on what the focus of the project is there is no way to develop the road map that is necessary to have a successful project. Everyone that is involved with the project, especially the project team as a whole should be committed to the project. The project team truly has the greatest impact on the project's success; therefore, team members should have the greatest desire to see that the project is totally successful and…… [Read More]
Business hetoric: Drilling in the Marcellus Shale
and Environmental Politics
Inexpensive energy sources are a requirement if the country is going to continue to thrive the way it has for more than 200 years. The United States is trying to decrease the amount of fossil fuels that it uses in everyday applications. However, the worry is not the fuels themselves, but the costs associated with the fuels. Fossil fuels are a viable resource if they are clean and extracted from the earth in ways that can be shown to be environmentally friendly. Because of these requirements, natural gas has become one of the new class of fuels that is thought of as superior to producing products from crude oil.
Natural gas is a clean energy source that can be extracted more safely than other sources of gas. Another bonus is that the product is very plentiful in the United States.…… [Read More]
Business Ethics and Morality
Many in the business and sociology fields have attempted to separate the ideas of ethics and morality from religious beliefs. Researchers have worked hard at identifying the principles which hold our societies together from the viewpoint which identifies the common good, or the well-being of the individual or organization as the foundation of moral or ethical behavior. However, this humanistic approach to morality voids the central thesis of what makes moral decisions important, and possible. Moral decisions are based on a code of behavior which lies specifically outside ourselves, and is focused on building a common good on the basis of a moral understanding which is defined, and unchanging. Regardless of how broad a sociological perspective one takes, when morality is separated from an unchanging definition of right and wrong, the foundation changes from rock to sand, only waiting for the next sociological revolution to come…… [Read More]
There is a process by which there is both a decrease in the number of jobs that is increasing, and this is coupled with a global transfer of jobs to less developed countries. oth of these have an impact in the decrease in availability of jobs in the advanced countries. The latest news on this front is from the United States. On the 5th of the current month, there was an announcement from the Labor Department that there has been growth in the United States economy and this had led to the creation of 21,000 new jobs. The previous predictions from the economists had been that there would be a creation of 150,000 jobs, and this number is far below the expected growth. The number of jobs created is also far lower then the growth in population that occurred during that period. The rate of unemployment in…… [Read More]
Engage options in open discussion and debate
Use debate to identify the two most viable options in the dilemma
Hold a secret ballot vote to determine which of the two options resonates with the decision-making team
Construct a timetable marking off expectations according to projected dates
Use these dates as a feedback loop for evaluating the decision as its implications unfold
Establish a second level in the feedback loop creating proper procedures and illuminating avenues to whistelblowing
Encourage personnel to serve as whitleblowers when they witness abuses of the ethical policy
Consult and renew the ethical code once a year to ensure that it still comports with the needs to address any ethical dilemmas which might arise in the foreseeable future
With many of the corporate scandals of the early millennium implicating the highest offices of some leading firms, today's corporate atmosphere is informed by an emphasis on ethically…… [Read More]
" Journal of Management Development, Vol. 25, No. 8 (2006):
The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to determine whether or not there are specific factors of individual personality that correspond to transformational leadership; and second, to determine whether or not transformational leaders and their followers characterized the personalities of transformational leaders similarly. The study relates directly to the understanding of organizational management in that transformational leadership is one leadership style that is common in many types of business and other professional organizations. The implications of the study apply to the appropriate selection of managers and leaders in specific organizations as well as to management training programs.
The study appears to have been sound methodologically. It relied on the quantitative analysis of interviews and self-ratings of 439 leaders and of interviews of 380 subordinates on the topic of transformational leader ratings and issues of personality in leaders. The…… [Read More]
J-Food has an opportunity to become the first one to shift in the "all-you-can-eat steak buffet" notion to grow into a market leader. The steady attractiveness of steak along with a perception of economy in buffet seems to be the perfect combination in foreign markets and is bound to produce the same results here (Clancy et al., 2000).
By analyzing the situation in the market, we have characterized groups into various subdivisions. The only exclusion comes when we characterize our subdivision for lunch. We strongly trust, and have observed, that a much widespread desire prevails for this lunchtime slot because our pricing is on the economical side and includes our J-Food's Specialty Beef burger. The following are our targeted subdivisions (Clancy et al., 2000).
* Age -- Aged, Baby-Boomers, youthful couples with children, and labor of all areas.
* Family Unit -- We will send requests to small…… [Read More]
Today the outbound telephone marketing industry has given political campaigns the ability to reach out to a large group of targeted voters in a quick and quiet way, just below the radar. This notion went way beyond the small volunteer call centers that have existed for over forty years. It was essential for the technology to be in place and widely utilized. Political campaigns could not have put into production a complete industry of dissimilar companies, large and small, with many thousands of telephones in call centers. This was a revolution as one could target using any criteria from gender, age, vote propensity, income, level of education, to presence of children. One could shape the message even within a single calling agenda, so that they may be calling all women, but the script may be different for younger women in comparison to older women. And maybe most importantly, one can…… [Read More]
Proposed Plan for Improvement
The above assessment of the current personnel management challenges facing the organization indicates that there are a number of pertinent issues that must be addressed if the organization is to effectively optimize its human resource capabilities and help facilitate the development of change in the organization. With this in mind, the proposed plan for organizational development focuses on two specific areas for improvement. First, the proposed plan considers the need for the strategic development of human resource practice in the organization. Strategic human resource management will enable the organization to embed human resource function into the process of facilitating organizational objectives. Second, the proposed plan considers the need for a comprehensive change management program which will facilitate H integration while building the necessary organizational infrastructure to help improve change outcomes.
Strategic Human esource Management
Strategic human resource management or SHM is the process by which human…… [Read More]
In this case the Jefferson County School system administrators did not do well at all. They did not develop at project team nor assign a project manager in order to oversee the implementation. They had no real implementation plan in place that laid out all the steps that needed to be done. There was no risk management plan developed so as risks presented themselves they had no idea how to handle them. There was no real testing phase in order to work through any of the bugs that the system had. They just put the system into production and then discovered that it didn't work. They had no plan in place to keep the old system up and running so that work could continue if the new system did not work. The implementation of the new software was basically a disaster.
Critique the performance of JCSS management in the…… [Read More]
During the interview sessions, Dave should inquire into what his employees like about their jobs, what they dislike about their jobs, which functions they like and dislike, what changes they would like to see, what suggestions they would offer to implement positive changes, and what types of rewards might increase motivation to perform at the highest level possible (ussell-Whalling, 2008).
The rationale for implementing interviews of this nature is that they are likely to reveal information that could be useful to Dave. Specifically, he may be able to identify changes in the respective responsibilities of various individual employees that could increase their motivation. Similarly, to the extent the interviews are productive sources of information, Dave might identify various types of rewards (such as in the form of privileges, eligibilities, or opportunities) that could better motivate his poorer performers than any attempts to know them more personally or warnings of…… [Read More]