Calculus Essays (Examples)

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Derivatives and Definite Integral

Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34926082

Derivatives and Definite Integrals

Word Count (excluding title and works cited page): 628

Calculus pioneers of the seventeenth century such as Leibniz, ewton, Barrow, Fermat, Pascal, Cavelieri, and Wallis sought to find solutions to puzzling mathematical problems. Specifically, they expressed the functions for derivatives and definite integrals. Their areas of interest involved discussions on tangents, velocity and acceleration, maximums and minimums, and area. This introductory paper shall briefly introduce four specific questions related to these problems and the solutions that were sought.

In calculus, how a function changes in response to input is measured using a derivative. The derivative of a function is the result of mathematical differentiation. It measures the instantaneous rate of change of one certain quantity in relationship to another and is expressed as df (x)/dx. It can be interpreted geometrically as the slope of the curve of a mathematical function f (x) plotted as a function…… [Read More]

Nave, R. Derivatives and integrals. Hyper Physics, Retrieved from 

Kouba, D.A. The Calculus Page, U.C. Davis Department of Mathematics. , Retrieved January 25, 2011

Weisstein, E. Wolfram Mathworld. , Retrieved January 25, 2011
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Jeremy Bentham Tried to Establish

Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95472163

Smoking rates do seem to be down, as a result of sin taxes and smoking bans in public areas like restaurants.

However, although this might be an example of when Bentham's moral science might seem to work (although it is controversial how helpful mandatory sentences may be) it is hard not to think of a familiar phrase: "one man's meat is another man's poison" -- in short, what gives pleasure to some might not give pleasure to all. A good example of this might be a child who is starving for parental attention. The child begins to 'act out' and is punished. The parents think they are acting to deter the behavior, but in reality, rather than experiencing an intense and swift punishment, the child experiences the punishment as a kind of reward, because it is at least feels like some kind of attention. Another example might be that of…… [Read More]

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Frequency Distribution Below Shows the

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38176982

The probability that both a and B. will occur is different from the probabilities that a will occur and that B. will occur.

Refer to the following data to answer questions 7 and 8. Just the answer

A random sample of song playing times in seconds is as follows:

7. Find the standard deviation. 28.65

8. Are any of these playing times considered unusual in the sense of our textbook? Explain. Does this differ with your intuition? Explain. The longest playing time, 293 seconds, could be considered somewhat unusual in that it is more than 1.5 standard deviations away from the mean, meaning more than 93% of data in the population (if normally distributed) would fall below this level -- 93% of songs would be shorter. Intuition says that this is not the case, and that though the song is longer this is simply part of the variation that exists…… [Read More]

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Personal Challenges Early on in

Words: 874 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69239900

During my junior year, I decided to undergo a significant change in my educational career, which is to transfer from Los Angeles to San Francisco. My decision to transfer to another school was anchored on two objectives. My first objective was to transfer to a school where I will develop my knowledge and know my limits in studying, particularly in the field of natural science. My second objective, meanwhile, was to attend a school that has a curriculum structure and format that complements my needs -- that is, to attend classes centering on natural science and mathematics.

It was noticeable during my junior year that I experienced difficulty in excelling in my humanities class. This was due to the difference in the format of teaching humanities between my old and new school. In the new school I enrolled in, humanities class was handled differently, requiring greater classroom (teacher-student) interaction, which…… [Read More]

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Art and Mathematics Are Related

Words: 2688 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96643501

Note the distinct similarities.

An examination of Escher's Circle Limit III can thus tell us much about distance in hyperbolic geometry. In both Escher's woodcut and the Poincare disk, the images showcased appear smaller as one's eye moves toward the edge of the circle. However, this is an illusion created by our traditional, Euclidean perceptions. Because of the way that distance is measured in a hyperbolic space, all of the objects shown in the circle are actually the same size. As we follow the backbones of the fish in Escher's representation, we can see, then, that the lines separating one fish from the next are actually all the same distance even though they appear to grow shorter. This is because, as already noted, the hyperbolic space stretches to infinity at its edges. There is no end. Therefore, the perception that the lines are getting smaller toward the edges is, in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Corbitt, Mary Kay. "Geometry." World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia. World Book, Inc., 2003.

Dunham, Douglas. "A Tale Both Shocking and Hyperbolic." Math Horizons Apr. 2003: 22-26.

Ernst, Bruno. The Magic Mirror of M.C. Escher. NY: Barnes and Noble Books, 1994.

Granger, Tim. "Math Is Art." Teaching Children Mathematics 7.1 (Sept. 2000): 10.
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Newton Sir Isaac Newton Isaac Newton Bio

Words: 703 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18754207


Sir Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton (Bio, N.d.)

Sir Isaac Newton is one of the most recognizable names in all of science. He was a mathematician, a natural philosopher, an inventor, an English physicist, and pretty much an all around genius. His work included the study of how light reacts to reflection, formulating laws of universal gravitation and motion, and building the first ever reflecting telescope. Newton arguably contributed more to the science than any single person in the entire history of science. Newton's book, Principia, is considered to be among the most influential science books in the history of science, possibly of mankind. In this book he provided the foundation for classical mechanics. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion which have been the background of classical physics for over three centuries. Since Sir Isaac Newton was such an influential mind, I thought it would be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bio. (N.d.). Isaac Newton Biography. Retrieved from Bio True Story:
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Dedicate Myself to an Interest

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90537785

I intend to pursue a career in medicine, a career that I regard as a calling as well as an aspiration. My sports activities have disciplined me, toughened me, and honed my competitive instincts in a way that I believe is necessary for pre-medical studies, and later, perhaps, for medical school. I intend to enter the health care field, either a practitioner, or perhaps from a business angle, as I have grown convinced, after seeing my own family's struggle with the bureaucratic aspects of the American medical system, that there is a need for an infusion of compassion and reform into the system from all areas, on the part of administrators as well as doctors.

At present, to give me a strong academic founding for my rigorous college studies in science and business, I am currently enrolled in three AP classes: Calculus AB AP, Psychology AP, and Spanish V AP.…… [Read More]

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Attend the University of Toronto

Words: 306 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22223292

During my two years at the Sias Marketing Group, I have put the theories I learn every day into practice through various company projects. In these projects, I am often in charge of bringing together statistical data on marketing projects for analysis and further examination. While analyzing this data with the senior management of the corporation, I have gained valuable experience in the practical use of mathematics in combination with economic theories. I enjoy this type of work very much, and hope to continue to gain more experience and knowledge for my continued career success.

I feel my education and the experience in finance qualifies me for a chance to capture the crown jewel of the world of mathematical finance, and you will accept my application to attend the University of Toronto. I look forward to hearing from…… [Read More]

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Personal Statement for Pharmacy School

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50622349

Personal Statement for Pharmacy School

Pharmacy School is highly important to me as part of my career path, and I believe I am both personally and professionally well-qualified to attend and be successful. I have work experience in the pharmaceutical field, having worked at my aunt's pharmacy in the past. This work taught me a great deal about pharmacy as a profession, but also gave me a lot of insight about how to properly treat patients and interact with others. I consider myself more well-rounded because of the interaction I had with so many people during my time at the pharmacy. I smile frequently, consider myself a nice person, and have developed a high level of patience with people from all walks of life. In 2000, when I was 17, I came to the United States and earned my diploma from Valencia High School. Just a week later I began…… [Read More]

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Recommendation Letters

Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66657850

Pharmacy Personal Statement

Over the course of my life, I have been confronted with many obstacles, yet one core passion has kept me focused: that of my desire to enter the medical profession as a pharmacist. I came to the United States when I was seventeen, relatively late to enter the U.S. school system, but I was still able to become a part of the Honors Program at the College of the Canyons as a pre-pharmacy major, with a focus in chemistry. I had already worked at my aunt's pharmacy, and seeing how the work of a pharmacist could make such a difference in people's daily lives cemented my decision to pursue the profession. While at College of the Canyons I was a participant in the EOPS (Educational Opportunity Programs and Services) and volunteered at the pharmacy of Henry Mayo Newhall Memorial Hospital in Valencia. The latter enabled me to…… [Read More]

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Jaime Escalante Hero Teaching Hope

Words: 1767 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4316610

movie Stand and Deliver (Menendez & Musca, 1988), which is based on the true story of Jamie Escalante, an individual who overcame ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic issues to become a highly successful mathematics teacher. Discuss the beliefs he held and the strategies he employed in his classroom that contributed to high achievement levels in his students.

The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) presents a three-pronged argument for an effective math curricula: 1) It must foster the successful mathematical performance of students in algebra and beyond; 2) it must be taught by experienced teachers of mathematics who instructional strategies that are research-based; and, 3) the instruction of the math curriculum must accomplish the "mutually reinforcing benefits of conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and automatic recall of facts" (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008, p. xiv). Jamie Escalante began teaching before this report was released, but he knew from experience…… [Read More]


____. (2004, April 13). "Hero'" Teacher Escalante Addresses Students At Wittenberg Commencement May 9. Wittenberg University. Retrieved 

____. (2008). National Mathematics Advisory Panel, Foundations for Success. The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 

Barley, Z., Lauer, P.A., Arens, S.A., Apthorp, H.S., Englert, K.S., Snow, D., & Akiba, M. (2002). Helping at-risk students meet standards: A synthesis of evidence-based classroom practices. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the Midcontinent Research for Education and Learning [Web]. Retrieved

Berkas, N., & Pattison, C. (2007, November). Manipulatives: More than a special education intervention. NCTM News Bulletin. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [Web] Retreived
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Understanding Criminal Behavior

Words: 629 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99511338

particular behaviors tend to cross into the realm of crime when they become obsessive and are actually acted upon. Apparently, many individuals within a society may actually think about committing crimes, but never take the actual physical steps to commit it in the flesh. Those who take precautionary measures and anticipate actions that represent the actual physical acting out of their thoughts is when behavior biases can become actual crime. One of the most appropriate schools of thought in criminology to explain this phenomenon is the theory of differential association. Originally described by Edwin Sutherland, differential association aims to explain deviance and how people go from thinking about criminal acts to actually committing criminal acts. Essentially, this theory believes that criminal acts and thoughts are learned through experience with crime. Criminal acts thus become a repercussion of intense motives, drives, and attitudes that have been learned by the individual through…… [Read More]

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Three Mathematic Textbooks Review

Words: 1840 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99003285

Precalculus With Limits by on Larson

This book as well as the other two books are for college freshman level or college introductory level mathematics courses. The strengths of the book are mainly focused on its layout. For example, the book has a great way to demonstrate a varied and large amount of information easily and simply. This means that people reading the text just have to look for certain visual cues like colors or pictures that will point the information they seek. For example, the diagrams have a different background color than the text. All of this removes time spent looking for things. The use of bold also further differentiates the text, highlighting key words, phrases and things to memorize.

The weaknesses are in lack of context surrounding the topics and footnotes. Another book reviewed has footnotes and yet another provides adequate background for each topic. This book sacrifices…… [Read More]


Larson, R., Hostetler, R., & Edwards, B. (2011). Calculus I, with precalculus (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Larson, R., Hostetler, R., Edwards, B., & Heyd, D. (2013). Precalculus with limits (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Mirsky, L. (2012). Introduction to Linear Algebra. Dover Publications.
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Nephropathy Recent Searches for Information

Words: 3031 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74023954

"Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening metabolic problem caused by inability of the kidneys to excrete potassium, impairment of the mechanisms that move potassium from the circulation into the cells, or a combination of these factors "FN12. The article states that acute episodes of hyperkalemia are commonly triggered by the introduction of a medication affecting potassium, and that illnesses and dehydration can also be factors. The physician must also be aware therefore that a common positive response by patients in these circumstances was to a sodium bicarbonate supplementation.

Another bit of information that might be important to the diagnosing physician would be that "elevated serum aldosterone causes the renal cortical collecting ducts to excrete potassium and retain sodium, further lowering serum potassium" FN13. Potassium levels should be monitored in an ongoing fashion to determine whether they are stable or not. Additional monitoring should take place for hypertension since twenty to sixty…… [Read More]


Pietrow M.D., P.K.; Karellas, M.D., M.E.; (2006) Medical management of common urinary calculi, American Family Physician, Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 86-94

Wolf, Jr. J.S., MD, FACS, Bloom, D.A. (2008) Nephrolithiasis,, , Accessed June 12, 2008

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse,(2007), , Accessed June 11, 2008

Thorp, M.L., D.O., M.P.H.; (2005) Diabetic nephropathy: Common questions, American Family Physician, Vol. 72, No. 1, pp. 96-99
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Bentham Principal of Utility Is

Words: 730 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75674368

Bentham also suggests that individuals would reasonably seek the general happiness simply because the interests of others are inextricably bound up with their own, though he recognized that this is something that is easy for individuals to ignore" (Sweet 2008).

Critical section: Raise two or three objections to Bentham's principle of utility. hat reasons do you think we have to doubt that it is the fundamental principle of morality? It is often helpful to give concrete examples to illustrate your objections.

One obvious argument against Bentham's philosophy is that it is unrealistic to think that a decision-maker can easily determine the best, utilitarian interests of the majority in a disinterested fashion. Bentham's utilitarian decision-maker is presumed to be completely objective, but it is hard to imagine such an individual existing in the real world. Using moral laws, rather than a situational utilitarian calculus might seem to be superior to Bentham's…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Sweet, William. "Bentham, Jeremy." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. December 23, 2008.

[September 11, 2010].
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Psychology of Trust This Research

Words: 2580 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61539899

" (2003) in other words this is a trust based on possible rewards or possible punishment, or gains vs. losses. Over a period of time when the relationship is further tested trust evolves to 'identification-based trust which is stated to be the "highest level" of trust in that "the parties have internalized each other's desires and intentions. They understand what the other party cares about so completely that each party is able to act as an agent for the other." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) at this stage of trust Lewicki and Tomlinson state that "a strong emotional bond between the parties" (2003) has been formed.

Violations of trust occur when the individual holding "confident positive expectations of the trustee are disconfirmed." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) the result is lower trust because research has shown that violation of trust result in a stifling of "mutual support and information sharing" (Lewicki and…… [Read More]


Stages of Social-Emotional Development in Children and Teenagers (2007) Child Development Institute. Online available at 

Rousseau, D.M., Sitkin, S.B., Burt, R.S., and Camerer, C. (1998). "Not so Different After All: A Cross-Discipline View of Trust," in Academy of Management Review, 23, 393-404. In Lewicki, Roy J. And Tomlinson, Edward C. (2003) Trust and Trust Building. Beyond Intractability. Online available at 

Lewicki, Roy J. And Tomlinson, Edward C. (2003) Trust and Trust Building. Beyond Intractability. Online available at
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Division by Zero

Words: 1382 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7447267

Division by Zero

Mathematics is unique in that it is an objective subject. hen answering a question, something is either empirically true or it is completely false; there is little if any subjectivity about it in most situations. One of the most interesting aspects about math is that there are certain laws which are irrefutable and must be accepted in order for the correct answer to be discovered. A particularly intriguing and potentially frustrating aspect of math has to do with the division of zero. According to the laws of math, division by zero is impossible. hen someone solves a problem and finds themselves with a fraction where zero is in the denominator, the answer is always undefined because in mathematics, there is no such number. Mathematically, it is not possible to divide a numerator by zero and have either a real or imaginary number for an answer.

There are…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Czajko, J. (2004). On Cantorian spacetime over number systems with division by zero. Chaos,

Solitons and Fractals. (21:2). 261-71.

Fosnot & Dolk (2001). Young Mathematics at Work: Constructing Multiplication and Division.

Heinemann: Portsmouth, NH.
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Isaac Newton Was Born in 1642 at

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 211156

Isaac Newton was born in 1642 at oolsthorpe in England. His father died before Newton's birth and when his mother remarried, she went to live with her husband and left Isaac with her mother.

At 12, he was reunited with his mother after the death of her second husband; she desired to turn him into a farmer in order to support the family. Newton was not successful as a farmer and was able to return to school to complete his education.

He entered Cambridge University in 1661. He was an average student, but he became a scholar, which entitled him to another 4 years of future education. However, his education was interrupted in 1665, when the Great Plague came to Cambridge, forcing the closing of the university.

This resulted Newton returning home to study, and it was during his private study that he developed some of his most groundbreaking ideas,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A&E Networks. "Isaac Newton." Biography. 1-7. 2013. Web. 7 Dec. 2013.

Hall, Alfred Rupert. "Isaac Newton's Life." Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences.

N.p. 1998. Web. 5 Dec. 2012.

Lamb, Robert and Tristan Hopper. "Top 10 Isaac Newton Inventions. How Stuff Works. 1-11.
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reflections and'summaries on ethical theories

Words: 1221 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33539473

Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical framework. The consequences of an action are more important than the motivations behind the action or the action itself. An action has "utility" if it serves the greatest good. The basic principle of utilitarianism is creating the greatest good for the greatest number of people, or the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. The ethics of utilitarianism differ from ethical egoism in that the individual may make a sacrifice for the common good because it is the aggregate of happiness/goodness that matters, not maximizing individual happiness. Central to utilitarianism is the belief that all people are inherently equal and of equal consideration when making ethical decisions (p. 55). John Stuart Mill outlined the core tenets of utilitarianism, which became a fundamental component of Enlightenment political philosophy. Another utilitarian philosopher, Jeremy Bentham, proposed a happiness calculus that can be used to more rigorously apply…… [Read More]

Works Cited

MacKinnon, Barbara and Fiala, Andrew. Ethics. 8th edition. Cengage.
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Leadership Characteristics That Facilitate School

Words: 5111 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17711430

Those administrators that are able to provide educators with this will more than likely have favorable opinions of the current strategy (from the staff and the public). While those administrators that are unable to achieve this objective, will more than likely face possible resistance issues to new ideas that are being presented. This will make creating a change in the educational environment more challenging, as educators will often view what is happening, with a certain degree of skepticism. At the same time, the positive or negative views of the educational values of the administration, will affect the general public. As they will often, view what is happening in a more controversial light that could be played out in the media. The key for effective educational leadership is: to address these issues and then help everyone to see how the new values could improve, the overall quality of education that is…… [Read More]


Charter Schools Program. (2010). U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from: 

High School Drop Out Crisis Continues. (2009). CNN. Retrieved from:

Jamie Escalante Biography. (2010). Retrieved from: 

Leadership Characteristics that Facilitate School Change. (2010). SEDL. Retrieved from: .
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Risk Management CAPM and APT

Words: 2664 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2966411

ISK Management - CAPM and APT

Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory

The contemporaneous business community is extremely competitive, meaning as such that the organizational leaders strive harder than ever to overcome the competitive forces. Virtually, they have to hire and retain the best skilled staff members; they have to develop and offer the best quality products and services and they must be able to raise the interest of a vast and large customer base. All these constitute competitive advantages.

Yet, another element which has to be granted the adequate attention is that of the management of assets. The specialized literature offers a multitude of definitions of the concept of asset, yet the underlying idea is basically the same. Stickey, Weil and Schipper (2009) for instance argue that an asset is "a probable future economic benefit that a firm controls because of a past event or transaction" (p.108).…… [Read More]


Bailey, R.E., 2006, The Economics of Financial Markets, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 052184827X

Cheng, B., Tong, H., 2008, Asset Pricing: A Structural Theory and Its Applications, World Scientific, ISBN 9812704558

Fabozzi, F.J., Markowitz, H., 2002, The Theory and Practice of Investment Management, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471228990

Fabozzi, F.J., Focardi, S., Kolm, P.N., 2006, Financial Modelling of the Equity Market: From CAPM to Cointegration, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471699004
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Business Ethics Export Capital for

Words: 835 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9217075

However, the issue is more nuanced -- what if, as a humanitarian effort, a pharmaceutical company sold recently expired drugs at very low cost to an impoverished developing nation in the grips of an epidemic? hat if a food company donated food that was safe but 'past its expiration date' to a famine-stricken nation? In this case, a utilitarian calculus would support such exchanges. The balance between the benefit of being cured or not starving to death and potential harm of bad drugs or food would suggest such a donation was ethical. From a Rawlsian point-of-view, imagining whether you were the producer or the consumer, it seems likely that 'you' the consumer would take a risk of eating safe but recently stale rice to avoid starvation, much like a producer would be happy to gain good publicity and unload goods that cannot be sold in the U.S. Everyone, in short,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shaw, W.H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson

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Evolution Over Time of Network

Words: 6372 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93470686

In actual fact, because of STCP's option of multiplicative amplify, STCP have to in stable state persuade congestion actions approximately all 13.4 round trip times, in spite of the connection speed. HSTCP encourages packet losses at a slower speed than STCP, but still much quicker than CP-eno.

3. Problems of the Existing Delay-based TCP Versions

In contrast, TCP Vegas, Enhanced TCP Vegas and FAST TCP are delay-based protocols. By relying upon changes in queuing delay measurements to detect changes in available bandwidth, these delay-based protocols achieve higher average throughout with good intra-protocol TT fairness (Cajon, 2004). However, they have more than a few deficiencies. For instance, both Vegas and FAST suffer from the overturn path congestion difficulty, in which simultaneous onward and overturn path traffic on a simple bidirectional blockage connection cannot attain full link operation. In addition, both Vegas and Enhanced Vegas employ a conservative window increase strategy of…… [Read More]


B. Melander, M. Bjorkman, and P.Gunningberg, 2000. A new end-to-end probing and analysis method for estimating bandwidth bottlenecks. In IEEE GLOBECOM '00, volume 1, pages 415 -- 420.

C. Dovrolis, P. Ramanathan, and D. Moore, 2001. What do packet dispersion techniques measure? In Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM '01, volume 2, pages 905 -- 914.

Cisco Systems Inc. NetFlow Introduction. 2008.  (Accessed August 10, 2011)

C-S. Chang, R.L. Cruz, J-Y, Le Boudec, and P.THiran, 2002. "A min-+ system theory for constrained traffic regulation and dynamic service guarantees," IEEE/ACM Transaction on Networking, vol.10, no. 6, pp. 805-817.
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George Simply Paying Attention It a Long

Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29321832

George simply paying attention. It a long drive back home family's winter vacation, Interstate coming downtown area city. His wife front. In backseat young daughter younger brother, feeling sick home.ID

George's dilemma: Kant vs. consequentialism (utilitarianism)

According to Kant's categorical imperative, the ethical actor must behave as if he is setting a law for all time, not merely dealing with the specifics of every ethical situation. Taking a bribe is wrong, and factors such as George's weariness, his son's illness, and other situational factors do not make the taking of the bribe less immoral. The categorical imperative is categorical because there are no conditions limiting its expression. It is stated by Kant: "I ought never to act except in such a way that I could also will that my maxim should become a universal law' (4:402). This is the principle which motivates a good will, and which Kant holds to…… [Read More]


Driver, Julia. (2009). The history of utilitarianism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy



Johnson, Robert, (2010). Kant's moral philosophy The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
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College Worth It ' Weighs on

Words: 2549 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30049514

To some, that suggests that college is a more viable alternative for many of those who would otherwise have sought jobs in the manufacturing sector previously.

However, there are at least two reasons that such a conclusion may be invalid. First, while many manufacturing jobs have disappeared, many other types of technical jobs opportunities have emerged from numerous new technologies (Klein, 2012). Many of them require vocational degrees and certifications but no college degrees. For many people without specific interests in vocational applications of any college degrees being considered, training programs for these types of jobs is much less expensive, quicker, and more likely to lead to satisfying employment options than a college diploma in a random academic area or one of great intellectual value but few employment prospects outside of academia (Klein, 2012).

Second, vocational training, in general, has changed significantly in the last several decades. Specifically, whereas vocational…… [Read More]


Coy, P. (2009). "The lost generation." Business Week (October 19, 2009): 33-35.

Ewing, J. (2009). "Germany's answer: The apprentice." Business Week (October 19,


Hay, J. (2013). Question of 'Is college worth it?' weighs on local students. The Press
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Sir Isaac Newton The Story of a

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20975354

Sir Isaac Newton: The Story of a Scientist and a Scholar

The Life of Isaac Newton, by Richard estfall, is a condensation of a much more detailed work, Never at Rest. By editing out a significant portion of the mathematics, estfall provides a shorter version of his research that is more understandable to the general audience (iv). hat is left is a highly detailed portrait of the famous English mathematician, physical scientist, and theologian, that is as intimate as possible, given the distance of time and the limited records that survive. estfall tells the story chronologically, beginning with the earliest traces of the Newton family that can be found in the English tax records and tracing their gradual prominence in the village of estby, located in Lincolnshire on the est Coast of England (3). Ultimately he describes the birth, on Christmas 1642, of Isaac Newton, the only son of a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Westfall, Richard. The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Westfall, Richard. Preface. The Life of Isaac Newton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1993.
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Race in Latin America

Words: 1690 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80732837

John Burdick in “The Lost Constituency of Brazil’s Black Movements” questions the narrative that race mixing, or mestizaje, is a solution to the problem of race in Brazil. Burdick states that “in Brazil the social perception of race exists along a continuum that encourages passing toward whiteness, making it difficult to forge a unified nonwhite identity” (139). What Burdick implies is that many Brazilians lack a distinct racial identity because of race mixing. The Black Identity in particular is negligibly felt socially in Brazil, and Burdick’s research indicates as much, with thirty participants claiming “to have used, for most of their lives, one or more of the ‘middle-range’ color terms,” such as moreno, marrom, mulato, mestico or pardo (140). Another 42 participants identified in varying degrees of blackness, using terms like black, very black, or dark. In short, race as an identifier was relatively lacking in Brazil. What this shows…… [Read More]

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Ethical Theory Ethics Given What

Words: 1039 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56274907

Utilitarianism is most often used by healthcare organizations like insurance companies: to keep costs down for the many, a potentially valuable treatment may be denied to the individual because it is deemed experimental or unnecessarily costly. As unpalatable as the idea may be, no patient can be tested for every single conceivable illness he or she might contract. There must be some prioritization of high-risk groups. During his or her duties, a nurse may often ration her time, prioritizing where it will do the greatest good for the greatest number of people, based upon the severity of their need. However, in other instances a nurse may need to deploy the categorical imperative and state that something is clearly wrong or right, regardless of a financial calculus. A nurse must care for all patients to the best of his or her ability and preserve patient autonomy and privacy unless the patient…… [Read More]

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Role of Professional Engineers This

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84068821

In terms of their personal attributes, engineers should be natural problem solvers (Johnston, McGregor, & Taylor, 2000).

ecause modern engineering involves such powerful and dangerous forces, professional engineers have a profound ethical responsibility to establish appropriate principles to ensure safety. The consequences of failure in engineering can result in injury or death to human beings, or even to entire human communities (Vee & Skitmore, 2003). For example, bad engineering decisions in bridge, highway, and building design and construction can threaten the lives of thousands of human beings every day. To protect society from poor engineering, the field has established formal educational requirements and a test of professional competence. Professional engineering licenses require satisfaction of qualifying educational programs and a minimum score on an objective licensing exam (Johnston, McGregor, & Taylor, 2000).

Once in professional practice, engineers must also adhere to the code of ethics used to establish important standards and…… [Read More]


Harris, CE., Pritchard, MS., and Rabins, MJ. Engineering Ethics: Concepts and Cases.

(2008). Cengage Publishing.

Institution of Engineers Australia (2000). Engineers Australia Code of Ethics. Accessed 1 Sept 2010, from:
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Saving Adam Smith by Jonathan

Words: 1497 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71071955

Modern capitalist philosophy has been advanced in a way that has little to do with what Smith really thought and taught. Smith believed that the invisible hand operated in a societal context. The reason Smith had such a positive philosophy of freedom was that he believed that human beings, would behave best if not compelled to merely serve the personal interests of a sovereign. Humans had a right to self-determination and to serve their own interests. However, when competition was threatened -- for example, when individuals by fair means or foul gained too much market power and created monopolies -- then it was appropriate for the government to step in. Smith believed that self-interest could prove to be beneficial to others but he did not believe that selfishness was an end in and of itself.

Justice and democracy are necessary for capitalism to function, but the rampant selfishness and lack…… [Read More]


Bodenheimer, Thomas & Robert Gould. The Reagan Doctrine: Third World Rollback.

From Rollback. South End Press, 1989.

Overbye, Daniel. (2009, March 9).They tried to outsmart Wall Street. The New York Times.

Retrieved April 25, 2010 at
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Convenience Banking Bb& t - Convenience

Words: 2868 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17480843

Another issue worth mentioning is that prior to the acquisition of 2007, the BB&T employees were already being offered training programs in convenience banking. The programs were basically revolving around the techniques which would be implemented by the organization. In this order of ideas, the most focus was placed on the De Le ue coin counting machine and the Datacard 150i instant issue debit card machine. Employees were taught how to operate, maintain, balance and audit the according operations. Emphasis was also placed on the elationship Bankers in reference to the new account bounding process including free gifts and the efer-a-Friend process. The improvement plan sees the continued training programs which teach staff members how to most efficiently operate the new systems and how to explain their benefits and functionality to the customers. Also, BB&T should remain channelled on the emergent changes affecting the market and the industry and should…… [Read More]


2009, BB&T Corporation, Hoovers, -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtmllast accessed on February 9, 2009

2009, Website of the BB&T Corporation,  accessed on February 9, 2009

2007, InSite Communicating Within, BB&T Insite

Coastal Federal Bank Unveils the Carolina's Most Convenient Bank, PR Newswire
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Business Ethics Recognizing and Resolving

Words: 2980 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81658066

The Bank CEO's ole in Defining Ethical Integrity

Based on a thorough review of existing literature of the role of ethics in the banking industry, the role of the CEO as the ethical leader of their organization is next discussion. Based on the concepts presented in the paper to this point as the foundation, these key points provide insights into how CEOs and senior management actively shape the ethical standards of the organizations they manage on behalf of shareholders.

isk Management Is a CEOs' Ethical esponsibility combination of forces -- changing regulatory expectations that open companies up to intense levels of examination, heightened stakeholder sensitivity to and scrutiny of corporate behavior, and the severity of punishment by financial markets for corporate missteps -- push reputation and ethics management onto the CEOs' and senior managements' agenda. The paradox CEOs face is when to risk the reputation and brand of the company…… [Read More]


John Bond (2007). A safety culture with justice: A way to improve financial performance. Loss Prevention Bulletin,(196), 31-39. Retrieved October 20, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1333256011).

Donald R. Cassling (2008). Poehl v. Countrywide Home Loans, Inc. The Banking Law Journal, 125(9), 865. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1571291211).

Chris Churchill (2007). State targets lender ethics: Mortgage brokers must get training, undergo criminal checks starting next year. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. Retrieved October 21, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Dateline database. (Document ID: 1335614991).

Greenberg, J. (1990). Employee theft as a reaction to underpayment inequity: The hidden cost of pay cuts. Journal of Applied Psychology, 75, 561-569.
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Isaac Newton Maverick With a

Words: 1203 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9490001

These ideas are still taught today because the "still adequately account for most problems of motion" (Noble 724).

Jay Pasachoff claims that Newton revolutionized astronomy by setting "modern physics on its feet by deriving laws showing how objects move on the Earth and in space" (Pasachoff 41). Simplistically, this is the train of thought that birthed the law of gravity. Newton was the first person to ever realize the "universality" (41) of gravity. Perhaps the most fascinating aspect of this creation involves that fact that in order for this new law of gravity to work, Newton had to invent calculus. His brilliance lies in the fact that he was able to connect the fact that the same force that forced objects to the ground was the same force that moved objects in space. He was able to comprehend how the moon was "falling" toward the earth. Newton developed his law…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boorstin, Daniel. The Discoverers. New York: Random House. 1983.

Craig, Virginia. "Biography: Isaac Newton." The American Mathematical Monthly. 8.8. 1901. JSTOR Resource Database. Information Retreived October 5, 2008.

Noble, Thomas, et al. Western Civilization: The Continuing Experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1994.

Pasachoff, Jay. Astronomy: From the Earth to the Universe. Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing. 1991.
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Education Philosophy - Curricula Considering

Words: 1942 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12925529

Therefore, instead of requiring non-science majors to enroll in general studies science courses such as biology, chemistry, or "physics for non-majors," the only mandatory science instruction should be courses that relate more directly to useful information. For example, obesity is a virtual epidemic in American society; therefore, a science class in practical nutrition makes mush more sense than the traditional focus of science courses for non-majors. Similarly, computer use classes would be more useful, as would classes emphasizing the logical scientific method rather than substantive science subject matter. Perhaps if mandatory scientific courses related more directly to useful information and to beneficial intellectual processes, American presidential election politics would not feature potential candidates with college (and advanced academic) degrees who still believe that Creationism or "Intelligent Design" are more plausible explanations for the existence of human life than Darwinian evolutionary theory.

As pertains to the study of foreign languages, it…… [Read More]


Carter, J. (2001) an Hour Before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood. New York: Touchstone.

Gardner, H. (1991) the Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach. New York: Basic Books.

Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.

New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Security Explain the Endurance of

Words: 3199 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65161297

S.-USS confrontation ended, the future of the alliance would lie in its role to strike a balance between the new poles of power that would emerge in the coming decades.

Due to the lack of vision concerning the future evolution of the international system, there was little agreement on how to actually proceed in reestablishing and redefining the role and scope of NATO. This is why some scholars considered that the immediate years following the end of the Cold War were marked by a high degree of uncertainty arguing that the aims set forth in 1991 were vague and without a clear determination in time and space (Foster and Williams, 2001). The leaders of the Alliance needed, according to the realist and neorealist vision a new common threat or common goal that would keep the Cold War unity unchanged. In this sense, Europeans considered the cooperation with the U.S. To…… [Read More]


Borawski, J. 1995. Partnership for Peace and beyond. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), Vol. 71, No. 2. pp. 233-246

Boulden, J. NATO and the United Nations during UNPROFOR. N.d.

Calvocoressi, P. 1987. World politics since 1945. Longman, New York.

Cornish, P. 2004. NATO: the practice and politics of transformation. International Affairs 80.
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1 As She Suffers From

Words: 2770 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15201917

Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…… [Read More]

1. Libanati CR, Baylink DJ. (1997) Prevention and treatment of
glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. A pathogenetic
perspective. Chest. 102:1426-35.
. 2. Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, et al. Prevention of
corticosteroid osteoporosis: A comparison of calcium,
calcitriol and calcitonin. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1747-1752
2. Heaney RP. (1998) Pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Endocrin
Metabol Clin North Am.;27:255-65.
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Danish in April 2004 Danish

Words: 4304 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2284365

In 1918 Iceland became independent but remained under the rule of the Danish king. At the end of the war a plebiscite showed a 75% pro-Danish majority and the North Slesvig was once again reunited with Denmark (Miller 224).

As World War I was coming close and Denmark remained neutral Jews started moving to the country. There are no exact statistics since many of these immigrants were wary of the authorities, but as many as twenty to thirty thousand Eastern European Jews may have entered Denmark during this period and approximately 3,000 stayed permanently, thus doubling the Jewish population (Hammerich in Kisch). More did not stay because the existing assimilated Jewish community wanted to pay their passage out; they believed their position in society was threatened and latent anti-Semitism would spread. The Jewish congregation even actively cooperated with authorities such as the police to expel unemployed or unwanted individuals from…… [Read More]


Buckser Andrew. After the Rescue. New York: MacMillan, 2003

Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University, 2001

Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1979

Kische, Conrad. The Jewish Community in Denmark: History and Present Status.
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Worth Can Be Defined as

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64867907

However, the factors such as less dedication to work, outside commitments and other factor strongly impact the contribution of women in the same work environment. As a result, comparative worth is extremely hard to practically and equitably implement within organizations.

Current pay equity research utilizes the same mechanisms of job evaluations as the basis to compare traditionally male and female jobs relative to their skills and responsibilities. However, these systems also commit the fundamental omission of intangible factors such as dedication and work intensity that should be an important determinant within wage selection.

The opposite problem with comparative worth implementation is also true. Managers who perform job evaluations are often gender biased, as a result it may at times be hard to determine the true worth of women within the criteria of comparative worth. The reason that bias exists within employee evaluations is the result of several different factors, first…… [Read More]

Implementing Comparable Worth: A Survey of Recent Job Evaluation Studies, by Elaine Sorensen

The American Economic Review © 1986

American Economic Association
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Math Explains the World the

Words: 1403 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22986295

First, math courses are required as part of college work in the pursuit of most degrees in the health care field. The level of required achievement is different, depending on the degree sought. For example, a student pursuing an LPN may take a semester or two of college algebra. A pre-med student is often required to take one or two semesters of calculus. A student pursuing a master's degree in health care administration will take courses in statistics, finance and accounting. The master's candidate can perhaps more easily see the relevance of the required math courses toward the future career. For the nursing student studying algebra or the pre-med student struggling through calculus, the correlation between academic study and actual practice may be unclear. They may wonder why they must undertake these courses, which seem to have little to do with the work in which they will eventually be engaged.…… [Read More]


Marketplace Money. (2011). The cost of the common cold. American Public Media.

Retrieved from -


Paris, N. (2007). Hawking to experience zero gravity. London Telegraph 26 Apr 2007.
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Probability Its Use in Business

Words: 735 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42607384

All models are not perfect mirrors of reality, merely guides for the business professional. But the models of basic integral calculus allow a businessperson to at least apply a few indeterminate variables or scenarios to a model, to price a particular product.

For instance, when desiring to create a new product -- say, for instance, a shrimp-flavored potato chip, to be marketed in the United States, one might first conduct a marketing survey of a base of customers, to determine how much these consumers would be willing to pay for such a product. Usually, the cheaper the product, the more consumers would be willing or interested in adding such a product to their biweekly shopping list, although this is not uniformly the case -- with certain luxury products the price and the unavailability of a product is part of its attraction. A manager would then, after plotting such responses of…… [Read More]

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Herbalife E-Commerce Website Founded in

Words: 3228 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99096152

This assumption is based on the company's domain of work and the high quality and complexity of the web site. In order to develop and maintain such a complex Internet site, a company would have to posses its own Information Technology Department. Only specialized IT programmers and developers have the necessary training required to combine so perfectly and link to each other this large amount of data and information.

Secondly, given the main area of interest in Herbalife's activities, that of wellness industry, it would be quite improbable (although not impossible) for the company to posses their own IT department. Therefore the assumption that the health company requested the services of an external ISP to develop and continually upgrade their online relationship with the customers.

5. Advertisements on the page

It is a common practice for commercial companies to advertise for each other through their web pages. Herbalife's practice of…… [Read More]


The Official Website of Herbalife 2006 , last accessed on August 10, 2006

Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, Herbalife, August 8, 2006 , last accessed on August 10, 2006

Ehealth Forum, Herbalife Diet, September 11, 2005 , last accessed on August 10, 2006
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Archimedes Was a Greek Scholar Born in

Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7477266

Archimedes was a Greek scholar born in 287 BCE in Syracuse, which is modern-day Sicily. His father was an astronomer, but not a very famous one, whose name was Phidias. Archimedes studied in the great ancient center of learning Alexandria, Egypt. He went on to study a broad range of fields in science and math such as hydrostatics, geometry, and calculus (orres, 1995). He also studied astronomy like his father and helped to invent the planetarium (orres, 1995). Furthermore, Archimedes is known as the father of integral calculus (orres, 1995). Archimedes is famous in part because he developed the method to measure the density of objects (orres, 1995). This method is sometimes known as pycnometry or as the Archimedes' Principle (orres, 1995). In addition to his work on calculating density, Archimedes invented many important things including advanced pulley systems and some war machines (orres, 1995). Archimedes is considered to be…… [Read More]


"Archimedes," (n.d.). Famous Scientists. Retrieved online:

"Archimedes Biography," (n.d.). Retrieved online: 

Day, M.M. & Capri, A. (2002). "Density," Visionlearning Vol. SCI-1 (4), 2002. 

Rorres, C. (1995). Archimedes. Retrieved online:
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Philosophy and Morality Instructions the Exam Consists

Words: 2703 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10011484

Philosophy and Morality

INSTRUCTIONS The exam consists essays. Please essays document. Please plagiarize. Be paraphrase verbatim language authors putting quotation marks. You document sources, -text citation ( footnotes) a reference page.


John Arthur's "Morality, Religion, and Conscience,"

A concern on the relationship between morality and religion is an ancient argument that continues in philosophy in the present times. The argument is mainly on whether morality emanates from an institution or religious background. Theologians in their numbers provide unwavering support the argument that a unifying absolute force or God provides universal moral guidance. The importance of observing morality and religion as independent on one another but related in some way has been argued by other philosophers (Lyons 479). John Arthur argues that morality and religion are not interlocking in relevant manners. Arthur argues that morality in independent from religion and religion does not influence moral action. It is his contention…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arthur, J. "Morality, Religion, and Conscience." In Morality and Moral Controversies: Readings in Moral, Social, and Political Philosophy. Ed. edition, by John Arthur. Seventh. Upper Saddle River, N.J.:: Pearson Prentice Hall:, 2005. Print.

Hare, R.M. Moral Thinking: Its Levels, Method and Point. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981. Print.

Lyons, William. "Conscience - an Essay in Moral Psychology." Philosophy 84.330 (2009): 477-94. Print.

Merle, Jean-Christophe. "A Kantian Critique of Kant's Theory of Punishment." Law and Philosophy 19.3 (2000): 311-38. Print.
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Organizational Health Educational Institutions Generally Approach Organizational

Words: 2709 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11719523

Organizational Health

Educational institutions generally approach organizational improvement by addressing the performance standards to which students, educators, and administrators are held. The standards movement has been a dominant theme in educational policy arenas and in the public eye. With roots in the 1950s Cold War mentality, the thrust of educational improvement has been prodded by perceptions of international industrial and scientific competition. If the rigor of educational standards in the nation -- according to the logic of this argument -- falls below that of other countries, our economy will falter and the balance of trade will be compromised, perhaps beyond the point of recovery.

Fears for the future of the country and our citizens run deep; these fears propel a course of action that is not particularly based on rational thinking and lacks a base of evidence. The course of action adopted by educational policy makers and educational leaders in…… [Read More]


Barth, P. (1997, November 26). Want to keep American jobs and avert class division? Try high school trig. Education Week, 30,33.

Bosch, G. (2000). The Dual System of Vocational Training in Germany. In Tremblay, D.-G. And Doray, P. (2000). Vers de nouveaux modes de formation professionnelle? Le role des acteurs et des collaborations. Quebec: Presses de l'Universite du Quebec.

____. (1998). Business Coalition for Education Reform. The Formula for Success: A Business Leader's Guide to Supporting Math and Science Achievement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Hacker, A. (2012, July 20). Is algebra necessary? The New York Times [national ed.], SR1, SR6.
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European Union Member States Relations With Their Overseas Territories

Words: 17554 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16781713

political framework of EU and OCT

European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…… [Read More]


Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5

Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.

Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
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Gingivitis Is a Mild Form of Periodontal

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45724974

Gingivitis is a mild form of periodontal disease. It causes irritation, redness, and inflammation of the gums and can be so mild that individuals may not even be aware they have it (Mayo Clinic staff, 2011). Many people have it to a varying degree because it often develops during puberty or early adulthood due to hormonal changes (osenberg, 2010). It is important to take gingivitis seriously, however, because, left untreated, it can lead to periodontitis, a more severe form of gum disease. Eventually, tooth loss can result.

Gingivitis is commonly caused by poor oral hygiene, but can result from a number of other conditions, including diabetes, depressed immune system (for example, as a result of HIV / AIDS or leukemia), certain viral and fungal infections, and hormonal changes such as those related to puberty, as already mentioned, or with pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives. Gingivitis can also result…… [Read More]


Mayo Clinic staff. (2011, Nov 18). Mayoclinic. Retrieved from 

Rosenberg, D. (2010, 22 2). Gingivitis. Retrieved from
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Primary Education

Words: 2350 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25819893

Emotional Healt in Primary Education

In today's yper-competitive world even young cildren are subjected to significant pressure to succeed. Getting into te rigt play group to get into te rigt prescool to get into te rigt kindergarten as become a real concern for parents. And wile in most cases te parents wo worry tat a cild wo doesn't make te grade at age five as already fallen permanently beind are simply oping for te best possible life for teir beloved cild tey are also forgetting about some of te most important aspects of cildrearing.

Tis paper examines te ways in wic young cildren can and sould be treated and taugt so tat not only teir intellect is nurtured (for tis is certainly an important part of raising cildren to ave successful adult lives in te 21st century) but tat teir emotional well-being is also taken care of as well. Tis…… [Read More]

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Distributive Justice

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73600223

Political action in representative republics has been defined over the course of the last several hundred years by the interpretation of classical and enlightenment principles. Among them are liberty, equality, and justice. These principles, deemed "humanistic" in that they recognize inalienable human rights, are deistic in origin, although their implementation has also relied on contractarian and consequentialist rhetoric. Distributive Justice is the belief that it is within the government's purvue to manage the wealth of society, and redistribute it when moral and necessary so that everyone in the society may enjoy the benefit of equal opportunity. This system has been widely implemented, and one is lead to ask if it is effective. This philosophy is the brainchild of Harvard Professor John Rawls and has received praise and criticism for its treatment of government, civil society, and human rights.

Rawls' ideas are predicated on two normative standards, which he refers to…… [Read More]


Frederic Bastiat, The Law (Institute of Economic Affairs, 2001)

John Rawls, Political Liberalism (Columbia University Press, 1996)

John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (Harvard University Press, 1971)

Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State, and Utopia (Basic Books, 1977)
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Isaac Newton Was the Greatest and the

Words: 707 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82122819

Isaac Newton was the greatest and the most influential scientist of all times. orn in Woolsthrope, England on a Christmas day in 1642 Newton was a bright child with an incredible mechanical aptitude. Newton entered the Cambridge University when he was eighteen years of age and soon he mastered the science and mathematical concepts of his time and went on to continue his independent research. It was during this period that Newton laid the foundation for the subsequent discoveries that were to revolutionize the scientific world. Newton was conferred the honorable Fellow of Royal Society of London in 1671.

Previously scientific research was totally bereft of any standardized principles. It is to the credit of Newton that he established a unified theory of approach to modern science. One of his earliest findings was the startling discovery of the nature of white light. Newton was the first to discern that white…… [Read More]


Michael.H. Hart, "The 100, A Ranking of the Most influential Persons in History"

Isaac Newton', 1999, Meeraa publications.

Microsoft Encarta, "Isaac Newton," Accessed on 2nd, December 2002,

D.R.Wilkins, "Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)," Accessed on 2nd, 2002
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Lives of Archimedes and Carl Friedrich Gauss

Words: 1956 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43166033

lives of Archimedes and Carl Friedrich Gauss, two of the greatest mathematicians of all time, through a point by point comparison of their childhood and education, mathematical contributions and the influence their work has on the science of mathematics.

Childhood and Education

Archimedes (287 BC to 212 BC) lived most of his life in Syracuse, Greece. This son of an astronomer and mathematician was born into a distinguished family and was able to comfortably devote his life to mathematical research.

Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) was born into a humble German family. His early mathematical promise marked him as a prodigy and eventually earned him admission to university.

Major Mathematical Ideas

The mathematical work of Archimedes centered on the theoretical, particularly geometry. His greatest mathematical contribution involved measuring areas and segments of plane and conic sections.

Gauss's work centered on number theory. Unlike Archimedes, Gauss also used ventured into applied mathematics…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Archimedes," in Guide to the History of Calculus. Retrieved 30 November 2002 from

Bell, E.T. Men of Mathematics: The Lives and Achievements of the Great Mathematicians from Zeno to Poincare. New York and London: Simon and Schuster, 1965.

Boyer, Carl B. A History of Mathematics, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1991.

Gauss," in Guide to the History of Calculus. Retrieved 30 November 2002 from
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Condition That's Necessary for an Argument to

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19572347

condition that's NECESSARY for an argument to be "fallacious." necessary condition for an argument to be fallacious is that it be an argument (rather than, say, a mere description). Nothing is a fallacious argument unless it is an argument.

For 5 points, cite one condition that's SUFFICIENT.

A sufficient condition for an argument to be fallacious is if the argument trades on an ambiguity and thereby commits the fallacy of equivocation. An argument commits the fallacy of equivocation if (but not only if) two premises of the argument contain a predicate that has two different senses. If we disambiguate the premises in the same way, one of the premises is false. If we disambiguate the premises so as to make them both true, the argument is invalid.

For 5 points, cite one condition that's both NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT.

Being rationally unconvincing is both necessary and sufficient for an argument to…… [Read More]

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Applying Ethics to Public Policy Nutritional Goals

Words: 2406 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32757189

Ethics and Public Policy

Ethical Dilemma

This paper discusses the application of the major ethical theories of consequentialism (utilitarianism), deontology, and virtue ethics to a specific policy question, namely how to improve the nutrition of the nation's poor and to reduce the rise in food insecurity. It also discusses the implications of ethical theories such as determinism and moral relativism. First, the theory is discussed in the abstract, followed by an exposition of how the theory relates to real-world practice. The paper concludes with a more general reflection on the implications of ethical theories for public policy-makers. The specific merits of virtue ethics are stressed vs. The more extreme and polarizing views of deontology and consequentialism.

An ethical dilemma: Food insecurity

One of the dilemmas facing public policy-makers regarding food insecurity and the need to improve the diet of poor Americans is the balance between individual liberties and the need…… [Read More]


Athanassoulis, N. (2014). Virtue ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 

Alexander, Larry and Moore, Michael. (2012). Deontological ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia

of Philosophy. Retrieved from:
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Philosophy of Love

Words: 3144 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48006971

Philosophy of Love

The author of this report has been charged with picking a film or novel that centers on love. For the purposes of the report, the author has chosen The Notebook as memorialized in both book and film form. The book was written by Nicholas Sparks. The author of this report will cover several main sections in this report. The first section will be a quick paragraph or two that summarizes the story of The Notebook. The storyline, developments and details of The Notebook will then be compared and contrasted to several pieces of scholarly literature that relates to, in whole or in part, the subjects of love, social justice and fairness. While many people date and marry based on things like race, class and prestige, there are indeed many people that unapologetically and joyfully break that trend, much to the potential dismay of their family and/or friends.…… [Read More]


Abramson, K., & Leite, A. (2011). LOVE AS A REACTIVE EMOTION. Philosophical

Quarterly, 61(245), 673-699. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9213.2011.716.x

Charles, K.K., Hurst, E., & Killewald, A. (2013). Marital Sorting and Parental

Wealth. Demography, 50(1), 51-70. doi:10.1007/s13524-012-0144-6
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Transitioning Students Experiences and Perceptions

Words: 1954 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25054456


Data Extract

Coded For



In Health, I got introduced very well and we said our name and said something that we like or our favourite hobbies or spots of whatever. And it kind of gave me an idea of what kind of people they are, so I knew what I was getting into in that class, like who I was with.

The teachers gave me loads of resources that I could look over and study for all of my exams and it really helped because I got good exam marks

Academic assistance from teachers

It was probably that everyone had earned credits the year before but I had earned none because my school didn't do that. So I was a little bit worried about…maybe catching up with some of the work. They were just doing revision for exams. I knew most of the work - or pretty…… [Read More]