The term bystander effect is often referred in relation to a situation where a greater number of people are present, observing a person in distress, yet they will be just watching him suffer rather than help the person out of prevent the situation. This is basic psychological reaction, people are more likely to help a person in distress or take action against a situation if there are no witnesses present, it the fear of being judged and evaluated. The reason there is always a dispersion of responsibility is because people feel less accountable or responsible to help in a situation where there are more witnesses around, hence we conclude that since there are more people around, they can always help. This diffusion of responsibility often and only occurs, simply saying, the responsibility gets spread out and dispersed thus at the end of the day, no one comes to…… [Read More]
According to the authors, the bystander effect, or the commonly-accepted notion that individuals are less likely to intervene if they believe others are likely to do so, is affected by both personal and situational factors. Factors such as empathetic sympathy for the victim and a sense of personal distress can facilitate a bystander being willing to assist (Hortensius et al., 2016). This can be driven both by altruism or egotistical behavior, in other words by the desire to look more noble versus to avoid psychological discomfort on the part of the individual providing assistance (Hortensius et al., 2016).
Based on an experiment using cued reaction time, the authors found that character traits were a significant influence on the extent to which the bystander effect was manifest (Hortensius et al., 2016). While perceived personal distress and a feeling of sympathy for the victim resulted in a faster response to the…… [Read More]
One of the most easily noticeable applications of social psychology theories to the real world is the diffusion of responsibility. Related to the bystander effect, diffusion of responsibility describes what takes place when individuals do not take action to help others when in they are in a group, ostensibly because they believe someone else can or should be responsible. Individuals tend to stand by and watch assuming someone else will help, which is why diffusion of responsibility is known as the bystander effect. As natural as it might seem to diffuse responsibility when one is in a crowd, the consequences of the bystander effect can be devastating including loss of life (Lickerman, 2010). For this reason, organizations have recently incorporated Bystander Effect Training into their employee development programs (“Diffusion of Responsibility,” n.d.). For this exercise, I pretended to be a tourist who did not know how to buy a ticket…… [Read More]
Death of Kitty Genovese in 1964 was a gruesome and prolonged affair. Not only was Genovese stabbed to death; her killer inston Mosley first stopped half-way in the midst of the murder, allowing his victim to temporarily try to seek out a safe haven. He was able to finish his attack on her with a fatal blow because none of the onlookers called the police. Although the onlookers gave many poor excuses, ultimately their behavior seemed to be attributed to the fact that crimes occurring at a distance often elicit less compassion than those occurring right before the viewer. The phenomenon became known as the "bystander effect" (Mcfadden). The bystander effect is the assumption that there is less of a sense of guilt and moral responsibility when individuals are part of a crowd. People believe that other people will act instead and so they do nothing. This psychological term was…… [Read More]
" (in Carr, 2005) Violation of privacy issues is a concern and Epstein (2002) makes the suggestion that incoming students be asked to sign a release enabling administrators to initiate actions should their behavior cause concern or seem erratic.
The work of anyard (2008) entitled: "Measurement and correlates of prosocial bystander behavior: The case of interpersonal violence" reports a study that examined the effects of gender and specific personality characteristics on bystander attitudes and behaviors. Findings of the study are stated to have been "…consistent with previous findings in that prosocial behaviors were higher among individuals with greater knowledge of sexual violence. Those who perceived higher effectiveness as a bystander were more willing to practice prosocial behaviors, and reported a greater number of actual behaviors." (anyard, 2008)
The work of Alan D. erkowitz entitled: "The Social Norms Approach to Violence Prevention" states that social norms research "…suggests that most males…… [Read More]
Since radon is a widely known and established carcinogen, researchers have found it important to investigate the biological risks associated with exposure. Catelinois et al. (2006) sought to assess the lung cancer risk in France due to the inhalation of radon. In particular, these researchers examined exposure-response results of both studies involving miners as well as case control studies, and furthermore investigated the interaction between radon and tobacco. The results of this study indicated that the estimated number of deaths due to lung cancer that could be attributed to radon exposure ranged from 543 to 3108 with a 90% uncertainty level. The specific number of deaths was dependent on the particular model being adhered to. From this number, the researchers suggested that 2.2% to 12.4% of these lung cancer deaths may actually be due to indoor radon exposure (Catelinois et al. 2006).
Since exposure to radon is widely considered to…… [Read More]
hat all this shows is that "there is something about a crowd of bystanders that inhibits helping behavior" (101).
The results of Latane and Darley's research were shocking. hy do some people act in altruistic or pro-social ways while others do not? To act altruistically means to work in a way that goes beyond our selves, our own egos, and work for the benefit of someone else. A true act of altruism has two properties: It must benefit someone else and it must be potentially costly to the benefactor (Clarke 6). alster and Poliavin define altruism as, "helping behavior that is voluntary, costly to the altruist and motivated by something other than the expectation of material or social reward" (6). This definition is a good one as it makes clear that there is a great distinction between egoism and altruism. True altruism is a regard for others without the concern…… [Read More]
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY AND WHAT DOES IT AIM TO STUDY?
Inspired by Kurt Lewin (1951), social psychology adopted the experimental method to study human behavior (Wood & Kroger, 1998). In this regard, Wood and Kroger (1998) report that, "Lewin's experiments in leadership style (autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire) became classics in the new experimental social psychology" (p. 267). Lewins' early work was carried on by Festinger and others who explored cognitive dissonance for the next 20 years at MIT and subsequently at the Universities of Michigan and Minnesota, making this one of the foundations of social psychology (Wood & Kroger, 1998).
Simply stated, social psychology uses the scientific method to study human social behavior (ogers, 2003). According to ogers, psychological social psychology "studies how social events and phenomena influence the ways in which individual people feel, think and act. It is concerned with the psychological processes (such as social perception and cognition) that…… [Read More]
The ole of Ethics in My Life
Ethics refers to the systematic and logical study of right and wrong behavior. The challenge with ethics is that ethical decisions are often subjective. Variables like personality, culture, and upbringing can all affect one's ethical character. Age and gender can also impact one's ethical decision-making process. The study of ethics has been an ongoing one in the field of philosophy, but it also has direct applications in fields ranging from law to medicine.
Almost all decisions have an ethical component. Even deciding what food to eat is an ethical decision, because the consumer chooses things like fair trade and organic over factory farmed and exploitative. Therefore, ethics can help me to create a more ethical and just society, by making choices that are congruent with core ethical principles. Ethical principles may include such things as fairness and the refrain from harm. Generally,…… [Read More]
A number of excuses are given over the course of the film. The brother and sister of one of the perpetrators said they initially assumed the killer was drunk and disoriented. Later, they say that they didn't want to be involved in something 'negative.' The girlfriend of one of the killers also said he initially sounded drunk and confused. When she discovered the body of the victim, she called 911, but refused to give much information. The mother of one of the killer's friends says she was initially told the victim was fine, and then assumed he had been taken to an area hospital after the body was discovered. When 911 was called -- twice -- the vague attitude of both of the callers caused emergency personnel to treat the call as a non-emergency.
Source: Prevos, Peter. (2006, January 3). Explanation models for the bystander effect…… [Read More]
Human beings, being the more intelligent of all the other creatures, ought to act in a structured, responsible, and accountable way -- more so when it comes to the maintenance and/or restoration of order in the society. In so doing, they are expected to abandon and reject actions or behaviors that fly against the principles of an orderly society. In the picture resource provided, we can see several people going about their daily routines, oblivious of what else is happening around them. A casual look at the picture does not reveal anything out of the normal. However, upon closer inspection, several unusual things stand out -- including some weed overgrowth, litter, a stray dog on the loose, and two snakes lurking about despite this not being their natural habitat. None of those captured in the picture seem to be concerned at all about the state of their immediate environment. They…… [Read More]
.....personal ethics derive from a combination of established codifications of moral conduct, such as those embedded in political documents or in religious scripture, but also from my personality, my upbringing, and my worldview. I tend towards a utilitarian point-of-view, in that I do believe that the consequences of actions are more important than worrying about whether an action is inherently right or wrong. I also believe that there are situational variables that make true deontological ethics almost impossible to apply universally and without hypocrisy. Although I make some decisions based on the principle of doing the maximum amount to good for the maximum number of people, I also recognize the importance of a strong ethical character when making decisions "Six Ethical Theories Rough Overview," n.d.). This is why I believe that there can be no one ethical theory that encompasses all situations. A person who has a strong ethical character,…… [Read More]
, 2006). He visualized and described the malignancy process. He suggested that early that "cells of tumors with unlimited growth" would develop with the elimination of chromosomes, which inhibit the growth. The multiple genetic alterations in these inhibiting chromosomes are today known as TSGs. The theory supposes that cancer arises from functional defect or absence of one or more TSGs. Clinical trials of TSG gene replacement therapy for breast cancer include the viral wild-type p53, Rb, and mda7. Molecular chemotherapy involves the introduction of suicide genes. The concept evolved from the assumption that cancer cells could be made more sensitive to chemotherapeutics or toxins by introducing "suicide genes." It was a concept initiated in the late 80s. Suicide gene therapy is categorized into toxin gene therapy and enzyme-activating pro-drug therapy. Suicide gene therapy is also called gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy or GDEPT. GDEPT treatment consists of the delivery of the…… [Read More]
Booker Prize-winning novel Amsterdam by Ian Mcewan is not really about euthanasia per se; it is about the twisted relationships between the two main characters, Clive Linley, composer, and Vernon Halliday, newspaper editor. Deeply affected by the death of their mutual friend and lover Molly Lane, Clive and Vernon agree that if they should ever exhibit the symptoms of some deadly illness, that they agree to assist the other in euthanasia. Thus, the two friends initially start out by presenting a view of euthanasia that is strongly ethical; euthanasia is a meaningful and sometimes even necessary means to alleviate unnecessary suffering. After all, life is already filled with enough suffering. Extension of life by a matter of days, weeks, or even years does not necessarily equate with promoting the values inherent to a good quality of life.
As the events of the novel progress, however, Vernon and Clive demonstrate that…… [Read More]
"The Envelope. In your mail, there's something from UNICEF. After reading it through you correctly believe that, unless you soon send in a check for $100, then, instead of each living many more years, over thirty more children will die soon" (Unger, 1996:9, cited by Gordon, 1998). But people throw the UNICEF envelope out and buy a new pair of shoes instead.
Evolutionary theory states that the altruistic impulse has survived because it is helpful for the species to survive (Lecture notes: Module Six, 2007:1). However, this does not explain why some people are generous in some instances, and less generous in others Social learning theory postulates we learn from our culture and family -- firefighters may have seen altruism championed within their family, while the New ork unspoken code of 'look away' in the face of crime, don't make eye contact or get involved is an accepted cultural norm…… [Read More]
Moreover, there were a number of smaller issues which augmented the overall failure of the project as a whole. Part of this was a result of the team members not wanting to obscure the fast paced frequency the project was being created in. There was essentially too much of a focus on getting the project done fast, rather than allowing the opportunity for creative differences to become a part of the process in order to mold the idea into a more appropriate direction for the client. Yes, the fast pace strategy completed the project a month ahead of schedule, but it failed the team by rushing an idea that was not properly matched to the client's needs and approved by the client before progressing further towards a final presentation. The client was not properly informed of the decision before the shooting process began. This created a situation where the team…… [Read More]
Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4): 377 -- 383. doi: 10.1037/h0025589
Latane, B., Darley, J. (1968).
The study by Latane and Darley examines the social psychology of undergraduate students and their reactions to an emergency situation. The research question was whether participants will respond to an emergency situation based on how others around them react or if they will react based on their own sense of what is happening. The method was the following: Participants were placed in a waiting room filling with smoke from a vent. The dependent variable was the length of time it took the subject to leave the room and report the incident. With the participants were either 2 other students showing passivity or no reaction, or subjects were placed in groups of 3. The researchers hypothesized that students were more likely to report the emergency situation when…… [Read More]
The demand for their services underwent a period of diminishment, because of the strong emotional impact that the events had upon the population living all over the world and especially in the United States of America. Despite various negative forecasts, the airline industry got back on track soon afterwards. Not only did the demand not fall, but it underwent significant increases.
Another element which could affect the functioning of the airline industry in a negative manner is represented by the concerns for the environment. Leaving aside the issue represented by the phonic pollution, aspects such as global warning may become an important concern for the airline industry should the issue gain a high importance on the public and political agendas. So far, however, the issue did not manage to influence people's choices regarding travelling by airplane, regardless of the attempts made in this directions by various politicians. (Pickard, 2006)
How…… [Read More]
Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics
Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.
While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…… [Read More]
Two of the schools in the current study have active GSA's which may account for the acceptance of LGBT students at these schools.
Procedures for anonymous reporting (Fear of retaliation)
As stated above, fear of retaliation was the major barrier to reporting according to the findings in this study. It is recommended that school develop safe, anonymous reporting procedures such as that described above. In addition, students must feel that retaliation will be addressed and every attempt will be made to protect the student from retaliation, both inside the school and outside the school. Perpetrators must be informed that retaliation will carry serious consequences and that administrators will follow through. Students must be told that any discussion of disciplinary actions discussed among students will cause further disciplinary actions to be instituted.
The schools involved in the current study are known as being very gay-friendly. Two of…… [Read More]
Men described how they would make a throat cutting gesture toward the incoming Jews as they arrived in the death camps, but some said that they made that gestured a warning and others made it in order to taunt. Survivors talked about a deceiving cordiality from the guards, while the others talked about a brutal experience filled with confusion. Due to this the truth becomes almost irrelevant, the effect that those people's experiences have had on them is easily observed. It seems like somehow the past is defined by the present.
Healing seems to be tied in with the process of forgetting for these people, and since they are not capable to overlook the terror they experienced, healing seems impossible, until it becomes apparent that many of the people questioned have become distanced from their stories because they have told them over and over again.
Shoah" tells the story of…… [Read More]
The incidents of April 20, 1999 from Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado put bullying into a new perspective. Two students, Dylan Klebold and Ryan Harris, who were, for all intents, intelligent and well adjusted went on a killing spree. They killed and injured several members of the school including a teacher. (Rosenberg, 2000) Then they turned the guns on themselves. Their plans were grandiose. After the massacre, they intended to flee the country. Once the furor had died down, new information showed that the two students were generally reticent, withdrawn and subjected to bullying by their peers, especially the physically stronger students. Klebold and Harris were emotionally and physically abused. Isolated, they developed a hatred for their fellow students. This manifested in initial thoughts of suicide and then murder. Stories abound about bullying turned to tragedy abound. The Columbine incident was the biggest and got the most coverage.…… [Read More]
Lesson Learned in International Business
Ask yourself, what value added am I adding, producing above and beyond what was discussed in class?
The way that I am adding value above what is covered in class is through taking the ideas that were presented and using them in the real world on a practical basis. Too often, many business executives will become involved in transactions that will lead to conflicts of interest. In some cases, this is from the desire to lower costs (which will have an impact on a firm's labor practices). While at other times, these issues will take place because of changes in the company's business model. In every case, executives used these actions to engage in activities that will support their own self-interests. Moreover, they are ignoring the long-term impact of their actions on different stakeholders. (Abedelal, 2003) (Fung, 2006) (Kennedy, 2003) (Spar, 2002)
This is problematic,…… [Read More]
social loafing in many of my labs for science class. When we had labs with groups of just two, they would go pretty well. But if there were groups of more than two, it would take much longer to get the labs done. People would get into conversations or start goofing off and would lose focus. Or the people who weren't sure what they were doing would just sit on the sidelines and wait for others to do the work. I didn't notice this any more in the boys than the girls, though the people who tended to try to convince the group to focus were usually girls. I think that this phenomenon happened because people are less likely to be held individually accountable when they are in a group situation, so they don't perform as well.
Of the theories of love that we studied in class, I was most…… [Read More]
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…… [Read More]
Their anticipated and desired results for their education, personal or practical, may vary widely in unpredictable ways. The attitudes towards educational processes may differ due to the greater and more diverse social and life experiences that color perceptions of classroom life, even more so than the raw educational materials used in the classroom. The teacher must balance addressing individual needs through conferences, personal contacts, and allowing for more independent research, yet also strive even harder to create a coherent class dynamic and unity between individuals with different schedules and belief structures. This may require greater management on a technical level as well as greater personal finesse than might be expected by an educator with experience only teaching undergraduates.
Eskensberger (2001) on the subject of "Action Theory" provides some interesting supporting evidence to address the difficulties posed by a mixed classroom of old and young learners, or adult learners of diverse…… [Read More]
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…… [Read More]
The Role of a Photojournalist in Shaping the Syrian Narrative
This paper discusses the role of the photojournalist in shaping the Syrian narrative. The images that photojournalists create are used by a variety of media outlets, both mainstream like CNN and alternative like social media uploaders, to develop a narrative that promotes a perspective on events and advocates for a reaction from the public—either support for intervention or condemnation of the use of force by governments that are not directly involved in the conflict. The paper examines the gassing incident at Khan Shaykhun in Syria to see how photojournalism played a part in shaping the responses of the American president. It also examines how spectacle, soft power, embedded reporting, interventionism and the CNN effect all play a part in shaping the narrative built on the work of photojournalists.
The paper also discusses the impact of photojournalism in the Digital…… [Read More]
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…… [Read More]
According to The orld Commission on Environment and Development (CED), "Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." There are many issues related to this important concept that have global implications. The purpose of this essay is to discuss the issue of consumption and how it affects the ability of the environment to continue sustainable living. This essay will first describe the issue and illustrate key points that relate consumption with sustainability. The next part of this argument will discuss the role of businesses and corporations and their relationship with this issue. The essay will conclude with commentary and conclusions about the current trends and future responses to consumption and the potential implications for businesses.
The Issue of Consumption
Consumption is a unique term that relates to the sustainability of any system. It…… [Read More]
" (Paul v. Davis)
The majority went on to argue that it is almost impossible to guess at any logical stopping place to the afore-prescribed theory of reasoning. Davis' interpretation of the law as set out in his briefs would seem almost necessarily to manifest itself in every legally cognizable injury which may have been inflicted by a state official - of any sort, not just a police officer -- acting under "color of law" establishing a violation of the Fifth Amendment as extended to the 50 states by the aforementioned Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution.
According to the majority, "We think it would come as a great surprise to those who drafted and shepherded the adoption of that Amendment to learn that it worked such a result, and a study of our decisions convinces us they do not support the construction urged by respondent."
Section 4: The Result
Consequently,…… [Read More]
Bond no longer needs to rely on the past glories of the British empire to justify his disregard for local sovereignty and governance, because the omnipresent threat of terrorism serves as justification enough. Highlighting this point is the fact that the man Bond kills at the embassy is a freelance bomb-maker, the kind of ideology-free terrorist par excellence, at least when it comes to villains one can kill without many ethical qualms. Put simply, the all-encompassing need to defeat terrorism, as advanced by the United States and adopted by its allies (including Great Britain), serves to justify any act, whether one is talking about the kidnapping and torture of detainees in real life or the extraterritorial murder of someone in a foreign embassy in Casino Royale.
Charting the use of extraterritoriality in James Bond stories, across media platforms and through time, demonstrates how the character functions as a kind of…… [Read More]
Intenational Tade Between Bahain and Saudi Aabia
This is a pape on Tade between Bahain and Saudi Aabia, focusing on how it affects thei intenational tade elations with special attention to OPEC, GCC and the Qata dispute. It uses 22 souces in MLA fomat.
Both Saudi Aabia and Bahain ae membes of the Gulf Coopeation Council along with Qata, UAE, Kuwait and Oman. Unde the GCC Ageement, pefeential taiffs apply among the membe states. Since independence in 1971, Bahain has essentially pusued a libeal tade and investment policy, and has integated its economy closely with those of othe counties in the egion, though the Unified Economic Ageement of the Gulf Coopeation Council (GCC).
Tade and economic gowth in Bahain is stongly affected by vaiations in intenational enegy pices. Real GDP gowth, as a esult, was slowe duing the 1990s compaed with the pevious decade, aveaging aound 3.6% annually since 1994.…… [Read More]
Milgram's Obedience Study
Milgram's1 obedience study conducted in 1961 and 1962 examined the response of individuals to outright commands. The experiment conducted at Yale University has become one of the most controversial experiments ever conducted. The experiment revealed the tremendous amount of pain that human beings were capable of placing on other human beings when commanded to do so by an authority figure.
Milgram conducted a total of 20 experiments involving 1000 participants. Participants were told that the study would examine the effect of punishment on learning. They were studied in groups of two, one individual was the "teacher" and the other was the "learner." "The learner was led to an adjoining room and strapped into a chair that is wired to a wall to an electric shock machine."2 The "teacher" was then told to sit in front of the machine which had switches marked with different voltage levels. The…… [Read More]
Monkey Wrench Gang," by Edward Abbey [...] issue, where does Monkey Wrenching (the type of political activity in the Monkey Wrench Gang) fit into protest politics as a bridge to mass movement politics? Is Monkey Wrenching a part of the fabric of participatory democracy? Monkey Wrenching is clearly extraordinary politics, but does it have a place in our participatory representative democracy?
THE MONKEY WRENCH GANG
Participation in America may seem like a dying art, but every day, thousands of Americans participate in their communities, take care of others, and spout their political beliefs for the betterment of all. From grandmothers who read to children in their local library, to college student protesting the war in Iraq, citizens in America have the right to change the world, one person at a time. Edward Abbey's "The Monkey Wrench Gang" is a novel of participation at its best. The motley gang of four…… [Read More]
Cyberbullying Essay Outline
A. Bullying involves an imbalance of power between the victim and the bully.
B. Bullying is more than just isolated incidents of negative behavior; it requires repetitive behavior.
C. Cyberbullying occurs electronically, via the internet, cell phones, and social media.
II. Imbalance of power
A. Bullies have some type of power over victims.
B. There are different ways that bullies can exert power over victims.
1. Social power
2. Financial power
3. Sexual power
4. Group power
C. Bullying cannot be mutual, but bullies and victims can switch roles over time.
III. Bullying is repetitive.
A. Not all mean actions are bullying.
B. To qualify as bullying, behaviors have to be repetitive.
C. Not all acts of bullying have to be committed by one bully to be considered part of a repetitive pattern of bullying.
IV. Cyberbullying occurs electronically.
A. Cyberbullying can occur several ways:…… [Read More]
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…… [Read More]
Sexual Assault Treatment Center
Describe the social problem for the community
Sexual assault is a criminal sexual act, either physical or otherwise, committed by a perpetrator against a victim (usually a child) using physical, intimidation/force, or emotional manipulation. Sexual assault subjects the victim to the perpetrator's demands through use of coercion, force, manipulation or explicit/implicit threats. Sexual assault is considered criminal because the act is committed against a victim without seeking his or her consent. Sexual assaults are also considered wrong and criminal regardless of the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim or the religion, culture, sex, sexual orientation or age of the victim. In case the victim is a child, sexual assault is termed as sexual abuse. In sexual abuse an adult uses his or her position of power to satisfy their desires. As mentioned earlier, sexual assault can be with or without physical contact and it may…… [Read More]
individuals are much less apt to report unpleasant messages than pleasant ones. This so-called MUM effect could be caused by self-concern, care for the other person, or worry about social norms (osen & Tesser, 1970). However, research on rumors indicates that people do not always seem to have such constraints and transmit bad news readily. In "Bad News Transmission as a Function of the Definitiveness of Consequences and the elationship Between Communicator and ecipient," researchers Weenig, Groenenboom and Wilke (2001) argued it might be productive to analyze some differences between these two lines of research. They thus wanted to determine if certain factors existed that encouraged bad news transmissions. Based on ose and Tesser's results, they decided to research through directional hypotheses if it is easier to use rumors, or second-hand communication, to transmit bad messages, as well as if someone is more apt to relate a message to one…… [Read More]
A Problem with the law
This paper will focus specifically on police corruption and the ways in which to lessen and decrease instances of police corruption. The first section includes an introduction explaining the effects of police corruption from rapes to murder and how it impacts society. It also expresses the need to act, as the United States becomes more like the exceedingly corrupt African countries of Nigeria and South Africa. Comparison of other countries reveals a lack of authority and government as well as public safety concerns.
The other section explains and identifies the different forms of corruption that happen with police officers including: opportunistic theft, tampering of evidence, and accepting of bribes. When police officers commit these crimes, they are often not prosecuted. This is due to the lack of evidence of witnesses against them. Most police officers are trained to…… [Read More]
Lack of rewards for individuals, unintended rewards for loafing: Having some individuals who are collectively-minded paired with workers with a 'what's in it for me' attitude can result in the more generously spirited workers' good will being relied up, while others take credit.
A five best practices
1. Create a common work culture: Friends are often less likely to 'socially loaf' on work teams (Kunishima & elte 2004).
2. Using dispersed teams with a lack of social facilitation factors can be undercut by increasing levels of difficulty and responsibility "As tasks become more difficult and participants perceive they can make a unique contribution to the task, social loafing decreases" (Kunishima & elte 2004).
3. Task uniqueness -- by ensuring members of the work teams have specifically defined roles, there is less of a chance to feel as if others can pick up the slack (Kunishima & elte 2004).
5. Punishment…… [Read More]
Illinois Department of Conservation Police Law Enforcement
The American system of local governance for the purpose of maintaining parks and other recreational areas is political as well as democratic, and is based on certain citizens' awareness and desire to create better living conditions as far as environment is concerned, for the benefit of future generations. This entails preservation and conservation of natural parks and wildlife to a large extent. This is especially true in the case of the citizens of Illinois, who are always on the campaign for more open spaces, more parks, and more as well as better recreational facilities for its citizens. Officials are elected for the purpose of looking after and governing the problems that arise from these forests and natural forest preserves, and these officials do believe and also demonstrate the same determination and strongly idealistic beliefs of their predecessors, of the days gone by. The…… [Read More]
Of even more significance is that twelve states go ahead to extend litigation costs and attorney fees "to a shooter who prevails in a civil lawsuit, creating a strong disincentive for a shooting victim to pursue justice in the civil system" (Mayors against Illegal Guns 6)
The Reach of Stand Your Ground Law
Although the Stand Your Ground Law is largely and extensively linked to Martin's case, a 2012 investigation by Tampa Bay Times revealed that "the Martin incident is far from the only example of the law's reach" (Lee). The relevance of this law as a major factor in judges' decisions, acquittals, and prosecutors' decisions, some of which involved cases that did not result in the victim's death, cannot be overstated (Lee).
In 2012, a Louisiana court acquitted Byron Thomas of all charges relating to an incident in which the 21-year-old, after a marijuana transaction turned sour, opened fire,…… [Read More]
Furthermore, existing vulnerabilities of the airline industry are not taken into consideration until a disaster occurs. Lastly, the September 11th Security Fee introduced by the Department of Homeland Security was considered by many "as a beneficial trade off for their personal safety eventually," having as a direct consequence a rise of the airline industry.
Gregory Mankiw (2004) Principles of Economics, 3e, Mankiw
InnovativeThinker. (2007) Economic Profile of the Airline Industry. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from Associated Content, Inc. Web site: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/435732/economic_profile_of_the_airline_industry.htm
Wei, S. (2006). Analysis of aggregate Passenger Routes in Air Travel: An Atlanta-ased Study. Southeastern Geographer, Volume 46, Issue 1, page 139. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from web site: http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com
Recent Policy Initiatives to Raise Low Pay. (2004). Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from ACORN.ORG: https://www.acorn.org/index.php?id=203
FRSF Economic Letter. (January, 2002). Airline Competition. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from Olin usiness School- Washington University: http://www.olin.wustl.edu/faculty/gowrisankaran/pdf_papers/airline_competition.pdf
Virgin Territory (2006, September 30).…… [Read More]
Crossfire by Jim Marrs is an encyclopedic collection of information about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963. As a trained journalist, Marrs fills the more than six hundred pages of his book with details both commonly known and potentially revelatory. Virtually every conspiracy theory ever applied to the assassination is examined along the supporting and disproving evidence.
The biggest problem with this book is the sheer amount of information it provides. There are so many minute details covered, it is easy to loose sight of the big picture. For instance, regarding the pace of the motorcade through Dealey Plaza, Marrs offers the following:
The [Presidential] party had come to a temporary halt before proceeding on to the underpass." Phil Willis (p. 24)
A]fter the third shot, I heard Roy Kellerman tell the driver, 'Bill, get out of line.' And then I saw him move, and I assumed…… [Read More]
King County, WAshignton
Emergency Medical Service (EMS)
"Measure and improve" is the motto that drives King County EMS
Demographics of the System
King County, Washington - Overview
Economic Indicators from Census Data
Structural Attributes of the EMS System
Standard Setting and Enforcement
Division of Functions
Failure to Perform -- Consequences
King County EMS System Outputs
Prevention and Early Dectection
Bystander Action and System Access
911 Call Taking
First esponse Dispatch and Services
eceiving Facility Interface
HallMarks of HPEMS
Accounting of Service Costs
System Features that Ensure Economic Efficiency
System Features that Ensure Long-Term High Performance
King County EMS Performance Measures
Clinical Level 22
Esponse Time STandard 22
Cost Per Transport 25
Cost Per Unit Hour 25
Unit Hour Utilization 26
System Cost Per-Capita 26
Subsidy Per-Captia 26
eferences 29…… [Read More]
A few managed some whispered comments as he headed toward the back of the line.
Food Line at the School Cafeteria
This attempt was not very successful. The researcher cut in front of a female student in her late teens. She was appeared to be alone, and was carrying a laptop. She was looking down at the floor and did not seem like she was paying attention to anyone. She said nothing as the researcher stepped in front of her, though he saw her grimace slightly and then return to looking at the floor. Nevertheless, a group of seven or eight students behind her quickly noticed the researcher's presence. One of them turned loudly to his friends and cried, "Did you just see that? This guy cut in front." The researcher pretended not to notice and tried to continue looking blankly ahead. Almost immediately, he felt a strong tap on…… [Read More]
If anything, the fact that ordinary civilian students proved capable of such conduct on other civilians, even without the psychological stresses of a wartime combat zone and genuinely hostile prisoners, suggests that the risk of similar abuse in genuine wartime situations is much higher.
In Abu Ghraib, mixed units with different levels of training were operating in a hostile combat zone where they were subject to hostile action (i.e. mortar attacks) by the same forces from whom their prisoners were captured. Whereas at Guantanamo detention facilities guards worked in an environment of 1-to-1 prisoner-to-guard ratio, the Abu Ghraib facility sometimes required working in a 75-to-1 ratio of prisoners-to-guards (DOD, 2004). Zimbardo's study already demonstrated that anonymity is one conditions capable of "... stirring the crucible of human nature in negative directions." The other factors listed by Zimbardo include diffusion of responsibility, dehumanization, peers who model harmful behavior, bystanders who do…… [Read More]
hen the word terrorism or terrorist is spoken, the immediate image for most people is the likes of Al Qaida and the bombings of the London Subway or the 9/11 attacks on American soil. This is a very limited understanding of terrorist groups. In almost every nation, religion, and ethnic group, there are factions of individuals who are dedicated to a political cause. They are so dedicated that they are willing to commit acts of violence on a large scale in order to make their point and force those in power to satisfy their demands. Most often, these groups have an agenda which is antithetical to the aims and best interests of the larger population; something that does not matter to them. Terrorists will do whatever it is they deem necessary in order to achieve their ends. The base word terror explains exactly how they choose to force…… [Read More]
Incident Response to the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombings
Although named for its venue, the Boston Marathon is sponsored by a number of different cities in the greater Boston area and is held annually on Patriot’s Day which is the third Monday in April (About the Boston Marathon, 2018). First run as an all-male event in 1897, the Boston Marathon has since become an international event that draws both male and female contestants from around the world with a global audience. On April 15, 2013, two Kyrgyz-American brothers detonated two homemade bombs near the finish line of the Boston Marathon, causing hundreds of casualties – many of them severe and involving the loss of limbs – a well as three fatalities. The purpose of this case study is to provide an analysis of the effectiveness of the incident response to these bombings, including the role of first responders and the law…… [Read More]
Anti-Bullying as a Policy Change
Students have been bullied while at school since the beginnings of education. Originally they might have been bullied by the people who taught them, but much of that does not continue into the present say. However, students bullying other students does continue. Every child needs an advocate at their school whose function it is to make sure that they are not being bullied. Many times this happens informally when a school does not have a bullying program, but it can also happen formally. The need for advocacy programs within schools, both primary and secondary, that allow children to feel that they are safe from the time that they leave their homes until they arrive back at home in the afternoon is elemental. Because of the backlash that has happened at some schools due to being bullied, it is more vital than ever. Students…… [Read More]
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…… [Read More]
Capital punishment: Is it a deterrent to Cop Killings?
Capital punishment is the imposition of death penalty on persons condemned of a crime. (Americana, 596) Killing condemned criminals has been one of the most extensively practiced types of criminal punishment in the United States. Capital punishment has been enforced as a punishment for brutal offenses from the initial stages of documented history. The first evidence of death penalty in the United States dates back to the colonial period in 1608 in Jamestown. Possibly there do is no existence of any public policy matter connected to management of crime which has been explored and evaluated so long as the death penalty; in much diverse means than the death penalty; or in higher degree than the death penalty.
Expressed in an easy manner, the predicament is this: no crime control concern known by us more about than the death penalty and also…… [Read More]
Long-Term Impacts of Bullying
Bullying is an undesirable, hostile behavior exhibited by adolescents due to perceived and sometimes real power imbalance. This is a repeated behavior, or one that may be possibly repeated, as time goes on. Both the bullies and those bullied can develop long-term problems. For a child's behavior to be termed 'bullying', it must be a hostile behavior and include the following:
Power imbalance: Children who bully make use of their physical strengths, their access to information that could be considered embarrassing, or their popularity to harm or control the activities of other children. These imbalances in power can alter with time and circumstances, even when they involve the same set of people.
epetition: These bullying behaviors do not occur just once, or can occur recurrently.
Bullying behaviors involve certain actions like threatening others, physical and verbal attacks, spreading rumors about someone, or leaving someone out…… [Read More]
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…… [Read More]
Parents can team up with teachers and schools by asking for school conferences where they can address the issue of bullying, (Barreto). The parents can also keep a record of incidents of harassment and the ways in which the school handled these situations. They should also insist on the putting up of a bullying prevention committee if one is not already in place. In order for the committee to be effective, it needs to have representatives from administration, teachers, school mental health teams and parents.
2. Teachers should be encouraged to involve the students in creating rules for the classroom regarding bullying. They should have a serious talk with the bully and explain the unacceptability of the behavior as well as its negative consequences. Reports of bullying should not be left to deal with bullying on their own in the hope that the experience will make them stronger individuals, bullying…… [Read More]
hen found, these labs must be dismantled by people wearing hazardous material suits." (Halperin 2006-page 1)
ith the huge budget allocated to Homeland Security, many of the tech-savvy drug producers and dealers can be tracked and busted with the same type of weaponry they use to create the drug product in the first place. Homeland Security's budget allows for the purchase and training for officials. This training allows them the capabilities to combat the ever increasing sophistry of the drug dealers.
That a high percentage of the crystal meth drug dealers also consume their product is another potentially dangerous situation. The drug itself can lead to paranoia and psychological problems and if the drug dealer is ingesting the drug the result is that many times the environment in which the drug is being produced is one of great volatility, both due to the nature of the chemicals themselves as well…… [Read More]
And such an event, unfortunately, is all too possible, as evidenced by a review done by Bedau and adelet in 1987. The authors used a variety of published and unpublished sources to locate information on potential capital cases in the United States during the twentieth century. Of the cases identified, Bedau and adelet found 350 persons who had been wrongfully convicted of potentially capital offenses between 1900 and 1985. Of these, 139 were sentenced to die (Haines, 1996, p. 87-88). Thus, it is evident that capital punishment can end up reflecting very poorly on a society that practices it, in more ways than one.
The other reason why capital punishment can be said to be socially unjust is because, all too often, it is imposed indiscriminately against the poor and underprivileged sections of society, who also lack the means of better representation. This fact has been addressed in a wide…… [Read More]
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…… [Read More]
The ideas of Thomas Hobbes, the influential English philosopher who lived in the late 1500s to middle 1600s, are still considered important today. Hobbes is best remembered for his ideas on political philosophy. While Hobbes throughout his life championed the idea of absolutism for the sovereign he also is responsible for many of the fundamentals of Western political thought such as equality of men, individual rights, and the idea that all justifiable political power must be representative of the people (Edwards, 2002).
Hobbes also believed that human nature was such that people acted out of selfish-interests and if left to their own devices would do anything to get what they wanted or to acquire more power at the expense of others. Governments are then formed to shield people from their own selfishness; however he understood that even a King left unchecked would also act in a selfish manner…… [Read More]