Calculus Essays (Examples)

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Derivatives and Definite Integral

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34926082

Derivatives and Definite Integrals

Word Count (excluding title and works cited page): 628

Calculus pioneers of the seventeenth century such as Leibniz, Newton, Barrow, Fermat, Pascal, Cavelieri, and Wallis sought to find solutions to puzzling mathematical problems. Specifically, they expressed the functions for derivatives and definite integrals. Their areas of interest involved discussions on tangents, velocity and acceleration, maximums and minimums, and area. This introductory paper shall briefly introduce four specific questions related to these problems and the solutions that were sought.

In calculus, how a function changes in response to input is measured using a derivative. The derivative of a function is the result of mathematical differentiation. It measures the instantaneous rate of change of one certain quantity in relationship to another and is expressed as df (x)/dx. It can be interpreted geometrically as the slope of the curve of a mathematical function f (x) plotted as a function of x. The integral of a function can be geometrically interpreted as the area under the curve of the mathematical function f (x) plotted as a function of x (Nave).

How does the tangent line evolve from the secant line and how does the derivative relate to the tangent line?…… [Read More]

Nave, R. Derivatives and integrals. Hyper Physics, Retrieved from

Kouba, D.A. The Calculus Page, U.C. Davis Department of Mathematics., Retrieved January 25, 2011

Weisstein, E. Wolfram Mathworld. , Retrieved January 25, 2011
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Jeremy Bentham Tried to Establish

Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95472163

Smoking rates do seem to be down, as a result of sin taxes and smoking bans in public areas like restaurants.

However, although this might be an example of when Bentham's moral science might seem to work (although it is controversial how helpful mandatory sentences may be) it is hard not to think of a familiar phrase: "one man's meat is another man's poison" -- in short, what gives pleasure to some might not give pleasure to all. A good example of this might be a child who is starving for parental attention. The child begins to 'act out' and is punished. The parents think they are acting to deter the behavior, but in reality, rather than experiencing an intense and swift punishment, the child experiences the punishment as a kind of reward, because it is at least feels like some kind of attention. Another example might be that of an individual who enjoys flouting the law or ethics. Some people might like to take advantage of a corporate expense account, not so much for the pleasure given by the stole items, but the pleasure of getting away with a petty crime, which should not rationally exceed the possible painful…… [Read More]

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Utilitarianism the Philosophy of Utilitarianism

Words: 1787 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73817

Lastly, it runs counter to the view that morality is essentially related to the concept of justice. Many critics of this theory argue that, "morality is not based on consequences of actions. Instead, it is based on the fundamental concept of justice" (Lee). In the final analysis, the dilemma in utilitarianism is that it unable to deal with a wide range of moral issue and actins and, as such, tends to subvert a more comprehensive and wide ranging understanding of morality and ethics.… [Read More]


Consequentialism. Retrieved June 26, 2009, from

Hedonic Calculus. Retrieved June 26, 2009, from ttp://

Hostility and the Minimization of Suffering. Retrieved June 26, 2009, from

John Stuart Mill: Overview. Retrieved June 26, 2009, from
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Frequency Distribution Below Shows the

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38176982

The probability that both a and B. will occur is different from the probabilities that a will occur and that B. will occur.

Refer to the following data to answer questions 7 and 8. Just the answer

A random sample of song playing times in seconds is as follows:

7. Find the standard deviation. 28.65

8. Are any of these playing times considered unusual in the sense of our textbook? Explain. Does this differ with your intuition? Explain. The longest playing time, 293 seconds, could be considered somewhat unusual in that it is more than 1.5 standard deviations away from the mean, meaning more than 93% of data in the population (if normally distributed) would fall below this level -- 93% of songs would be shorter. Intuition says that this is not the case, and that though the song is longer this is simply part of the variation that exists in music.

Refer to the following situation for Questions 9, 10, and 11.

The boxplots below show the real estate values of single family homes in two neighboring cities, in thousands of dollars.

For each question, give your answer as one of the following: (a) Tinytown; (b) BigBurg; (c) Both…… [Read More]

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Personal Challenges Early on in

Words: 874 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69239900

During my junior year, I decided to undergo a significant change in my educational career, which is to transfer from Los Angeles to San Francisco. My decision to transfer to another school was anchored on two objectives. My first objective was to transfer to a school where I will develop my knowledge and know my limits in studying, particularly in the field of natural science. My second objective, meanwhile, was to attend a school that has a curriculum structure and format that complements my needs -- that is, to attend classes centering on natural science and mathematics.

It was noticeable during my junior year that I experienced difficulty in excelling in my humanities class. This was due to the difference in the format of teaching humanities between my old and new school. In the new school I enrolled in, humanities class was handled differently, requiring greater classroom (teacher-student) interaction, which my humanities class in my old school did not engage in. However, this difficulty was just a transitional phase; soon after I became acquainted with my new school's curriculum format and getting used to my new schedule and classes, I started improving my grades, and successfully excelled in my classes.…… [Read More]

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Art and Mathematics Are Related

Words: 2688 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96643501

Note the distinct similarities.

An examination of Escher's Circle Limit III can thus tell us much about distance in hyperbolic geometry. In both Escher's woodcut and the Poincare disk, the images showcased appear smaller as one's eye moves toward the edge of the circle. However, this is an illusion created by our traditional, Euclidean perceptions. Because of the way that distance is measured in a hyperbolic space, all of the objects shown in the circle are actually the same size. As we follow the backbones of the fish in Escher's representation, we can see, then, that the lines separating one fish from the next are actually all the same distance even though they appear to grow shorter. This is because, as already noted, the hyperbolic space stretches to infinity at its edges. There is no end. Therefore, the perception that the lines are getting smaller toward the edges is, in fact, a result of two-dimensional perspective drawing attempting to illustrate the nature of an infinite hyperbolic space.

Put another way, hyperbolic lines are represented by circular arcs perpendicular to the bounding circle of the disk, shown by the spines on the fish in Circle Limit III. Ever-decreasing Euclidean distances represent…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Corbitt, Mary Kay. "Geometry." World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia. World Book, Inc., 2003.

Dunham, Douglas. "A Tale Both Shocking and Hyperbolic." Math Horizons Apr. 2003: 22-26.

Ernst, Bruno. The Magic Mirror of M.C. Escher. NY: Barnes and Noble Books, 1994.

Granger, Tim. "Math Is Art." Teaching Children Mathematics 7.1 (Sept. 2000): 10.
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Ethics the Ford Pinto Case Offers an

Words: 1587 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11956081


The Ford Pinto case offers an ideal opportunity to apply utilitarian ethics to a real world situation. First, it is important to list the actors and stakeholders in this case. Lee Iacocca was the leader of the Ford Motor Company. He is credited with creating the inflexible parameters for the Pinto automobile as weighing no more than 2000 pounds and costing no more than $2,000. Therefore, the utilitarian analysis can and should apply primarily to Iacocca and his corporate brethren at the helm of Ford. It was their decision that led to the consequences associated with the poor design of the automobile, causing deaths.

However, the Ford Pinto case also highlights the ethical responsibilities of all members of the Ford Motor Company. In particular, the case showcases the role that engineers play in carrying out their jobs. It can easily be said that any engineer who felt that Iacocca's decision was unsound or unethical could have left his or her post with Ford Motor Company, but also that another engineer would have seamlessly replaced the other. The engineers are therefore more like passive actors, versus the more active decision makers in corporate headquarters. It is important to determine which…… [Read More]

Works Cited

DeGeorge, Richard T. "Ethical Responsibilities in Large Corporations."

Horas, Matthew R. "The Ford Pinto." Retrieved online:

"Utilitarianism" Trinity University. Retrieved online:
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Newton Sir Isaac Newton Isaac Newton Bio

Words: 703 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18754207


Sir Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton (Bio, N.d.)

Sir Isaac Newton is one of the most recognizable names in all of science. He was a mathematician, a natural philosopher, an inventor, an English physicist, and pretty much an all around genius. His work included the study of how light reacts to reflection, formulating laws of universal gravitation and motion, and building the first ever reflecting telescope. Newton arguably contributed more to the science than any single person in the entire history of science. Newton's book, Principia, is considered to be among the most influential science books in the history of science, possibly of mankind. In this book he provided the foundation for classical mechanics. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which have been the background of classical physics for over three centuries. Since Sir Isaac Newton was such an influential mind, I thought it would be fun to read about his life and his education. This report consists of some of the interesting tidbits I found about Newton.

Newton's Life

Isaac Newton was born in 1642 after his father passed away. Although his father was fairly prosperous, his family mostly consisted of a poor farming family…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bio. (N.d.). Isaac Newton Biography. Retrieved from Bio True Story:
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Dedicate Myself to an Interest

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90537785

I intend to pursue a career in medicine, a career that I regard as a calling as well as an aspiration. My sports activities have disciplined me, toughened me, and honed my competitive instincts in a way that I believe is necessary for pre-medical studies, and later, perhaps, for medical school. I intend to enter the health care field, either a practitioner, or perhaps from a business angle, as I have grown convinced, after seeing my own family's struggle with the bureaucratic aspects of the American medical system, that there is a need for an infusion of compassion and reform into the system from all areas, on the part of administrators as well as doctors.

At present, to give me a strong academic founding for my rigorous college studies in science and business, I am currently enrolled in three AP classes: Calculus AB AP, Psychology AP, and Spanish V AP. I hope these classes will give me a foundation in the sciences, and also sharpen my ability to understand and communicate better with those whom I serve. Additionally, after speaking with people through my charity work for whom Spanish is their first language, I have grown to appreciate how much…… [Read More]

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Attend the University of Toronto

Words: 306 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22223292

During my two years at the Sias Marketing Group, I have put the theories I learn every day into practice through various company projects. In these projects, I am often in charge of bringing together statistical data on marketing projects for analysis and further examination. While analyzing this data with the senior management of the corporation, I have gained valuable experience in the practical use of mathematics in combination with economic theories. I enjoy this type of work very much, and hope to continue to gain more experience and knowledge for my continued career success.

I feel my education and the experience in finance qualifies me for a chance to capture the crown jewel of the world of mathematical finance, and you will accept my application to attend the University of Toronto. I look forward to hearing from…… [Read More]

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Personal Statement for Pharmacy School

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50622349

Personal Statement for Pharmacy School

Pharmacy School is highly important to me as part of my career path, and I believe I am both personally and professionally well-qualified to attend and be successful. I have work experience in the pharmaceutical field, having worked at my aunt's pharmacy in the past. This work taught me a great deal about pharmacy as a profession, but also gave me a lot of insight about how to properly treat patients and interact with others. I consider myself more well-rounded because of the interaction I had with so many people during my time at the pharmacy. I smile frequently, consider myself a nice person, and have developed a high level of patience with people from all walks of life. In 2000, when I was 17, I came to the United States and earned my diploma from Valencia High School. Just a week later I began attending the summer semester at College of the Canyons. I was a pre-pharmacy major, in the Honors program, and a member of Educational Opportunity Programs and Services (EOPS).

I also performed volunteer work in the pharmacy at Henry Mayo Newhall Memorial Hospital in Valencia and wrote a diabetes research paper…… [Read More]

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Recommendation Letters

Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66657850

Pharmacy Personal Statement

Over the course of my life, I have been confronted with many obstacles, yet one core passion has kept me focused: that of my desire to enter the medical profession as a pharmacist. I came to the United States when I was seventeen, relatively late to enter the U.S. school system, but I was still able to become a part of the Honors Program at the College of the Canyons as a pre-pharmacy major, with a focus in chemistry. I had already worked at my aunt's pharmacy, and seeing how the work of a pharmacist could make such a difference in people's daily lives cemented my decision to pursue the profession. While at College of the Canyons I was a participant in the EOPS (Educational Opportunity Programs and Services) and volunteered at the pharmacy of Henry Mayo Newhall Memorial Hospital in Valencia. The latter enabled me to continue to learn about the field from a hands-on perspective. I also volunteered for the Cancer Society and tutored calculus. As part of the honors program I submitted a research paper on the treatment of diabetes.

I then transferred to Saddleback College where I became a member of pharmacy club…… [Read More]

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Philosophy of Education Math Field

Words: 1152 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86411019

Philosophy of Education

Norma Cunningham

I am a nontraditional student and I am returning back to college due to a job loss. I have been given a second chance at obtaining an education. Since I have been attending college, I was accepted into the nursing program, but I turned it down. I did this because I remember my dream has always been to be a math teacher. Everyone knows teachers are not in the profession for the money, and that nurses make more money, so people may ask, why a teacher? Well, I remember when I was growing up, every time someone would ask me what I wanted to be, I always answered, a math teacher. Certain teachers that I have had in the past, and present, have helped me decide that I want to spend the rest of my life teaching math. Helping any age student to learn math gives me chills, because, like those teachers, I love solving problems and trying to figure out the right answers. Like John Travolta sang in Grease, "I've got chills, they're multiplying." Ever since I graduated in 1976, math has been my passion. I helped my children with their math throughout their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bloom, B. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the classification of educational goals. New York: McKay.

Brown, J., & Duguid, P. (2002). Knowledge and organization: a social-practice perspective. Organization Science, 12(2), 198-213.

Elmore, R. (2002). Bridging the gap between standards and achievement: The imperative for professional development. Washington D.C.: Albert Shanker Institute.

Morrison, T. (1987). Beloved. New York: Penguin Group Inc.
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Jaime Escalante Hero Teaching Hope

Words: 1767 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4316610

movie Stand and Deliver (Menendez & Musca, 1988), which is based on the true story of Jamie Escalante, an individual who overcame ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic issues to become a highly successful mathematics teacher. Discuss the beliefs he held and the strategies he employed in his classroom that contributed to high achievement levels in his students.

The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) presents a three-pronged argument for an effective math curricula: 1) It must foster the successful mathematical performance of students in algebra and beyond; 2) it must be taught by experienced teachers of mathematics who instructional strategies that are research-based; and, 3) the instruction of the math curriculum must accomplish the "mutually reinforcing benefits of conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and automatic recall of facts" (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008, p. xiv). Jamie Escalante began teaching before this report was released, but he knew from experience -- and instinct -- that students who do not achieve mastery of foundational concepts of mathematics will face unforgiving -- perhaps harsh -- consequences in their lives (Won, 2010).

Frontrunner Excellence. A report published in 2006 by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics made recommendations for math curriculum that…… [Read More]


____. (2004, April 13). "Hero'" Teacher Escalante Addresses Students At Wittenberg Commencement May 9. Wittenberg University. Retrieved

____. (2008). National Mathematics Advisory Panel, Foundations for Success. The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 

Barley, Z., Lauer, P.A., Arens, S.A., Apthorp, H.S., Englert, K.S., Snow, D., & Akiba, M. (2002). Helping at-risk students meet standards: A synthesis of evidence-based classroom practices. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the Midcontinent Research for Education and Learning [Web]. Retrieved

Berkas, N., & Pattison, C. (2007, November). Manipulatives: More than a special education intervention. NCTM News Bulletin. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [Web] Retreived
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Understanding Criminal Behavior

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99511338

particular behaviors tend to cross into the realm of crime when they become obsessive and are actually acted upon. Apparently, many individuals within a society may actually think about committing crimes, but never take the actual physical steps to commit it in the flesh. Those who take precautionary measures and anticipate actions that represent the actual physical acting out of their thoughts is when behavior biases can become actual crime. One of the most appropriate schools of thought in criminology to explain this phenomenon is the theory of differential association. Originally described by Edwin Sutherland, differential association aims to explain deviance and how people go from thinking about criminal acts to actually committing criminal acts. Essentially, this theory believes that criminal acts and thoughts are learned through experience with crime. Criminal acts thus become a repercussion of intense motives, drives, and attitudes that have been learned by the individual through his or her experience within the society. Essentially, the individual lives in a world where they experience crime and thus they learn how to think and commit it from these experiences.

The media is very invasive in our everyday lives. It streams through 24/7 news programs and documentaries, making any…… [Read More]

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Three Mathematic Textbooks Review

Words: 1840 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99003285

Precalculus With Limits by Ron Larson

This book as well as the other two books are for college freshman level or college introductory level mathematics courses. The strengths of the book are mainly focused on its layout. For example, the book has a great way to demonstrate a varied and large amount of information easily and simply. This means that people reading the text just have to look for certain visual cues like colors or pictures that will point the information they seek. For example, the diagrams have a different background color than the text. All of this removes time spent looking for things. The use of bold also further differentiates the text, highlighting key words, phrases and things to memorize.

The weaknesses are in lack of context surrounding the topics and footnotes. Another book reviewed has footnotes and yet another provides adequate background for each topic. This book sacrifices breadth for efficiency. Although that is fine if people do not wish to see the whole picture of mathematics and in particular precalculus, it may not be as helpful for those that do. This is a small weakness as the book also provides many other features available online. However, it…… [Read More]


Larson, R., Hostetler, R., & Edwards, B. (2011). Calculus I, with precalculus (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Larson, R., Hostetler, R., Edwards, B., & Heyd, D. (2013). Precalculus with limits (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Mirsky, L. (2012). Introduction to Linear Algebra. Dover Publications.
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Nephropathy Recent Searches for Information

Words: 3031 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74023954

"Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening metabolic problem caused by inability of the kidneys to excrete potassium, impairment of the mechanisms that move potassium from the circulation into the cells, or a combination of these factors "FN12. The article states that acute episodes of hyperkalemia are commonly triggered by the introduction of a medication affecting potassium, and that illnesses and dehydration can also be factors. The physician must also be aware therefore that a common positive response by patients in these circumstances was to a sodium bicarbonate supplementation.

Another bit of information that might be important to the diagnosing physician would be that "elevated serum aldosterone causes the renal cortical collecting ducts to excrete potassium and retain sodium, further lowering serum potassium" FN13. Potassium levels should be monitored in an ongoing fashion to determine whether they are stable or not. Additional monitoring should take place for hypertension since twenty to sixty percent of diabetics are affected by it.

Antihypertensive agents are used to treat the hypertension and the physician should be aware when prescribing calcium channel blockers or ACE inhibitors, even though most studies have shown that ACE inhibitors do reduce the progression towards microabluminuria. One recent study showed that "a…… [Read More]


Pietrow M.D., P.K.; Karellas, M.D., M.E.; (2006) Medical management of common urinary calculi, American Family Physician, Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 86-94

Wolf, Jr. J.S., MD, FACS, Bloom, D.A. (2008) Nephrolithiasis,,, Accessed June 12, 2008

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse,(2007),, Accessed June 11, 2008

Thorp, M.L., D.O., M.P.H.; (2005) Diabetic nephropathy: Common questions, American Family Physician, Vol. 72, No. 1, pp. 96-99
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Bentham Principal of Utility Is

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75674368

Bentham also suggests that individuals would reasonably seek the general happiness simply because the interests of others are inextricably bound up with their own, though he recognized that this is something that is easy for individuals to ignore" (Sweet 2008).

Critical section: Raise two or three objections to Bentham's principle of utility. What reasons do you think we have to doubt that it is the fundamental principle of morality? It is often helpful to give concrete examples to illustrate your objections.

One obvious argument against Bentham's philosophy is that it is unrealistic to think that a decision-maker can easily determine the best, utilitarian interests of the majority in a disinterested fashion. Bentham's utilitarian decision-maker is presumed to be completely objective, but it is hard to imagine such an individual existing in the real world. Using moral laws, rather than a situational utilitarian calculus might seem to be superior to Bentham's hedonic calculus.

Another objection to utilitarian philosophy is the need to preserve minority rights. In the era of segregation in the American South, the majority of whites wanted the oppression of African-Americans to continue indefinitely. According to the hedonic calculus the 'pleasure' of whites in total population numbers would outweigh…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sweet, William. "Bentham, Jeremy." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. December 23, 2008.

[September 11, 2010].
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Psychology of Trust This Research

Words: 2580 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61539899

" (2003) in other words this is a trust based on possible rewards or possible punishment, or gains vs. losses. Over a period of time when the relationship is further tested trust evolves to 'identification-based trust which is stated to be the "highest level" of trust in that "the parties have internalized each other's desires and intentions. They understand what the other party cares about so completely that each party is able to act as an agent for the other." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) at this stage of trust Lewicki and Tomlinson state that "a strong emotional bond between the parties" (2003) has been formed.

Violations of trust occur when the individual holding "confident positive expectations of the trustee are disconfirmed." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) the result is lower trust because research has shown that violation of trust result in a stifling of "mutual support and information sharing" (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) and in organizations "exert negative effects on organizational citizenship behaviors, job performance turnovers and profits." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) Violation of trust generally results in the individual who has extended trust: (1) making a cognitive appraisal of the situation; and 2) experiencing a distressed emotional state." (Lewicki and…… [Read More]


Stages of Social-Emotional Development in Children and Teenagers (2007) Child Development Institute. Online available at

Rousseau, D.M., Sitkin, S.B., Burt, R.S., and Camerer, C. (1998). "Not so Different After All: A Cross-Discipline View of Trust," in Academy of Management Review, 23, 393-404. In Lewicki, Roy J. And Tomlinson, Edward C. (2003) Trust and Trust Building. Beyond Intractability. Online available at

Lewicki, Roy J. And Tomlinson, Edward C. (2003) Trust and Trust Building. Beyond Intractability. Online available at

Lewicki, Roy J. And Carolyn Wiethoff. "Trust, Trust Development and Trust Repair." In the Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice. Edited by Deutsch, Morton and Peter T. Coleman, eds. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 2000.
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Kant the Difference Between Acting

Words: 1722 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62623153

Guilt, it seems, is an emotion, and in an a priori, deontological account of morality, emotions do not factor into the judgment. This issue is less pronounced under Mill's view, but still, the issue of guilt seems to be missing from a strict utilitarian calculus (or, at the very least, it does not seem to be of great importance in the judgment). "Crimes and Misdemeanors," draws some inspiration from Dostoyevsky's Crime and Punishment, which provides an account of murder through the actions of Raskolnikov. When Raskolnikov confesses and is obviously in a state of psychological harm because he committed murder, then the reader is able to humanize Raskolnikov, and not see him and entirely heinous. Judah, however, is unrepentant, as he uncaringly moves past the murder, and experiences no sense of remorse. Under no circumstances is the murder defensible, but the severity of the action might be somewhat diminished by Judah's repentance. Neither Kant nor Mill, it seems, would be able to capture the full scope of the wrongness of the action, since their theories are move about actions, and not necessarily about character traits or emotions.… [Read More]


Kant, Immanuel. Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals; with, on a Supposed Right to Lie Because of Philanthropic Concerns. Translated by James W. Ellington. 3rd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub. Co., 1993.

Mill, John Stuart, and George Sher. Utilitarianism. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub., 2001.
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Gay Marriage Is a Topical and Controversial

Words: 2476 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81626139

Gay marriage is a topical and controversial issue, as evidenced by the subject's coverage in the media, presence on ballot initiatives and the high visibility of the controversy in general. There are a few different ethical issues where gay marriage is concerned. To opponents, the primary ethical issue relates to concepts such as the sanctity of marriage and the survival of the species. For proponents, the ethical issues are greater, relating to human freedom and the limits of government (and religion's) role in the lives of citizens. Gay marriage does not need to be controversial, however. Using classical ethical theories, it is easy to determine that gay marriage is not an unethical act or concept. The arguments against gay marriage become unwound quickly when examined rationally, as this paper intends to show.

Ethical Tools

The world of philosophy facilitates the analysis of complex issues from a number of different frameworks. These frameworks -- consequentialism/utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics -- are sometimes competing and sometime complementary to each other. They provide a means of analyzing complex issues with consistency, and this allows for conclusions to be drawn with a relatively high degree of objectivity. There is always the risk in using these…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2007). Deontological ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 10, 2011 from 

Driver, J. (2009). Utilitarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia o Philosophy. Retrieved November 10, 2011 from

Gaus, G. & Courtland, S. (2010). Liberalism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 10, 2011 from

Hursthouse, R. (2007). Virtue ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved November 10, 2011 from
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Isaac Newton Was Born in 1642 at

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 211156

Isaac Newton was born in 1642 at Woolsthorpe in England. His father died before Newton's birth and when his mother remarried, she went to live with her husband and left Isaac with her mother.

At 12, he was reunited with his mother after the death of her second husband; she desired to turn him into a farmer in order to support the family. Newton was not successful as a farmer and was able to return to school to complete his education.

He entered Cambridge University in 1661. He was an average student, but he became a scholar, which entitled him to another 4 years of future education. However, his education was interrupted in 1665, when the Great Plague came to Cambridge, forcing the closing of the university.

This resulted Newton returning home to study, and it was during his private study that he developed some of his most groundbreaking ideas, including: infinitesimal calculus, the foundations for his theory of light and color, and began to study the motion of the planets in depth.

Newton graduated and was elected a Fellow of Trinity College in 1667 and Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669.

He stayed at Cambridge through 1696 and wrote…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A&E Networks. "Isaac Newton." Biography. 1-7. 2013. Web. 7 Dec. 2013.

Hall, Alfred Rupert. "Isaac Newton's Life." Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences.

N.p. 1998. Web. 5 Dec. 2012.

Lamb, Robert and Tristan Hopper. "Top 10 Isaac Newton Inventions. How Stuff Works. 1-11.
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Leadership Characteristics That Facilitate School

Words: 5111 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17711430

Those administrators that are able to provide educators with this will more than likely have favorable opinions of the current strategy (from the staff and the public). While those administrators that are unable to achieve this objective, will more than likely face possible resistance issues to new ideas that are being presented. This will make creating a change in the educational environment more challenging, as educators will often view what is happening, with a certain degree of skepticism. At the same time, the positive or negative views of the educational values of the administration, will affect the general public. As they will often, view what is happening in a more controversial light that could be played out in the media. The key for effective educational leadership is: to address these issues and then help everyone to see how the new values could improve, the overall quality of education that is being received. A good example of this can be seen with Jaime Escalante. He was a teacher, who was sent to an East Los Angeles high school that was underperforming all of the other schools in 1974. At the time, he was hired to teach math, to students that many…… [Read More]


Charter Schools Program. (2010). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from: 

High School Drop Out Crisis Continues. (2009). CNN. Retrieved from:

Jamie Escalante Biography. (2010). Retrieved from:

Leadership Characteristics that Facilitate School Change. (2010). SEDL. Retrieved from:
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Risk Management CAPM and APT

Words: 2664 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2966411

RISK Management - CAPM and APT

Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory

The contemporaneous business community is extremely competitive, meaning as such that the organizational leaders strive harder than ever to overcome the competitive forces. Virtually, they have to hire and retain the best skilled staff members; they have to develop and offer the best quality products and services and they must be able to raise the interest of a vast and large customer base. All these constitute competitive advantages.

Yet, another element which has to be granted the adequate attention is that of the management of assets. The specialized literature offers a multitude of definitions of the concept of asset, yet the underlying idea is basically the same. Stickey, Weil and Schipper (2009) for instance argue that an asset is "a probable future economic benefit that a firm controls because of a past event or transaction" (p.108). The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (2009) provides the reader with a more generic definition of an asset, which is described as a thing that is owned by the organization and which can be sold in order to allow the company to pay its debts. Investopedia (2009) combines the two…… [Read More]


Bailey, R.E., 2006, The Economics of Financial Markets, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052184827X

Cheng, B., Tong, H., 2008, Asset Pricing: A Structural Theory and Its Applications, World Scientific, ISBN 9812704558

Fabozzi, F.J., Markowitz, H., 2002, The Theory and Practice of Investment Management, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471228990

Fabozzi, F.J., Focardi, S., Kolm, P.N., 2006, Financial Modelling of the Equity Market: From CAPM to Cointegration, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471699004
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Business Ethics Export Capital for

Words: 835 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9217075

However, the issue is more nuanced -- what if, as a humanitarian effort, a pharmaceutical company sold recently expired drugs at very low cost to an impoverished developing nation in the grips of an epidemic? What if a food company donated food that was safe but 'past its expiration date' to a famine-stricken nation? In this case, a utilitarian calculus would support such exchanges. The balance between the benefit of being cured or not starving to death and potential harm of bad drugs or food would suggest such a donation was ethical. From a Rawlsian point-of-view, imagining whether you were the producer or the consumer, it seems likely that 'you' the consumer would take a risk of eating safe but recently stale rice to avoid starvation, much like a producer would be happy to gain good publicity and unload goods that cannot be sold in the U.S. Everyone, in short, benefits, regardless of his or her position in the exchange.

Export commodities which have the potential for misuse. Specifically, did Nestle act irresponsibly in marketing infant formula to the Third World?

It is more difficult to apply the Rawlsian veil of ignorance principle to the example of Nestle in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shaw, W.H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson

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Evolution Over Time of Network

Words: 6372 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93470686

In actual fact, because of STCP's option of multiplicative amplify, STCP have to in stable state persuade congestion actions approximately all 13.4 round trip times, in spite of the connection speed. HSTCP encourages packet losses at a slower speed than STCP, but still much quicker than RCP-Reno.

3. Problems of the Existing Delay-based TCP Versions

In contrast, TCP Vegas, Enhanced TCP Vegas and FAST TCP are delay-based protocols. By relying upon changes in queuing delay measurements to detect changes in available bandwidth, these delay-based protocols achieve higher average throughout with good intra-protocol RTT fairness (Cajon, 2004). However, they have more than a few deficiencies. For instance, both Vegas and FAST suffer from the overturn path congestion difficulty, in which simultaneous onward and overturn path traffic on a simple bidirectional blockage connection cannot attain full link operation. In addition, both Vegas and Enhanced Vegas employ a conservative window increase strategy of at most one packet ever RTT, leading to slow convergence to equilibrium when ample bandwidth is available. Although possessing an aggressive window increasing strategy leading to faster convergence in high-speed networks, we shall see that, FAST has trouble grappling with uncertainty in the networking infrastructure.

Similar to Vegas and Enhanced…… [Read More]


B. Melander, M. Bjorkman, and P.Gunningberg, 2000. A new end-to-end probing and analysis method for estimating bandwidth bottlenecks. In IEEE GLOBECOM '00, volume 1, pages 415 -- 420.

C. Dovrolis, P. Ramanathan, and D. Moore, 2001. What do packet dispersion techniques measure? In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM '01, volume 2, pages 905 -- 914.

Cisco Systems Inc. NetFlow Introduction. 2008. (Accessed August 10, 2011)

C-S. Chang, R.L. Cruz, J-Y, Le Boudec, and P.THiran, 2002. "A min-+ system theory for constrained traffic regulation and dynamic service guarantees," IEEE/ACM Transaction on Networking, vol.10, no. 6, pp. 805-817.
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George Simply Paying Attention It a Long

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29321832

George simply paying attention. It a long drive back home family's winter vacation, Interstate coming downtown area city. His wife front. In backseat young daughter younger brother, feeling sick home.ID

George's dilemma: Kant vs. consequentialism (utilitarianism)

According to Kant's categorical imperative, the ethical actor must behave as if he is setting a law for all time, not merely dealing with the specifics of every ethical situation. Taking a bribe is wrong, and factors such as George's weariness, his son's illness, and other situational factors do not make the taking of the bribe less immoral. The categorical imperative is categorical because there are no conditions limiting its expression. It is stated by Kant: "I ought never to act except in such a way that I could also will that my maxim should become a universal law' (4:402). This is the principle which motivates a good will, and which Kant holds to be the fundamental principle of all of morality" (Johnson 2010).

A more colloquial formulation of the categorical imperative might be that 'two wrongs don't make a right'. This can be seen even in the example of George's speeding, an action which Kant would also disapprove of, given that the contingent…… [Read More]


Driver, Julia. (2009). The history of utilitarianism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Retrieved: >.

Johnson, Robert, (2010). Kant's moral philosophy The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
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College Worth It ' Weighs on

Words: 2549 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30049514

To some, that suggests that college is a more viable alternative for many of those who would otherwise have sought jobs in the manufacturing sector previously.

However, there are at least two reasons that such a conclusion may be invalid. First, while many manufacturing jobs have disappeared, many other types of technical jobs opportunities have emerged from numerous new technologies (Klein, 2012). Many of them require vocational degrees and certifications but no college degrees. For many people without specific interests in vocational applications of any college degrees being considered, training programs for these types of jobs is much less expensive, quicker, and more likely to lead to satisfying employment options than a college diploma in a random academic area or one of great intellectual value but few employment prospects outside of academia (Klein, 2012).

Second, vocational training, in general, has changed significantly in the last several decades. Specifically, whereas vocational education programs were previously considered a catch-all for students believed to be unsuited to the classroom and with limited vocational prospects available to students completing them, today's vocational training programs provide precisely the sort of preparation that leads directly to numerous relatively well-paid careers in which significant growth in demand…… [Read More]


Coy, P. (2009). "The lost generation." Business Week (October 19, 2009): 33-35.

Ewing, J. (2009). "Germany's answer: The apprentice." Business Week (October 19,


Hay, J. (2013). Question of 'Is college worth it?' weighs on local students. The Press
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Sir Isaac Newton The Story of a

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20975354

Sir Isaac Newton: The Story of a Scientist and a Scholar

The Life of Isaac Newton, by Richard Westfall, is a condensation of a much more detailed work, Never at Rest. By editing out a significant portion of the mathematics, Westfall provides a shorter version of his research that is more understandable to the general audience (iv). What is left is a highly detailed portrait of the famous English mathematician, physical scientist, and theologian, that is as intimate as possible, given the distance of time and the limited records that survive. Westfall tells the story chronologically, beginning with the earliest traces of the Newton family that can be found in the English tax records and tracing their gradual prominence in the village of Westby, located in Lincolnshire on the West Coast of England (3). Ultimately he describes the birth, on Christmas 1642, of Isaac Newton, the only son of a prosperous estate holder, born three months after his father's death (7). Fatherless, and made motherless as well after the forced banishment of Isaac to his grandparents by a new stepfather, his childhood does not seem to be a happy one given the surviving information. However, his contact with his grandparents…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Westfall, Richard. The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Westfall, Richard. Preface. The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993.
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White Collar Work

Words: 2072 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36361646

Growth of Industrialism and White-Collar Workers

Rise of professional or "knowledge" class (Peter Drucker)

Definition of professional -- denotation only

Demographic statistics on rise of white collar and professionals

Trend toward professionals as a specific labor union and class

Professionals as separate class above blue-collar and other white-collar workers. Connotation of word in today's society.

Fincham -- occupational strategy of professionals

MacDonald -- rise of professionalism built on lack of self-esteem, anxiety, internal conflict

Parry and Parry -- professional strategy as a form of upward collective mobility

Ehrenreich -- Need for professionals to be inclusive rather than exclusive

Questioning of why some skills required for advancement over others

Professionals as hedonists and self-centered needs

Need for societal changes with equality between different professions

Illich -- Rise of Disabling Professions

Pescosolido -- Changing attitudes of public toward medical professionals

Conclusion -- Need for public to increase skepticism and not put professionals on different plane.

From the end of the 1800s to World War I, the United States and its workers experienced a great deal of change. Industrialism was growing steadily after the Civil War, bringing both positive transformations as well as difficult challenges. These decades also saw the rapid rise of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AFL-CIO Department for Professional Employees. The Professional and Technical WorkForce: A New Frontier for Unions. Report issued February 2001. Washington, DC: DPE Publications.

Border Talk." Interview with Barbara Ehrenreich. PBS website. Retrieved 9 April 2004. 

Drucker, Peter. "The Next Society." Economist. November, 2001. (23-29)

Ehrenreich, Barbara. Fear of Falling: The Inner Life of the Middle Class. New York: Perennial, 1990.
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Symptoms of Periodontitis Smoking and

Words: 3837 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64949452

According to the research conducted by Silverstein et al., (2000), the pressure used to place the probe tip at the base of the periodontal sulcus is approximately 50 N/cm2 and at the base of the junction epithelium is 200 N/cm2. A tip diameter of 0.6 mm is needed to reach the base of the sulcus. Clinical inflammation does not reflect the severity of histological inflammation, and the recordings may not illustrate probing depth. Therefore, probing depth does not identify anatomical locations at the base of the sulcus. Probe tips must have a diameter of 0.6 mm and a 0.20 gram force (50 N/cm2) to gain a pressure which demonstrates estimated probing depth. This pressure is useful for the measurement of the reduction of clinical probing depth, which includes the formation of a long junctional epithelium as a result of treatment. but, different forces or diameter tips are essential for the measurement of healthy or inflamed histological periodontal probing depths.

A research was done to establish whether probing force had an influence on the amount of clinical attachment-gain assessed after treatment by scaling and root planing. A probing device was constructed which permitted concurrent monitoring of probing force and probe penetration…… [Read More]


Chaves et al., (1993). Clinical oral research. Journal of Clinical Periodontol, 139-43.

Fowler, et al., (1982). Histologic probe position in treated and untreated human periodontal tissues. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 9, 373-385.

Gerber et al., (2009). Clinical Oral Implants Research. Journal of Periodontology, 20(1):75-8

Heins, et al., (1998). Pain threshold values during periodontal probing: assessment of maxillary incisor and molar sites. Journal of Periodontology, 69, 812-818.
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Augustine Is a Christian Father of the

Words: 3225 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53497886

Augustine is a Christian father of the late Roman Empire -- the traditional date of the "fall" of the Roman Empire is about a half-century after Augustine's death -- while Thomas Aquinas is a thinker of the medieval period. It is worth noting this substantially large time difference -- eight hundred years separates Augustine from Aquinas, just as another eight hundred years separate Aquinas from ourselves -- because we need to see Christian thought within its proper historical context. Augustine helped to consolidate early Christian doctrine, while almost a century later Aquinas served to make Christian doctrine congruent with classical (i.e., Aristotelian) science.

To understand Augustine's ethical thought within its proper context, we need to understand the centrality of the concept of original sin in Augustine's thinking. One of the clearest ways in which Augustine personally tried to clarify the doctrine of original sin was in his context with Pelagius and the Pelagian Heresy. Now the Pelagians had a reputation for a sort of sunny optimism regarding certain human phenomena, like (for example) marital love. The Pelagians believed that human love and certain other experiences were entirely redeemed on earth by God's grace, and thus perhaps gave some sense of…… [Read More]


Aquinas. (1947). Summa theologica. Accessed at:

Augustine. (1955). Confessions. Ed. And trans. A. Outler. Grand Rapids: Christian Classics Ethereal Library.

Hobbes, T. (1651). Leviathan. Accessed at:

Hume, D. (1740). A treatise of human nature. Accessed at:
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Ethical Theory Ethics Given What

Words: 1039 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56274907

Utilitarianism is most often used by healthcare organizations like insurance companies: to keep costs down for the many, a potentially valuable treatment may be denied to the individual because it is deemed experimental or unnecessarily costly. As unpalatable as the idea may be, no patient can be tested for every single conceivable illness he or she might contract. There must be some prioritization of high-risk groups. During his or her duties, a nurse may often ration her time, prioritizing where it will do the greatest good for the greatest number of people, based upon the severity of their need. However, in other instances a nurse may need to deploy the categorical imperative and state that something is clearly wrong or right, regardless of a financial calculus. A nurse must care for all patients to the best of his or her ability and preserve patient autonomy and privacy unless the patient poses a risk to him or herself and others. The nurse must obey the law and the professional ethics of nursing.

However, within the nursing profession, perhaps the most frequently-cited term relating to ethics pertains to 'care.' Care ethics stresses the need to foster relationships with others, such as patients…… [Read More]

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Role of Professional Engineers This

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84068821

In terms of their personal attributes, engineers should be natural problem solvers (Johnston, McGregor, & Taylor, 2000).

Because modern engineering involves such powerful and dangerous forces, professional engineers have a profound ethical responsibility to establish appropriate principles to ensure safety. The consequences of failure in engineering can result in injury or death to human beings, or even to entire human communities (Vee & Skitmore, 2003). For example, bad engineering decisions in bridge, highway, and building design and construction can threaten the lives of thousands of human beings every day. To protect society from poor engineering, the field has established formal educational requirements and a test of professional competence. Professional engineering licenses require satisfaction of qualifying educational programs and a minimum score on an objective licensing exam (Johnston, McGregor, & Taylor, 2000).

Once in professional practice, engineers must also adhere to the code of ethics used to establish important standards and safeguards at every level of engineering (IEA, 2000; Harris, Pritchard, & Rabins, 2008). In addition to human safety-related issues, engineering cods of ethics also outline many rules that ensure honesty and ethics at every level of the profession. That includes business decisions and fiduciary responsibilities to clients as well as…… [Read More]


Harris, CE., Pritchard, MS., and Rabins, MJ. Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases.

(2008). Cengage Publishing.

Institution of Engineers Australia (2000). Engineers Australia Code of Ethics. Accessed 1 Sept 2010, from:
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Saving Adam Smith by Jonathan

Words: 1497 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71071955

Modern capitalist philosophy has been advanced in a way that has little to do with what Smith really thought and taught. Smith believed that the invisible hand operated in a societal context. The reason Smith had such a positive philosophy of freedom was that he believed that human beings, would behave best if not compelled to merely serve the personal interests of a sovereign. Humans had a right to self-determination and to serve their own interests. However, when competition was threatened -- for example, when individuals by fair means or foul gained too much market power and created monopolies -- then it was appropriate for the government to step in. Smith believed that self-interest could prove to be beneficial to others but he did not believe that selfishness was an end in and of itself.

Justice and democracy are necessary for capitalism to function, but the rampant selfishness and lack of compassion advocated by current free market zealots is antithetical to democracy. Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments, stresses that "justice is the pre-condition for social order. Upon that foundation you will build commerce" (Wight 2003, p. 85). This is a radical notion because right-wing economists have tended to stress that…… [Read More]


Bodenheimer, Thomas & Robert Gould. The Reagan Doctrine: Third World Rollback.

From Rollback. South End Press, 1989.

Overbye, Daniel. (2009, March 9).They tried to outsmart Wall Street. The New York Times.

Retrieved April 25, 2010 at
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Convenience Banking Bb& t - Convenience

Words: 2868 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17480843

Another issue worth mentioning is that prior to the acquisition of 2007, the BB&T employees were already being offered training programs in convenience banking. The programs were basically revolving around the techniques which would be implemented by the organization. In this order of ideas, the most focus was placed on the De Le Rue coin counting machine and the Datacard 150i instant issue debit card machine. Employees were taught how to operate, maintain, balance and audit the according operations. Emphasis was also placed on the Relationship Bankers in reference to the new account bounding process including free gifts and the Refer-a-Friend process. The improvement plan sees the continued training programs which teach staff members how to most efficiently operate the new systems and how to explain their benefits and functionality to the customers. Also, BB&T should remain channelled on the emergent changes affecting the market and the industry and should develop ways of integrating the new demands and features.

Coin Deposit Center

The coin deposit center was developed keeping in mind the benefits it could generate upon the operations of the BB&T Corporations. The machine allows customers to deposit their coins without having to count or denominate. This means that…… [Read More]


2009, BB&T Corporation, Hoovers, -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtmllast accessed on February 9, 2009

2009, Website of the BB&T Corporation, accessed on February 9, 2009

2007, InSite Communicating Within, BB&T Insite

Coastal Federal Bank Unveils the Carolina's Most Convenient Bank, PR Newswire
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Educational Philosophy Statement What Do

Words: 1205 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6351442

Mathematics has its own internal logic and creates and obeys its own 'rules,' just as a beautiful picture obeys the rules of proportion (or deliberately violate but acknowledges the rules of form as seen in the artwork of Picasso). Great art or important science holds true to the logical rules of a discipline. What is good in art and science holds true to valid principles of a correspondence to reality, and instructs people in the true nature of the world.

The heart of both great art and science is philosophy, and the Greek philosopher Plato once said that the only thing someone needed to be a great philosopher was a "passion is to see the truth." Great artists, scientists, philosophers and great individuals who do goof things by inspiring others to good all have a passion for the truth. This kind of passion for truth inspired Keats to write his great poem, even though it challenged conventional Victorian mores about desire. This passion for the truth inspired Galileo to tell the truth about his calculations regarding the earth's place in the solar system. And this passion for truth motivated Socrates to ask probing questions about reality, even when it made…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Keats, John. "Ode to a Grecian Urn." Quiller-Couch, Arthur Thomas, Sir. The Oxford Book of English Verse. Oxford: Clarendon, 1919, [c1901];, 1999. Retrieved January 15, 2008 at 

Plato. (2007). Philosphy Pages. Retrieved January 15, 2008 at

Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. Shakespeare Homepage. Retrieved January 15, 2008 at

Educational philosophy statement
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Blaise Pascal Bio Blaise Pascal's

Words: 2266 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77340896

The problem, first posed by an Italian monk in the late 1400s, had remained unsolved for nearly two hundred years. The issue in question was to decide how the stakes of a game of chance should be divided if that game were not completed for some reason. The example used in the original publication referred to a game of balla where six goals were required to win the game.

If the game ended normally, the winner would take all. But what if the game stopped when one player was in the lead by five goals to three? In seeking a solution to the problem, Pascal entered into correspondence with the lawyer and mathematician Pierre de Fermat. Between the two of them they laid the foundations of modern probability theory. What Fermat and Pascal realized was that the solution came from listing all of the possibilities and then counting the proportion of the time that each player would win.

From this approach, Pascal derived more general results and developed rules of probability. While Pascal's contribution to probability theory was undoubtedly substantial, it was just the beginning. Importantly, his analysis did not stretch to more realistic situations where a finite number of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Connor, James a. Pascal's Wager. New York: Harper Collins, 2006.

Hald, Anders. A History of Probability and Statistics and Its Applications before 1750. Indiana:

Wiley Publications, 1990.

Kisacanin, Branislav. Mathematical Problems and Proofs. New York: Kluwer Academic
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Business Ethics Recognizing and Resolving

Words: 2980 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81658066

The Bank CEO's Role in Defining Ethical Integrity

Based on a thorough review of existing literature of the role of ethics in the banking industry, the role of the CEO as the ethical leader of their organization is next discussion. Based on the concepts presented in the paper to this point as the foundation, these key points provide insights into how CEOs and senior management actively shape the ethical standards of the organizations they manage on behalf of shareholders.

Risk Management Is a CEOs' Ethical Responsibility combination of forces -- changing regulatory expectations that open companies up to intense levels of examination, heightened stakeholder sensitivity to and scrutiny of corporate behavior, and the severity of punishment by financial markets for corporate missteps -- push reputation and ethics management onto the CEOs' and senior managements' agenda. The paradox CEOs face is when to risk the reputation and brand of the company and engage in risky decisions for the sake of incremental gain or to realize greater cost savings. There are few positions in any industry that have such a direct interrelationship between ethics and brand performance, and also the long-term stability of their clients' financial conditions and the broader condition of…… [Read More]


John Bond (2007). A safety culture with justice: A way to improve financial performance. Loss Prevention Bulletin,(196), 31-39. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1333256011).

Donald R. Cassling (2008). Poehl v. Countrywide Home Loans, Inc. The Banking Law Journal, 125(9), 865. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1571291211).

Chris Churchill (2007). State targets lender ethics: Mortgage brokers must get training, undergo criminal checks starting next year. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Dateline database. (Document ID: 1335614991).

Greenberg, J. (1990). Employee theft as a reaction to underpayment inequity: The hidden cost of pay cuts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 561-569.
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Isaac Newton Maverick With a

Words: 1203 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9490001

These ideas are still taught today because the "still adequately account for most problems of motion" (Noble 724).

Jay Pasachoff claims that Newton revolutionized astronomy by setting "modern physics on its feet by deriving laws showing how objects move on the Earth and in space" (Pasachoff 41). Simplistically, this is the train of thought that birthed the law of gravity. Newton was the first person to ever realize the "universality" (41) of gravity. Perhaps the most fascinating aspect of this creation involves that fact that in order for this new law of gravity to work, Newton had to invent calculus. His brilliance lies in the fact that he was able to connect the fact that the same force that forced objects to the ground was the same force that moved objects in space. He was able to comprehend how the moon was "falling" toward the earth. Newton developed his law of motion around the ideas that were already advanced by Galileo and others. This law states that objects tend to remain at rest or in uniform motion unless another outside force changes its state. Amazingly, this idea goes back to Aristotle who thought that forces must be applied to objects…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boorstin, Daniel. The Discoverers. New York: Random House. 1983.

Craig, Virginia. "Biography: Isaac Newton." The American Mathematical Monthly. 8.8. 1901. JSTOR Resource Database. Information Retreived October 5, 2008.

Noble, Thomas, et al. Western Civilization: The Continuing Experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1994.

Pasachoff, Jay. Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing. 1991.
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Education Philosophy - Curricula Considering

Words: 1942 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12925529

Therefore, instead of requiring non-science majors to enroll in general studies science courses such as biology, chemistry, or "physics for non-majors," the only mandatory science instruction should be courses that relate more directly to useful information. For example, obesity is a virtual epidemic in American society; therefore, a science class in practical nutrition makes mush more sense than the traditional focus of science courses for non-majors. Similarly, computer use classes would be more useful, as would classes emphasizing the logical scientific method rather than substantive science subject matter. Perhaps if mandatory scientific courses related more directly to useful information and to beneficial intellectual processes, American presidential election politics would not feature potential candidates with college (and advanced academic) degrees who still believe that Creationism or "Intelligent Design" are more plausible explanations for the existence of human life than Darwinian evolutionary theory.

As pertains to the study of foreign languages, it is true that bilingual capacity is becoming more and more beneficial in a shrinking global society. However, to the extent that mandatory foreign language studies is justified by this reality, it would make much more sense to (1) impose any such requirements on primary (and perhaps) secondary school students rather…… [Read More]


Carter, J. (2001) an Hour Before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood. New York: Touchstone.

Gardner, H. (1991) the Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach. New York: Basic Books.

Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.

New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Security Explain the Endurance of

Words: 3199 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65161297

S.-USSR confrontation ended, the future of the alliance would lie in its role to strike a balance between the new poles of power that would emerge in the coming decades.

Due to the lack of vision concerning the future evolution of the international system, there was little agreement on how to actually proceed in reestablishing and redefining the role and scope of NATO. This is why some scholars considered that the immediate years following the end of the Cold War were marked by a high degree of uncertainty arguing that the aims set forth in 1991 were vague and without a clear determination in time and space (Foster and Williams, 2001). The leaders of the Alliance needed, according to the realist and neorealist vision a new common threat or common goal that would keep the Cold War unity unchanged. In this sense, Europeans considered the cooperation with the U.S. To be security insurance, while the American side viewed NATO as a means to exercise its influence in terms of security in general (Cottey, 2004). This in turn would lead to the maintenance of unity inside the Alliance. Despite the theoretical aspects, the main result of this time of searching was…… [Read More]


Borawski, J. 1995. Partnership for Peace and beyond. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 71, No. 2. pp. 233-246

Boulden, J. NATO and the United Nations during UNPROFOR. N.d.

Calvocoressi, P. 1987. World politics since 1945. Longman, New York.

Cornish, P. 2004. NATO: the practice and politics of transformation. International Affairs 80.
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1 As She Suffers From

Words: 2770 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15201917

Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HERS study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HRT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but do not affect the endometrium or the breast tissue. These
medications two years show a modest increase in bone mineral density but
there has been evidence of an increased incidence of thromoembolic disease.

Bisphosphonates inhibit bone resporption and generally have minimal
side effects, and can be used for treatment and…… [Read More]

1. Libanati CR, Baylink DJ. (1997) Prevention and treatment of
glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. A pathogenetic
perspective. Chest. 102:1426-35.
. 2. Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, et al. Prevention of
corticosteroid osteoporosis: A comparison of calcium,
calcitriol and calcitonin. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1747-1752
2. Heaney RP. (1998) Pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Endocrin
Metabol Clin North Am.;27:255-65.
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Danish in April 2004 Danish

Words: 4304 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2284365

In 1918 Iceland became independent but remained under the rule of the Danish king. At the end of the war a plebiscite showed a 75% pro-Danish majority and the North Slesvig was once again reunited with Denmark (Miller 224).

As World War I was coming close and Denmark remained neutral Jews started moving to the country. There are no exact statistics since many of these immigrants were wary of the authorities, but as many as twenty to thirty thousand Eastern European Jews may have entered Denmark during this period and approximately 3,000 stayed permanently, thus doubling the Jewish population (Hammerich in Kisch). More did not stay because the existing assimilated Jewish community wanted to pay their passage out; they believed their position in society was threatened and latent anti-Semitism would spread. The Jewish congregation even actively cooperated with authorities such as the police to expel unemployed or unwanted individuals from the country. Some Danish Jews attacked the immigrants for being mere draft dodgers and undesirables (Hammerich in Kisch).

The years right before the war showed great economic and political unrest. The Social Democrats and the Radicals united to form a coalition government headed by Social Democratic Thorvald Stauning, which lasted…… [Read More]


Buckser Andrew. After the Rescue. New York: MacMillan, 2003

Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University, 2001

Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1979

Kische, Conrad. The Jewish Community in Denmark: History and Present Status.