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Killed my Father, by Loung Ung [...] what happened in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979, and why it happened. It will make specific reference to the involvement of both Cambodian and international people/groups/forces, and it must draw specific evidence from the personal experience of the author. Loung Ung lived through four years of hell in Cambodia during the regime of the Communist Khmer ouge. Her survival is somewhat of a miracle - but what is more miraculous is how she has turned the experience into a commitment to helping others who suffer under the hand of vicious and evil regimes. Her book is at once chilling and inspiring, yet opens up many questions about what happened in Cambodia, and why the world stood by and watched while two million people died horrible deaths.
CAMBODIA UNDE THE KHME OUGE
The Khmer ouge was the name given to the Communist party in…
Ung, Loung. First They Killed my Father. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2000.
Therefore an indigenous accounting profession did not evolve in this period either and no accounting or audit rules were established" (2000, p. 16). In this free-for-all environment, it is difficult to discern any influence from the French accounting profession, except to the extent that its transactions involved the international community where certain documentary practices must be followed in order to conduct international commerce. For example, according to a contemporaneous analysis of the accounting profession in Cambodia by Steinberg (1959), the National Bank of Cambodia "still uses the French Union Stabilization Fund in Paris as a funnel for many of its foreign exchange transactions; the dollars Cambodia receives under the United States aid program are not kept in the Fund, but are controlled directly by the National Bank" (p. 191). At the time, the Cambodian National Bank's arrangements with the money market in France were administered by the Banque de France…
Black's Law Dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
'Cambodia.' (2012). U.S. Government: CIA World Factbook. [online] available: https://www.
Chafer, T., & Sackur, a. (2002). Promoting the colonial idea: Propaganda and visions of empire in France. New York: Palgrave.
Economic results will fail to show up if the government does not start keeping its promises to the donor countries. As Patrick Alley from Global Witness says "Donors should make it clear that continued assistance will depend on the Cambodian government keeping its promises. Otherwise, the whole exercise of setting benchmarks for reform is a sham." His declaration was sustained by Anselmo Lee from FORUM-ASIA: "There's a huge gap between reforms promised by the Cambodian government at each donor meeting and the ongoing hardships faced by Cambodian citizens every day. Donors must stop sending mixed messages to the Cambodian government by demanding reforms while increasing aid. This hypocrisy must end now." (Human Rights News, 2006)
C News (2002). Cambodia May Compromise" on Genocide Trial." Retrieved March 18, 2007 from the C News online edition, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2081733.stm
Edralin, J.S. (n.d.) Human Security and Peace uilding: Focus on Local Capacity and Institutional…
BBC News (2002). Cambodia May Compromise" on Genocide Trial." Retrieved March 18, 2007 from the BBC News online edition, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2081733.stm
Edralin, J.S. (n.d.) Human Security and Peace Building: Focus on Local Capacity and Institutional Development. Retrieved March 17, 2007 at http://www.uncrd.or.jp/res/hsp/resfocus.pdf
Encarta Encyclopedia. (2007). Khmer Rouge. Retrieved March 17, 2007 from the Encarta Encyclopedia website, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khmer_Rouge
Hendrickson, D. (2001) Globalisation, Insecurity and Post-war Reconstruction: Cambodia's Precarious Transition." IDS Bulletin.
The Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve
The Tonle Sap Lake is such a valuable resource it was nominated in October 1997 as a "Biosphere Reserve" under the Man and Biosphere Program of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) (www.tsbr-ed.org). The Tonle Sap Lake supports a "huge population" because of its fisheries, the productivity of those fisheries, and the fresh water supply provided, the Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve project (TSBR) explains. Indeed, Tonle Sap Lake provides "the last refuge for some of Asia's most globally significant biodiversity" (TSBR).
The management and funding, along with the conservation of Tonle Sap Lake is handled in large part by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), but also helping with funding: The United Nations Development Programme; the Global Environment Facility (GEF), and the Capacity 21 Program.
The Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve has as a goal the fulfillment of three important functions: a) conservation of…
Cambodia National Mekong Committee. (2007). Policy and Strategy for The Tonle Sap
Biosphere Reserve. Retrieved Nov. 28, 2009, from http://www.adb.org/Projects/tonle_sap/Speeches/environ-management-proj.pdf .
Fitzherbert, Virginia. (2007). Tipping the Scales: At Least Four Million Water Snakes
Are Caught from Tonle Sap Lake Every Year. Geographical, 79.1, 42-48.
Unfortunately, in a country so dependent on one industry, if there is a slow down in the industry, the entire country suffers, and that is happening as a result of the U.S. recession. People are not spending as much money on clothes, and so, the industry is facing a downturn, leading to difficulties throughout the country (Nette).
In conclusion, today, Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in the world, and it has been extremely difficult to shake off the memories of the brutal Pol Pot egime and its many victims. There are still trials going on against Khmer ouge leaders today, and many believe that the true number of victims, or all of their final burial grounds, will ever be found. Cambodia's two main strengths now are tourism and its textiles, and if these continue to grow, and the Cambodian government manages them wisely, they may be able to…
Editors. "Angkor Wat Information Pages." AngkorWat.org. 2008. 9 May 2008. http://www.angkorwat.org/
Nette, Andrew. "U.S. Recession May Hit Anti-Sweatshop Campaign." IPSNewsNet. 2008. 9 May 2008. http://ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=42181
Tully, John. A Short History of Cambodia: From Empire to Survival. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, 2006.
The Cambodia-Thai conflict has had a negative impact on the relationship between the people in the area of the conflict. Furthermore, the two countries are members of ASEAN and this dispute has had a negative impact on the ASEAN's development.
The People's epublic of China (PC) has played a major role in Cambodia's foreign relations since the country attained independence in 1953. Since 1953, the PC has tried to limit United States, Thai -- and especially Vietnamese -- influence in Cambodia by acting as patron to a succession of Cambodian strongmen.
Today, Cambodia and the PC maintain strong relations -- especially when it comes to economy, politics, and military backing for Cambodia's leader Hun Sen. China is Cambodia's biggest donor and has offered funds for road construction and an irrigation project in Cambodia. China, of course, has also offered military aid. China maintains that it would like to see peaceful…
Weatherbee, D.E. (2008). International relations in Southeast Asia: The struggle for autonomy. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.; 2nd edition.
Xinhuanet. (2011). "China calls for calmness, restraint in Cambodian-Thai conflict."
Xinhuanet..com Accessed on March 24, 2011:
Nixon Doctrine, declared by President ichard M. Nixon in the summer 1969 just a few months after taking office, represented a slight alteration of American policy during the Cold War. Nixon upheld the fundamentals of George Kennan's strategy of "containment" for the spread of Communism, insofar as he promised American support for any democratic third world nation in its fight against Communism. The shift came with the type of support America offered; the Nixon Doctrine promised that America would send military and financial assistance, but no troops. A quick glance at the prior history of American troop commitments during the Cold War gives some sense of Nixon's rationale. The American intervention in Korea under Truman had resulted in a stalemate, with a hostile Marxist North Korea separated from the U.S.-backed South Korea by a narrow demilitarized zone. Meanwhile in the Americas, oosevelt's "Good Neighbor" policy meant that Cold War strategy…
Brinkley, J. (2011). Cambodia's curse: The modern history of a troubled land. Washington, D.C.: Public Affairs.
Nolan, K.W. (1990). Into Cambodia, spring campaign, summer offensive. New York: Presidio.
Shaw, J.M. (2005). The Cambodian campaign: The 1970 offensive and America's Vietnam War. Lawrence: Kansas University Press.
Shawcross, W. (2002). Sideshow: Kissinger, Nixon, and the destruction of Cambodia. Revised edition. New York: Cooper Square Press.
This released the ACLEDA ank from its dependency upon the UN and others providing aid. The ACLEDA ank linked all of its branches resulting in increased convenience for customers.
III. SERVICES OFFERED & FINANCIAL RESULTS
ACLEDA ank offers the following loan products: (1) Microbusiness or group loan up to below U.S.$380; (2) Small business loan; and (3) Medium size business/small-scale industry loan. (Channy, 2003, p. 4) Other products and services include: (1) Savings; (2) Fixed Deposit; (3) Current Deposit; (4) Local fund transfer; (5) Cash Management service; and (6) in-house exchange. (Channy, 2003, p.5) Channy (2003) states that ACLEDA targets the lower segment of the market and provides both individual and group loans and specifically stated is: "Experience has shown that providing access to financial services to people raises income and creates employment, allows people to improve their liquidity management and increases the efficiency of the use of available capital."…
Channy, in (2003) the Case Study of ACLEDA Bank - Rural Financial Institutions: Start-Ups. U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Agreement No. LAG-a-00-96-90016-00 through Broadening Access and Strengthening Input Market Systems Collaborative Research Support Program (BASIS-CRSP) and the World Council of Credit Unions, Inc. (WOCCU) Online available at http://www.basis.wisc.edu/live/rfc/cs_11c.pdf
ACLEDA Bank (2008) Online available at http://www.bwtp.org/arcm/cambodia/II_Organisations/MF_Providers/ACLEDA.htm
Cambodia's ACLEDA: From Microfinance to Banking (nd) 206-015-1
Accounting standards and IFS adoption in Cambodia and Thailand
The significance of accounting standards
Accounting may be considered as a business language through which the statistical results can be acquired which help in analyzing how well the firm is functioning. They give out timely statements of these statistics and help the stakeholders get all the information they need. Accounting is like a separate language which has its own grammar and these outlines and rules are referred to as the accounting standards. The main aim of the accounting standards is the threefold. This method is very useful when it comes to setting a certain standard for the various policies involved and diminishing the failure to compare the financial reports with the numerous entities involved. Another role they play is that of the facilitation of the depiction of the quality of the firm and its performance as the statements reveal the relevant…
Alali, F. And L. Cao. (2010). International financial reporting standards - credible and reliable? An overview. Advances in Accounting: Incorporating Advances in International Accounting 26(1): 79-86.
Baker, C.R. (2008). The inevitable move to IFRS? The CPA Journal (December): 6-9.
Ball, I. (2009). Serving the public interest: How the IFAC fulfills its mission in a globalized economy. Cost Management (January/February): 34-39.
Bolt-Lee, C. And L.M. Smith. (2009). Highlights of IFRS research. Journal of Accountancy (November): 48-53.
Cambodian Incursion represented a major turning point for American sentiment towards its participation in the Vietnam War (Nolan, 1990, p. xiii). Authorized by President Nixon, it was hoped that this offensive would secure the future of South Vietnam as a non-communist nation, but the strong negative reaction by the American public, towards what seemed to be an escalation, caught the administration off guard. However, many military strategists viewed the Cambodian Incursion to be a wise decision. This essay will examine the circumstances that led to this decision and whether the offensive was successful both politically and militarily.
Events that Set the Stage for the Cambodian Incursion
The Vietnam War (1954-1975), on a global scale, represented a political struggle between the major communist and western powers for ideological control of satellite nations (Shaw, 2005, p 3). Immediately adjacent to China were four countries, Laos, Cambodia, North Vietnam, and S. Vietnam, which…
Coleman, J.D. (1991). Incursion: From America's Chokehold on the NVA Lifelines to the Sacking of the Cambodian Sanctuaries. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press.
Nolan, Keith William. (1990). Into Cambodia: Spring Campaign, Summer Offensive, 1970. Novato, CA: Presidio Press.
Shaw, John M. (2005). The Cambodian Campaign: The 1970 Offensive and America's Vietnam War. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas.
Tho, Tran Dinh. (1979). Indochina Monographs: The Cambodian Incursion. Washington, D.C: U.S. Army Center of Military History.
This new government pledged (in 1994) that education would received 15% of the nation's budget, but McNamara asserts that at least up to a few years ago, only 8% of the budget is targeted for education in Cambodia. That is clearly not enough, and while educational resources are scarce, the sex and child labor industry flourishes.
According to the U.S. Department of Labor report, "Incidence and Nature of Child Labor," published August 23, 2006, 44.8% of Cambodian children ages 5 to 14 years old were working in 2001 (notwithstanding the labor law sets the minimum age for employment at 15). The jobs held by children included agriculture (the "majority" of children work in the fields), "hazardous conditions on commercial rubber plantations, in salt production," in the fishing industry and in garbage collection. Not only are Cambodian children put into slavery for sexual services, the Labor report asserts that Cambodian children…
Ayers, David M. (1999). The Khmer rouge and education: beyond the discourse of Destruction. History of Education, 28(2), 205-218.
Ayers, David M. (2000). Tradition, Modernity, and the Development of Education in Cambodia. Comparative Education Review, 44(4), 440-463.
Derks, Annuska; Henke, Roger; & Vanna, Ly. (2006). Review of a Decade of Research on Trafficking in Persons, Cambodia. The Asia Foundation / Center for Advanced Study / U.S.
Agency for International Development (USAID).
Cambodia is currently experiencing something of an economic renaissance, in particular vs. where the country has been. In the late 1970s, Cambodia faced brutal government under the Pol Pot regime. The cities were emptied as the Khmer ouge mobilized the nation's entire workforce to produce rice, most of which was exported to China. As part of this reorganization of society, the Khmer ouge killed all dissidents, intellectuals or people of skill. The result was that, when the Vietnamese liberated the country, Cambodia had absolutely no functioning economy, and no people who could drive the economy and the country forward. The Khmer ouge lingered on as a force in the country for a long time, further stunting opportunity for economic development. Now today, Cambodia's economy is beginning to show signs of life.
Facts & Figures
The country's GDP has increased an average of more than 6% per year since 2004, including…
CIA World Factbook. (2013). Cambodia. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved December 16, 2013 from https://www.cia.gov /library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cb.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The new law has prosecuted 426 traffickers in 203 cases. These traffickers had 844 victims in that year alone. This law imposes penalties from 10 years imprisonment to life imprisonment (Kyodo).
Myanmar: Effective or Not?
The capacity of the national government in fighting the problem of human trafficking has been limited (UNODC 2007). It is particularly limited in implementing policy changes in remote areas where traffickers operate. Anti-trafficking groups are looking into the situation. The UNODC addresses the issue by implementing projects and participating in partnership initiatives in the country. These projects and initiatives include increasing public awareness of the problem, provision of technical assistance for the law enforcement sector and the judiciary, greater and easier access to service providers and enhancing their capabilities (UNODC).
Reports say that Cambodia is a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking (HumanTrafficking.org 2009). Human traffickers consist of organized crime syndicates, parents,…
CIA. Russia. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009. Retrieved on April 23, 2009 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/2732.htm
Gekht, Anna. Shared but Differentiated Responsibility Integration of International
Obligations in Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings. Denver Journal
International Law and Policy: University of Denver, 2008. Retrieved on April
Laterite is a soft stone, easily cut, which dries to a very hard material. It was not easily carved, so it was used for foundations and walls.
During the 7th and 8th centuries, larger temples were built of sandstone, which was available from the Kingdom of Chenla, quarries. Sandstone is easily carved, so by the 7th century carvings of good quality and detail were found on the lintels of the doors of the temples. Towards the end of this century, some temples were made entirely of stone, some of these tall, single tower temples still survive in Indo-China and Cambodia.
Unfortunately, there were significant problems that the architects were not able to overcome when designing the great pyramids of Angkor at and Bayon. Sandstone may fit together very well, but vertical joints, running on top of one another, makes a wall very unstable. A whole wall would fall down if…
Angkor.com, The Angkor Wat Portal. 2006. http://www.angkor-planet.com/UK-hase.html .
Facts and Figures. Angkor Wat.com. 2006. (Website) http://www.angkorwat.org/.
Gilbert, Richard and Hang, Sovandy. Cambodian for Beginners. Bangkok: Paiboon Poomsan Publishing, 2004.
Jacobson, Matt. Adventure Cambodia: An Explorer's Travel Guide. London: Silkworm Books, 2005.
Bloody Aftermath of evolution: Did it Have to Happen?
evolutions have a tendency to gain a terrible momentum. The level of both organization an anger that is required to overturn an established government (especially one that is either of long standing or autocratic nature or both) can continue to build in intensity and force even after the previous government has fallen, thus making the revolution a success. The result of such revolutionary force tends to run in at least two directions and often both at once. The revolution may turn inward, destroying (and usually executing) its original leaders. And it may turn outward, destroying the nation that it sought to rescue. The most revolutionary governments are likely to do both.
This paper analyzes the purges of the Khmer ouge that followed its revolutionary takeover of the government of Cambodia, assessing whether such purges were necessary to maintain the…
Kiernan, B. (2004). How Pol Pot Came to Power: Colonialism, Nationalism, and Communism in Cambodia, 1930 -- 1975 (2nd Ed.) New Haven: Yale University Press.
The fall of the Khmer Rouge, http://www.edwebproject.org/sideshow/khmeryears/fall.html
Khmer Rouge, http://www.enotes.com/genocide-encyclopedia/khmer-rouge
Rinaldo, R. (1997). Revisiting the Killing Fields: The Khmer Rouge and Globalization. http://www.mekong.net/cambodia/revisit.htm
President Johnson became even more fearful of a communist take-over.
In 1964, when two American ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in the Gulf of Tonkin "the American Senate gave Johnson the power to give armed support to assist any country requesting help in defense of its freedom," effectively beginning the Vietnam War without a formal declaration of war (BBC 2009). The wide-scale bombing of the North in 'Operation olling Thunder' began in February 1965. By March 1965, the first American ground troops had landed in South Vietnam and by December 1965, there were 150,000 servicemen stationed in the country (BBC 2009).
ichard Nixon was elected to the presidency in 1968, promising a policy of Vietnamization or the taking-over of the war against the North by native Vietnamese troops. However, it would be four more years before substantial withdrawals of American servicemen occurred. Nixon also supported dictators in Laos…
An overview of the crisis. (1997). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Crisis Center. Thinkquest.
Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://library.thinkquest.org/11046/days/index.html
The Berlin Airlift. (2010). Cold War Museum. Retrieved January 1, 2009 at http://www.coldwar.org/articles/40s/berlin_airlift.asp
Chang, Laurence & Peter Kornbluh. (1998). A national security archive documents reader.
S. officials and other entities were very well informed), but rather on indecisiveness and incapacity to react with direct, concrete means in these situations.
5. The major issues of American foreign policy during the 1950s were generally circumscribed to the Cold War between the U.S. And the Soviet Union and the relations between these two countries, ranging form mutual containment to escalation (towards the end of the decade).
The first issue emerging from this policy was the Korean War. The Korean War, characterized by the initial invasion of South Korea by North Korean troops and the subsequent implication of American and Chinese troops, was a direct consequence of the post-WWII conditions when each superpower attempted to promote and spread its own military and ideological system.
With the American army first pushed back all the way to Pusan and then following General Macarthur's landing at Inchon behind enemy troops and the…
1. Howard Jones. 2001. Crucible of Power: A History of American Foreign Relations from 1897, Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources.
2. Robert Kennedy. 1999. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, New York: Norton
3. Samantha Power, a Problem From Hell: American in the Age of Genocide
In his 1940 romantic comedy adaptation of Philip Barry's Broadway play, director George Cukor allows Katherine Hepburn, James Stewart and Cary Grant to light up the screen and carry the movie without confusing the audience with camera tricks and editing.
By using subtle camera techniques, Cukor introduces the main characters through action and relies on his star ensemble to paint the picture of their respective characters. The editing is fluid as well as the cinematography. Using such devices as off-screen dialogue, and cues, we follow Hepburn, a Philadelphia socialite as she attempts to marry another man, and avoid a tabloid hound.
Cinematically, this is typical of the movies Hollywood was making in the 1940s. This particular film went on to win a string of Oscars, including Best Picture, and Best Director. Cukor interplays the style of writing within his camera directions so as to allow for an enjoyable…
Globalization and Social/Human Injustices
Human slavery/sex trafficking
The menace of slavery and trafficking for purpose of sexual exploitation is a menace that greatly neglected or not talked about by the high and mighty yet it is a problem that ravages families on a daily basis. Across the globe, there are people who benefit from the modern day slavery and there are countries that act as source, most of them being the underdeveloped nations where poverty is high and unemployment is also significantly high. These two factors when combined, often push affected families to willingly or otherwise let go of their daughters into the forced labor or sex slavery in more developed nations. The women and children are the most affected groups in the slavery business since they are the most vulnerable in the society. Against the common belief that slavery is obsolete, the opening up of more borders and easy…
Buchholz T.G., (2007). New Ideas from Dead Economists. An Introduction't Modern Economic Thought. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from http://www.docdroid.net/miuc/newideas-deadeconomists.pdf.html
French H.W., (2013). The Not-So-Great Professor: Jeffrey Sachs' Incredible Failure to Eradicate Poverty in Africa. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from http://www.psmag.com/navigation/books-and-culture/smart-guy-jeffrey-sachs-nina-munk-idealist-poverty-failure-africa-65348/
Gates Foundation, (2012). Theo Sowa: We Need the Voices of African Women-TEDxChange. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GfIQgPb7pQs
ForaTv, (2008). Muhammad Yunus: The Social Business Model. Retrieved December 10, 2014 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0C3XQ3BTd4o
The events leading to the Vietnam conflict were determined by the administration in place at that time (VIETNAM CONFLICT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War).
Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.
In 1960 Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south. The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition.
The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.S. advisers, and by 1962 seemed to be winning. Senior U.S. military leaders were receiving positive reports from the U.S. commander, Gen. Paul D. Harkins of…
CONTAINMENT of SOVIET UNION
An Outline of American History (1994) http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch11_p5.htm
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
Poverty has a particularly strong influence on world affairs today and it is especially difficult for particular individuals to survive as long as they do not get involved in activities that very much resemble the form of slavery that was abolished more than 140 years ago. While some might interpret certain jobs to be no different from others, given that they entail individuals doing things they are not particularly fond of, the reality is that these respective jobs involve people being unable to leave and forced to work.
Many people leave their homes because they are poor and hope that they are going to make it in other locations. However, once they actually get there they realize that they are abused and forced to work for little to no compensation. These people are, by definition, slaves, in spite of the fact that the social order has a tendency to regard…
Bernie Krisher of American Assistance for Cambodia set her up in Phnom Penh twice more, but each time she ran away after a few days, desperate to get back to her meth supply" (Kristof and uDonn, p.39). hile I have not returned to Mexico and the carefree lifestyle I led there, I cannot deny having the desire to do so, on occasion. hile I know that the life I lived there was not the right life for me, I still long to return to it on occasion.
Of course, the differences in countries and cultures are, in many ways, becoming less apparent as the world becomes more global. This globalization has challenged the existing social structures in many countries, including those countries with castes or caste-like socioeconomic divisions. Discussing India, Kapur stated that, "ancient social structures are collapsing under the weight of new money. Bonds of caste and religion and…
Barber, Benjamin. "Jihad vs. McWorld." The Atlantic. N.p. 1 Mar. 1992. Web. 6 May 2013.
Kapur, Akash. "How India became America." The New York Times. 1-2. 9 Mar. 2012. Web.
6 May 2013.
Kristof, Nicholas and Sheryl WuDunn. "Microcredit: The Financial Revolution." Half the Sky:
Tourism Demand esearch & Analysis
International Tourism Demand Estimation
Tourism Attraction Sales
Tourism Attraction Sales
Tourism & Employment
Tourism may be defined as, "The sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourists, business suppliers, host governments and host communities in the process of attracting and hosting these tourists and other visitors," (McIntosh and Goeldner, 1990, p. 4).
From the above definition, it can be seen that the development of tourism in any area involves multiple players. In addition, tourism is made of up numerous activities, services, and industries that contribute to the tourists' experience. These include the provision of transportation and accommodation; eating and drinking establishments; entertainment facilities; and shops, among others (McIntosh and Goeldner, 1990). Edgell (1990, p. 12) adds that,
"The full scope of international travel and tourism, therefore, encompasses the output of segments of many industries.…
Barry, K., & O' Hagan, J.(1972). An econometric study of British tourist expenditure in Ireland. Economic and Social Review, 3, 143-161.
Blake, Adam, Durbarry, Ramesh, Sinclair, M. Thea, Sugiyarto, Guntur, "Modeling Tourism and Travel Using Tourism Satellite Accounts and Tourism Policy and Forecasting Models." Online at www.nottingham.ac.uk. Accessed 09/12/2011
Crouch, G.(1994a). The Study of International Tourism Demand: A Survey of Practice. Journal of Travel Research, 32, 41-55
Deaton, A., & Muellbauer, J. (1980b). An almost ideal demand system. American Economic Review, 70, 312-326
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received
Gray highlight means writer found this source
The study will be delving into: What ASEAN constitutes and what remains beyond its scope? The aim of this study will be handing out a wide-ranging presentation of the present stance of ASEAN and its accomplishments till date, along with its challenges. The paper is intended as a suggestion for a master-plan that can be employed as a future pathway where ASEAN political-security support must be going towards in the forthcoming years.
To start with let us have a brief introduction of the organization. The creators of the Association of South East Asian Nations - ASEAN, visualized it as ultimately assembling all the nations of the region and managing them to lend a hand in assuring the peace, permanence and growth of the area. While the area was in a state of turmoil, a lot of nations were under pressure for the existence of the nation or autonomy. First…
ADBI (2002) "Did East Asian Developing Countries lose Export Competitiveness in the pre- Crisis 1990's?" ADBI Research Paper 34; Tokyo.
Altbach, Eric. (1999) "Growing Pains: ASEAN at 30" Japan Economic Institute Report. No. 23; June 19
Author Unkown. (1999) "Weathering the Storm: Hong Kong and the Asian Financial Crisis" Conference sponsored by the Far Eastern Economic Review. Hong Kong. 11 June.
Baietti Aldo. (2001) "Private Infrastructure in East Asia: Lessons Learned in the Aftermath of the Crisis." Washington, D.C. World Bank.
Poverty Reduction occur on a Local Scale or must it be in a roader Scope to be Meaningful? Discuss with Reference to Specific Examples.
One of the biggest issues that a host of governments and international organizations are wrestling with (i.e. The UN) is how to effectively eliminate poverty. This is because, a number of different programs have been implemented in the past that were suppose to have a dramatic impact on reducing levels. Yet, in reality they are having limited effects at addressing the underlying causes. Instead, most of the money that is intended to tackle these challenges is squandered through: government bureaucracy and corrupt leaders.
A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than Tanzania. After gaining independence in the 1961, the country began to experience 6% economic growth. This caused many international aid organizations and donors to provide increased amounts of funding for…
2011 World Hunger and Property Facts, 2011, World Hunger. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Aid and Fairer Trade, 2010, UN. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Macro Economic Development, 2011, Aid Indonesia. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Microfinance in Cambodia, 2011, CMA. Available from: [31 May 2011].
Peace Agreements and International Intervention
A peace treaty is an agreement between two hostile parties, usually countries or governments, which formally ends a war or armed conflict. Treaties are often ratified in territories deemed neutral in the previous conflict and delegates from these neutral territories act as witnesses to the signatories. In the case of large conflicts between numerous parties there may be one global treaty covering all issues or separate treaties signed between each party. In more modern times, certain intractable conflict situations, especially those involving terrorism, may first be brought to cease-fire and are then dealt with via a peace process where a number of discrete steps are taken on each side to eventually reach the mutually desired goal of peace and the signing of a treaty. Some ceasefires, such as the one following the American Revolution, may last a number of years and follow a tortuous process.…
Berdal, Mats and David M. Malone, eds. Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000.
Chomsky, Noam. "Peace Process' Prospects." July 27, 2000. June 27, 2005. .
Collier, Paul and Anke Hoeffler. "Greed and Grievance, Policy Research Paper 2355." World Bank Development Group. May 2000.
Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1994.
Carlsberg also have the largest stable of brands in the country, and nationwide blanket distribution. Lastly, Corona has experience in dealing with Carlsberg, with whom it has distribution agreements Russia, Central Asia, Turkey and a number of other countries around the world.
Corona faces intense competition from InBev (now a-B InBev after its merger with Anheuser-Busch). InBev has a different model for international expansion, comprised of purchasing breweries all over the world. This secures the company local production and distribution. It has the potential to shut Corona out of its distribution chains, reducing Corona's ability to compete in some markets. In addition, two of a-B InBev's global brands -- Budweiser and Stella Artois -- compete directly with Corona is most markets as imported superpremium beers.
There are three tactics that Modelo can employ in order to compete against a-B InBev. The first is to shore up its distribution channels. If…
Haddock, F. (1999). The globalization of beer. Global Finance. Retrieved March 12, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/ p/articles/mi_qa3715/is_199907/ai_n8873084/
Singer, J. & Kesmodel, D. (2007). Why consolidation storm is brewing in beer industry. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 12, 2010 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB119262856498561983-email.html
No author. (2010). Beer in China in 2010: A market analysis. Access Asia. Retrieved March 12, 2010 from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=1204159
Datamonitor staff writer. (2010). Carlsberg to distribute Modelo's Corona Extra brand in nine new countries. Drinks Business Review. Retrieved March 12, 2010 from http://www.drinks-business-review.com/news/carlsberg_to_distribute_modelos_corona_extra_brand_in_nine_new_countries_270209
Organizational Issues from the Responsibility Project (Liberty Mutual)
The video chosen from the Responsibility Project was "omen in the orld: Erin Ganju." Her story is meaningful for a number of reasons that will be reviewed in this paper. Ganju is the CEO of "Room to Read," an organization that seeks to help educate children (through reading and other skills) in order that today's children can grow up with the power to change the world for the better.
omen in the orld: Erin Ganju -- hat are the Important Issues? Ganju begins her video by explaining how "passionate" her parents were -- when she was just a child -- about sharing information with her regarding different cultures. A sense of "wanderlust" was "instilled" in her, Ganju explains. Importantly, Ganju's parents not only took their daughter to many interesting places, but the family read about each place they visited, encouraging both reading…
Deen, Thalif. (2011). UNESCO reveals huge secondary education gap worldwide. One World
South Asia. Retrieved November 12, 2012, from http://southasia.oneworld.net.
Foster, Wayne A., and Miller, Merideth. Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A
Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Through Third Grade. Language, Speech, and Hearing
Shopping Tourism in Hong Kong
Item Page Number
Tourism in Hong Kong
Shopping Tourism in Hong Kong
Shopping Tourism in Hong Kong
Shopping tourism is a major aspect of the global tourism trade and as such is an area of tourism that is and should be promoted by destination countries and locations. This is true for Hong Kong as well as in other locations throughout the world. Ashworth (1989) writes that urban regeneration and tourism have become critically important activities beginning in the 1980's. Ashworth specifically notes two elements that link the ideas of the city and tourism and which show the complex relationship that exists between the features of a city and the functions of tourism that serve to result in shopping tourism in the city. The first element is comprised by the specific characteristics of a city and how this…
Cheung, Sidney (nd) Cultural Tourism and Hong Kong Identity. Department of Anthropology. The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Retrieved from: http://cuhk.orientalecom7.com/en/publish/workingpaper4.pdf
Discover Hong Kong by Rail (2012) Hong Kong Tourism Board. Retrieved from: http://www.discoverhongkong.com/eng/things-to-do/discover-hongkong-rail.html
Experience Unique Hong Kong (2012) Hong Kong Tourism Board. Retrieved from: http://www.discoverhongkong.com/eng/things-to-do/cultural-tours.html
Hong Kong Culture (2012) Tourism Asia Network. Retrieved from: http://hong-kong.tourism-asia.net/index.html
Global Refugee Regime eems to Be Veering Away From Traditional Rules
As the threat of war looms large, the situation of those displaced because of violence and fights is becoming the focal point of talks amidst humanitarian groups. Many wrote about the situation in Afghanistan. The last many years have brought about quite a lot of enormous "refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies." More than 50 million people have been displaced by conflicts, war and other disasters and things may get worse.
The many organizations that offer aid to those who are forced to flee from their native lands are trying their level best to reach out and help each one of them. But nations all over seem to be hesitant to take in refugees who do not have any place else to go. What is the solution? How can humanitarian agencies cope with the increasing number of refugees? A book…
Agamben, Giorgio (1995). We refugees.(Section 2: Issuing Identity) Symposium v49, n2 (Summer):114
Appling, Cathy (1995). United Nations Involvement in Haiti from a Humanitarian Perspective. Current World Leaders 38, 4, Aug, 83-98.
Copeland, Emily (1992). Global refugee policy: an agenda for the 1990s. (Conference Reports) International Migration Review v26, n3 (Fall):992
Deng, Francis M. (1995). Dealing with the Displaced: A Challenge to the International Community. Global Governance 1, 1, winter, 45-57.
Lessons Learned by the Americans Experience of the Vietnam War
The Vietnam War is one infamous war in the history of America. It was the first war that America took part in an international stage and lost terribly. War statistics shows that the America lost a total of 58,000 lives and over 350,000 casualties. The war also ran into millions of dollars dispensed to finance the war. The war also injured the international reputation of the country among the peers of great nations such as the Soviet Union (Westheider, 2011). To this effect, many lessons were drawn upon which the American nation have formulated their external war strategies to date.
Lessons from diplomatic negotiations
The cause of the Vietnam War was something that could easily be solved diplomatically. Immediately after independence, Vietnam was divided into two regions: the north and the south. Each one of them operated independently with the…
Coward, R. (2014). A voice from the Vietnam War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
Salisbury, H. (2010). Vietnam Reconsidered: Lessons from a war. New York: Harper & Row
Westheider, J. (2011). The Vietnam War. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.
During their inspection, they recovered over forty pounds of documents and maps, including maps that showed the locations of U.S. billets in Saigon, indicating heavy surveillance by the Vietcong. They encountered few Vietcong throughout the operation, and only small numbers of soldiers were killed. Ultimately, the tunnel rats who scoured these tunnels helped form a band of tunnel rats that were used throughout the country to infiltrate and destroy Vietcong tunnels throughout the war.
There were some Vietcong left inside the tunnels, and those that did not give up were shot on sight. There are some accounts that there were people in the hospital too, including nurses, when the tunnels were destroyed, but that has not been verified. Before entering the tunnels, the tunnel rats would spray them with machine gun fire, and usually the Vietcong left to guard them were killed in the barrage.
B-52 bombers and other aircraft…
Falk, Richard A., Gabriel Kolko, and Robert Jay Lifton, eds. Crimes of war: A legal, political-documentary, and psychological inquiry into the responsibility of leaders, citizens, and soldiers for criminal acts in wars. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 1971.
Hunt, Richard A. Pacification: The American struggle for Vietnam's hearts and minds. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995.
Karnow, Stanley. 1997. Vietnam: A history. New York: Penguin Books.
Stanton, Shelby L. The rise and fall of an American Army: U.S. ground forces in Vietnam, 1965-1973. Novato, CA: Presidio, 1995.
" (Coates, et al., 2003) Solutions that are know to be effective are "co-management approaches in the fishery sector which are already in use and highly effective on a local basis.
There are 1200 known species of fish and it is thought that there are as many as 1700 living in the Mekong River Basin. High diversity is present due to plant groups and other aquatic animal groups. The Mekong's ecosystem is one of complexity with variations in climate, geology, terrain and water flow." (Coates, et al. 2003) the results of these variations are a rich habitat that is said to 'rival that found on tropical coral reefs. The pictures below show the impact of the flooding of the Mekong.
Figure 2.0 Figure 2.1
Source: (Coates, et al., 2003)
III. Cultural Significance of the River
Diversity is important for the following reasons:
Direct Use Value: biodiversity is used directly as…
Coates D. et al. (2003) Biodiversity and Fisheries in the Mekong River Basin Mekong River Commission, Mekong Development Series No.2, 2003 June
Coates, D. (2001) Biodiversity and Fisheries Management Opportunities in the Mekong River Basin "Blue millennium-managing global fisheries for biodiversity. GEF-IDRC 3-7 July 2001. World Fisheries Trust, Victoria, Canada CD Rom.
Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin Online available at http://www.mrcmekong.org/pdf/95%20Agreement.pdf
Mekong River Basin
The U.S. supported the Thieu regime in an election so fraudulent all opponents withdrew.
The war officially ended in 1973; Nixon resigned in 1974 so did no t preside over the rout of the South Vietnamese in 1975 when the North took over the entire country.
Results for America:
One and a half million counted dead in Indochina, 58,000 of whom were Americans. Millions maimed. Over 500,000 refugees.
Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. spent $120 billion dollars on the war directly, but other costs raised the tally to a pricey $400 billion.
Emotionally, the U.S. military was exhausted and depleted, no longer the superpower it was assumed; likewise, the American people were depleted and exhausted, although much of it was in relation to their leadership; seriously wounded the U.S. psyche.
Anti-colonial sentiment in America was at a crucial crossroads in the United States governmental policy at this…
However, protecting democracy came with the positive outcome of suppressing the communist bloc that would come to define American politics until 1989 and the end of the Cold War. While the spread and protection of democracy was encouraged and a true conviction, the added bonus of the threat to communism spurred the American military to capture the minds of as many American leaders as possible (Eisenhower included).
1: Commitment to France, where troubles in the Indochina region were threatening social stability at home. Marshall plan connections to Europe, and a sincere desire to maintain allied with the French (responsibility, guilt for waiting on intervening in the European conflicts, general interest in this democratic former power) encouraged the United States to empower the French as much as possible in their pursuit.
After WWII, France tried to re-establish control over Vietnam. In January 1946, Britain agreed to remove her troops, and later that year, China left in exchange for a promise she would give up her rights to territory in China. Emperor Bao Dai went into exile in Hong Kong in March, 1946. After signing an accord recognizing Vietnamese national unity within the French Union, he was allowed to return in June, 1948; the French
3.2.3 Portfolio Diversification of Investment in Global Property Markets
ecause the global property markets are affected by globalization and specific country / regional factors, means that the overall amounts of risks will vary, the most notable include: transparency and efficiency. Where, each country / region has different on laws and regulations pertaining to the real estate markets. This means that the risks in a number of different markets will depend upon specific market conditions themselves, reflecting these two factors. To protect themselves against these kinds of risks, many investors will often seek to diversify their portfolio. Diversification is: when you are investing a number of different asset classes in real estate, across a variety of countries / regions. The idea is that if a risk occurs in a specific country or region, the other areas that you are diversified in will protect you against the severity of the declines. For…
2009 A Year of Revival for Property Sector, 2010, Visit Kuwait. Available from: . [30 March 2010].
Barwa Real Estate, 2010, Arabian Business. Available from: . [30 March 2010].
Business Risk, 2010, Invest Words. Available from: [29 March 2010].
Dubai Property Companies Called Merger Off, 2009, Property Wire. Available from: [30 March 2010].
39 It was against this background that ASEAN Foreign Ministers during their retreat at Cebu in the Philippines in April 2005 decided to lay down three main criteria for the membership of the EAS: 1. Substantive relations with ASEAN; 2. Full Dialogue Partner status; and 3. Accession to the ASEAN's Treaty of Amity and Co-operation. The Foreign Minister of Singapore had stated that, India obviously qualifies on all three counts and it will be included in the first EAS. e hope that Australia and New Zealand which have not acceded to the TAC, will agree to the TAC in the coming months (Battese & Coelli, 1992-page 18). If so, we would welcome them to the EAS in Kuala Lumpur. The Minister further added that ASEAN alone will decide the future members of all subsequent summits and ?this is to ensure that ASEAN remains in the driver's seat of the EAS…
Anderson, Kym; Bernard Hoekman; and Anna Strutt. 1999. "Agriculture and the WTO: Next Steps." Revised version of a paper presented at the Second Annual Conference on Global Economic Analysis, Avernaes Conference Centre, Helnaes, Denmark, June 20-22, 1999.
Barshefsky, Charlene. 1999. Press briefing at the WTO Ministerial Conference, Seattle, WA.
Bhagwati, Jagdish. 1999. "Globalization: The Question of Appropriate Governance." Sang-don Suh prize-acceptance speech, Taegu. Republic of Korea, October 7, 1999
Birdsall, Nancy, and Robert Z. Lawrence. 1999. "Deep Integration and Trade Agreements: Good for Developing Countries?" In Kaul, Grunberg, and Stern, ed., Global Public Goods, 128-51.
Mekong River Delta
The Management of the Mekong River has long been an issue of great debate and inquiry. The body of water is essential to the livelihoods of millions of people and must be managed accordingly. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate human-ecosystem conflicts. The research will analyze the nature of the conflict, the impacts on the natural ecosystem involved (you need to include raw scientific data that show human impacts), a description of the stakeholders involved, the options for dealing with the conflict (is this a good example of a sustainable solution to the conflict, the option selected and an evaluation of whether this is working including an update for the older case studies.
The Mekong River
The Mekong River is a perfect example of human-ecosystem conflict. According to a report entitled "People and ecosystems: The fraying web of life" the Mekong River is the 12th…
Baird I.G. Mark S. Flaherty1 and Ian G. Baird2. Mekong River Fish Conservation Zones in Southern Laos: Assessing Effectiveness Using Local Ecological Knowledge. Environmental Management. Volume 36, Number 3 / September, 2005
Friederich, H. 2000. The biodiversity of the wetlands in the Lower Mekong Basin. Paper submitted to the World Commission on Dams, Presented at the Commission's East/Southeast Asia Regional Consultation, Hanoi, Vietnam. 26-27 February
Hoa, Le Thi Viet, Nguyen Huu Nhan, Eric Wolanski, Tran Thanh Congb, Haruyama Shigeko. The combined impact on the flooding in Vietnam's Mekong River delta of local man-made structures, sea level rise, and dams upstream in the river catchment
Kummu M., Varis, O. (2007) Sediment-related impacts due to upstream reservoir trapping, the Lower Mekong River. Geomorphology 85 (2007) 275-293
His new wife wants to be Yuki's friend, but essentially, Yuki misses her mother and the loving relationship they had, and she is very unhappy. Her mother is portrayed as loving but weak and fragile, while her father and stepmother worry more about what other people will think than they do about Yuki. They also do not let her visit her mother's family as often as she would like, and that bothers her. Essentially, she grows up without love after her mother dies, and she has to come to terms not only with losing her mother but also with her own maturity and dreams for the future.
Two of these protagonists are immigrants, and they are all caught between two different worlds. How they react and how they manage to combine their cultures is the central point of all these books. Their families all hang on to their home culture,…
States like Bangladesh, Egypt, and Indonesia have severe challenges due to the risks of flooding, drought, and deforestation. Recently Bangladesh was hit by a powerful Typhoon (same as a hurricane), which caused thousands of deaths and was so severe it was beyond the capability of its weak government to deal with the disaster.
The U.S. Department of State (DOS) has been working for many years to try and help with a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. The violence between these two states has been going on for many years, and numerous previous attempts to find a lasting peaceful solution have failed. In a document called "A Performance-Based roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict," the DOS plan includes three phases. The first is the most crucial and pivotal - an end to the "terror and violence" and an attempt to normalize Palestinian life - in conjunction with…
Textbook Chapter 8 "Post-War Reconstruction."
Dixon, Robyn. (2007, Dec. 15). Zimbabwe may shatter, but Mugabe holds firm. The Los
Angeles Times, p. a-1 - a-5.
Foreign Policy. (2007). Failed States Index 2007. The Fund for Peace and Carnegie
They could not admit such a great loss, and so they concocted lies, false assessments, and poor recommendations just to cover themselves and their reputations. These essays are so disturbing because they show the culpability of the American people. They make the reader wonder what falsehoods are underway in military actions today, and if in another thirty years, the same kinds of revelations will continue the lies, deception, and false assessments that made up the Vietnam War.
Both authors indicate how essential the Tet Offensive was and how it crippled the military and gave the North Vietnamese a clear advantage in strategy and intimidation. It also caused Westmorland to bring in more troops, which started more protests back home and in other parts of the world. McMahon continues, "The resulting back channel memoranda between Westmoreland and Wheeler demonstrated that the military understood that its position in Vietnam was untenable" (McMahon…
McMahon, Robert J Major Problems in the History of the Vietnam War: Documents and Essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003.
Unlike the transatlantic slave trade, they are not being recruited to work in any specific geographical area or any clearly defined industry or economy. True, many of the women are sold as prostitutes or concubines, and the children as labourers, but there are relatively few established and stable routes and markets. hile the transatlantic slave trade was legal and carried on as a form of legitimate commerce, the modern slave trade is illegal. Records of these underground business transactions are largely hidden from public view; so are the human beings who are bought and sold in this twenty-first-century slave trafficking. The pervasiveness and the relatively invisible nature of this illegal trafficking make it difficult to define and develop a strategy for abolishing it.
Actions of Mexico:
As this work has previously stated there are several innate problems associated with ideology surrounding prostitution, as well as illegal immigration with…
Andrews, Sara K. "U.S. Domestic Prosecution of the American International Sex Tourist: Efforts to Protect Children from Sexual Exploitation." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 94.2 (2004): 415.
Barr, Juliana. "Captives and Cousins: Slavery, Kinship, and Community in the Southwest Borderlands." Journal of Southern History 70.3 (2004): 639.
Dodson, Howard. "Slavery in the Twenty-First Century." UN Chronicle Sept.-Nov. 2005: 28.
Eldridge, Philip J. The Politics of Human Rights in Southeast Asia. London: Routledge, 2002.
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…
Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.
Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood
In summary there is a complete lack of methodology to get beyond what appears to be a major opportunity in the Hanoi market for healthcare when in fact there was a very good reason that part of the market was open; no one had taken the time to define services in the high-end of medical services, and the pricing dynamics of the market would later prove to be difficult to sustain such a high-end hospital on. If the founders had done research before the actual launch of the VIH they would have known this.
If you had been acting as a pre-project marketing consultant to Mr. Lee what might you have done by way of data collection to ascertain the nature of the market? (Remember, this is a developing-world country, and oftentimes consumers have little conceptualization of the product you envision.) would have taken a very systematic approach to building…
Management of Technology in Developing Countries Such as Iran
Technology management arrangements of developing countries vary from those of first world ones. The requirement for skill in these states is not growing from within, but somewhat cropping up from new wares imported from first world countries. Technological growth in addition does not consequence from inner data and research, but resulting upon the technology transmission from abroad. In these environments, technology management by customary way is barely effective. These are troubles facing the Islamic epublic of Iran these days and as a consequence organizations controlling the technology management endure non-compliance, then technological development does not trail an accurate trend (obertson, 2002).
Lack of distinctive management, vagueness of technological precedence's, misunderstanding of policy-making roles and inter-organization implementation and management, tremendous government involvement in all fields and lack of specialist manpower are amongst the vital troubles of the topic (Sveiby et. al 2001).…
(1.) Abou-Zeid, E.S. "A Knowledge Management Reference Model." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(5), 2002. pp. 486-499.
(2.) Bender S. And Fish A. "The Transfer of Knowledge and the Retention of Expertise: The Continuing Need for Global Assignments." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(2), 2008. pp. 125-135.
(3.) Beveren, V.J. "A Model of Knowledge Acquisition that Refocuses Knowledge Management." Journal of Knowledge Management, 6(1), 2002. pp. 18-22.
(4.) Bhatt, G. "Organizing Knowledge in the Knowledge Development Cycle." Journal of Knowledge Management, 4(1), 2009. pp. 15-26.
Student Unrest and the Vietnam ar
It is certainly a fact that the widespread and sometimes violent student unrest in the 1960s was largely based on young people's objections to the war in Vietnam. But it should be noted that the youthful rage against the American involvement was not driven exclusively by moral, political and social issues. But that rage was also fueled the fact that during the 1960s young people could not vote until they were 21 years of age, but they could be drafted -- and they were by the hundreds of thousands -- at age 18. This paper reviews the relationship between student demonstrations and the war in Vietnam, and concludes with the political and social aftermath of the war.
Student-Led Demonstrations Against the Vietnam ar: As a brief background into the demonstrations against the Vietnam ar, the 1960s were a time when America experienced terrible events…
Franklin, Bruce H. (2000). Vietnam & Other American Fantasies. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Hagopian, Patrick. (2009). The Vietnam War in American Memory. Amherst, MA: University
of Massachusetts Press.
Halstead, Fred. (1978). Out Now! A Participant's Account of the American Movement Against
137). Across the board, then, technological innovations will not only be a key driver of business in the coming decade, they will also facilitate the effects of the other key drivers of business discussed herein. For instance, the editors of World Economic Outlook (2002) point out that, "More trade integration is usually associated with more international financial integration, as they respond to many of the same technological and policy factors" (Trade and financial integration, p. 108). As the current fourth generation technologies are replaced by fifth and sixth generation technologies, these trends will likely become even more accelerated over the next 10 years. As Wiedmann and his associates point out, "Up-and-coming technologies like radio frequency identification and future trends like ubiquitous computing, ambient intelligence, and the connected (smart) home scenario have gained special attention in both research and business practice" (p. 137).
This paper provided a review of the…
Beder, S. (2009). 'Neoliberalism and the Global Financial Crisis.' Social Alternatives, vol. 28,
no. 1, pp. 17-19.
Boer-Ashworth, E.D. (2000). The Global Political Economy and post-1989 Change: The Place
of the Central European Transition. Houndmills: Macmillan.
The risk to humans is generally low, however during any outbreak of Avian Flu among poultry, there is always a possible risk to humans who have contact with the infected birds and surfaces contaminated with excretions from the infected fowl (Avian1). The current outbreak of H5N1 among poultry in Asia and Europe is an example of a bird flu outbreak that has caused human infections and death (Avian1). In rare instances, limited human-to-human spread of H5N1 virus has occurred, however transmission has not been observed to continue beyond one person (Avian1). Because all influenza viruses have the ability to change, scientists are concerned that the H5N1 virus could mutate and infect humans with a strain that could easily spread from one person to another (Avian1).
Furthermore, according to the CDC, because these viruses do not commonly infect humans, there is little or no immune protection against them in the human…
Avian1 Influenza. Retrieved November 01, 2005 from Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen-info/avian-flu-humans.htm
Avian Influenza. Retrieved November 01, 2005 from World Health Organization Web site: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/avian_faqs/en/index.html#whatis
History1 of the Avian Flue. The Avian Flu Information Site. Retrieved November 01, 2005 at http://www.avian-flu-info.org/history_of_bird_flu.asp
Lessons Learned From the Vietnam ar
In terms of the diplomatic relations that the Johnson and Nixon Administrations had with representatives from North Vietnam and from South Vietnam, the two most appropriate words to describe those relations are failure and futility. But the failed pattern of diplomacy vis-a-vis Vietnam and Southeast Asia really began in 1954, when then Secretary of State John Foster Dulles was sent by President Eisenhower to negotiate the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). hen Dulles "…circumvented the provisions of the Geneva Accords" by unilaterally including Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia into the SEATO pack, Dulles was on thin ice in terms of American credibility (Moss 52). Dulles' subversion of the "letter and the spirit of the Geneva Accords" gave an open door to the U.S. intervention into Vietnam's affairs, an intervention which in hindsight was an absolute ethical and military disaster (Moss 53). Meanwhile fast-forward…
McNamara, Robert S. (1996). In Retrospect: The Tragedy and Lessons of Vietnam. New York:
Random House Digital.
Moss, G. (2010). Vietnam: An American Ordeal. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Werner, Jayne, and Huynh, Luu Doan. (1993). The Vietnam War: Vietnamese and American
Tourism in Thailand
Economic, Social, Cultural and Environmental Impacts of Tourism in Thailand
Urban and rural tourism in Thailand accounts for around 7% of the total GDP. There are various factors, social, economic, environmental and cultural factors which affect the tourism industry in Thailand. Also, the rural tourism in Thailand needs more work. This report has some strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of Thailand's tourism industry. In the end, recommendations are given on how to improve the tourism industry in Thailand.
Tourism in Thailand
Impact of Environmental, Economical, Social and Cultural Factors on Tourism in Thailand
Tourism is one of the world's fastest growing industries, and this industry has been identified as a means of generating national income (Pender, & Sharpley, 2005). Thailand, a beautiful country at the heart…
Chon, K, Singh, A, & Mikula, J. (1993). Thailand's tourism and hotel industry. The Cornell hotel and restaurant administration quarterly, 34(3), 43-49.
Elliot, J. (1983). Politics, power, and tourism in Thailand. Annals of tourism research, 10(3), 377-393.
Forsyth, T, (2002). What happened on the "the beach"? social movements and governance of tourism in Thailand. International journal of sustainable development, 5(3), 326-337.
Gold, J, & Revill, G. (2004). Representing the Environment. Routledge, London
Japan be seen as a Model for Understanding of 'Asian Modernities'
This is an essay which explores the reasons behind the perception of the west which regards Japan as a model of Asian Modernities'. It has 5 sources.
Gender studies have revealed that men and women think differently, and both are confused about each others thoughts. Perhaps such a dichotomy does exist between the western world and the Asian world. As the era of globalization marches forward it has become a necessity for the west to expand its knowledge and understanding of the east. Such an understanding is not only important for global trade but is also important for peace and stability between the nations of the world. Understanding and the search for common objectives would not have been possible if Japan had not surprised the world with its rapid development and prosperity during the years after World War II.…
Koizumi, Junichiro. Message of Prime Minister of Japan Junichiro Koizumi
Commemorating ASEAN-Japan Exchange Year 2003. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Retrieved at http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/asia-paci/asean/year2003/message-1.html .
Nakasone, Yasuhiro (1986). The New Asia Pacific Era. Britannica Book of the Year 1986. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. (1986).
War has undoubtedly shaped the course of human history. Conflicts, through sheer human nature often arise through disagreement. Occasionally these conflicts end with war as opposing sides believe so vehemently in their respective reasonings and doctrinal views. Oftentimes, these war's end with one "victor" and on defeated party, however, in war everyone losses.
The Vietnam War in particular is an example of how war is a zero sum game that only results in losses for all those involved. This paper examines how the conflict started, taking particular care to express both points-of-view regarding core issues followed by a discussion concerning Special Forces operations and their overall impact on the outcome of the war. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings about Special Forces in Vietnam in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
Origins of the Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a long, costly armed conflict that pitted the…
Dyhouse, Tim. (2002, March). Delta Force: Secret Wielders of Death. VFW Magazine 89(7), p. 16.
Beckwith, Charles (with Donald Knox) (1983). Delta Force. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 9780151246571.
Kelly, Francis J. Green Berets of Vietnam - The U.S. Army Special Forces 61-71 - the. S.l: Archive Media Publishing, 2013.
The killings at Kent State in 1970 were outcome of a clash between the Ohio National Guard and Vietnam War protestors who had assembled at the University. Nixon had been elected to the White House in 1968 following the assassination of his opponent Robert Kennedy during the campaign. With the assassinations of JFK, Malcolm X, and MLK, Jr., still fresh in the public consciousness, students were very vocal and critical of the government. Plus, students were upset about the ongoing draft and as well as the recent Mai Lai Massacre, which had outraged Americans at home. Many were especially suspicious of Nixon, who had pledged to end the Vietnam War but seemed to be going against that pledge when the U.S. began bombing Cambodia in 1970. In response to Nixon’s announcement of a Cambodian Incursion, students across the U.S. engaged in walk-outs, sit-ins and protests on campuses. Kent State students…
A majority of the American wars have had obvious starting points like the capture of Fort Sumter in 1861, the battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775, the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, and the invasion of North Korea into South Korea in June 1950. However, for the war in Vietnam, there is no fixed beginning. The United States got into that war incrementally via a series of steps that took place between 1950 and 1965 (Asselin 337). The Vietnam war is considered to be America's longest war and it took place for 25 years (1950-1975). This was a proxy war because the opposing powers were using third parties to fight on their behalf.
As has been pointed out the United States joined the war incrementally and it all begun in May 1950 when President Harry Truman sanctioned a modest program of military and economic aid to…
The fact that two courts can produce two different outcomes for an accused individual shows that there are definite inconsistencies within the opinions of the court system. here one city or state creates one law, another city or state will create another that contradicts each other. United States citizens cannot even agree what is constitutional and what is not. Having a Supreme Court is helpful in debating what laws uphold the Constitution since the individual states and cities can obviously not agree. ith careful evaluation of previous cases and the intentions of the Constitution, the Supreme Court made its decision about Mitchell to the best of its ability. It found him guilty of his violent actions against the young boy, but it did not hold Mitchell's words of hate against him because the First Amendment protected his right to speak freely.
America. Cornell University Law School. Legal Information…
America. Cornell University Law School. Legal Information Institute. Wisconsin v.
Mitchell. 11 Jun. 1993 < http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/92-515.ZO.html >.
America. Cornell University Law School. Legal Information Institute. Spence v. Washington.
Native populations never had such concepts. That many nations are artificial creations incapable of food self-sufficiency undercuts the self-sufficiency argument. Nations around the world may need, at the very least, to organization into larger, more diverse blocs the way Europe has in order to have any hope of attaining food self-sufficiency.
Inefficient and illogical colonial-era boundaries are just one externality that is impacting the ability of the world to feed itself. Trade regulations are another. No matter the justification, trade barriers and tariffs reduce the efficiency of the global food trade. hen nations protect certain industries with these barriers, they fail to take advantage of comparative advantages. orse, such regulations stifle innovation. hen regulations are removed, innovation allows industries to find a new equilibrium. An example of this can be found with Canadian wine production. Prior to the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Act, the Canadian wine industry was subsidized heavily.…
Eide, W. & Kracht, U. (2009). Official responses to the world food crisis in light of the human right to food. WorldHunger.org. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/08/hrf/wb_eide.htm
Whitman, D. (2000). Genetically modified foods: Harmful or helpful? CSA Illumina. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/review.pdf
Bello, W. (2008). How the World Bank, IMF and WTO destroyed African agriculture. WorldHunger.org. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.worldhunger.org/articles/08/editorials/bello_afag.htm
S. actions in Vietnam. His main mission turned into destroying Vietnamese communism before his troops left the country. The war spread to Laos and Cambodia as the U.S. had been attempting to damage the communist resource routes. In spite of the fact that heavy bombings continued throughout North Vietnam, the government there did not show any signs of being overcome.
In addition to his citizens lobbying for the war to be ended and the North Vietnamese keeping their strength, Nixon also had to deal with the atergate scandal. This meant that he had lesser time to deal with the problem in Southeast Asia or to assist the South Vietnamese government.
The Paris Peace Agreement from the 27th of January, 1973, had put an end to the fighting between the U.S. And the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. In spite of the peaceful character of the situation, matters did not change much,…
1. Cheng Guan, Ang, "Singapore and the Vietnam War," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 40.2 (2009).
2. Liebovich, Louis W., Richard Nixon, Watergate, and the Press: A Historical Retrospective (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003) iii.
3. Mueller, John, Retreat from Doomsday: The Obsolescence of Major War (New York: Basic Books, 1989) null3.
4. Schulzinger, Robert D., A Time for War: The United States and Vietnam, 1941-1975 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997) 299.
229). The John Howard government cemented the lesson as a "significant shift in our dealings with the South Pacific," (quoted in McDougall and Sherman, p. 178) and as a result Australia now effectively reserves the right to step in to maintain (or restore) the rule of law throughout the region.
If anything, Australia's relationship to Papua New Guinea is stronger than its interest in the Solomon Islands (Wainwright 2003, p. 26), given its colonial history there. Somewhat more recently, Australia provided tacit material support for Papua's invasion of the breakaway Bougainville faction (McMillan 1997, p. 8) before the Sandline mercenary scandal and ensuing general strike made policy makers rethink their role in the affair and, by extension, the nightmare prospect of a true state failure in the region:
In today's globalized world, the failure of [a] modern nation state would not simply mean that its people would revert to the…
Anthony, MC, 2005, Regional security in Southeast Asia: beyond the ASEAN way, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore.
Checchi, F, Elder, G, Schafer, M, Drouhin, E, & Legros, D, Jul 5, 2003, "Consequences of armed conflict for an ethnic Karen population, "The Lancet, vol. 362, pp. 74-5.
Cheesman, N, 2002, "Seeing 'Karen' in the union of Myanmar," Asian Ethnicity, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 199-220.
Dixon, G, Gene, M, & Walter, N, 2008, Joint review of the enhanced cooperation program (ECP), Governments of Australia & Papua New Guinea: Canberra & Port Moresby, viewed 30 March, 2010, http://www.ausaid.gov.au/publications/pdf/ecp_final_report2008.pdf.
As Vickers (1989) notes, "…the size and intensity of U.S. intervention was met by escalation in the size and intensity of opposition to the war here at home'. (Vickers, 1989, p. 100) Vickers and many other critics state categorically that the anti-war movement in the country was "…a critical factor in preventing the U.S. from achieving victory over communist forces in Vietnam…" and that,
American public opinion indeed turned out to be a crucial 'domino'; it influenced military morale in the field, the long drawn-out negotiations in Paris, the settlement of 1973, and the cuts in aid to South Vietnam in 1974, a prelude to final abandonment in 1975." (Vickers 1989, p. 100)
As events in the war accelerated so did the public opposition to the war and protest changed into active resistance. A new stage of anti-resistance came into effect between 1967 and 1969 as a result of a…
Attarian, J 2000, 'Rethinking the Vietnam War, World and I, vol.15.
Bonier, D, Champlain S, and Kolly T. 1984, the Vietnam Veteran: A History of Neglect, Praeger Publishers, New York.
Bresler, R 2007, ' the Specter of Vietnam', USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), vol.135, no. 9.
Dinh, V 2000, How We Won in Vietnam, viewed 7 May, 2010,
It is important, therefore to understand the different frameworks by which the ethics of an act can be evaluated.
The art of citizenship, as identified by Barber (no date), must taught as part of one's education. It also holds that practical experience is the best way to teach the art of citizenship. People learn about the consequences of their actions by attaching themselves to those consequences physically. In my case, the sheer volume of shoes that I had to sort made the point clear -- I was helping people clothe themselves. Every box of children's shoes I sent was a child that I helped to live a better life. e have a responsibility, Barber argues, to understand the implications of our actions on our communities.
The different approaches to ethics can also be studied through practical experience. It is social interaction that illustrates for us the outcomes of our actions,…
Barber, B. (no date). A model program: Education-based community service at Rutgers University. In possession of the author.
CharityNavigator.org (2011). World Vision. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm?bay=search.summary&orgid=4768
Daniels College of Business. (2011). Daniels today and tomorrow. University of Denver. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.daniels.du.edu/aboutus/missionvisionvalues.html
Fukuyama, F. (1999). Social capital and civil society. International Monetary Fund. In possession of the author.