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Cannabis in the UK: De-Penalisation, Decriminalisation, or Legalisation?
In October of 2015, the Parliament of the United Kingdom was forced to debate whether the current prohibition on cannabis should end in some way. "Forced" is the correct word here, because Parliament seems otherwise unwilling to address the issue, but in this case it was obliged by its own policy, whereby any petition signed by at least one hundred thousand people must necessarily trigger a parliamentary debate. In the case of the issue of ending the prohibition on cannabis, the petition requesting that Parliament address the issue received well over the required number of signatures; it was, in the words of Smith (2015), "a petition signed by 220,000 people - the third most popular on Parliament's website." Therefore on 12 October 2015, Parliament was obliged to take up the matter for debate. Liberal Democrat MP Norman Lamb ultimately took up the…
Abel, EA. (1980) Marihuana: The first twelve thousand years. New York: Springer.
Adda, J, McConnell, B, Rasul, I. (2014). Crime and the depenalisation of cannabis possession: Evidence from a policing experiment. Journal of Political Economy 122:5.
Aoyagi, MT. (2006). Beyond punitive prohibition: Liberalizing the dialogue on international drug policy. International Law and Politics 37:3.
Atuesta-Becerra, LH. (2014) Internally displaced populations in Columbia and Mexico. In Quah, D, Collins, J, et al. (2014) Ending the drug wars: Report of the LSE Expert Group on the economics of drug policy. London: London School of Economics.
Cannabis in ancient history: From no courage necessary to the courage to explore the mind.
Cannabis cultivated in ancient China as hemp for fiber and cannabis for medicine.
Cannabis spread to India, where it is used as a religious sacrament as well as a medicinal herb.
Cannabis spread to Europe with the Scythians, who used it also as a mind-altering substance.
By the end of the Hellenistic and oman eras, cannabis use becomes widespread, and issues like conflict and greed have yet to come into the picture.
Cannabis in Europe: The beginnings of conflict and greed.
Cannabis is used medicinally and mentioned in scientific texts.
The Age of Enlightenment gives rise to the exploration of the herb.
Cultivation of hemp as a cash crop begins during the Age of Colonization, planting the first seeds of conflict.
D. As a cash crop, cannabis presents a potential for greed.
The Modern Era:…
"10,000-year History of Marijuana use in the World." Advanced Holistic Health. Retrieved online: http://www.advancedholistichealth.org/history.html
Gumbiner, Jann. "History of Cannabis in Ancient China." Psychology Today. May 10, 2011. Retrieved online: http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-teenage-mind/201105/history-cannabis-in-ancient-china
Head, Tom. "Marijuana in Ancient History." About.com. Retrieved online: http://civilliberty.about.com/od/drugpolicy/tp/Ancient-History-of-Marijuana.htm
"Marijuana Since the Beginning of Time." Marijuana Today. Retrieved online: http://marijuanatoday.com/marijuanahistory.php
Cannabis for Pain
The status and use of marijuana in the United States has taken some rather circuitous and different paths. For many years, the dealing or possession of cannabis in any form has been a ticket or a trip to jail for many people. To this very day, marijuana and cannabis remain Schedule I drugs, meaning that they have "no medical use" and thus should never be possessed or used by anyone. However, the legalization of cannabis in many states, sometimes even for recreational uses, and the corresponding permissiveness from the federal government as well as medical trials and tests relating to cannabis have shown that the tide is starting to turn when it comes to the perceptions and reactions to cannabis and legitimate uses that may exist. One such use is for pain.
Statement of the Problem
One significant reason why the studying of cannabis for pain management…
Wilsey, B., Marcotte, T. D., Deutsch, R., Zhao, H., Prasad, H., & Phan, A. (2016). An exploratory human laboratory experiment evaluating vaporized cannabis in the treatment of neuropathic pain from spinal cord injury and disease. The Journal of Pain, 17(9), 982-1000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2016.05.010
Wilsey, B., Marcotte, T., Deutsch, R., Gouaux, B., Sakai, S., & Donaghe, H. (2013). Low-dose vaporized Cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain. The Journal of Pain, 14(2), 136-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2012.10.009
Zajicek, J. P., Hobart, J. C., Slade, A., Barnes, D., & Mattison, P. G. (2012, November). Multiple Sclerosis and extract of cannabis: Results of the MUSEC trial. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 83, 1125-1132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2012-302468
Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, and Hawaii have already moved to decriminalize marijuana and several are set to do so within the next several years. The legalization movement began with awareness about the health benefits of medical cannabis, which can be used to alleviate the symptoms of a number of medical conditions. Since then, a movement to legalize cannabis has been built on the grounds of human rights, civil liberties, and public health and safety. The "war on drugs" mentality has been fading into the unfortunate background of American history, leading to more intelligent and enlightened discourse on the matter. What is clear is that criminalization has not worked to reduce drug-related problems, and in fact, criminalization has actually caused more problems than it is purported to solve. Criminalization proliferates organized crime, makes drugs less safe, and creates human rights abuses and gross injustices ranging from mass incarceration to the disenfranchisement…
Armentano, Paul. "Study: Medical Marijuana Laws Associated with Decreased Obesity/" NORML. Retrieved online: http://blog.norml.org/2015/12/01/study-medical-marijuana-laws-associated-with-decreased-obesity/
Balko, Radley. "Since Marijuana Legalization, Highway Fatalities in Colorado are at Near-Historic Lows." The Washington Post. Aug 5, 2014. Retrieved online: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-watch/wp/2014/08/05/since-marijuana-legalization-highway-fatalities-in-colorado-are-at-near-historic-lows/
Keefe, Patrick Radden. "Buzzkill." The New Yorker. 18 Nov, 2013. Retrieved online:
NORML. "Legalization." Retrieved online: http://norml.org/
10). In this particular study, the effects of smoked cannabis as compared wit the results of patients who received and smoked placebos was significant, and showed a 34% reduction in daily pain amongst those patients receiving the cannabis, versus 17% amongst those patients receiving the placebo.
The outcome of the studies conducted would suggest that medical use of marijuana for pain is recommended. The study concluded that there is an absence of pain relieving analgesics available to patients in the classifications studied. The findings as they relate to the efficacy of cannabis for the treatment of spasticity in MS indicate that medicinal marijuana for that purpose is an avenue of treatment for this very difficult to manage condition and the pain associated with the disease (p. 16).
The future of medicinal cannabis as a therapeutic approach to difficult to manage conditions like Parkinson's Disease, MS, and other conditions that have…
Grant, I., Atkinson, J.H., Mattison, A., and Coates, T. Report to the Legislature and Governor of the State of California Presenting the Findings of Pursuant to SB847 Which Created the CMCR and Provided State Funding. University California, San Diego, Health Sciences, CMCR, February 11, 2010.
Informed Consent and DebriefingThe purpose of this paper is to create an informed consent form and a debriefing form that explain the nature and true purpose of a proposed clinical study concerning the use of legal, edible cannabis products to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among American male combat veterans of all ages and branches of military service. Cannabis products are currently legal in more than half of U.S. states and the recreational use of these products has been legalized by numerous others. There is also movement in the U.S. Congress to legalize cannabis products at the federal level, opening the way for veterans to receive them as part of their health care regimen (Hill, Loughlin, Nichter et al., 2021).Although younger veterans tend to report significantly higher usage rates of cannabis products compared to their older counterparts, the research to date confirms that overall usage of cannabis among veterans has…
ReferencesDebriefing form sample. (2021). University of Florida Institutional Review Board. Retrieved from https://irb.ufl.edu/irb02/irb-02-forms/debriefing-form-sample.html .Hill, M. L., Loflin, M., Nichter, B., Norman, S. B., & Pietrzak, R. H. (2021). Prevalence of cannabis use, disorder, and medical card possession in U.S. military veterans: Results from the 2019-2020 National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Addictive Behaviors, 120, 10-16.Loflin, M., Earleywine, M., & Bonn-Miller, M. (2017). Medicinal versus recreational cannabis use: Patterns of cannabis use, alcohol use, and cued-arousal among veterans who screen positive for PTSD. Addictive Behaviors, 68, 1823.Medical marijuana consent form. (2020). U.S. federal government. Retrieved from https://flboardofmedicine.gov/forms/medical-marijuana-consent-form.pdf .PR Newswire. (2021, February 24). First Observational Study to Determine Efficacy of Cannabis for Veterans Gains Approval. PR Newswire US.
Future of Marijuana in America:
Marijuana or cannabis was first identified by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE and has since been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. The introduction or arrival of medicinal cannabis in America was characterized with an amazingly colorful and checkered history. Medicinal cannabis was characterized with initial robust use in the United States, which faded after the development of aspirin and opioids. The decreased used culminated in the criminalization of cannabis in America in 1937 despite of the contradictory advice of the American Medical Association, which was submitted on record to Congress. However, the use of marijuana has emerged as a major issue in the past few decades because of the renewed interest in medicinal cannabis. Actually, several stakeholders in the health care sector including the American College of Physicians, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Institutes of Health have supported further research and…
Aggarwal et. al. (2009, June). Medicinal Use of Cannabis in the United States: Historical
Perspectives, Current Trends, and Future Directions. Journal of Opioid Management, 5(3), 153-68.
Cardinale, A. (2014, January 14). A Brief History of How Marijuana Became Illegal in the U.S.
Retrieved July 16, 2014, from http://mic.com/articles/78685/a-brief-history-of-how-marijuana-became-illegal-in-the-u-s
Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…
Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf
Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.
Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
Canada boasts one of the highest cannabis usage rates in the world in spite of prohibition (Fischer, Kuganesan, & oom, 2015). Cannabis is also the most widely used illegal drug in the country by a wide margin (Hajidazeh, 2016). The complete decriminalization of cannabis in Canada would be unlikely to have any appreciable effect on raising rates of usage except potentially an initial spark of interest subsequent to the lifting of prohibition. Unfortunately, a dearth of literature exists on the actual effects of decriminalization given that the phenomenon has yet to occur, and given the fact that there are few case studies from other countries. The only country in the world to have outright legalized marijuana has been Uruguay; several other countries have relatively relaxed policies toward the drug but Canada's proposal to fully legalize would be revolutionary. This research can potentially contribute to the growing understanding of what consequences…
Fischer, B., Kuganesen, S. & Room, R. (2015). Medical Marijuana programs: Implications for cannabis control policy -- Observations from Canada. International Journal of Drug Policy 26(1): 15-19.
Government of Canada (n.d.). "Toward the Legalization, Regulation, and Restriction of Access to Marijuana," Discussion Paper. Retrieved online: http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/health-system-systeme-sante/consultations/legalization-marijuana-legalisation/alt/legalization-marijuana-legalisation-eng.pdf
Hajizadeh, M. (2016). Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts. International Journal of Health Policy Management 5(8): 453-456.
Hall, W. & Lynskey, M. (2016). Why it is probably too soon to assess the public health effects of legalisation of recreational cannabis use in the USA. The Lancet Psychiatry 3(3): 900-906.
Marijuana, also known as cannabis, is the most widely used illegal drug worldwide (Caulkins et al.). However, the legal status of marijuana is slowly changing. Uruguay recently became the first nation in the world to fully decriminalize and federally regulate marijuana. Several other countries in estern Europe have liberal laws related to marijuana that amount to practical decriminalization. The United States, which until fairly recently remained stuck to its "war on drugs" policy, has finally begun to understand that not only is marijuana safe, but it is also a valuable medical resource. Thus, several states in the union have started to allow for the prescription of cannabis for medical use. Given the fact that decriminalization also presents several net benefits to society including reducing prison overpopulation and reducing the stranglehold organized crime holds over some communities, a few states have begun to decriminalize the drug entirely. Colorado and ashington…
Becker, Sam. "7 States Ready to Legalize Marijuana." Politics Cheat Sheet. 28 Mar, 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.cheatsheet.com/politics/5-states-and-one-city-ready-to-legalize-marijuana.html/?a=viewall
Caulkins, Jonathan P., et al. Marijuana Legalization. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Drug Policy Alliance. "Marijuana legalization and regulation." Retrieved online: http://www.drugpolicy.org/marijuana-legalization-and-regulation
Khatapoush, Shereen and Halifors, Denise. "Sending the Wrong Message.'" Journal of Drug Issues. Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 751-770.
, and otjak, C. (2006). Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Mediates Fear Extinction via Habituation-Like Processes. The Journal of Neuroscience 26(25): 6677-6686.
Kim, S., on, S., Mao, X., Ledent, C., Jin, K. And Greenberg, D. (2006). Role for Neuronal Nitric-Oxide Synthase in Cannabinoid-Induced Neurogenesis. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther., October 1, 2006; 319(1): 150-154
Kogan, N., Blazquez, C., Alvarex, L., Gallily, R., Schlesinger, M., Guzman, A., and Mechoulam, R. (2006). A Cannabinoid Quinone Inhibits Angiogenesis by Targeting Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Pharmacol 70:51-59.
Lundqvist, T. (2005). Cognitive Consequences of Cannabis Use: Comparison with use of Stimulants and heroin with regard to attention, memory and executive functions. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 81: 319-330.
Maccarrone, M., Lorenzon, T., Bari, M., Melino, G., and Finazzi-Agro, A. (2000). Anandamide Induces Apoptosis in Human Cells via Vanilloid Receptors
Evidence For A Protective Role Of Cannabinoid Receptors. J. Biol. Chem., 275 (41): 31938-31945.
Massi, P., Vaccani, A., Ceruti, S.,…
Bolla, K., Brown, K., Eldreth, D., Tate, B., and Cadet, J. (2002). Dose-related neurocognitive effects of marijuana use. Neurology 59:1337-1343.
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Grant, I., Gonzalez, R., Carey, C., Natatajan, L., and Wolfson, T. (2003). Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: A meta-analytic study.
Legalization of Marijuana
Marijuana or Cannabis is actually a plant, which has the scientific name 'cannabis sativa' and was originally used for ordinary purposes such as for fabric making and cloth weaving. Some are of the view that it was also used as sails when shipping industry had not become technologically sophisticated. The plant was also once used for the treatment of psychiatric conditions but after it was banned in the country, marijuana was forced to vanish from the medical field too.
Marijuana became a problem when people started using it as a drug in the form of powder. This is because marijuana affects chemical processes in the brain and puts a person in a state of elation. But all this is temporary and a person becomes so addicted to this drug that he cannot stay away from it. The dangerous impact on marijuana on the brain is also evident…
Cannabis" Accessed online 27 April 2004: http://www.cannabis.net
Richard Rudgley, The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive substances, Little, Brown and Company (1998),
Medicine is designed to treat the sick and the injured. Its function is to either treat a condition or to better severe symptoms from a medical or physical condition. Some medicines, when first introduced, are controversial because of the ingredients that are used. In the modern era, Marinol has become the subject of heated debate over whether or not it should be provided to patients. Despite the fact that it has been proven to help people when other medications have failed, there are still some places where the medication cannot be gotten simply because it contains a synthetic form of a substance which is illegal in most states. Marinol is not made from an illegal material, but a synthetic version which replicates the effects of that illegal substance. The drug Marinol is a brand name of a medication which is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC which is…
Armentano, P. (2005). Marinol vs. natural plant. NORML.
Institute of Medicine (2002). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.
Loughlin, K. & Generali, J. (2006). The Guide to Off-Label Prescription Drugs. The Philip Lief
Group: Princeton, NJ.
This midterm is top ranking in comparison to the others. The outline is very detailed and on the first page, making it easier for me to see what the paper is aout and where the writer wants to go through each section. The different sections are also very convincing in their claims such as writer oriented depression. I liked how he used two well-known writers and their outs of depression and linked them together to where you can see directly and indirectly how depression fueled their career and vice versa. I also liked the use of religion as means of helping people who suffer from depression.
The quotes work very well with each suject. The progression from nature of depression to how depression affects different areas such as religion and literature is well thought out. The iliography is long and varied with sources from texts, journals. Most of…
bibliography was weak in that most of the sources were from online. He needs to find better sources. The outline was okay but there was one section: "Opposition. None that I can find. You can not get high in any way from hemp products. I have yet to discover a negative impact to the environment or society" that is not true. There is plenty opposition and some research has shown growing marijuana has led to a negative impact on the environment through supplies pollution. People growing marijuana throw away their used up supplies in ways that pollute the environment.
Criminalisation, legalization and the mixed blessing of medicalisation in the U.S.A." einarman discusses the issues related to the use of Marihuana. Marijuana or Marihuana has long been used to in America for recreational and medicinal purposes. As Manderson stated, "Debates on the reasons and rationalizations behind drug laws, their cost-effectiveness and their possible moral justification, have for a long time and will continue to rage" (Manderson, 1995, p. 800). Even with the recent mainstream shift towards legalizing of marijuana use from California to Colorado, many still attach negative connotations to marijuana, maintaining the image of marijuana as a deviant and immoral behavior. Keeping this in mind, one must understand the origins of marijuana use in America to see why it was deemed a deviant and illegal activity.
Marihuana was first introduced into America on a substantial scale during the 1910's by migrant Mexican workhands in the Southwest. During this time,…
Bulman-Pozen, J. (2013). Unbundling Federalism: Colorado's Legalization of Marijuana and Federalism's Many Forms. University of Colorado Law Review, 85(4), 1-14. Retrieved from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2366388
Fraser, S., & Moore, D. (2011). Cannabis in cultural and legal limbo: Criminalisation, legalisation and the mixed blessing of medicalization in the U.S.A. In The drug effect: Health, crime, and society (pp. 171-184). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
HALL, W.D., & LYNSKEY, M. (2005). Is cannabis a gateway drug? Testing hypotheses about the relationship between cannabis use and the use of other illicit drugs. Drug and Alcohol Review, 24, 39-48.
Himmelstein, J.L. (1983). Contemporary Crises Crime law social policy. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 7, 13-38.
The 1988 and later 1992 Supreme Court decision in Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc. illustrates the functions and role of law in business and public health. This case relates to the tobacco industry's culpability in promoting smoking through marketing campaigns after knowledge of the detrimental effects of smoking, and in spite of the mandatory Surgeon General Warning labels that had been federally mandated since the 1960s and the Federal Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act (1965 Act).
In the Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc., case, it was ultimately decided that the federal laws trumped state laws that permitted promotion of harmful materials, in this case, cigarettes. What is interesting about this case is that it pertains directly to marketing, rather than to the tobacco companies themselves. Separate litigation, of course, impinged upon the tobacco companies. The Cipollone v. Liggett Group case illustrates several key points. First, the case upholds…
Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc. Retrieved online: Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/90-1038.ZS.html
With approximately half of the states in the union already affording citizens with medical needs the liberty to seek relief in the form of marijuana, while the federal government's ostensible ban on the substance remains in effect, the stage has been set for a national debate over the merits of legalizing marijuana for medicinal use. A series of studies conducted recently by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) confirmed the theory that marijuana has quickly become the national drug of choice, with at least "17.4 million Americans -- or 6.9% of the population -- saying they used marijuana in 2010, up from 14.4 million or 5.8% of the population in 2007."
With the previously mentioned information regarding marijuana use in mind, it occurs to me that holding this applicant's previous brush with the law against him would be divergent from our position as police officers. If the…
Frank, Jackie. "Marijuana use rising in U.S., national survey shows." Reuters, September 08,
2011, U.S. section, http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/09/08/usa-drugs -
idUSN1E7870N520110908 (accessed March 4, 2014).
The design of the study was to compare the patterns and frequency of recreational drug use of various types, and of the attitudes expressed by residents of California to the behavior and attitudes on the same issues in the 10 other states after California legalized marijuana for medicinal use in 1996. The number of respondents in California was 2,651 and a total of 12, 916 in the other 10 states. The Trevino and ichard study (2002) involved a sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users surveyed for their responses to questions about their opinions about the legalization of marijuana, and also of other illicit recreational drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamines.
The Page, Verhoef, Stebbins, Metz, and Levy study (2003) utilized a self-reported questionnaire developed specifically as a tool for this study designed to identify differences in the choices made by patients with MS to use marijuana as…
Khatapoush, S. And Hallfors, D. "Sending the Wrong Message': Did Medical
Marijuana Legalization in California Change Attitudes about and Use of Marijuana?" Journal of Drug Issues, (Fall 2004): 751 -- 770.
Page, S.A., Verhoef, M.J., Stebbins, R.A., Metz, L.M., and Levy, J.C. "Cannabis Use
as Described by People with Multiple Sclerosis." Canadian Journal of Neurological Science, Vol. 30 (2003): 201 -- 205.
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
This engages a calm and quiet, however from time to time overjoyed state of mind. At high dosages, it can cause illusions. The consequences last from two to four hours after the drug is used and it mostly leaves the user of the marijuana in a calm condition for more than a few hours after getting high. One of the main invigorating properties is that temporary memory is reserved for the period of the high. Opinions may seem indistinct and it might be hard for a user to deliberate on rational difficult ideas like arithmetic. Long-standing causes have been disputed for several years. There are alleges of a motivational condition where the users marijuana are said to depart from civilization and lose their objective. (uckley, William F., 1997).
Conclusion whether cannabis usage effects enduring physical or psychological alterations in its users is still under question. The most solemn distress is…
Cabral, G. et al. Chronic Marijuana Smoke Alters Alveolar Macrophage Morphology and Protein Expression. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. 1991.
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Buckley, William F., Jr. Marijuana Myths/Marijuana Facts. National Review. 1997.
Driving hile Impaired in Canada
Tough new laws have been enacted in Canada in response to the problem of driving while impaired. In this case "impaired" means driving while intoxicated on alcohol -- being over the limit on blood alcohol (driving under the influence, DUI / driving while intoxicated, DI) -- or on drugs. This paper describes the issue, reviews the relevant legislation and laws, reviews the history of laws pertaining to impaired driving sanctions, and offers analysis of the contemporary legal situations regarding impaired driving laws in Canada.
hat is Impaired Driving?
The Ministry of Transportation in Ontario defines impaired driving as driving "while you ability is affected by alcohol or drugs… a deadly combination" (www.mto.gov.on.ca). The fact is that one drink can reduce a driver's ability to concentrate on the road and the traffic. Even one drink can affect a driver's reaction time, the MTO explains. The MTO…
Addario, Frank. (2008). Nasty Criminal Law Will Achieve Nothing for Public Safety.
Criminal Lawyer's Association. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2011, from http://www.criminallawyers.ca .
Bill C-2. (2007). An Act to amend the Criminal Code and to Make Consequential Amendments
To Other Acts. Parliament of Canada. Virtual Library. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2011, from http://www.parl.gc.ca .
Sixteen American states currently allow doctors to prescribe an herbal remedy to their patients: cannabis. Herbal remedies are not typically viewed with suspicion, but cannabis has been illegal in the United States for several decades. Still technically an illegal drug, cannabis is not being sold legally in select medical dispensaries in the states that allow for its controlled use. The organization Pain Management of America outlines some of the most common conditions for which doctors prescribe cannabis. Those conditions range from seizures to muscle spasms to cancer and chronic pain (Pain Management of America). Although medical cannabis is a step in the right direction, ultimately the herb should be removed from its Schedule I classification in the Controlled Substances Act. Cannabis should be completely legal, giving American citizens the freedom to use, grow, and sell the plant.
"Dozens of peer-reviewed studies, prominent medical organizations, major government reports, and the use…
Havel, Vaclav. The Power of the Powerless. Palach, 1995.
Joy, Janet E., Watson, Stanley J. And Benson, John A. "Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base." Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press, 1999. Retrieved online:
The drug, marijuana, is actually not as lethal to human beings as cigarettes or alcohol. Further, it is much less addictive, being generally consumed in far lesser quantities. It is also not strongly linked to accidents, risky sexual conduct, and violence, the way alcohol is. Lastly, one can never lose one’s life to marijuana overdose. While a small share of individuals who consume marijuana do develop addiction, this issue can be easily treated. Marijuana in the form of a medicine proves effective in dealing with various acute symptoms such as wasting diseases, nausea and vomiting. Marijuana is very commonly used in America (DPA). The marijuana on sale and used across the nation varies greatly in its quality, besides displaying the likelihood of containing high potentially-lethal adulterant or pesticide levels. DPA (Drug Policy Alliance) supports regulatory framework implementation for controlling potency, educating consumers using labels, and safeguarding against toxic pesticides…
The active chemical ingredient, THC, is accessed by smoking marijuana and is used for both recreational and medical reasons. The pro-legalization supporters and the anti-legalization supporters are divided by ethical and medical viewpoints. The use of marijuana is linked with health risks, but it is also associated with beneficial medical and therapeutic uses. Opponents of legalization also raise concerns about marijuana abuse, dependency, and its stance as a "gateway" drug which could lead a user to try "harder" drugs. Tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol give concerns for abuse, dependency, and have been linked with the use of "harder" drugs, however these substances remain legal.
A total of 14 states have allowed for the use of marijuana for medical purposes, and some studies have indicated the benefits of decriminalization of marijuana as law enforcement efforts and resources can be used for more significant crimes. There is a concern that the legalization…
Drewe, M, F Drewe, and A Riecher. "Cannabis and risk of psychosis." Swiss Medical Weekly. 134. (2004): 659-663. Print.
Grossman, M, F Chaloupka, and K. Shim. "Illegal Drug Use and Public Policy." Health Affairs. 21.2 (2002): 134-145. Print.
Joffe, A, and W. Yancy. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." Pediatrics. 113. (2004): e632-e638. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. .
Leung, Lawrence. "Cannabis and its Derivatives: Review of Medical Use." Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 24.4 (2011): 452-462. Print.
Crime and the Depenalization of Cannabis Possession: Evidence from a Policing Experiment" -- published in the Journal of Political Economy, a bimonthly peer-reviewed journal issued by the University of Chicago -- is a fascinating quantitative analysis on the impact of a localized policing "experiment" conducted over the course of seven and a half years. Between April 1998 and January 2006, the south London borough of Lambeth instituted a policy of "depenalization" for cannabis possession and consumption, the LCWS or Lambeth Cannabis Warning Scheme (Adda McConnell asul 2014, 1133). Although marijuana still remained illegal, the police in Lambeth made it known that "(i) the possession of small quantities of cannabis for personal consumption was still a recordable offence, but would no longer lead to the individual being arrested; (ii) the primary motivation was to free up police time and other resources to focus on crimes related to other drugs or other…
Adda, J., McConnell, B., Rasul, I. (2014) Crime and the depenalization of cannabis possession: Evidence from a policing experiment. Journal of Political Economy 122(5), 1130-1202. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/10.1086/676932
Drug Enforcement Administration, the Controlled Substances Act, and the War on Drugs all show that drug prohibition has been framed as a federal issue. Recent state-by-state legalization of cannabis (marijuana) has challenged and undermined the efficacy of federal drug laws and anti-drug policies. Almost half the states have now legalized marijuana for either medical or recreational use (Hill, 2015). The state-by-state legalization scheme creates legal and ethical conundrums. For example, Hill points out that federal anti-drug legislation prohibits legal marijuana businesses operating in states like Colorado to use national financial institutions for banking. Without access to the usual range of financing options, cannabis dispensaries and other related businesses are driven to a cash-only business which can "attract thieves and tax cheats," (Hill, 2015, p. 597). Other problems include the inability of Americans to legally transport cannabis over state lines, even between two states that both legalized the drug. Canada recently…
Cannabis contains more than one hundred and twenty distinct chemical compounds known collectively as cannabinoids. One of those canabinoids is cannabidol, commonly abbreviated and referred to as CBD. While CBD has no psychoactive properties, it may be beneficial for treating specific medical conditions including chronic pain. CBD can be used orally or topically. In its topical form, CBD is typically added to a carrier oil. Topical applications of CBD oils include the management of pain due to arthritis and inflammation. Research continues to mount suggesting the additional benefits of oral administration of CBD to treat epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, and anxiety. Because CBD does not produce known side effects, euphoric or otherwise, it has also garnered attention for its relative safety especially vis-a-vis its sister compounds found in cannabis. CBD also presents tremendous opportunities for market-related growth in the budding international cannabis industry.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one…
When the nation was founded, hemp was a regular crop that the Founding Fathers all harvested. Cannabis was literally part of the fabric of the American Way: hemp was used for a variety of functions, from tea to textiles. As Robert Deitch notes, “we know colonial Americans were aware of the medicinal properties of cannabis. It was one of the few medicines they had, and they used it as commonly as we use aspirin today” (25). If cannabis was good enough for the first Americans, surely it stands some much warranted consideration—particularly in the light of the recent opioid epidemic that has claimed the lives of so many young in today’s day and age (Nelson, Juurlink, Perrone). People looking for a little relief are chasing after dangerous drugs that can kill. Marijuana, however, has never really been associated with overdosing and death. Just as the early Americans found, cannabis…
With the exception of Washington and Colorado, U.S. laws forbid the possession of even small amounts of marijuana, whereas Netherlands has been entertaining a liberal policy for two decades. In this light, Americans would be expected to have a small rate of marijuana usage, while the Dutch due to their expanded availability of cannabis, should have an increased rate of usage. The empirical evidence to support these conclusions, though, is scant.
Dutch drug policy may appear radical, but let there be no misunderstanding, their laws state clearly that marijuana is illegal. In 1976, it had been decided to take the course of de-penalization, a formal non-enforcement policy for offences involving possession of up to 30 grams, and this quantity limit was dropped to 5 grams in 1995. During the 1980s the de facto legalization started, with the inauguration of small retail outlets known as coffee shops that were allowed to…
Cohen, Peter J. Medical Marijuana, Compassionate Use, and Public Policy: Expert Opinion or Vox Populi? (2006, May-June). The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 36, No. 3
Metrik, J. et al. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect. (2011, April 1). Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol. 25, No. 1
Mikos, R.A. On the Limits of Supremacy: Medical Marijuana and the States' overlooked Power to Legalize Federal Crime. (2009, October). Vanderbilt Law Review, Vol. 62, No. 5
Pew Research Center. Majority Now Supports Legalizing Marijuana. (2013, April)
Germany Illicit Drugs and Terrorism Issues
Germany's illicit drugs range from use of ecstasy, cannabis, cocaine, and heroin. Germany has made recent efforts as of February, 15th 2012 with the adoption of a National Strategy on Drug and Addiction Policy through the Federal cabinet that has the main aim of aiding individuals in reducing and avoiding their overall consumption of illicit and licit substances and associated addictive behaviors. Through prevention, addiction help, counseling/treatment, harm minimization efforts, and repression Germany hopes to provide the necessary changes to reduce drug usage. Germany is also making efforts towards battling terrorism through the creation of the BFE. The anti-terrorist unit aims to react quickly to potential or actual terrorist attacks through five locations and 250 security operatives.
Drug Possession and injection does not make up most drug disputes within Germany. Drug dealing, purchasing drugs online has become a big problem and that is…
EMCDDA,. (2016). Germany country overview - www.emcdda.europa.eu. Emcdda.europa.eu. Retrieved 27 November 2016, from http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/countries/germany
Foster, A. (2016). Terrorism in Germany: Past terror attacks and plots. Express.co.uk. Retrieved 27 November 2016, from http://www.express.co.uk/news/world/652765/Terrorist-attacks-Germany-Terrorism-Foiled-plots-Threat-Security-Islamic-State-ISIS
OSAC,. (2016). Germany 2016 Crime & Safety Report. OSAC. Retrieved 27 November 2016, from https://www.osac.gov/pages/Contentreportdetails.aspx?cid=19030
Tzanetakis, M., Kamphausen, G., Werse, B., & von Laufenberg, R. (2016). The transparency paradox. Building trust, resolving disputes and optimising logistics on conventional and online drugs markets. International Journal Of Drug Policy, 35, 58-68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.12.010
President Richard Nixon chose to ignore and through the whole report into the garbage. Instead, he had the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) created and were given authority enter homes without knocking and to use wiretaps and gather intelligence virtually on anyone Milestones. In the 1980's President Ronald Reagan continued the war by advocated his own war and it was estimated that due to these wars, someone was arrested on a violation of a marijuana law every 38 seconds.
Thankfully, these wars have become more focused on the real drug problems that are primarily synthetic or man made or used in ways never imagined. But heroin and methamphitamines are clearly not health regimens. They kill people every day, cause real crimes and ruin families, lives and destroys entire groups.
The first step in changing the view of marijuana began with the legalization for medical usage. The compassions for the ill allowed…
"42.0 Milestones in the History of Marijuana." N.p., 9 May 2010. Web. .
Buchanan, Wyatt. "State's Voters to Decide on Legalizing Pot." San Fransisco Chronicle, n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
"Campaigns That Matter - Legalizing Marijuana in California." Campaigns That Matter - California Politics, California Political News, California Legislative News, Public Policy Information, California State Elections, California Political Campaigns, California Propositions. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
Gray, Jim. Judgejimgray.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
Marijuana Use and Laws Relating to Marijuana
The difference between laws regarding marijuana in the 1950s and 1960s and public attitudes (and usage) regarding marijuana today is striking. Usage, laws, and attitudes regarding marijuana (or cannabis) have dramatically changed over the past 40 or 50 years. This paper will use data and journalistic research to present the huge changes in laws, usage, and public attitudes as regards the issues surrounding marijuana.
CEDRO -- Center for Drug Research, University of Amsterdam (Library Data)
According to research conducted by the Center for Drug Research at the University of Amsterdam, the first empirical survey on the use of marijuana was conducted in 1971. It was launched by the "Shafer Commission" (under the auspices of the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Use) and it conducted what is believed to be the very first in-depth survey of the American general population on drug use…
Boyette, C., and Wilson, J. (2015). It's 2015: Is weed legal in your state? CNN. Retrieved
April 11, 2015, from http://www.cnn.com .
Harrison, L.D., Backenheimer, M., and Inciardi, J.A. (1996). The Nature and Extent of Marijuana Use in the United States. Retrieved April 11, 2015, from http://www.cedro-uva.org .
Hughes, T. (2015). Colo. Pot users helping build schools with tax dollars. USA Today.
Therefore, today's society in the United States is diverse, which is something a social worker needs to understand and know how to deal with each diverse group. Furthermore, through research, it has been discovered most ethnic groups that live in the United States consist of young people, which means by staying in this country, they grow accustom to their surroundings. Once they have grown accustom to living here, they feel like this is their home to start a life with their own families. This continues the growing number of ethnic groups in this country.
Due to the educational accommodations that schools and college campuses make for students that have ethnic backgrounds, there is not enough prejudice of one group to let a Holocaust to occur in the United Stated. Furthermore, this country believes in freedom of speech to allow one ethnic to be isolated from the rest and condone any…
Dennen, Johan. THE 'EVIL' MIND: PT. 3. CRUELTY AND 'BEAST-IN-MAN' IMAGERY. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/departments/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/EVIL_CRU/EVIL_CRU.pdf
Citrome, Lesilie,. (2007). Aggression. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3005.htm
Hall, Kathy Jo. (1997). Carl Rogers. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=Throughout+this+Jim+knocks+the+clay+figurines+head+of+and+crushes+the+body+while+shouting&invocationType=spelling
Seal, B., A. Bradford, and C. Meston. 2009. The Association Between Body Esteem and Sexual Desire Among College Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38, no. 5, (October 1): 866-72. http://www.proquest.com.library.capella.edu / (accessed April 1, 2010).
Chamberlain College of Nursing NR449 Evidence-Based Practice
Evidence Matrix Table
Size and Selection
(sample not a real article)
Smith, Lewis (2013),
What should I eat? A focus for those living with diabetes. Journal of Nursing Education, 1 (4) 111-112.
How do educational support groups effect dietary modifications in patients with diabetes?
Convenience sample-selected from local support group in Pittsburgh, PA
Support and education improved compliance with dietary modifications.
de Vries K, Green AJ (2012) Therapeutic use of cannabis. Nursing Times; 108: 9, 12-15.
Describe the potential uses of cannabis in palliative care, and to help nurses advocate for patients by providing information about cannabis use and legality. How should nurses react when patients ask about medical marijuana?
None; not an experimental research design.
Untold quantities of research studies in published journals.
Peer-reviewed and professional literature. Legal…
The Arguments for and against the Legalization of Marijuana
• Issue Identification
Today, more than half of the states have already legalized marijuana in some form for various purposes and several more are slated to follow suit this year (see Figure 1 below). The reasons for this trend are multiple, but include fundamental changes in social attitudes about marijuana, the recognition that the federal government’s so-called “war on drugs” has been an abject failure, and the realization on the part of state lawmakers that marijuana sales can provide an enormous boon to state coffers in the form of additional excise taxes and a reduction in the costs that are associated with more serious substance abuse practices.
Figure 1. Status of marijuana laws by state: as of January 2020
• Position Statement
At first blush, the push for the nationwide legalization of marijuana at the federal level would appear…
Domestic cannabis suppression, 2020). U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved from https://www.dea.gov/domestic-cannabis-suppression-eradication-program .
Janda, K., Berry, J. M. & Goldman, J. (2017). The challenge of democracy: American government in global politics, 14th ed. New York: Wadsworth/Cengage.
McAllister, W. B. (2019, Spring). Harry Aslinger saves the world: National security imperatives and the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act. The Social History of Alcohol and Drugs, 33(1), 37-41.
Overdose death rates. (2020). National Institutes on Drug Abuse. Retrieved from https://www. drugabuse.gov/drug-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates.
Paluszek, E. (2020, January 2). Side effects of smoking marijuana every day according to science. Yahoo! Life. Retrieved from https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/side-effects-smoking-marijuana-every-205845314.html .
Reduced fatalities for third consecutive year. (2020, May 5). Reduced fatalities for third consecutive year. U. S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved from https://www.nhtsa.gov/press-releases/early-estimates-traffic-fatalities-2019 .
St. John, V. J. & Lewis, V. (2019, January 1). \\\\"Vilify them night after night\\\\": Anti-Black drug policies, mass incarceration, and pathways forward. Harvard Journal of African American Public Policy, 20, 18.
The history of prohibition of marijuana in the United States. (2020). Leafly. Retrieved from https://www.leafly.com/learn/legalization/marijuana-illegal-history .
It has been proved that drug dealers succeed in selling their drugs, even with the measures introduced by the American government.
Countries like the Netherlands have become famous due to their tolerance of cannabis and millions of tourists visit them every year as a result. Considering the fact that the Netherlands has continued to have a great cultural value, and, that it has continued to have more tourists visiting it because of reasons other than its cannabis coffee shops, it is obvious that the Dutch have not been affected by the legalization of Marijuana.
Buckley Jr. illiam F. "Is Marijuana Fear a Myth?" National Review, Vol. 49, December 8, 1997.
Goode, Erich. "Marijuana." (Atherton: 1969)
isheit, Ralph A. "Domestic Marijuana: A Neglected Industry." (Greenwood Press: 1992)
Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. (Praeger: 2004)
Chambliss, illiam J. "Another Lost ar: The Costs and Consequences of…
Wolf Shenk, Joshua. "Why You Can Hate Drugs and Still Want to Legalize Them." Washington Monthly, Vol. 27, October 1995.
"The War on Drugs: Fighting Crime or Wasting Time?" American Criminal Law Review, Vol. 38, 2001.
Souder Mark, Zimmer Lynn. "Q: Is the Government's War against Marijuana Justified as Public Policy?" Insight on the News, Vol. 13, January 12, 1998.
As Earleywine points out, "By 850 a.D., the Vikings had dragged the ropes with them to Iceland. In 1000, hemp ropes helped the Italian navy dominate the seas. The hemp crop was so important that British farmers were commanded to grow cannabis or pay fines. Kings ordered the American colonies to export the crop, but they used it to make rope and fabric of their own" (p. 25).
The newly founded American colonies found hemp to be an ideal source for rope and fabric as well, and Earleywine attributes it use by the emerging republic as being a fundamental factor in its ultimate success in achieving independence from Great Britain. It would also appear reasonable to suggest that these valuable aspects of hemp are not being lost on manufacturers of all types in the 21st century either. For example, Earleywine suggests that even though synthetic alternatives have been developed over…
Bock, a.W. (2000). Waiting to inhale: The politics of medical marijuana. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks.
Bowles, T.P. (2004, August 22). The pleasures of flesh. The Mail on Sunday (London, England), 51.
Earleywine, M. (2002). Understanding marijuana: A new look at the scientific evidence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Small, E. & Marcus, D. (2002. Hemp: A new crop with new uses for North America. p. 284- 326. in: J. Janick and a. Whipkey (eds.), Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA
Any drug that alters the brain chemistry, impairs cognitive functions, and creates an addictive personality cannot be recommended as safe. While there is no suppressing the fact that controlling illegal marijuana use continues to be a financial and administrative bottleneck, they are overridden by the potential harmful health consequences of legalizing marijuana.
Marijuana has been in use for thousands of years for its medicinal properties. With the development of new synthetic drugs there was a gradual decline in its use from the early part of the 20th century. Today however, though illegal, it continues to be a widely used drug in the United States for both recreational and medicinal purposes. In the year 2000 alone there were more than 2.4 million new users of marijuana and the drug is supposedly consumed by more than 76% of all drug users. [NCADI] The comparatively safer and proven remedial properties of…
1) Edward A. Jacobs, "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth,"
PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 6 June 2004, pp. 1825-1826
2) Wayne Hall, Louisa Degenhardt and Michael Lynskey, "The Health and Psychological Effects of Cannabis Use," Chapter 5, Monograph Series No 44, 2nd Edition,
Accessed on March 24th 2005,
law that is to be submitted to state legislator relevant to the author. Items that will be addressed as part of this proposal will include an identification of the problem or concern, a stating of the proposal or idea, background on stories and evidence that support the legislation, whether similar legislation has been introduced or passed, the finances and stakeholders involved and so forth.
Marijuana is criminalized despite its noted and proven ability to reduce pain and alleviate symptoms. Further, people in possession of fairly small amounts of marijuana are being put in jail or even prison. This makes sense for harder and nastier drugs like heroin and cocaine but not marijuana.
The proposed law is two-fold. First, there should be general decriminalization of minor possession of marijuana. Unless a person is in care and custody of a child and/or is driving, minor possession should not be a…
Cancer.org. (2015). Marijuana and Cancer. Cancer.org. Retrieved 2 July 2015, from http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/physicalsideeffects/che motherapyeffects/marijuana-and-cancer
Procon. (2015). 23 Legal Medical Marijuana States and DC - Medical Marijuana
ProCon.org. Medicalmarijuana.procon.org. Retrieved 3 July 2015, from http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/ view.resource.php?resourceID=000881
Roberts, C. (2015). "Miracle" Cannabis Oil: May Treat Cancer, But Money and the Law
"The IOM report recognized the therapeutic benefits of medical marijuana and urged that marijuana be made available to individual patients while research continued on the development of new drugs developed from marijuana" (Zeese).
In conclusion, there are two schools of thought on this issue. One view sees very little difference in terms of health implication between marijuana and cigarette smoking. However, there is some resistance to the idea that marijuana is as unhealthy or as dangerous as cigarettes. This had led to the notion that marijuana is less harmful to the user than tobacco. However, many reports and studies tend to stress that while the effects of each substance on the individual differ, in the long - term both have negative effects that should be emphasized. (Vlahov et al., 2004)
While there is a strong case for the benefits of marijuana in certain instances and for certain conditions, this…
Bock, a.W. (2000). The Politics of Medical Marijuana. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks.
Executive Summary: Institute of Medicine (1999). Retrieved July 3, 2008, from http://www.nap.edu/html/marimed/es.html
Fact Sheet Cigarette Smoking-Related Mortality. (2006) Retrieved July 3, 2008, at http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/factsheets/cig_smoking_mort.htm
Gieringer D. (1994) Marijuana Health Mythology.
legalization of marijuana and its benefits to the society. Our arguments are focused on its medicinal value, income generated (economic value) to the state as well as the possible losses to tax payer's money as a result of trying to implement its prohibition. Our analysis is done via a thorough review of relevant literature containing expert opinions. We support our proposition that marijuana can be a benefit to society through its legalization. This is due to its medicinal value, revenue stream to the state and the reduced cost attributed to decreased prohibition budgets.
Marijuana which is the most commonly used illicit drug has faced has been heavily debated on issues of legalization and safe use. The debate has been so intense to an extent of which it has turned political (NYT, 2008). A recent study by Angus eid concluded that a majority of Americans are in support of marijuana legalization…
Angus-Reid (2009).Majority of Americans Support Legalizing Marijuana
British Medical Association (1997). Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. Harwood Academic Pub.
Bensinger, P. (2010, Octobe 15). Legalizing marijuana unacceptable, danger to society. Chicago Tribune .
Therefore, Johnson weaves clever and poignant paradoxes in the language as well as the overarching themes. The one-eyed man could have died or lost his good eye, as the Nurse points out. He survives unscathed, and sees what his wife forbade him to see. Likewise, Hardie could have faced immanent death in the war but he survives by going AOL. In both cases, subverting social convention is a key to liberation.
The paradox of religion is also conveyed via deft use of language. In "Cathedral," the title image represents the symbol of religious strivings. A cathedral is a house of God; but that house does not necessarily lead to spiritual awakening. On the contrary, the house in which the story takes place does become a zone of spiritual awakening. The blind man and the narrator use the ancient sacrament of cannabis to explore the real meaning of human existence, which…
Carver, Raymond. "Cathedral." Retrieved online: http://nbu.bg/webs/amb/american/6/carver/cathedral.htm
Johnson, Denis. "Emergency." Retrieved online: http://archives.newyorker.com/?i=1991-09-16#folio=030
difficulty with customer retention for Storz & Bickel is that their chief high-end product, the Volcano Vaporizer, lacks "planned obsolescence."
I am using the term that was devised by Alfred P. Sloan for the Ford Motor Company, but this is now basically a strategy implemented by all major manufacturing corporations -- in some sense, the point of an iPhone 5 is that it will eventually be made obsolete by an iPhone 6, and thus customer retention strategies are built around maintaining brand loyalty. As Medeiros (2003) writes about the original planned obsolescence strategy: "Sloan's idea was that automobiles should change each year, and should each year become more expensive (at least to the cost of production)….Each year, the new-model cars would have more improvements added on, different engines, different styling, different comfort features" (287).
The problem is that this strategy -- which works well with Ford automobiles or Apple iPhones…
Medeiros, CA. (2003) High-wage economy, Sloanism and Fordism. In Wood, JC and Wood, MC. Alfred P. Sloan: Critical evaluations in business and management. New York: Routledge.
Promoting Storz & Bickel's affordable vaporizer lines to take advantage of an emerging market explosion.
Storz & Bickel is a German-based electrical engineering firm founded by Markus Storz and Jurgen Bickel, who remain in charge of the firm; Storz is director of technology and design, and Bickel is the managing director. Storz & Bickel are basically known for four signature product lines -- the Crafty, Mighty, Plenty, and Volcano model vaporizers. Of these, the Volcano is perhaps the best known, and is Storz & Bickel's best-seller: technology review website Gizmodo refers to the Volcano Vaporizer as "king of all paraphernalia" and notes that "if spending $700 on something to smoke with seems a ludicrous and insane thing to do on your budget…not everyone can afford a Porsche, either" (Frucci 2009). Like Porsche, Storz & Bickel has established its core competency as precision mechanics coupled with attractive design, while both have…
This is crucial for understanding Storz & Bickel's customer-orientation strategy. Vaping has exploded in popularity in America in the past several years: Wal-Mart, Costco, and Target stores all sell e-cigarettes, while "vape shops" have begun opening everywhere. The difference lies in location: in Denver, CO for example, Storz & Bickel equipment can be sold openly for the purpose that most consumers purchase it, which is recreational consumption of cannabis. In Los Angeles, cannabis requires a medical prescription However, in New York City, Storz & Bickel equipment is legal to sell, but not to promote as a cannabis-consumption device.
The chief difficulty in terms of a SWOT analysis for Storz & Bickel is the current market landscape. Market research firm ArcView issued a 2015 report The State of Legal Marijuana Markets (Third Edition) which explains how rapidly this sector is growing: they estimate the market was 1.5 billion in 2013, and experienced 74% growth to 2.7 billion in 2014 (5). This is for a product that is still not legal in most (but not all) areas where it is consumed. We can therefore imagine the continuing growth trend for this market, and thus inquire what role Storz & Bickel as the sole luxury-goods manufacturer in this emerging market can do to establish their scope and direction as the market gets bigger.
A SWOT analysis for Storz & Bickel thus begins with the last T, for Trends. We have established what the trends for this market are like -- phenomenally good. The question remains as to what the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats are for Storz & Bickel to attempt
Ethics is a grey area in many instances within the medical community. Ethical codes help by providing guidance that allow for professional judgment or discretion and the idiosyncratic nature surrounding ethical dilemmas. As mentioned in the first lecture concerning ethics, ethics is mostly observed as being a serious reflective activity essentially concerned with a methodical inspection of the ethical life (Callaghan & yan, 2012). It is intended to illuminate what should be done by asking to consider and reconsider ordinary justification, actions, and judgments.
In the case study, Wayne became afraid to tell anyone anything. Nurses did not know his condition and he was acting in a way that was violent. Medical staff that tended to him saw him as either mentally ill or anti-social. It seemed he was both. In the end, he was able to talk to a psychiatrist, one that he talked to before. He felt confident…
Allnutt, S., & Chaplow, D. (2000). General principles of forensic report writing.Aust Psychiatry, 34(6), 980-987. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1614.2000.00834.x
Callaghan, S., & Ryan, C. (2012). Rising to the human rights challenge in compulsory treatment - new approaches to mental health law in Australia.Australian And New Zealand Journal Of Psychiatry, 46(7), 611-620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004867412438872
EMANUEL, L. (2000). Ethics and the Structures of Healthcare. Cambridge Q. Healthcare Ethics, 9(02). http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s0963180100902032
Fins, J., Miller, F., & Bacchetta, M. (1997). Clinical Pragmatism: A Method of Moral Problem Solving. Kennedy Institute Of Ethics Journal, 7(2), 129-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/ken.1997.0013
Marijuana Be Legalized Nationally According to the Terms of California Prop. 64?
People have been using Cannabis Sativa, also known as marijuana, for a number of centuries now. The plant from which marijuana is made grows in several locations around the world. Cannabis Sativa plant's flowering top is the source of marijuana as it has Tetrahydrocannnabinol (THC), a chemical that induces the state changes among users of marijuana. Studies show that using marijuana has both long-term and short-term health effects. Marijuana's short-term effects include distorting the senses including the sense of time and a reduced ability to concentrate. Long-term effects can be more damaging health wise and include a drop in testosterone and sperm levels among men, respiratory problems similar to those suffered by those who smoke tobacco, fatigue, lower libido, reduced fertility and alterations of body composition where the body records a drop in muscle mass as fat mass…
Bates, B. (2010, Feb). Teen cannabis use predicts depression. Clinical Psychiatry News, 38(2).
Bender, S. W. (2017). The Colors of Cannabis: Reflections on the Racial Justice Implications of California's Proposition 64.
Blake, D., & Finlaw, J. (2014). Marijuana legalization in Colorado: Learned lessons. Harv. L. & Pol'y Rev., 8, 359.
Caulkins, J. P., Kilmer, B., & Kleiman, M. A. (2016). Marijuana Legalization: What Everyone Needs to Know? Oxford University Press.
" This is money that should be spent on (a) preventing and healing drug addiction and related issues; (b) more effective, and smarter, law enforcement. Legalizing marijuana would also generate much-needed tax revenues that can be spent on precisely those two things. From an economic or financial perspective, the legalization of marijuana will also help grow small businesses and thus can alleviate the problems associated with the current economic crisis. Low start-up costs for a marijuana grow operation also mean that low-income families and entrepreneurs can earn extra income in a legitimate way. Marijuana should be made legal because Americans value personal freedoms, too. It makes no sense for alcohol and Xanax to be legal but not marijuana. Marijuana, when made legal, can be regulated in the same way that alcohol and prescription drugs are. Police will not be wasting their time busting people for possessing a plant. Instead, pharmacists…
Armentano, Paul. "DEA Moves to Ban 'Fake Marijuana' Products." NORML. 24 Nov 2010. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010 from http://norml.org/
Cooper, Charles and McCullagh, Declan. "America's Love-Hate History with Pot." CBS News. 13 July 2009. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010: http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2009/07/13/national/main5154550.shtml
Drug Policy Alliance. Economic consequences of the war on drugs. Retrieved 25 Nov, 2010: http://www.drugpolicy.org/library/factsheets/economiccons/fact_economic.cfm
"Legalization of Marijuana." LegalizationOfMarijuana.com. Retrieved Nov 25, 2010 from http://legalizationofmarijuana.com/
Decriminalization of Marijuana
Ever since marijuana was declared an illegal drug in the U.S.A. By the passing of the Marijuana Tax Act in 1937 under dubious circumstances, there has been a realization among various groups of people that it was a mistake. However, almost 70 years on, and despite a watertight case in support of its decriminalization, marijuana -- a drug which is arguably less harmful than tobacco and alcohol -- continues to be illegal in the U.S. Of A. In this essay I shall argue why marijuana should be decriminalized without further delay by demonstrating that it is a relatively harmless drug and explaining the benefits of legalizing the drug.
Before I proceed to present arguments in support of decriminalization of marijuana let us ponder over two important questions: a) whether marijuana is a sufficiently dangerous, harmful or addictive drug to justify its prohibition? b) Has the prohibition of…
"Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Marijuana Use." Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. n.d. November 28, 2004. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/mjfaq1.htm
Bandow, Doug. "Forget the War on Drugs Already." Cato Institute. January 01, 2004. November 28, 2004. http://www.cato.org/dailys/01-01-04.html
'High Anxieties." New Scientist. February 21, 1998. November 28, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/marijuana/news.jsp 'Marijuana Prohibition Facts." Marijuana Policy Project Foundation. 2004. November 28, 2004. http://mpp.org/pdf/prohfact.pdf
Mathre, Mary Lynn. "The Medicinal Use of Marijuana." Nursing Vol. 4, No. 2 pages 8-9. June 1993. November 28, 2004. http://www.ukcia.org/medical/medicinaluseofmarijuana.html
" American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 21(1), 111-35. A research team led by Dr. Michael French gathered to estimate the costs and benefits of residential and publically funded treatment programs for addiction issues. The team was derived from the University of Miami. Program and the client related economic cost estimates were obtained using data collected at the site with the drug abuse treatment cost analysis program (DATCAP). It was concluded that the economic benefit to society was almost four times what the cost of treating residential clients. Short-term follow-up treatment was also beneficial and the economic benefit was even higher.
Hanlon, T.E., Kinlock, T.W., Nurco, D.N. (1991). "Recent research on the relationship between illicit use and crime." Behavioral Sciences & the aw, 9(3), 221-242.
The study reviews previous research on the correlation of drug use and criminal behavior resulting in arrest since 1980. Advances were noted in crime…
Lennings, C.J., Copeland, J., Howard J. (2003). "Substance use patterns of young offenders and violent crime." Aggressive Behavior. 29(5), 414-422. This study's hypothesis was that alcohol use is a significant predictor of violent crime in committed by the youth. Researchers studied 300 juveniles that had been incarcerated in the prison system of New South Wales. Of the 300, more than 70% admitted to having committed violent crimes. Most correlated with the onset of violent crimes was alcohol use followed by cocaine use. The findings accounted for the correlation that exists between the use of substabce and aggressive, violent crime and so, further supported the "Goldstein hypothesis" which believes that substance abuse facilitates violent behavior directly.
White, H.R., Widom, C.S. (1997). "Problem behaviours in abused and neglected children grown up: prevalence and co-occurrence of substance abuse, crime and violence." Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 7(4), 287-310. The report discussed the correlation of alcohol abuse, drug abuse, non-violent crime and violence concerning children who were abused and neglected during the course of their development through childhood. The study was longitudinal (the subjects were studied over time into adulthood). It was found that abused and neglected females and males have a higher correlation in substance abuse and non-violent arrest. Abused and neglected females were found to be at a higher risk for both drug abuse or dependency diagnosis as well as arrests for violent crime.
Zarkin, G.A., Dunlap, L.J., Hicks, K., Mamo, D. (2005). "Benefits and costs of methadone treatment: results from a lifetime simulation model." Health Economics. 14(11) 1133-1150. Research examined prior studies that included the cost and benefits of methadone abuse treatment. These papers have often been written on single case studies. While valuable to society, the sample size limitation also limits the research because they view heightened problems as being able to be treated in one incident of treatment. A simulation model was created to embody the longitudinal study of the heroine use, criminal behavior, health care and employment of a population between the ages of 18-60. It was found that the model (which takes into account the dynamics of heroine use and views it as a, acute and reoccurring circumstance) finds that the benefits of treatment using this model far outweigh those produced by static models.
The fact that the patient uses a full pack each day suggests signs of tolerance. The patient encounters withdrawal signs such as mood changes and anxiety. The patient does not show efforts of regulating or reducing the use of cigarette. Despite knowledge on the effects of the drug, the patient continues to use the drugs (Dziegielewski, 2010).
1. The councilor should involve the patient's parents in treatment sections in order to motivate or influence the patient's perception of the treatment
2 the best method for treatment in this case is behavior modification approach; in this case, the patient should be educated on the consequences of drug use. The patient should receive rewards if she managed to modify her drug use behavior for a specific period.
3. To help the patient avoid drugs, she should avoid areas in which there is easy access of drugs and alcohol. Mostly, the…
Dziegielewski, S.F. (2010). DSM-IV-TR in action. Hoboken, N.J: John Wiley & Sons.
Sadock, B.J., Sadock, V.A., & Sadock, B.J. (2008). Kaplan & Sadock's concise textbook of clinical psychiatry. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
American Drug Policy: Marijuana
Marijuana is one of the most vilified drugs in history and it very difficult to see just why this is so. The United States used to have a thriving agricultural concern that consisted of hemp (marijuana) famers producing plants for their fibers and seeds. The fibers were used in products such as rope and paper and the seeds were used to make oil which served as a lubricant and a food additive. Unfortunately, people became aware of its psychotropic properties and growing marijuana for any reason was banned. This ban also coincided with the introduction of products that were superior to those made of hemp. The drug usage properties of marijuana had been known for centuries and it had been used in religious ceremonies and as an additive to medicines, but it could also be used in quantities that made the user completely incapacitated…
Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB). "Tax and Fee Rates." U.S. Department of Treasury, 2012. Web.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Virginia Journal of Social Policy & the Law 17.1 (2009): 43-82. Print.
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva Nilsen. "Liberty Lost: The Moral Case For Marijuana Law Reform." Indiana Law Journal 85.1 (2010): 279-299. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Oct. 2012.
Chilea, Dragos. "A Brief Overview of Drug Control Policy in the United States and It's Current Challenges." Judicial Current 14.3 (2011): 13-22. Print.
Decriminalize Marijuana in Canada
The question as to whether Canada should decriminalize the use, sale, and cultivation of marijuana has been debated over the past few years, and the debate has taken a sharper turn now that it is being decriminalized in Colorado and soon in ashington State.
hat are the economic and social benefits of making marijuana legal in Canada -- and what is the residual impact on human health? Given that today there are glaring inconsistencies in Canadian law regarding marijuana -- as opposed to the legal sale of alcohol and tobacco -- how does the Canadian government propose to adjust its current laws if indeed marijuana becomes legal? These are the pertinent questions to be answered in this paper.
Thesis: The position of this writer is that Canada should proceed to decriminalize marijuana and remove the label of "controlled substance" -- because marijuana does less harm to…
Danovitch, Itai. "Sorting Through the Science on Marijuana: Facts, Fallacies, and Implications for Legalization." McGeorge Law Review, 43.1 (2013): 91-108.
Flister, Larissa Ducatti. "The Economic Case for Marijuana Legalization in Canada."
Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 5.1 (2012): 96-100.
Riley, Diane. "Drugs and Drug Policy in Canada: A brief review and commentary." Canadian
Medical Marijuana Use and the National Drug Policy
It is clear that the marijuana plant covers numerous elements that may prove prized when it comes to treating a variety of symptoms illnesses or, leading numerous individuals to argue that it should be made legally obtainable for medical determinations. The states of Colorado and Washington in the United Sates have legalized marijuana for fun use. However, there is a quantity of other states which have legalized basic marijuana for "medical" utilization. esearch shows that even more states are passing laws that permitting individuals to start practicing medical marijuana. Therefore, if an individual lives in a state where medical marijuana is permitted and their physician trusts that it would benefit, they will get what is called a "marijuana card." With that said, this paper will discuss medical marijuana use and the national drug policy.
When it comes to national policy, twenty-three states…
Drug Policy: Marijuana. (2014, December 23). Retrieved from National Association of Drug Court Professionals: http://www.nadcp.org/drugpolicy
Marijuana Resource Center: State Laws Related to Marijuana. (2013, January 12). Retrieved from State of the Union: http://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/state-laws-related-to-marijuana
Marijuana, M. (2015, Janurary 18). Have Medical Marijuana Laws Contributed to Greater General Marijuana Use by Adults? Retrieved from http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/ view.answers.php?questionID=000242
State Medical Marijuana Laws. (2014, Janurary 17). Retrieved from National Conference of State Legislatures: http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx
Even proponents of medical legalization concede marijuana cannot cure or even alleviate the symptoms of MS or glaucoma, merely act as a narcotic. True, other narcotics exist on the market today -- and like marijuana, they are also addictive. Whether they are more or less addictive than marijuana remains uncertain, but advocates say the chronically ill should be able to choose what works best for them while opponents say only tested, carefully titrated drugs should be used as palliatives.
Weighing the rights of the sick with marijuana's long and short-term side effects is a delicate balance. When marijuana is smoked, users often suffer similar short as well as long-term problems to those of regular smokers, including a smoker's cough and breathing problems. In fact, "marijuana smoke contains 50% to 70% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco smoke" (Legalization of marijuana, 2010, Legalization of marijuana). The active agent in marijuana, THC,…
Amsterdam drugs. (2005). Amsterdam Info. Retrieved July 14, 2010 at http://www.amsterdam.info/drugs/
DuPont, J. (2007, October 30). On the legalization or not of marijuana. The New York Times.
Retrieved July 14, 2010 at http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/on-the-legalization-or-not-of-marijuana/
Legalization of marijuana. (20110). Legalization of marijuana.
Drugs on the Economy
History of drugs in the United States
How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively
How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand to lessen the burden on tax-payers
Wonder drugs like morphine, heroine, and cocaine to mention but a few pose a lot of problems to the entire American society. Americans have had to grapple with the deleterious effects of drug abuse and addiction. estrictions were imposed at the beginning of the 20th Century through domestic and overseas law enforcement to contain the drugs epidemic. Such enforcements were initiated to limit opium and cocoa crops (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2012). This term paper seeks to give a brief history of drugs in the United States of America and subsequently outline how drug use affects the American economy both positively and negatively. The paper also endeavors to list how decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stands…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011). Prisoners in 2010 (revised). Retrieved June 22, 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2230
Drug Enforcement Administration. (2012). Illegal drugs in America: A modern
History. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.deamuseum.org/museum_ida.html
Easton, S. (2009). Legalize Marijuana for Tax Revenue. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2010/03/legalize_mariju.html
United States Have a Non-Interventionist Foreign Policy? with Todd Myers
This lecture was part of Political Economy Week at Grossmont. The lecture started with a little history about the foreign policy of the United States, especially with regards to the theme of non-interventionism. The speaker referred to the way the United States used to be non-interventionist until the First and Second World Wars, how it was reluctantly entering the Second World War but after that, there was no more non-interventionism. Since then, the United States has been the opposite, fighting other people's fights for them under the guise of benevolence. The speaker questions whether this trajectory is healthy for the world and for the United States. Citing the failure of the recent interventions, but also contrasting that with non-intervention in Syria, the speaker did a good job of presenting both sides of the argument.
There was more I liked about…
Bipolar psychiatric disorder (BD) -- which is characterized by "…cycles of depression and mania" -- is a "euphoric, high-energy state" that can produce remarkable bursts of creativity or, on the other hand, can produce erratic behavioral events that are risky and provocative (Gardner, 2011). About 2.4% of the world's population has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (at one time or another in their lifetime) but the rate in the United States (4.4% of the population) is the highest of any nation (Gardner, p. 1). The lowest rate on record is in India, 0.1%. This paper reviews various aspects and ramifications of the effects of bipolar disorder through nine peer-reviewed research articles.
Bipolar disorder and cigarette smoking
In the journal Bipolar Disorders the authors point out that adults suffering from bipolar disorder are "…two to three times more likely" have begun a serious smoking habit, which is a "devastating addiction" and…
Calkin, Cynthia, and Alda, Martin. (2012). Beyond the Guidelines for Bipolar Disorder: Practical
Issues in Long-Term Treatment with Lithium. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 57(7), 437-
Gardner, Amanda. (2011). U.S. has highest bipolar rate in 11-nation study. CNN Health.
Retrieved March 27, 2013, from http://www.cnn.com .
Correlations: From marijuana use to meat eating to fast food
One of the most commonly-cited statistics in the popular media is the strong correlation between marijuana use and later 'hard' drug use, although it is uncertain if marijuana is causally related, or merely correlated with this phenomenon. Another surprising correlation in the use of marijuana also perplexes researchers. There also appears to be a strong correlation between schizophrenia and heavy use of marijuana in adolescence. "Scientists in Australia followed nearly 4,000 young adults born between 1981 and 1984 at the 21-year mark, and found that the longer study participants had used marijuana, the higher the risk of psychosis-related outcomes. Those who had experienced hallucinations early were more likely to have smoked or used marijuana longer and more frequently" (Meier 2010).
The study's authors state that the causal relationship between the use of the drug and later schizophrenia…
Aubrey, Allison. (2012). Death by bacon? Study finds eating meat is risky. NPR. Retrieved:
Davis, Brennan & Christopher Carpenter. (2009). Proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools and adolescent obesity. American Journal of Public Health, 99(3): 505 -- 510.
Alcohol Prohibition from 1920 to 1933 did not work. There are many parallels from this failed effort and the current laws prohibiting drugs in the United States. Alcohol prohibition was undertaken to reduce crime and corruption, solve social problems, reduce the tax burden created by prisons and poorhouses, and improve the health of Americans. According to research, alcohol consumption of alcohol fell at the beginning of Prohibition, but then it subsequently increased. "Alcohol became more dangerous to consume; crime increased and became "organized"; the court and prison systems were stretched to the breaking point; and corruption of public officials was rampant." Instead of measurable gains in productivity or reduced absenteeism, Prohibition removed a significant source of tax revenue and greatly increased government spending. It led many drinkers to switch to more dangerous substances such as opium, marijuana, patent medicines and cocaine that they would have been unlikely to encounter in…
Harm Reduction in the U.S.: A Movement for Change." Canadian HIV / AIDS Policy & Law Newsletter. Vol 3 No 4 & Vol 4 No 1, Winter 1997/98. Canadian HIV / AIDS Legal Network, 11 May 2004. http://www.aidslaw.ca/Maincontent/otherdocs/Newsletter/Winter9798/20GREIGE.html
McDougall, Steven. "The War on Drugs." 03 June 2001. 10 May 2004. http://world.std.com/~swmcd/steven/rants/war.html
Overview of drug use in the United States. Retrieved May 10, 2004 from Web site: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0880105.html
Nadelmann, Ethan, Cohen, Peter, Drucker, Ernest, Locher, Ueli, Stimson, Gerry, and Wodak, Alex. "The Harm Reduction Approach to Drug Control: International Progress." Apr. 1994. Lycaeum Drug Archives. 11 May 2004. http://paranoia.lycaeum.org/war.on.drugs/debate/harm-reduction.html
318. However, in this and other studies, it seems that lack of effectiveness may be due to a cessation of the CBT and not due to its lack of effectiveness while in treatment (Belleville, 2011, p. 318). egardless, there are very few, if any, studies that show evidence of negative effects of CBT.
An additional factor that should be taken into account in Isabella's case is that substance use may be involved. Neither the DSM nor the DASS questionnaires address the theory that substance use may exacerbate or may be premorbid to anxiety/depression/stress disorders. Perhaps additional questionnaire(s) regarding substance use should have been presented to her. The Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire is an example of a questionnaire that directly addresses substance use by assessing use by the patient (Connor, 2010).
An important additional consideration regarding Isabella's case is that in her verbal report she states that her inability to relax and…
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders (4th Ed.) Text Revision. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric
Belleville G., Guay S., Marchand a. (2011). Persistence of sleep disturbances following cognitive-behavior therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic