Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
CANADA'S IMMIGATION LAWS
Canada tighten immigration laws expel illegal aliens Prepare subtopics listing pro-con arguments motion. To, research chosen topic extensively. eferences provided statistics, studies, moral arguments made side.
Canada to tighten immigration laws and expel illegal aliens
Immigration refers to the act or process of moving from one country into another. There are many reasons why one may decide to move into a given country which may include to pursue education, employment, marriage or even to take refuge. Immigration laws refer to a nation's government policies that offer ground to control the phenomenon to the said country. These policies vary from one country to another providing the legal status of the people. Canada is a geographically large nation with a relatively small population. The country is also very attractive and full of many opportunities to be explored in all aspects from social, cultural and economic. For this reason, thousands…
Avramov, D., & Cliquet, R.L. (2005). Integrated policies on gender relations, ageing and migration in Europe. Lessons from the network for integrated European population studies (NIEPS). Antwerpen.
Canadian Criminal Justice Association., & Canadian Association for the Prevention of Crime. (1978). Canadian journal of criminology Revue canadienne de criminologie. Ottawa: Canadian Association for the Prevention of Crime.
Cornelius, W.A. (2004). Controlling immigration: A global perspective. Stanford, Calif:: Stanford University Press.
Knowles, V. (2007). Strangers at our gates: Canadian immigration and immigration policy, 1540-2007. Toronto: Dundurn.
Canada's Role In Olympics 2012
Canada is a multicultural, multi-ethnic and bi lingual country where people from all parts of the world travel to in search of a new life, of better earning and educational opportunities. The state is a democracy or parliamentary democracy, as the people select the cabinet and the Prime Minister but it is still a colony of the ritish Empire as Queen Elizabeth is considered the actual head of the country. Area wise Canada is the second largest country and has a population of 33.4 million. Its average income places it at the ninth position, signifying wealthy, prosperous land and people. Canadians are avid sports fans and participate in a number of games. The most popular and official sports are: Ice Hockey and Lacrosse. Other sports played in the country include: aseball, Soccer, asketball, Canadian Football, Swimming, Tennis, Volleyball, Snowshoeing, Gymnastics, Cricket etc. (West, J.T &…
CNC World Channel (2012). Team Canada's Olympic Campaign. Retrieved July 22 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jKBcVYYSyOE&feature=related
The Hudson Bay Co. (2011). Hudson's Bay Company: Canadian Olympic Team London2012 Collection. Retrieved July 22, from, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7MMpsGiDILU
Campbell, D. (2012). CTV Olympics: Chasing History. Retrieved July 22, 2012, from http://www.ctvolympics.ca/news/chasing-history-hughes/index.html
West, J.T & Lindsay, P. L (2012) The Canadian Encyclopedia: Sports History. Retrieved July 22, 2012 from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/sports-history
This is not a case of two nations with differing world views -- Canada maintains relations with Cuba, the Gulf States and other nations with extremist policy elements -- but a case where one nation has publicly announced its desire to commit genocide. Iran is therefore a special case, as nation whose present course represents a direct threat to peace in the world. That country needs to make the moves to bridge the gap and bring the dispute to resolution, because it is the country that has the track record of brutal repression, genocidal incitement and pursuit of weapons of mass destruction. Canada occupies the moral high ground, and the only resolution can come when the Iranian people take back their country from the zealots. This is the impediment that needs to be removed -- the irrational, racist mullahs controlling Iran need to be removed and replaced with a secular,…
De Luce, D. (2003). Journalist murdered, Iran admits. The Guardian. Retrieved September 28, 2012 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2003/jul/17/pressandpublishing.iran
BBC. (2012). Canada closes Iranian embassy and kicks out diplomats. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved September 28, 2012 fromhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-19522744
Nikiforuk debunks these assertions, by showing the extreme detrimental affects such mining will undoubtedly have on the Canadian landscape. hen the land stops producing the rich bitumen, what will oil drillers ask for next? ithout reducing our dependence on oil and petroleum products, it will undoubtedly leave other areas of Canada's rich wilderness vulnerable to the same environmental dangers. Instead of remaining dependent on crude oil and petroleum products, Nikiforuk proposes a plan to reduce Canada's dependence and move towards completely alternative sources of energy. He provides "12 Steps to Energy Sanity" which posit a number of important points that work seamlessly with Canada's current and future state in order to reduce dependence on oil and further provide protection for some of the nation's most vulnerable natural resource.
It is clear that Canada's dependence on petroleum and natural gas products are one of the biggest threats to the region's environment…
Nikiforuk, Andrew. Tar Sands: Dirty Oil and the Future of a Continent. Greystone / David Suzuki Foundation. 2010.
Canada Cultural Sovereignty
The weight of globalization on the national media techniques has activated a considerable range of research and different analysis. Canada being one of the nations has its policy makers and scholars concerned on the media's impact on not only its politics, but culture and religion too. The major reason is the proximity of Canada to the United States. It is also the world's greatest exporter of cultural produce with two distinct media audiences that are English and French. However, there is need to protect any nation's cultural values.
Globalization being the emergence of multinational communication systems with a worldwide free market in cultural products raises many political concerns. Today in Canada, the potential erosion of long life policies that protected cultural domestic production is the topic that is most talked of. English and French languages are vital to the future of Canada hence rarely studied. These two…
Balthazar, L. . Identity & Nationalism in Quebec. In James Littleton (Ed.), Clash of identities:
Essays on media, manipulation and the politics of the self . 2006 pp. 101-112. Toronto:
CBC & Prentice Hall Canada
Garde, Roger, Trembler, Dorlandl, & Pare, Denise.. Cultural development: State of the problem and prospects for Quebe:. Canadian Journal of Communication, 2004, 447-476
Politics & Governance
Politically, Canada has been dramatically reshaped by globalization. The country's political system was developed to reflect the proverbial two solitudes -- English and French -- but overhaul has been necessitated by an influx of millions of immigrants, and the changing views of Canadian society with respect to the nation's role in the world. This section will highlight the macro-level picture first, and then illustrate some lower-level examples of the role that globalization plays in Canadian politics.
At the macro level, Canada has long been a proponent of neoliberal views, and therefore has been one of the most ardent supporters of globalization. The free trade act that was developed with the U.S. In the 1980s has become a model for similar trade agreements all over the world, in terms of defining the different things traded, the move towards lower trade barriers and the dispute resolution infrastructure.
Bilodeau, A. (2008). Immigrants' voices through protest politics in Canada and Australia: Assessing the impact of pre-migration political repression. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Vol. 34 (6) 975-1002.
Levy, D. & Kolk, A. (2002). Strategic response to global climate change: Conflicting pressures on multinationals in the oil industry. Business and Politics. Vol. 4 (3) 275-298.
There has long been a debate on public vs. private health care in Canada though sometimes it is seen as not to the level of its importance. Canada has privately delivered health care and privately funded health care and the most prevalent one is privately health care. They usually operate on profit basis such as radiology centre, local non-hospital lab. Many of the rendered services tend to be publicly funded, for example, covered by Medicare; however the non-essential services are not. This is contrary to the public health care which is run by government. Their services are publicly delivered not for making profit.
The need for privatization of the health care has been of great interest for the future Canadian Health Care system. Nevertheless, a significant component of private care under current system has already existed, such as dental services, cosmetic surgeries, drug and many others. In 2006,…
Canadian Institute for Health Information. (2007) Surgical Volume Trends Within and Beyond Wait Time Priority Areas. Analysis in Brief. Ottawa, ON: CIHI. Retrieved August 10, 2012 from https://secure.cihi.ca/free_products/surgical_volumes_2009_e.pdf
Ciampolini J, Hubble MJ., (2005) Early failure of total hip replacements implanted at distant hospitals to reduce waiting lists. Ann R. Coll Surg Engl. Retrieved August 9, 2012 from http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articles/PMC2223329//reload=0;jsessionid=2XzrFp1aIXnBgRdcI7fo.0
Deber R., (2002) Delivering Health Care Services: Public, Not-For-Profit, or Private? Discussion Paper No. 17, Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada. Retrieved August 9, 2012 from http://www.parl.gc.ca /Content/LOP/researchpublications/prb0552-e.htm
Harrison A, Appleby J. (2005) The War on Waiting for Hospital Treatment: What has Labour
Canada's Missing Women
From 1964 to 1998 Canada saw a severe increase in the amount of violent crimes against native women. During this time, hundreds of women went missing later to be discovered as victims of violent murders. This increase in victims is only reflected in the native Canadian peoples, which had led many justice studies specialists to determine the theories and implications of the violence and the reasons behind the violence.
The best theoretical perspective for explaining this phenomenon is one of dehumanization. During the 1960's the Canadian government began removing native children from their families and displacing them to foster homes and into government schools. The purpose was to assimilate the children into society in the attempt to remove their native culture. This created issues of isolation and segregation within the schools. As a result, many native children fell through the educational cracks and once old enough returned…
In sum, a simple view of history and understanding of criminology come together to clearly illustrate this travesty of the Canadian government. Instead of protecting its citizens, the Canadian government made the decision to isolate and derogate a race to a sub-human level. This group, already being forced to place themselves in compromising situations obtained a stigma resulting in an increase in violent attacks and the ignoring of society, the media, and the government.
Blishen, Bernard; Carroll, William; Moore, Catherine (2008). "The 1981 Socioeconomic Index for Occupations in Canada." Canadian Review of Sociology. Volume 24.4 (465-88).
Lowman, John. (2000) "Violence and the Outlaw Status of (Street) Prostitution in Canada." Violence Against Women. Volume 6 (987-1011).
This way, we will guarantee our energy future over the long run, rather than just the short run that our current policies promote.
Rural policy is another area that needs a re-think.. At present, rural areas are given preferential treatment in the House of Commons and in policy in general. Yet, the structure of Canada's rural areas is energy inefficient. Setting aside the same issues of car culture that apply to suburbs as well, rural areas are shaped by the structure of our agriculture and resource industries. Canadians rely heavily on imported food because we are not sufficiently oriented to our own food production outside of grain. Both grain and our mineral and forest wealth shape rural life, but are based on long shipping times using energy-intensive vehicles. A shift to developing renewable energy for use in these areas, and more sustainable practices in general, will allow for a dramatic…
" This position placed Canada in the anti-American camp with France, instead of the traditional junior ally role, akin to that of Great ritain during the invasion.
Energy Security Issues
Canada is the biggest source of imported crude oil for the United States and crucial to stable energy prices in the United States. Canada's remaining oil reserves, second in size only to Saudi Arabia, are a key component in the U.S. energy security calculations.
There seems to be a tacit understanding that the United States will have the priority over all others in buy crude oil from Canada.
To facilitate future transfers of crude oil, the U.S. is expanding infrastructure to produce, upgrade, refine, and transport oil from Canada to the United States. More than half of Canada's remaining recoverable oil reserves are heavy oil reserves embedded in sand. This type of crude oil requires an expensive, environmentally harmful extraction…
Carl Ek and Ian. F. Fergusson, Canada-U.S. Relations. Congressional Research Service. September 3, 2010.
Carl Ek, et.al., Canada-U.S. Relations. Congressional Research Service. May 15, 2007.
David T. Jones, the Age of Obama, Canada, and the U.S. Policy Options. April 2009.
David McLaughlin and Bob Page, the Canada-U.S. Trade and Energy Relationship. Policy Options. June 2010.
Key Issues: Environmental Matters
hile the economy, Afghanistan and border security have become the most significant issues in the Canada-U.S. relationship since the presidential election, environmental matters will not take a back seat for long. The environment is an issue of long-standing import between the two nations. There are many areas where the interests of Canada and the United States converge. Acid rain is a long-standing issue, where pollution in the U.S. industrial belt contributes to the destruction of Canadian forests. Alaskan overfishing of BC salmon is another issue of the past.
The main issue today, however, is that of climate change.
The Chretien administration and the Bush administration went their separate ways with respect to climate change, exemplified by Canada's signing of the Kyoto Accord. Through this era, Canada viewed itself as a nation that needed to take a leadership role on the issue of climate change whereas the…
CRS Report for Congress 96-397: Canada-U.S. Relations. (2007).
Petersen, William. (2001). Canadian-American Relations. Society. pp. 78-82.
No author. (2009). No surprise Afghans feeling more threatened than in 2004, Harper says. Canadian Press. Retrieved March 22, 2009 at http://www.google.com/hostednews/canadianpress/article/ALeqM5haXBtMj1VF6ynPUTkwyaGJnvSB0g
Sands, Christopher. (2005). The Changing of the Guard. International Journal. pp. 483-496.
According to the papers, Pearson indicated concern about the nature of the bombing and questioned Johnson about the potential use of nuclear weapons. While Pearson appeared willing to acknowledge that conventional bombing raids would be used against the North, he was clear that the deployment of nuclear weapons would be considered entirely unacceptable by both the Canadian government and people.
History has been critical for Pearson's handling of the situation. Canadians were in a potentially powerful position as partners in the ICC. Additionally, Pearson did not apprise Canadian citizens of the findings. Pearson's supporters point to the fact that should Pearson have chosen to release negative information to the Canadian public, it would have done little to dissuade the Americans from their plans. It would also have been likely that any information released to the public would have angered Lyndon Johnson resulting in economic sanctions against the Canadians. In a…
Agreement on the Cessation of Hostilities in Viet-Nam, July 20. Accessed on the Internet on 7/12/07 at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/genevacc.htm
Greg Donaghy. Tolerant Allies: Canada and the United States, 1963-1968. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002.
Sheehan, Neil. The Pentagon Papers: as Published by the New York Times
One of the recommended responses to the condition of diversification in some reasons is the facilitation of high healthcare worker morale and the embrace of workplace diversity. This resolution should be carried out not through conscious racialist hiring, but through a hiring outreach to those communities which are most overlooked. Such an approach can be the first step in stimulating a relationship to these communities which removes them from obscurity. An article published by the Canadian omen's Health Network (2001) refers to the "invisibility" of "immigrant, refugee and racialized minorities," noting that these groups are at a critical disadvantage due to a general lack of outreach between public agencies and these specialized populations. (CHN, 1) Hiring within these communities will serve in a multitude of ways to bride a gap which both prevents healthcare organizations from recognizing the needs of such groups and which prevents such groups from being represented…
Badgley, R.F. (1991). Social and economic disparities under Canadian health care. International Journal of Health Services, 21(4), 673-680.
Canada's Health Care System (HCSC). (2008). Health Care System. Health Canada.
Canadian Women's Health Network (CWHN). (2001). Women, diversity and access to Health Care in Atlantic Canada: A Preliminary Perspective. High Beam Research.
Ozcurumez, S. & Wylie, L.A. (2008). Integrating Diversity in Canadian Health Care Systems: Strategies in Quebec and BC. ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Online at http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p252007_index.html
But NAFTA presents far more opportunities than weaknesses. This can be demonstrated by the fact that the Canadian textile industry has flourished though NAFTA and the positive exposure that industry has received has translated into new lateral agreements with Japan, Hong Kong and China, Chile and other nations seeking high quality textile, clothing and shoe imports. Although recent scares with mad cow disease have curbed some cattle exports, overall the cattle industry in Canada is robust and appears to have a solid future exporting to Mexico through NAFTA who in turn would export to nations' they have free trade agreements with like Japan. The opportunities provided by free trade tariff protection will continue to help Canada export food products, textiles, clothing and footwear throughout the world.
The liberal import export mentality has created some threat like scenarios. For example, NAFTA has opened the Canadian boarders for not only products, but…
International Trade Canada. (2004, September 30). International Trade Canada. Retrieved October 1, 2004, at http://www.itcan-cican.gc.ca/menu-en.asp
International Trade Canada NAFTA. (2004, September 30). Canada and the North American Free Trade Agreement. Retrieved October 1, 2004, at http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/nafta-alena/menu-en.asp
Statcan. (2004, October 1). Canadian Statistics Online. Retrieved October 1, 2004, at
As Bothwell points out, Canada's Native peoples have always been and are still a crucial component in any analysis of the relations between English and French," providing a lens by which to view the entirety of Canadian history.
Not only do Native peoples provide the historical means to analyze critically the dual histories of Canada. The history of encounter between Canada's First Nations and the European conquerors reveal the striking similarities between the cultures of the oppressors: the English and the French.
The Iroquois resistance movements gave rise to formative struggles that distinguished French from English settlements. The strategic alliances formed between Native and European communities promoted the political interests of each. However, the Iroquois resistance movement reveals also the common trend in European post-colonial hegemony that persists now in the 21st century. It is therefore worth drawing parallels between the French treatment of Iroquois during the seventeenth and…
Bothwell, Robert. Canada and Quebec: One Country Two Histories. UBC, 1998.
Francis, R. Douglas, Jones, Richard, and Smith, Donald B. Origins: Canadian History to Confederation. 6th Edition. Cengage. 2010.
Francis, R. Douglas, Jones, Richard, and Smith, Donald B. Journeys: A History of Canada. 6th Edition. Cengage. 2010.
Greer, Allan. The People of New France. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003.
Poverty is only one of the social issues addressed by the Salvation Army, which also tackles broader-scale social issues. For example, the Salvation Army helps people cope with addictions. In addition, it assists people who are victims of family violence, generally women and children. It also provides hospice care for the dying and their loved ones. The Salvation Army also assists people with special needs, such as those who are physically or emotionally disabled. They do this by providing "counseling, on-site job coaching, work adjustment training, and other life skills programs." (the Salvation Army, Programs and services, 2007). The Salvation Army works to help people who are already in turmoil, by proving services to people who have been incarcerated, and their families. The Salvation Army also tries to help prevent people from developing problems; it provides resources for pregnant and parenting teenagers, including housing, support, education, parenting programs, and child…
Rutherdale, M. (2005). Women in God's army: gender and equality in the early Salvation
Army. Canadian Journal of History, 40(3), 546-48.
Salvation Army. (2006). Religions of the world. Fremont, CA: Toucan Valley Publications,
Canadian forces in Afghanistan, and whatever location those forces are directed to by the Canadian Government to protect Canada at home and its interests around the world, should be supported with intelligence sources that are directly focused on Canada's security needs and objectives.
Foreign intelligence is more than identifying and taking counter-terrorism defence actions. Aaron Shull, a law school graduate who also holds a master's degree in international affairs helps put into perspective the meaning of foreign intelligence vs. The meaning of security intelligence services (Campbell, 13).
"The difference in this country (Canada) is that we separate foreign intelligence and security intelligence. Security intelligence relates to threats against security of Canada and foreign intelligence relates to everything else -- political, economic, and trade-related intelligence (13)."
Shull is looking at these definitions in terms of Justice Blanchard's ruling, but also the notion that security intelligence and foreign intelligence are perceived as…
Albanese, Jay S. 2007. Combating Piracy: Intellectual Property Theft and Fraud. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Campbell, Jennifer. 2008. Why Canada Needs a Foreign Intelligence Agency: Even
New Zealand Has One. Diplomat and International Canada September-October: 13-14.
CNN. 2002. America Remembers: The Events of September 11 and America's
The new immigrants arrive, eager to work, often with families in town. The situation they find themselves in is far different from the image they held in their minds. hite collar workers, especially in medical professions but also in others such as education, cannot transfer their skills seamlessly.
Unless a new immigrant is hired internally by a Canadian company prior to their arrival, skills are deemed untransferrable. This has forced a number of white collar immigrants to work at blue collar jobs, taking a radical cut in pay and lowering their rung on the socio-economic ladder. The same immigrants find themselves living in low-income neighborhoods with ironically few opportunities for upward social mobility in spite of a wealth of good education and professional credentials. As ente (2010) points out, "Immigration has helped make Toronto one of the most successful and diverse cities in the world. That's the good news. The…
Abraham, Carolyn. "Failing boys and the powder keg of sexual politics." Globe and Mail. Oct. 15, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/time-to-lead/failing-boys/failing-boys-and-the-powder-keg-of-sexual-politics/article1758791/
Findlay, Stephanie and Kohler, Nicholas. "The enrollment controversy." MacLeans. 10 Nov 2010. Retrieved online: http://www2.macleans.ca/2010/11/10/too-asian/
Ibbitson, John and Friesen, Joe. Globe and Mail Oct. 04, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/national/time-to-lead/multiculturalism/part-2-conservative-immigrants-boost-tory-fortunes/article1738150/
"Stop doctor discrimination in Quebec." (nd). Globe and Mail editorial. Retrieved online: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/opinions/editorials/stop-doctor-discrimination-in-quebec/article1807427/
Canada deserves principal power status in the world. As a nation, Canada has proven to be a leader in all respects of human endeavor. The nation has one of the world's most robust economies both in terms of raw size and per capita strength. It is a production economy rather than simply a consumer one. Canada is a leader in both fossil fuel and renewable energy production. Canada has long been a leader in human rights, and its culture of diversity, with hundreds of ethnic groups living in harmony, is a model for the globalized future. The nation lacks the historical baggage that restrains many other nations in their thinking, allowing Canada to be innovative and creative in terms of dealing with the challenges of the modern world. It stands independent from its neighbours with respect to conflict, but when it does become engaged it has always been a leader.…
CIA World Factbook. (2011). Canada. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved June 11, 2011 from
It had apparently been normal for the Maritime communities to be less privileged than other Canadian communities in the est in the period from before the First orld ar. However, as people in the Maritimes discovered that they had the same rights as their fellow countrymen, they began to express the need for equality. The Canadian government did not do much to ameliorate the conditions in the Maritimes, as it showed more interest in the estern provinces.
It is probable that the characters of people in the Maritimes had been influenced by the Canadian government indifference in their situation. anting the government to change its attitude towards them, people from the Maritime communities formed the Maritime Rights movement. hile the movement had had strong-minded members that would stop at nothing from reaching their goals, it did not manage to bring any significant changes to the overall state of affairs.
1. Armour, Leslie; Trott, Elizabeth. (1998). "The Faces of Reason: An Essay on Philosophy and Culture in English Canada, 1850-1950." Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
2. Stewart, Ian. (1994). "Roasting Chestnuts: The Mythology of Maritime Political Culture." University of British Columbia Press
3. Weaver Kent R., Banting Keith G., Dion Stephane, Stark Andrew. (1992). "The Collapse of Canada?." The Brookings Institution.
Stewart, Ian. (1994). "Roasting Chestnuts: The Mythology of Maritime Political Culture." University of British Columbia Press
One of the crucial criminal-law appeals is R v. Le, which brings up questions about the kind of privacy interests protected under the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms’ Section 8. This section protects against the police’s ability to search an individual or property without a warrant. How we, as civilians, interpret our relationships with the police is greatly subjective. Understanding police relations is caused by factors such as those close to us, past experiences, gender, economic and social class, race, and age. Where there is an arbitrary detention problem under section 9 of the Canadian Charter, these subjective encounters are interpreted by a court for determining whether there was detention or not. The Canadian court case decision R v Le 2019 SCC 34 was important in understanding the police’s relationships, which are context-informed, and modify the objective assessment of the Charter’s section 9 arbitrary detention.
Tom Le, the…
Singer, A. J., Chouhy, C., Lehmann, P. S., Walzak, J. N., Gertz, M., & Biglin, S. (2019). Victimization, fear of crime, and trust in criminal justice institutions: A cross-national analysis. Crime & Delinquency, 65(6), 822-844.
https://www.scc-csc.ca/case-dossier/cb/2019/37971-eng.pdf . Article by Steph brown October 29, 2019.
What is impressive about Justin Trudeau?
Politics represents vision as well as process. Image, after all, is defined as what one is rather than what one wishes others to think of oneself. Vision drives public policy. Justin Trudeau interests us owing to his vision, value system, guiding behavioral standards and grand ideas (including his ideas defining the people of Canada and molding their identity, and his desire to share ideas with the public, which will fuel reform to serve citizens’ interest). Citizens desire to, and must, know whether Trudeau is sincere and committed or whether his words are mere empty musings (McDonald 2013).
Trudeau must delineate the direction he desires citizens to follow, akin to his father while suggesting the simple yet wonderful idea of Just Society. Just Society instilled a sense of identity among the people, making them proud of themselves as Canadians, and ensuring honesty and fairness. The…
biography.com. Justin Trudeau Biography. n.d. https://www.biography.com/people/justin-trudeau (accessed 2017).
Budak, Alex. 4 Leadership Lessons from Justin Trudeau. 2016. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/alex-budak/4-leadership-lessons-from_b_9287888.html (accessed 2017).
McDonald, Ian. From the Just society to Justin\\'s Canada. Ottawa: Policy, 2013.
Phipps, Claire. Justin Trudeau: who is Canada\\'s new prime minister? 2015. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2015/oct/20/justin-trudeau-canada-new-prime-minister-liberals (accessed 2017).
Plucinska, Joanna. What a Justin Trudeau Win Means for Canada. 2015. http://time.com/4079278/justin-trudeau-canada-prime-minister/ (accessed 2017).
Seth, Reva. 5 Leadership Lessons From Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau. 2016. https://www.fastcompany.com/3061046/5-leadership-lessons-from-canadian-prime-minister-justin-trudeau .
Canada boasts one of the highest cannabis usage rates in the world in spite of prohibition (Fischer, Kuganesan, & oom, 2015). Cannabis is also the most widely used illegal drug in the country by a wide margin (Hajidazeh, 2016). The complete decriminalization of cannabis in Canada would be unlikely to have any appreciable effect on raising rates of usage except potentially an initial spark of interest subsequent to the lifting of prohibition. Unfortunately, a dearth of literature exists on the actual effects of decriminalization given that the phenomenon has yet to occur, and given the fact that there are few case studies from other countries. The only country in the world to have outright legalized marijuana has been Uruguay; several other countries have relatively relaxed policies toward the drug but Canada's proposal to fully legalize would be revolutionary. This research can potentially contribute to the growing understanding of what consequences…
Fischer, B., Kuganesen, S. & Room, R. (2015). Medical Marijuana programs: Implications for cannabis control policy -- Observations from Canada. International Journal of Drug Policy 26(1): 15-19.
Government of Canada (n.d.). "Toward the Legalization, Regulation, and Restriction of Access to Marijuana," Discussion Paper. Retrieved online: http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/health-system-systeme-sante/consultations/legalization-marijuana-legalisation/alt/legalization-marijuana-legalisation-eng.pdf
Hajizadeh, M. (2016). Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts. International Journal of Health Policy Management 5(8): 453-456.
Hall, W. & Lynskey, M. (2016). Why it is probably too soon to assess the public health effects of legalisation of recreational cannabis use in the USA. The Lancet Psychiatry 3(3): 900-906.
Canada's economic goals are: political stability, reducing national debt, economic growth, increased productivity and efficiency, equitable distribution of income, price stability, and full employment.
IMF slashes Canada's economic prospects. (Sept., 21, 2011). CTV News. http://www.ctv.ca/CTVNews/TopStories/20110920/canada-economic-outlook-imf-110920/
One of the Canadian economic goals is to achieve full employment, but the International Monetary Fund just revised its former predictions, assessing the Canadian employment rate as dropping rather than picking up and the nation's economy growing slower than anticipated. In fact, the forecast seems to worsen the coming year with the economic forecast assessed as 2.1% his year and only 1.9 per cent the coming year. Moreover, both Statistics Canada, and the IMF predicted that unemployment would only increase with the IMF pronouncing that Canada's unemployment rate will climb to about 7.6% this year and to about 7.7% in 2012. Gloomier economic forecasts, it seems, are generic to other euro-USA nations too.
The new Canadian Constitution of 1982 replaced the Bill of ights with the Canadian Charter of ights and Freedoms. The Charter of ights and Freedoms provides the fundamental and immutable rights such as democratic rights, mobility rights, legal rights, language rights, equality rights, and minority language rights, as well as specific freedoms like freedom of religion and thought. However, the Charter includes one of the most controversial elements in the entire new Constitution of Canada, the Notwithstanding Clause in Section 33. Section 33 was included in the Charter specifically because the provinces feared an imbalance of power away from elected officials toward the appointed officials in the judiciary. After all, any law passed by any government -- whether provincial or federal -- could be held up to legal scrutiny by the courts. The courts could then negate laws passed by provincial legislatures at will, thereby weakening the legislative branch.…
Mackarenko, J. (2006). The Notwithstanding Clause. Retrieved online: http://mapleleafweb.com/features/notwithstanding-clause-section-33-charter
University of Alberta Centre for Constitutional Studies (2014). Notwithstanding Clause. Retrieved online: http://ualawccsprod.srv.ualberta.ca/ccs/index.php/i-o/755-notwithstanding-clause
The cost to its economy is greater than just lost opportunity as it extends to further damage the credibility of a relationship which the public views as suspect, in accordance with Campbell's estimation.
The oversight of international regulation is undertaken by the orld Trade Organization, which brings the globe's free trade partners together to broker affairs of economic cooperation or contract. However, this has proved to be an agency with too diluted a focus to effectively maintain balance between such partners as Canada and the U.S. Campbell addresses most of the regulatory differences between the two nations as being historical and incidental in some ways, indicating that perhaps the inconsistencies are simply in need of concentrated attention. This notion accounts for the 2005 launch of a Trilateral Regulatory Commission, partnering Canada, the U.S. And Mexico in an agreement to acknowledge a central forum for regulation of trade discrepancies. Though its…
AFX. (2006). WTO Rules Against Canada in Lumber Dispute with U.S.
Forbes. Online at http://www.forbes.com /markets/feeds/afx/2006/04/03/afx2644053.html
Anderson, a.D.M. (1995). Seeking Common Ground Canada-U.S. Trade Dispute Settlement Policies in the Nineties. San Francisco: Westview Press.
Campbell, B. (2006). Canada-U.S. Relations: Paul Martin's Dilemma. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives.
The primary differences is that gun laws in the United States is determined on a state by state basis and in Canada such restrictions are broader and nationwide.
There has also been a great deal of resources associated with the introducation of the firearm registration. Initially it was believed that such legislation would cost "taxpayers $CDN 85 million (or U.S.$55 million). By early 2001, the known costs have passed ten times that. Unfortunately, no solid evidence can be found linking Canadian gun laws to a decline in either crime rates or suicide rates (Dandurand 1998; Mauser)."
The research also suggest that Canadians have mixed feelings concerning the firearms act. According to Mauser & Buckner (1997) "Attitudes towards Bill C-68's registration system are very complex. Although most Canadians support the program, this support is very soft and falls drastically once the potential costs are mentioned. In sum, gun control sounds nice,…
Attorney General for Alberta v. The Attorney General of Canada. http://scc.lexum.umontreal.ca/en/2000/2000scc31/2000scc31.pdf
Canadian Centre for Justice statistics. http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection-R/Statcan/85-002-XIE/85-002-XIE2006006.pdf
Mauser, G.A (2005) Gun Control in Canada. http://www.sfu.ca/~mauser/papers/encyclopedia/CanadianGunControl.pdf
G.A. Mauser, Ph.D., Buckner, H. Taylor Ph.D. (1997)
Internal support, within Canada, is also needed for success. If Canadian citizens don't believe in the mission, then resources are going to be even more difficult to receive. Lastly, and most importantly, support within Afghanistan is necessary, otherwise as soon as forces have left the country, it will simply revert back to their old ways.
I don't believe any media source is ever 100% completely unbiased, in today's world. The media industry is far too competitive to simply 'report the news', as journalists once did. Today, as the Internet continues to cut painfully into more traditional news sources' bottom lines, it's all about readership and viewership. Magazines, newspapers, and news channels know who their demographic is. To report something completely contrary to what this demographic expects is a sure way to reduce subscribers and viewers. Each media source has an identity -- an image. Even when the news is clearly…
Hitchens, C. (16 Mar 2009). Terrorists, dissidents, and copy editors. Slate. Retrieved November 22, 2009, from http://www.slate.com/id/2213867 / .
Canada keep itself safe during the Cold War?
Canada played a unique role during the Cold War. As an immediate neighbor of the United States, but in relatively close physical proximity to the Soviet Union, Canada had legitimate reasons to fear that it would be physically involved if the hostilities between the United States and the Soviet Union ever erupted into an actual war. Because of its physical proximity to the United States and its basically capitalistic system, it would be fair to suggest that Canada was more ideologically aligned with the United States. However, it would be incorrect to suggest that Canada was a U.S. ally; Canada maintained relationships with communist countries China and Cuba throughout the Cold War and opposed the U.S.'s involvement in the Vietnam War. nstead, it is more appropriate to characterize Canada as opposing the spread of communism without wholeheartedly embracing some of the American…
In fact, these peacekeeping tendencies from the Cold War have helped Canada maintain a powerful position in the international community. Moreover, this role was not only diplomatic, but also backed by Canada's willingness to use elements of force during the Cold War. Though Canada did not lead the charge to become involved in wars, it played an important role in helping send forces once the United Nations had decided to become involved in these organizations. In fact, the theoretical role of any United Nations military forces was to keep the peace. Canada was actually the first country to propose that the United Nations maintain a peacekeeping military force. While this proposal was initially dismissed by the United Nations, during the Suez Crisis in 1956, the United Nations adopted the Canadian idea of a peacekeeping force. Moreover, during this time period, peacekeeping forces were actually peacekeeping forces, not aggressive military forces. They were literally used as a human shield between opposing parties. This worked in the Suez Crisis, leading to a cease-fire. Therefore, while peace in the Middle East was short-lived, it is critical to realize that Canada played a huge role in averting a major disaster.
Moreover, while Ronald Reagan is frequently given credit for ending the Cold War, it is important to realize that, without Canada, the dialogue between the United States and the Soviet Union may have been impossible. Yakovlev took a pre-premier Gorbachev on an agricultural tour of Canada, and began discussing the idea of loosening restrictions in the United States. Gorbachev's role in helping end the Cold War is well-known.
Canada's strategy for remaining safe during the Cold War was to use the United States for protection while trying not to alienate communist countries. This strategy proved very effective; Canada managed to avoid direct military involvement with either of the superpowers during the Cold War. However, it is important not to underestimate the long-term consequences of Canada's Cold War strategy. There is no longer a worldwide communist threat, and that is at least partially attributable to Canada's peacekeeping role during the Cold War. However, Canada's peacekeeping role in the Suez Crises may simply have delayed some of the tensions in the Middle East, and may have helped contribute to the modern global terrorist threat and continuing problems in that region. What these consequences make clear is that even a country trying to maintain some neutrality can have a tremendous long-term impact on international relations.
S. states have passed equally strict regulations upon emissions (such as California) Canada's stance on environmentalism has often put the U.S. To shame.
Canada also has some of the most stringent regulations protecting foreign workers: "Under the new rules, which were published in the Canada Gazette, the government's official publication, employers who are found to have provided wages, working conditions or an occupation that was not substantially the same as what was offered in the original job offer will be banned from hiring any foreign workers for two years" (Gurzu 2010). This was seen as an important step in protecting foreign workers who often do not have adequate knowledge of their rights under Canadian law to take a stand against their employers if they are exploited. Once again, some protested this list, despite the ability of employers to appeal their inclusion, as unduly burdensome to employers. However, most praised Canada's…
"Canada regulator warns new bank rules are coming." Reuters. April 22, 2010. February 5, 2011.
Gurzu, Anca. "New foreign workers 'blacklist' sparks controversy." Embassy Magazine.
September 10, 2010. February 5, 2011.
Mediocre material will, likely, thus be introduced into the market, and fledgling authors discouraged. This may in a matter of fact not only prove detrimental for general culture but also for the store itself, since discouraged with the level of prevalent reading matter, potential customers may frequent other locations for their desires.
Conclusively, as an example of Mr. Flaherty's impact on the book-selling business, relaxation of tax demands on private investment may profit the business depending on its projects and ambitions. The more ambitious its projects, likely the more it may profit. I am unsure, however, how much 3 's Used Books can make itself independent from dealing with the U.S. Or with other countries; a bookstore, by nature, has to have international dealings in order to succeed. As regards the economic policies, particular to Ontario, passed in 2009, the bookstore, can with provisos, mostly benefit form their implementation.
Bloomberg. "Comfortable Business will replace Stimulus." Business Week, Oct. 23, 2010.
Howlett, K. & Curry, B. "Canadian Finance Ministers to Target Debts and Deficits in New Year." Tuesday's Globe and Mail, Dec. 21, 2010.
Ontario Chamber of Commerce. "Economic renewal and Business Competitiveness." http://occ.on.ca/2009/05/economic-renewal-and-business-competitiveness-emerge-as-ontario-business-priorities / Web. 2009
In this sense, a certain political and historical experience common to the entire population does exist and may hold Canada together.
Despite its history, one cannot deny the existence of two distinct forces, one ritish oriented, and the other French oriented. While the latter manifests itself in terms of secessionist ideas, ritish Canada and in general supporters of the unity of Canada have developed a sense of nationalism. The term defines in fact, "two phenomena: the attitude that the members of a nation have when they care about their national identity and the actions that the members of a nation take when seeking to achieve (or sustain) self-determination" (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2005). In Canada, these two phenomena manifest at the same time but in relation to other systems of reference. More precisely, the first notion of the term implies the fact that nationalism is used to hold the population…
Lehan, Claire. Commentary: Separatism Is an Issue for All of Canada, Not Just Quebec. January 25, 2006. The Record.com. 21 Jan. 2008 http://www.therecord.com/fed_election2006/fed_election2006_0601258115.html
Rosenberg, Matt. Country, State, and Nation. Defining an Independent Country. 2008. 21 Jan. 2008 http://geography.about.com/cs/politicalgeog/a/statenation.htm
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Nationalism. 2005. 21 Jan. 2008 http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/nationalism
WO and Canada
conference in Havana in 1948 adopted a complex charter for an international body to preside over issues of trade called the International rade organization (IO). U.S. Congress never signed the IO charter so it was never ratified but GA not requiring U.S. ratification continued to exist. By default GA became the international body dealing with trade. GA had three main objectives:
o help trade flow as freely as possible,
o achieve further liberalization gradually through negotiation,
And to set up an impartial means of settling disputes.
For 47 years GA helped establish a prosperous multilateral trading system. But by the 1980s an overhaul was due. he Uruguay Round brought about that overhaul. It was the largest trade negotiation ever. he Uruguay Round has produced the most fundamental reform of the world trading system since the establishment of the GA in 1947. he establishment of the WO in…
TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) RULES ON UNFAIR TRADE PRACTICES: ANTI-DUMPING AND SUBSIDIES)
The Commerce Department has reported the Bush administration is "still opposed to any weakening of World Trade Organization rules on antidumping and countervailing duty trade measures," and will not renegotiate the rules at the World Trade Organization's conference in Doha, Qatar.Faryar Shirzad, assistant secretary of commerce for import administration, said the Bush administration is opposed to the provision meant to clarify and improve WTO disciplines on the use of antidumping and countervailing duty measures. Shirzad said, "we think it's premature, given the complexity of the Uruguay Round agreements in those areas, to launch negotiations." http://www.txfb.org/TexasAgriculture/2001/111601agricurrents.htm
Canada should collect reports and evidences, which could prove that their trade and business is been affected by the unfair practices of trade and therefore, the WTO who is the responsible body, should take action against such practices and should provide the people with effective trade environment. It has also been noted, "Calculating the extent of dumping on a product is not enough. Anti-dumping measures can only be applied if the dumping is hurting the industry in the importing country. Therefore, a detailed investigation has to be conducted according to specified rules first. The investigation must evaluate all relevant economic factors that have a bearing on the state of the industry in question. If the investigation shows dumping is taking place and domestic industry is being hurt,
4-billion expansion after it was shut down in May by the province's environment ministry due to urine-like smells wafting in to neighbouring communities from the company's new technology." (Stephenson, 2006)
III. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY REVIEW
In the work of Ross McKitrick entitled: "Towards the Use of Emission Taxes in Canada" a paper presented to the Finance Committee Round Table on Green Taxes in Ottawa, Canada on May 31, 2001, it is stated that in the presentation of the paper covered are:."..three topics: the context (international and domestic) for environmental policy in Canada, the basic principles of pollution tax design, and the priority I would suggest for proceeding with this policy instrument." (McKitrick, 2001)
McKitrick states that "the theory of optimal environmental taxation was worked out by Agnar Sandmo in an article in the Swedish Journal of Economics in 1975. Some points that have emerged from Sandmo's work are the following:
Macdonald, Doug (1995) Green Taxation and Environmental Policies - Presented to the annual meeting of the Environmental Studies Association of Canada, June 4, 1995. Online available at http://www.utoronto.ca/env/papers/macdon/macdon1.htm .
Planning for Sustainability (2000) Global Problems: Local Solutions - Transport Canada; Sustainable Transportation: The Canadian Context. Online available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/environment/sd/monograph/solutions.htm .
Paehlke, Robert (2000) Environmentalism in One Country: Canadian Environmental Policy in an Era of Globalization. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 29, 2000.
CCME Task Force on Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuels (2005) 1.2 Motor Vehicle Emissions and Air Quality. 21 Apr 2005. Online available at http://www.ec.gc.ca/cleanair-airpur/CAOL/OGEB/fuels/reports/ccme/ccme1_2_e.htm .
Canadian Healthcare Legislation
The people of Canada did not have elected officials who were creative enough or bold enough to put universal healthcare legislation on the books until 1984, although there were attempts to provide healthcare coverage for Canadians before that date. This paper reviews the way in which healthcare coverage was introduced in Canada and reviews two programs, Canada Health Act and Medical Care Insurance Act.
Development of Health Services in Canada
Before the end of orld ar II, the Saskatchewan government -- moved by the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation Party (CCF) -- began plans to introduce a publically financed health care system. The Saskatchewan government hired Johns Hopkins professor Henry Sigerist to help devise a plan, and he urged the government to go ahead and develop a "total health care organizations that would ensure that all citizens ... " could get good medical care (Crichton, 1997). There had been…
Crichton, A. (1997). Health Care: A Community Concern? Developments in the Organization of Canadian Health Services. Calgary: University of Calgary Press.
Appointment of Judges to Canada's Supreme Court
The current democratic governance system in Canada permits the federal Cabinet and the Prime Minister to appoint judges to the country's Supreme Court.[footnoteRef:2] As the appointments are formalized through the Governor General, the Supreme Court is the final and highest court in the Canadian justice system. ased on the current system, Canada's general parliament, provincial legislatures, and citizens do not participate in the process of appointment of judges to the Supreme Court. Actually, the Governor General makes final appointment of these judges on behalf of the cabinet and advice of the Prime Minister. This process of appointment of judges to Canada's highest court is based on the Supreme Court Act, which was enacted by the federal government in line with its constitutional authority. [2: Wendy Tso, "Judicial Appointments and Independence," Centre for Constitutional Studies -- University of Alberta, accessed February 24, 2016, http://ualawccsprod.srv.ualberta.ca/centres/ccs/issues/judicialappointmentsandindependence.php]…
British Columbia Civil Liberties Association. "Judicial Appointments to the Supreme Court of Canada." The Law Foundation of British Columbia, last modified June 10, 2004. https://bccla.org/our_work/judicial-appointments-to-the-supreme-court-of-canada/
Tso, Wendy. "Judicial Appointments and Independence." Centre for Constitutional Studies-
University of Alberta, accessed February 24, 2016. http://ualawccsprod.srv.ualberta.ca/centres/ccs/issues/judicialappointmentsandindependence.php
Expanding the United Nations' mandate
The United Nations is a body that was formed after the WWII with the wider mandate of ensuring there is maintenance of peace globally. It is not partisan and non-political in nature hence geared towards making and maintaining peace across the world. The mandates of the UN as outlined in the United Nations (2014) website are; to stabilize conflict situations especially once a ceasefire has been agreed on and create an environment where the warring factions can achieve lasting peace. They can also be deployed in order to prevent conflicts from breaking out or from spilling over across the borders. Their work is also to ensure that the implementation of peace agreements. The UN is also charged with leading territories and states as they transition to stable governments that value good governance, democratic principles as well as economic development.
However, the above functions…
Parliament of Canada, (2012). How Canadians Govern Themselves. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from http://www.parl.gc.ca /about/parliament/senatoreugeneforsey/inside_view/canada_usa-e.html
United Nations (2014). Mandates and the legal basis for peacekeeping. Retrieved December 4, 2014 from http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/operations/pkmandates.shtml
Tax Planning -- Employer (II of II)
Tax Planning - Employer
The marketplace that businesses operate in has become more and more globalized and international in nature, not to mention extremely competitive. This particular report will focus on the employer and their tax implications when it comes to operating and/or headquartering in one or more countries around the world. The prior report focused on the employee. While the implications for the employee are complicated and diverse enough, they become even more complicated when speaking of the employer, and for a number of reasons.
Just as there were a number of considerations relevant to the employee and their tax treatment, there are a number of tax considerations that USCo will need to consider for themselves and they are as follows:
The actual headquarters location (nation, state/province and county/city)
The actual locations outside of that home country (or state and city)…
Bachmann, H. (2009, August 20). Can Swiss Banks Thrive After the UBS-U.S. Deal?
Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://content.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1917648,00.html
Canada. (2014, December 3). Income Tax Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. 1 (5th Supp.)).
Retrieved December 3, 2014, from http://laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/I-3.3/
Canada International Trade
International trade accounts for a dominant share of the Canadian economy, led by exports of natural resources. Exports accounted for approximately 25% of Canada's GDP in 2010. Agricultural, energy, forestry and mining exports accounted for about 58% of total exports. Machinery, equipment, automotive products and other manufactured goods accounted for a further 38% of exports. The United States is by far its largest trading partner, accounting for about 75% of exports and 51% of imports (followed by China 11% and Mexico 5%.) Canada's combined exports and imports ranked 8th among all nations. Canada recorded a positive balance of trade overall in 2010: exports C$407B and imports C$ 406B. Canada enjoyed a substantial positive balance of trade with the United States in 2007 and 2008, but slipped into the red in 2009 and 2010. (See Exhibit 1) (CIA, 2010)
Among the world's wealthiest nations, Canada has the ninth…
The world's stage is full of confusion and warfare as the unsettled circumstances in the Middle East resonate loud and strong across the Atlantic to Canada. The purpose of this essay deals with explaining the reasons why Stephen Harper, the Prime Minister of Canada should continue with the involvement with the conflict with ISIS as the Islamic terror group gains significant footholds in Iraq and other strategic locations in that region of the world. This essay will use three arguments to support this claim to demonstrate the need for involvement and Stephen Harper's decision on this matter will impact many events to come relating to this matter.
ISIS is a Global Threat
The doomed attacks on 9/11 in America demonstrated the global reach of Islamist terror groups. The world's political, economic and social structure was transformed in many ways as a result of this attack, and the Western…
Hall, John. "The growing influence of ISIS now reaches Pakistan as Taliban leaders pledge allegiance to brutal jihadist group." UK Mail, 15 October 2014. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2793622/the-growing-influence-isis-reaches - pakistan-taliban-leaders-pledge-allegiance-brutal-jihadist-group.html
Kirkpatrick, David, "Attacks in West Raise New Fears Over ISIS Influence." The New York Times, 24 Oct 2014. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/25/world/middleeast/string-of-attacks-in-west-raise - new-fears-over-isis-influence.html?_r=0
Marche, Stephen, " Canada, The Idea, Is In Pieces," Esquire, 22 Oct 2014. Retrieved from http://www.esquire.com/blogs/news/canada-in-pieces
Warmington, Joe, " Canada's ISIS fight extends beyond Fallujah." Toronto Sun 7 November 2014. Retrieved from http://www.torontosun.com/2014/11/07/canadas-isis-fight -extends-beyond-fallujah
Political Scandals in Canada
A Political Scandal Involving Fraud
During the federal election in Canada in 2011 there was an electoral fraud issue that became known as the "Robocalls Scandal." This fraudulent activity took place in Ontario, in a town called Guelph.
Robocalls are previously recorded and automated phone calls to people from a computer that is programmed to call all phone numbers in a given area; usually robocalls carry a political message asking voters to behave a certain way.
In this case in Canada, the fraud took place because the robocalls were not from the organization they claimed to be from. People receiving the phone calls believed the calls were from the official group, "Elections Canada" but they were not from Elections Canada. The robocalls told voters their polling location had changed, and urged them to go to another place to vote that turned out to be a fraud.…
Daly, Brian. (2012). Bribery scandal rocks Canada Revenue. News Canada. Retrieve August
12, 2012, from http://www.saultstar.com .
MPR News. (2009). Why should the public care about a politician's private life? Retrieved
August 12, 2012, from http://minnesota.publicradio.org .
Is Canada a Post-Industrial Society?
There is little doubt that the economy in Canada has changed; over the last decade there has been a general movement away from agricultural and industrial jobs towards jobs in the service sector. This is a trend which appears to indicate the country is moving towards, or has become, a post-industrial society. To determine if this is the case it is necessary to define what is meant by the term post industrial society, to identify the characteristics which are seen in a post industrial society. The characteristics may then provide a basis for assessment of Canada.
The concept of a post industrial society was first popularized by Harvard Sociologist Daniel Bell, in his book the coming of the Post Industrial Society, first published in 1973. Bell (1999) hypothesized a model of four stages of society that have, or were believed to be emerging; the…
Aoyama, Yuko; Castells, Manuel, (1994, Jan - Feb), Paths towards the informational society: employment structure in G-7 countries, 1920-90, International Labor Review, 133(1), 5
Bell, Daniel, (1999), The Coming of Post-Industrial Society, New York, Basic Books
CIA, (2013), Canada, CIA World Factbook, [online] retrieved 7th of March 2013
Housing and Homelessness in Canada
In Canada, there is a problem with homelessness. While that is certainly not unique to the country, it is a significant issue which has to be addressed in order to facilitate changes that can lower the number of homeless people in the country. The majority of these people live in the larger cities and do have some access to resources, but the problems with homelessness have still kept growing in complexity and size over recent years. The demographics of the people who are most often seen as homeless are changing, as well, putting younger and more vulnerable people on the streets. There are estimates that 0.5% of the population does not have a home at all, and some believe that those estimates only represent about 1/2 of the actual population of homeless people throughout Canada (Fortin, 2008). Part of the problem with not being certain…
Fortin, V. (2008). "Keep Your Coins, I Want Change! The Homeless and the Shrinking Public Space in Montreal" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Law and Society Association, Hilton Bonaventure, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Frankish, C., Hwang, S., & Quantz, D. (2005). Homelessness and health in Canada: Research lessons and priorities. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96(2).
Gaetz, S., Tarasuk, V., Dackner, N., Kirkpatrick, S. (2006). "Managing" Homeless Youth in Toronto: Mismanaging Food Access & Nutritional Well-being. Canadian Review of Social Policy, 58(43), 1-19.
Hulchanski, J.D. (2009). Conference keynote address, Growing Home: Housing and Homelessness in Canada. University of Calgary, February 18, 2009, Canadian Policy Research Networks. Retrieved from http://www.cprn.org/documents/51110_EN.pdf .
Canada: Comparative Politics
Canada, like any other nation suffered terribly from the effects of the global financial crisis. The economic impacts from Global Financial Crisis were resolved through Canada's political and provincial administration structures. The Great ecession further intensified such trends towards elements of the precarious unemployment across Canadian provinces such as British Columbia mostly with certain population groups. This paper intends to illustrate how the global fiscal crisis has affected provincial economies in Canada.
Global Financial Crisis Impact on Provincial economies
The goal was to establish suitable forms of welfare states that mediated on the effects of forces of the global market forces through the determination of levels of state intervention within the provincial economic marketplaces. The liberal welfare regime in Canada as compared to the conservative one in Germany and social democratic from Scandinavian countries focused less on welfare provision and citizen security. This translated into…
Brownsey, K., & Howlett, M. (2001). The Provincial State in Canada: Politics in the Provinces and Territories. Peterborough, ON: Broadview Press.
Ciro, T. (2013). The Global Financial Crisis: Triggers, Responses and Aftermath. New York: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Dunn, C. (2003). Provinces: Canadian Provincial Politics, Second Edition. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.
Farlow, A. (2013). Crash and Beyond: Causes and Consequences of the Global Financial Crisis. New York: Oxford University Press.
Canada is one of the largest countries in Northern America, covering more than 9 million square metres. It has a population of over 31 million people. Even though the country is ethnically diverse, two main languages the people use are English and French. The Canadians use these two official languages. This makes it a bilingual country. People whose ancestry is British make the largest percentage of the people who live in Canada. Economically, Canada is one of the largest economies in the world, with an average per capita income of over twenty thousand dollars (Kalman & Bobbie, p. 4).
Values that the Canadians uphold
The Canadians uphold several values. These values include coexisting peacefully, equality and freedom, respecting the cultural differences that exist between them and keeping the law among other values. Keeping peace is one of the metiers that the Canadians cherish. Canada has been very active in…
Conrad, John D. Scarce Heard Amid the Guns: An Inside Look at Canadian Peacekeeping.
Toronto: Dundurn Press, 2011. Internet resource.
De, la T.M. Heritage Values in Site Management: Four Case Studies. Los Angeles: Getty
Conservation Institute, 2005. Print.
The result was a put-off United States. ealizing this furthered the need for an outside alliance, talks of NATO resumed. At this point, Canada saw NATO as more than just a defense strategy in the face of Communism. Canada fought and won a battle in discussions to require all members of NATO to cooperate economically. Additionally, the NATO alliance assured that Canada would have a say in combined foreign policy and security. Even further, Canada would be able to deal with the United States on more of a multilateral level, which would help ease the disparity between the nations (Jockel, Sokolsky, 1996). ather than simply following America's lead in foreign affairs, Canada was determined to make decisions in the best interest of the Canadian people.
By 1949, the threat of Communism was in full swing. The Soviet Union had tested its first nuclear weapon, and the world took notice. Now…
Aronsen, L.R. (1997). American National Security and Economic Relations with Canada, 1945-1954. Westport: Praeger Publishers.
Canada. (2003). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from Encarta Online. Web site: http://au.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563379_7/Canada.html.
Canada and the UN. (2003). Canada and the United Nations. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Web site: http://www.un.int/canada/canadaandun.html .
Canada Department of National Defense. (May 1953). Canadian participation in the Korean War, Part I. Canadian Defense Report No. 62. Montreal: Canada Department of National Defense.
In 2000 legislation was presented by Ralph Klein to the legislature, demanding that provinces be permitted to allow private hospitals. That same year, more budget cuts slammed the health systems, when the "Federal udget offers 2 cents for health care for every dollar of tax cuts." (Health Coalition) in 2002 the Romanow Royal Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada was created to investigate the health-care situation in the nation and to foster (and witness) public discussion on the subject. Their report was presented in Ottawa towards the end of the year, and in 2003 some of its suggestions regarding intelligent use of federal funding were implemented. The commission, in general, supported the continuation of universal care. However, the 2003 "Health Accord" did not include any ruling against the use of federal funding contracted out to for-profit institutions (a situation that some critics claim is part of the…
Axworthy, Lloyd & Spiegel, Jerry. "Retaining Canada's health care system as a global public good" Canadian Medical Association Journal, Aug 20,2002; 167 (4), 365-366
Canadian Institute for Health Information. Health Care in Canada.
Canadian Institute for Health Information: Ottawa, 2004.
Choudhry, Sujit. "The Enforcement of the Canada Health Act" McGill Law Journal, vol 41; 462-510
Economic Challenges Canada Faces
In recent years, the challenging economic condition in Canada has emerged as a concern for citizens, policy makers and the government alike. Canada faces challenges in terms of creating a more innovative society, as the country continues to experience a significant productivity gap compared to other advanced industrial economies. The Canadian industry appears to be slower in successfully developing, applying and marketing innovative products, processes and services than a majority of other nations. This lack of innovation is the cause of Canada's low productivity growth and competitiveness, and therefore must be addressed in order to increase employment growth, a higher standard of living and an improved quality of life for all Canadians.
Current research predicts that although Canada's economic performance will gradually strengthen out of the recent mild slowdown into a better pattern of growth in 2004, Canada's economy still faces the longer-term challenge of increasing…
Department of Finance Canada. (2004). The Economy in Brief. Retrieved March 8,
2005, from the Department of Finance Web site: http://www.fin.gc.ca/ECONBR/ecbr04- 12e.html
Economic Survey Canada. (2004). Building Partnerships for Progress. Retrieved March 8, 2005, from the Economic Survey Canada Web site: http://www.oecd.org/document/24/0.02340.en_2649
Environment Canada, Informing Canadians on Pollution. (2002) Highlights of the 2002 National Pollutant Release Inventory, Environment Canada.
436-437). In other words, official commitment to multiculturalism is just a smoke screen for many Canadian officials who believe that the Euro-Canadian way of doing things is the norm.
The limits of multiculturalism in practice are also visible in the treatment of Canadian citizens and immigrants who have dark skin color. According to Kelly (1998), African Canadians are routinely "racialized" and "othered" (that is, they are put outside of the dominant group). The manner in which African Canadians are unable to become fully-fledged Canadians even if they are born in Canada was succinctly explained by Marlene Nourbese Philip, an African Canadian essayist: "Being born elsewhere, having been fashioned in a different culture, some of us may always feel 'othered,' but then there are those -- our children, nephews, nieces, grandchildren -- born here, who are as Canadian as snow and ice, and yet, merely because of their darker skins, are…
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010a) Chapter 10, Multiculturalism in Canada: "Living together with differences." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p283-308).
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010b) Chapter 11, "Institutional Inclusiveness: Putting Multiculturalism to work." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p309-343; 362-374).
Kelly, J. (1998) Under the Gaze: Learning to be Black in White Society. Fernwood publishing, Blackpoint Nova Scotia.
Millar. J. (1996a) Chapter 13, "Our greatest need today is proper education": Winding down the system. In Shingwauk's vision: A history of Native residential schools (p377-405; 526-535) Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Straightened Circumstances": A eview and Analysis of the Current Debate about Measuring Poverty and Wealth in Canada
Although there is no official definition of poverty in Canada, recent estimates place the percentage as high as 14% overall, with significantly higher levels for vulnerable populations such as single elderly females, indigenous peoples, and single females with children. These levels of poverty indicate that the problem is severe and it is important to ensure that the steps that are taken to address poverty in Canada are timely and effective. In order to ensure that the scarce resources that are used to assist impoverished Canadians are applied effectively, though, there must also be some reliable ways of determining whether progress is being made or not. To this end, this paper provides a review and analysis of the relevant literature concerning the current debate about measuring poverty and wealth in Canada, followed by a…
Armitage, A. (2005). Social welfare in Canada, 4th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press Canada.
Canada. (2012). U.S. Government: CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov / library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ca.html.
Canada GDP. (2012). NationMaster. Retrieved from http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/eco_
Alberta province of Canada is considered one of the strongest economies in North America, being culturally diverse as well as politically and environmentally stable. Its varied landscape, sunny climate and varied geography make it a most ideal locality and provide its people an excellent quality of life. Alberta is endowed with abundant natural resources, natural sceneries, and capable manpower that altogether make it the perfect place to live and work in. These outstanding features are collectively referred to as the Alberta advantage (Government of Alberta 2002). Its people are vibrant, resourceful and productive entrepreneurs, whose goods and services rank among the most excellent in the world. This level of excellence draws from the inherent pioneering spirit of the earliest settlers of the province. The present principal industries of the province are agriculture and related industries, forestry, telecommunications, oil and gas. Its oil and gas industry, which began in the late…
Brown, Jim. 2003: Canada's Chretien Downplays Kyoto Economic Impact. CNEWS. http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Politics/2003/10/20/23/511-cp.html
CBCNews, 2002: Consumers Will Feel Pinch of Kyoto, Say Opponents. CBC. http://www/cbc/ca/stories/stories/2002/09/03/ab_kyoto020903
CTV News Staff. 2003:Three-quarters of Canadians Support Kyoto: Poll. CTV.ca. http://www/ctv/ca/servlit/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/10340/4051181_29423251/:hub=Canada
Government of Alberta. 2002: Canadians Divided on Kyoto Ratification. http://www.gov.ab.ca/home/index.cfm "Page=332.
Decriminalize Marijuana in Canada
The question as to whether Canada should decriminalize the use, sale, and cultivation of marijuana has been debated over the past few years, and the debate has taken a sharper turn now that it is being decriminalized in Colorado and soon in ashington State.
hat are the economic and social benefits of making marijuana legal in Canada -- and what is the residual impact on human health? Given that today there are glaring inconsistencies in Canadian law regarding marijuana -- as opposed to the legal sale of alcohol and tobacco -- how does the Canadian government propose to adjust its current laws if indeed marijuana becomes legal? These are the pertinent questions to be answered in this paper.
Thesis: The position of this writer is that Canada should proceed to decriminalize marijuana and remove the label of "controlled substance" -- because marijuana does less harm to…
Danovitch, Itai. "Sorting Through the Science on Marijuana: Facts, Fallacies, and Implications for Legalization." McGeorge Law Review, 43.1 (2013): 91-108.
Flister, Larissa Ducatti. "The Economic Case for Marijuana Legalization in Canada."
Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 5.1 (2012): 96-100.
Riley, Diane. "Drugs and Drug Policy in Canada: A brief review and commentary." Canadian
Same-Sex Marriages in Canada
Although the debate over whether same-sex marriages should be allowed, a number of countries have legalized these unions in recent years, and the same trends are taking place through North America as well. In fact, given the increasing pace of reform, it is reasonable to suggest that most if not all states in the United States and Canada will have legalized same-sex marriages someday, a process that transform the debate over whether same-sex marriages should be allowed to one that focuses on why it took so long. Because many social and legal benefits accrue to the legal institution of marriage, these are important issues since the legalization of same-sex marriages will convey these social and legal benefits to homosexual partners who believe they are entitled to the same treatment as their heterosexual counterparts. To gain some additional insights into these recent trends and provide an overview…
Basham, K.K. & Miehls, D. (2004). Transforming the legacy: Couple therapy with survivors of childhood trauma. New York: Columbia University Press.
Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Hildebrand, K. (1991). The Third Reich. London: Routledge.
Hustedde, R.J. & Ganowicz, J. (2002). The basics: What's essential about theory for community development practice? Journal of the Community Development Society, 33(1), 1-3.
Aboriginal Education in Canada
GOVERNMENT ROLE IN ABORIGINAL EDUCATION IN CANADA
What do you believe was the goal of the Canadian government and church in planning and running residential schools? Why?
Schooling is considered one of the key aspects that bring about change in any society. Even before the establishment of the residential schools, schooling was something that was taking place in the country of Canada. As the only process that can change the structure and capacity of the human intellect and exposure, schooling is vital in Canada. Initially, the indigenous Canada was facing myriad challenges in accessing education. Schooling became a weapon that was also used by the Christian movement in a bid to reinforce the prospects of reaching out to many people with the gospel of Christianity. As with the Canadian indigenous people, much was needed to reinforce the spread of this Christianity that came with schooling (Regan,…
Explain why you are not using other methods
The method described above is the most applicable to this study since I would need a closely involved study. I would not use a quantitative experimental approach since randomization is out of the question here -- this is a convenience sample. I would also like to have a rich study that operates in a real-life situation and this cannot be studied via empirical means.
I agree with Dilthey (1954) that humans, being more flexible and diverse than objects studied in a lab (animals included), cannot and should not be 'frozen' under a 'microscope' for statistical analysis and factual conclusions. Humans, not reducible to the physical world, cannot be fissured down to discrete variables. Doing so would result in ignoring the very aspects of their humanity, consequently leading to erroneous conclusions.
I also choose qualitative rather than quantitative methodology since this is longitudinal…
Charmaz, K. (2006) Constructing Grounded Theory. NY: Sage,
Correctional Service of Canada. [Online] Retrieved from:
Correctional Service of Canada. The CAC System [Online] Retrieved from:
Baby Seal Slaughter in Canada:
Canadian fishermen usually club hundreds of thousands of baby harp seals to death in front of their mothers every year. This event has developed into a yearly spectacle with the media and animal protection groups trying to cover the slaughter from helicopters or ships. These attempts are due to the fact that both the Canadian government and the sealers try to prevent access to the baby seal slaughter area in order to evade publicity. This event continues to receive green light from the Canadian government which set the quota with an example being the 275,000 seals that was set in 2008. The Canadian government permits hunters to bludgeon thousands of baby harp seals through shooting or repeated clubbing using metal-hook-tipped clubs that are also known as hakapiks. After clubbing the baby harp seals, these sealers then drag the unconscious seals across the ice floes with…
"Canadian Seal Slaughter." PETA: People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. PETA: People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Web. 9 June 2011. .
"THE FACTS ON CANADA'S BABY SEAL SLAUGHTER - Senseless Bloody Killing of Innocent Babies Continues." ANIMAL CRUELTY WORLDWIDE: HEATBREAKING STORIES OF OUR MISTREATMENT OF ANIMALS. ANIMAL CRUELTY WORLDWIDE. Web. 9 June 2011. .
Lin, Doris. "Fur, Cruelty and Animal Rights - Baby Seals Clubbed on the Ice." About.com
Animal Rights. About.com - A Part of The New York Times Company. Web. 9 June 2011. .
Authority from outside the schools increasingly became that which structured the school systems and there was an increase in the "competitive examination of pupils and teachers alike. Prentice and Theobald states that an analysis conducted by Martin Law of a ritish school teacher's diary during that was kept during World War II demonstrates how the workload of a woman teacher increased during such as crisis and how the "..extra responsibilities also brought a measure of additional power to the teacher in question, as she and her community responded to national priorities and demands. ut local authorities were quick to reduce that power when it was no longer backed up by a national agenda at the war's end." (Prentice and Theobald, 1991)
Prentice and Theobald relate that there was general confusion concerning the social position and identity of the occupation of teacher. Elementary school teachers were largely women and this was…
Bird, Amanda (2007) the Under Representation of Women in a "Feminized Profession": gender stereotyping, management politics, and the dissemination of information Dalhousie Journal of Information and Management, volume 3, number 1 (Winter 2007)
Giguere, Denys (1999) Gender Gap Widening Among Ontario Teachers. Professionally Speaking. June 1999. Online available at: http://www.oct.ca/publications/professionally_speaking/june_1999/gap.htm
Kinnear, Mary (1995) "In subordination: Professional Women 1870-1970" McGill-Queen's Press -- MQUP, 1995.
Prentice, Allison and Theobald, Marjorie R. (1991) Women who Taught, Perspectives on the History of Women and Teaching"
Flight to Canada/Death of a Salesman
Flight to Canada, written in 1976 by Ishmael Reed, is sort of an atypical slave narrative taking place in the antebellum south (however, this is an antebellum south where airplanes already exists and Lincoln's assassination is seen on television) and depicting Raven Quickskill's and his fellow fugitive's escape from their master Arthur Swille. The entire plot revolves around the relentless search for Raven who is on his way to "Camelot" (i.e, Canada) while his fellow fugitives, Stray Leechfield and 40's go to whatever lengths possible in order to find their own freedom. However, what Reed illustrates in the story is that one cannot so easily escape slavery because slavery exists everywhere and some forms are harder to escape than others, but some bring on slavery themselves. In Arthur Miller's play, Death of a Salesman, Willie Loman also believes in a sort of Camelot --…
In Ontario, Canada, a key aspect in establishing a mass appraisal system and its effective operation is an automated property evaluation system. In addition, a completely registered real property and GIS database, covering all types of properties and transaction systems are created based on such a database. An integrated real property system and GIS are in operation in Ontario, Canada. The property center stores and updates real property data, administers property register and maintains GIS systems in Ontario. This enhances the process of evaluating real property for public needs incorporating taxation. Information regarding the registered real property totaling to millions of projects is stored in the integrated database. Information about property and market transactions stored in a uniform fashion creates the possibility to automate and standardize mass appraisal process and identify factors influencing value. The adoption of this system was of great value to the community because of…
Esposito, M.A. & European Commission (2010). Histocity book: The best of 1998-2000 network research on the historical cities sustainable development using GIS. Firenze: Alinea.
Harmon, J. (2013). The Design and Implementation of Geographic Information Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Hanna, K.C., & Culpepper, R.B. (2009). GIS in site design: New tools for design professionals. New York, NY [u.a.: Wiley.
Kauko, T., & D'Amato, M. (2008). Mass appraisal methods: An international perspective for property valuers. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
According to www.greatplacetowork.ca, the best place to work in Canada is with Google Canada. Google began life as a search engine and quickly built up a strong market share by delivering superior results. The company leveraged this into an online ad business and eventually had the funds to tackle other ventures, including the Android mobile operating system. The company has also expanded its website offerings dramatically as well. Google is a relatively young company, having been founded in 1997.
Google is a highly successful company in general. Its most recent financial figures show that the company earned net income of $9.7 billion on revenues of $37.9 billion in fiscal year 2011 (2011 Google Form 10-K). The company has on its balance sheet over $44 billion in cash and equivalents, compared with just under $3 billion in long-term debt. Google has exceptional financial strength. The company's stock price currently sits…
Efrati, A. & Chao, L. (2012). Google softens tone on China. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203436904577155003097277514.html
Google 2011 Form 10-K. Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1288776/000119312512025336/d260164d10k.htm
MSN MoneyCentral: Google. (2012). Retrieved February 4, 2012 from http://investing.money.msn.com/investments/stock-price?symbol=goog&ocid=qbeb