He has just recently had surgery. What are the likely results of his deficient protein intake?
D. His surgical wound will heal effectively and he will grow normally because he can live off fat stores
85. When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecule is
B. excreted in the urine.
86. Kwashiorkor usually is associated with a deficiency of C. protein.
87. Which of the following is not true about an incomplete protein source?
D. Lower quantities of this source could be eaten to get adequate quantities of essential amino acids
88. The most reliable source of vitamin B12 for the vegan would be
A. fortified soybean milk.
89. Today the best estimate for the amount of protein required for nearly all adults is ____ grams per kilogram body weight per day.…… [Read More]
Carbohydrates and Obesity
Obesity and diabetes are diseases that are not restricted to national boundaries or culture today. These health threats are universal. In the United Kingdom recent reports put the percentage of men that are either overweight or obese at 67%, and the percentage of overweight or obese women is an estimated 57% (Boseley, 2014). Recent data shows that about one-fourth of the entire population in the United Kingdom is obese (Boseley, 2014). The Global Burden of Disease study reflects that around the globe an estimated 26% of boys and 20% of girls are either overweight or obese, Boseley writes in The Guardian.
The number of overweight and obese people in the world has "surged in the past three decades," Boseley explains; to put this surge into perspective, about 2.1 billion people on the planet are either overweight or obese -- and that is almost a third of the…… [Read More]
Vitamins enhance the body's use of carbohydrates, proteins and fats; help in forming blood cells, hormones, neurotransmitters and the genetic material called DNA; and prevent many health disorders (MSN Encarta 2006). Minerals are metallic elements required for the healthy growth of teeth and bones and in other cellular functions. Excellent food sources of vitamins and minerals include oranges, milk, and sweet potatoes (MSN Encarta).
Dietary fiber is either soluble or insoluble (MSN Encarta 2006, Feinberg 2005). Soluble fiber is found only in plants, such as oats, barley, beans, peas, apples, strawberries and citrus fruits. Insoluble fiber is found in vegetables, whole-grain products and bran. Soluble fiber prevents or reduces the absorption of potentially dangerous substances from food in the small intestines, binds dietary cholesterol and carries it out of the body to prevent high blood pressure, heart disease and strokes. Insoluble fiber provides roughage, which hastens elimination of feces and…… [Read More]
Three-Day Food Intake Nutritional Analysis
Protein, Carbohydrates, and Lipids
Generally, most of my meals contained an adequate source of protein, from poultry (chicken), red meat, and eggs. The primary sources of carbohydrates were bread and bagels, rice, beans, cereals, and fruit juices. All of the sources of protein from poultry, meat, and eggs provided complete protein. ice and beans alone provided incomplete vegetable protein by themselves but would have provided complete proteins had they been consumed together instead of separately as side dishes of different meals (inzler, 2004). Almost all of the main foods that I consumed contained excessive levels of lipids because the chicken was fried in oil, the meat was a flank steak with considerable intramuscular fat, and the eggs were cooked on an oil skillet and included all of the egg yokes.
I was surprised by how much fat I consumed because I always considered chicken and…… [Read More]
You lead research scientist WooWoo Pharmaceuticals. As a research scientist, responsible testing efficacy newly designed drugs. However, recently assigned a task. Your task determine effect eating pasta marathon performance.
esearch study on eating pasta (carbohydrate loading) before a marathon
Carbo-loading before a marathon has been a staple of many runners' dietary programs. However, athletes are notoriously superstitious and frequently base their training regimes on anecdotes rather than sound science. The scientific method demands a rigorous process involving researching a particular phenomenon (in this case, athletic performance); formulating a hypothesis; creating an experiment that effectively isolates the variable under study in the form of an experimental and control group; confirming or disconfirming the hypothesis and then retesting the experiment.
The existing literature notes "the practice of carbo-loading dates back to the late 1960s. The first carbo-loading protocol was developed by a Swedish physiologist named Gunvar Ahlborg after…… [Read More]
In addition, it may be helpful in treating diabetes and heart disease.
Lactose intolerance is the body's inability to digest lactose, which is a dairy sugar. It's caused by a deficiency of the enzyme lactase, in the small intestines. Treatment includes eliminating dairy products from the diet, yet, milk substitutes are necessary, to ensure that enough calcium, vitamin D, riboflavin, and protein are consumed.
Diabetes and hypoglycemia relate to the amount of blood sugar in the body, too much and too little, respectively. A healthy level of glucose in the body, via the consumption of carbohydrates, is critical to the treatment of these two diseases. Add to this the risk factors of obese people of contracting these diseases, and the dietary benefits of carbohydrates, and one can see why carbohydrates should be a part of everyone's reasonable daily caloric intake.
Bowman SA, Spence JT. A comparison of low-carbohydrate vs.…… [Read More]
In most of the studies, low carb and low fat dieters have been compared. In one of these studies, two groups of people were chosen. One of these groups was given the low fat diet and the other group was given the low carb diet. Exercise routines were designed for these groups. In the end of the study that was carried out for a period of two years, it was found that the same amount of weight was lost by the two groups and, health parameters in the two groups were the same. Most of the studies have shown that there could be a greater degree of weight loss in the first 3 to 6 months of using low carb diets. Nevertheless, after some months, there are no differences in the weight. Calories are the most important factor in the case of these two kinds of diets.
Most of…… [Read More]
In fact, Dr. Atkins himself died suddenly some years ago, and while his public relations machine attributed his death to brain damage from a fall, the rumor has it that he had a massive heart attack, likely brought on by his own diet program (Miller, et al., 2000).
Scientific Understanding elevant to the Issue
Approaching an exploration of the scientific knowledge that could be relevant to the low carb issue immediately opens up a heated debate, with low carb advocates pitted against those who feel that the alternative to low carb is more harmful than an few extra pounds from eating carbohydrates themselves. This being said, there are some areas of scientific knowledge which could help in the issue.
Admittedly easier said than done, the ability to understand once and for all if high protein diets, beyond the weight loss, are in fact safe would be very useful in enabling…… [Read More]
Americans spend billions of dollars on weight-loss products and programs every year. Despite this, most people do not lose the amount they would like or, if they do, regain the weight after a short period of time. The problem lies with following specific fads that emphasize one type of eating pattern. The low-carbohydrate diet, which has been popular off-and-on-again since the mid-1800s, exemplifies such a diet program. Studies do show that the low-carbohydrate diet can offer some benefits, but over the long-term does not offer any more advantages than any other diet. Other factors, such as adherence to the diet and lifestyle are more important to the equation.
Americans spent approximately $60 billion in 2009 on weight loss products and programs, including so-called "special" diet foods, appetite suppressants, diet books, exercise memberships, workout videos, and stomach-clamping surgery (World Health Organization, 2010). Yet obesity, especially among children and youth,…… [Read More]
Explain how enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of fructose.
Enzymes are integral to processes such as the breakdown of fructose, a monosaccharide. Thus, a deficiency in enzymes can cause malabsorption of fructose or other sugars. Chemically, enzymes are complex proteins. Some enzymes like fructokinase transform molecules into available energy via processes of metabolism. For example, fructokinase and aldolase B. are enzymes involved in the breakdown of fructose. Any imbalance or absence of these and other enzymes can lead to fructose intolerance in the person, leading to a number of medical symptoms. When fructose cannot be metabolized by enzymes, it may lead to reduced absorption of water in the intestines, which in turn may lead to "bloating, diarrhoea or constipation, flatulence, and stomach pain due to muscle spasms. (Breakspear Medical Group, n.d.).
Found throughout the human body, enzymes can be considered to be chemical catalysts that…… [Read More]
Doctor Determine Treatment for a Diagnosis of Hereditary Fructose Intolerance:
Explain how enzymes are involved in processes such as the breakdown of fructose.
The enzymes work as a lock and key process where the relevetn active part of the enzyme fits into the substrate (i.e. The molecule on which the enzyme acts) and activates it. There are various active sites on the enzyme and only the enzyme that will 'fit' in the substrate will work. After part of enzyme matching with substrate, enzyme breaks down substrate into two smaller products.
The following image illustrates:
(adapted from http://waynesword.palomar.edu/molecu1.htm)
At times the process can be blocked by an impediment that stops the 'key' from 'turning, as happens in the case of a lack in aldolase B. which can prompt hereditary fructose intolerance
Explain how a deficiency in aldolase B. can be responsible for hereditary fructose intolerance.
Hereditary fructose intolerance is a disease…… [Read More]
The mechanical and chemical digestion of carbohydrates starts in the mouth. Chewing also termed as mastication ensures that the carbohydrates crumble down into smaller pieces. There are salivary glands within the oral cavity that secrete saliva which coats the food. Saliva comprises of an enzyme salivary amylase which breaks down the bods that are found between monomeric sugars like disaccharides, oligosaccharides and starches. It also breaks down amylose and amylopectin into small glucose chains referred to as dextrin and maltose. About 5% of starches are broken down within the mouth. There is also production of mucus by mucus cells within the salivary glad which helps the food to stick together and also lubricates food hence help in swallowing. At this stage the food is known as bolus and it is forced into the pharynx with the help of the tongue (Swartz, 2012).
During swallowing, the food passes through the…… [Read More]
Acheson, K.J. (2012). Diets for body weight control and health: the potential of changing the macronutrient composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. etrieved from PubMed: doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2012.194.
Austin et al. (2011). Trends in carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes and association with energy intake in normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals:
1971 -- 2006. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. etrieved:
Barnard, Neal D. (et al. 2009). A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(5): 1588S -- 1596S. etrieved from Pub Med:
Davis, N., Forbes, B., & Wylie-osett, J. (2009). Nutritional Strategies in Type 2 Diabetes.
Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 76(3), 257-268. etrieved from EBSCOhost
Foster, G.D., Wyatt, H.., Hill, J.O., Makris, a.P., osenbaum, D.L., Brill, C., & ... Klein, S.
(2010). Weight and metabolic outcomes after 2…… [Read More]
Food Intake Analysis
Food Inake Analysis
Who does not want to be healthy? However, to achieve such an admirable goal, it will require diligence, motivation, and consistency. To many, this is quite a daunting task that is met with much resistance because of the level of commitment and consistency that it requires. Insomuch, with all the various types of fast foods available and society's life style, the challenge to reach and to maintain an ideal rate seems impossible. According to the Center for Disease Control (2012), the U.S. obesity rate at 35.7%; this demonstrates a significant increase since the 1990s. Since I am concern about my health and refuse to become a statistic, I will analyze my food intake for three days.
Below is my recorded 3-day food intake. Based on the data, several adjustments will should be made to reach the recommended dietary reference intake (USDA, 2012).…… [Read More]
"Participants were instructed to drink no more than 3 caffeinated beverages and no more than 2 alcoholic beverages per day" (pg. 2457).
Two features from this study that stand out when compared to the previous study (as read about earlier) was that this study sought to keep the participants weight relatively stable and that the participants were not obese and old, but were young and healthy. The goal of this study was measurably the same as the pervious study, but was set in entirely different circumstances. This is important to individuals seeking entry to the nursing field because it provides ammunition for lifestyle interventions even before the patient may think it is necessary.
The study's primary interest was to ascertain "the contrasts between the carbohydrate and protein diets and between the carbohydrate and unsaturated fat diets" (pg. 2459). What the study found was that for each diet (when compared to…… [Read More]
Matt gave Ed two eggs on toast with half-a-grapefruit and orange juice for breakfast (Independent on Sunday, 2002). Ed took fish oils and multivitamins on a daily basis. These were immediately followed by a good fiber and protein meal in minutes or strength during his warm-up sessions. Matt gave Stu chicken, basmati rice, couscous and egg and Jaffa cakes for his "insulin." Matt's intention was to bring extra protein straight into Stu's tired muscles. He also served Stu with nuts for his snacks (Independent on Sunday).
Commercial high-carbohydrate electrolyte sports drinks fill the football player's need, especially within the first 15 minutes after strenuous activity. These drinks also appeal more than plain water while contributing their value (Mannie, 2001).
usiness Wire (2004). 3-a-day dairy teams up with national football league to tackle kids' nutrition and fitness in schools. usiness Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning.
Retrieved on April 4, 2009 from…… [Read More]
Nutrition and Exercise
"Four hours ago, I ate three oz of baked chicken marinated in one tsp olive oil and other spices, one cup rice and one-half cup beans, two cups salad (romaine lettuce, carrots, onions and radishes) with two tablespoons ranch dressing and one cup of skim milk. Now, I am going to run for forty five minutes and will lift weights for another thirty minutes."
Types of Activities
Translated the word aerobic means "requiring oxygen to live." Oxygen is necessary to release energy from the body's stores of fat, glycogen (starcy storage material), and sugars. During aerobic exercise a constant supply reaches the muscles. During aerobic exercise the rate at which oxygen reaches the muscles keeps pace with the rate at which it is used. Due to this continual replenishment, the activity can be sustained for long periods of time.
In contrast anerobic exercise relies on a different…… [Read More]
Subject should also increase fat intake to better balance his diet.
Subject's fiber consumption was so far in excess of DV that negative digestive consequences cannot be ruled out.
Salt intake was more than the DV, but could be easily corrected with some minor dietary changes.
The Food Standards Agency has developed the Eat Well Plate as an easy to follow nutritional guideline.
The Eat Well Plate is a visual display and quick reference for consumers to better balance their diets in compliance with the DV's. Analysis revealed a shortfall in fruits and vegetables as well as bread, rice and pasta - the two largest sections of the plate. Subjects fat consumptions were well below the DV's, but per the Eat Well Plate are the smallest category recommended.
ecommendations for Subject's improved nutritional balance would include increased caloric intake, weighted heavily in the fruits and vegetables, breads, rice and pasta…… [Read More]
Water, Gatorades and Powerades
I am a registered dietician, presenting my piece of work on the different types of beverages. I am giving this presentation because water is an overlooked nutrient in the hydration process while it can be an excellent sports beverage. Water is the most essential nutrient in the body because death can occur rapidly in the absence of water than any other nutrient. Knowing this, does not take much imagination when dehydration occurs during sports performance or training. Around 60% of the human body is inside water called intracellular cells, and the muscle tissues have 70% of water which is critical during exercise.
Gatorade and PowerAde contain added proteins, sodium and carbohydrates, which help in increasing blood glucose levels and high cycling performance. PowerAde has low calories while Gatorade is lightly flavored with enhanced vitamins also with low calories. These power drinks are moderately isotonic because, they…… [Read More]
McDonalds Corporation is the leading fast food restaurant across the globe and has continued to experience tremendous growth and profitability since inception. This fast food chain restaurant provides different food items that range from snacks to breakfast meals. In the past few years, the restaurant has faced significant attention in relation to the health and nutrition of its fast food items. Consequently, the McDonalds has introduced new food items and discontinued others in attempts to address health concerns. However, the fast food restaurant still has healthy and least healthy meals. This paper compares two meals provided by McDonalds i.e. Fruit and Maple Oatmeal (healthiest meal) and Big Mac (least healthy meal).
Nutritional Value of Fruit and Maple Oatmeal and Big Mac
Fruit and Maple Oatmeal and Big Mac are two meals at McDonalds that vary in terms of nutritional value as shown by their nutritional information. The difference in the…… [Read More]
3. Make three specific recommendations to yourself.
1. Restrict my total fat intake to no more than 40 grams per day.
I would like to restrict my daily intake of fat to a maximum of 40 grams per day by restricting my diet to low-fat foods such as proteins and complex carbohydrates.
2. Reduce consumption of all foods that do not have detailed nutritional information.
To accomplish my first recommendation, I would like to stop eating out or eating any pre-prepared foods because it is too difficult to monitor fat content accurately without the benefit of detailed nutritional information labels on packaged foods.
3. Prepare portable snacks and meals to help me stick to Recommendations 1 & 2.
To avoid succumbing to snacking temptations during the day or overeating at mealtime, I would like to start preparing healthy snacks and even portable meals so that I can stay on my…… [Read More]
ecord the suggested serving numbers to give quantitative values to the categories you will build your diet around.
The diet will be built around eating more fruits and vegetables in comparison to other categories. The most notable include: carbohydrates, fast, dairy / proteins and sweets. At the same time, it is imperative to engage in some form of daily exercise lasting from 30 to 60 minutes. The different serving sizes are: unlimited amounts of fruits / vegetables, 4 to 8 servings of carbohydrates, 3 to 7 servings of protein / dairy, 3 to 5 servings of fat and under 75 calories of sweets. ("Mayo Clinic Healthy Weight Pyramid," 2014)
In Blackboard in your assignment text box, list the pyramid categories in this order: Vegetables, Fruits, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats and Sweets (also listing your serving numbers beside each category).
Vegetables: unlimited with a minimum of 4 servings daily.
Fruits: unlimited…… [Read More]
Once in the cells, the glucose is burned in order to create heat and adenosine triphosyphate, (ATP) which is a molecule that stores and releases energy as required by the cell.
The metabolism of glucose into energy happens either in combination with oxygen which is called aerobic metabolism or without it which is called anaerobic metabolism. The oxygen used comes from the mitochondria. Red blood cells do not have mitochondria, so they convert glucose into energy without the use of oxygen, unlike some other cells.
Glucose is also converted to energy inside muscle cells. These are probably the most important energy users. Muscle cells contain mitochondria so they can process glucose with oxygen. Even if the level of oxygen levels in the muscle-cell mitochondria fall too low, the cells can proceed to convert glucose into energy without oxygen. The down side is that making glucose into energy without oxygen produces…… [Read More]
The latter two can be enjoyed cooked or cut up fresh, in a salad. If she uses spinach instead of lettuce in the salad, the subject can boost fiber even further and add a little more iron to her diet. Current consumption of iron is just under recommended amounts. High fiber fruits, including apples, oranges and pears, will not add significant calories if consumed in moderation (How Do I Get More Fiber).
The subject's intake of saturated fat and cholesterol were both under acceptable limits. ith respect to other nutrients, the subject's levels of Vitamin C, thiamin, phosphorus, iron, zinc, and selenium were all near acceptable levels. Potassium consumption was a bit lower than recommended; this could be remedied with consumption of oranges, already recommended to boost fiber, or bananas. Vitamin C consumption was more than double recommended amounts, but since this is a water-soluble vitamin, there is no harm…… [Read More]
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…… [Read More]
More than 90% of California's population which is estimated to be 33 million residing in areas having bad air quality? The CAB in concert with the local air pollution control districts are in the process of regulating fresh and existing sources of pollution with the aim to control emissions. The Enforcement Division -- ED of the Board has included more and more serious responsibilities in every area of the State inspecting heavy duty vehicles, smoke emissions. Besides, it prevents school buses running on diesel from idling for too long a period very close to the tender lungs of children.
The CAB Enforcement Program during 1997 speaks of its illustrious achievement. These are (i) Closure of citations in 3442 cases (ii) Total penalties collected is $29,850,475 (iii) 3253 cases of mobile source / citations closed for more than $8.7M. (iv) 50 diesel fleet cases terminated for more than $3.1M. (v) 12…… [Read More]
When the body can not break down food by the physical means it has, the body must therefore use chemical digestion to help finish the job. Chewing food with teeth is an example of physical digestion, but that is just the beginning of the process. Chemical digestion is also occurring at this starting point where digestive juices begin to counteract with the food to begin to break it down into a digestible matter.
As the digestive fluids begin to act upon the food, the small molecules are being transformed into other elements to fuel the body. Some food such as proteins, carbohydrates lipids or fats are too large to be simply absorbed by the body and chemical digestion directly affects how these molecules are digested. The main reason why these types of foods cannot be readily absorbed, is because they are insoluble in water. In other words they…… [Read More]
In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there is a wide prevalence of a red meat and carbohydrate-intensive diet among Saudis. As diet high in fats and sugars has been shown to be linked to hypercholesterolemia (Torpy, Burke & Glass, 2009; Hruby & Hu, 2015) and the increase in triglycerides in the blood (leading to arteriosclerosis and hypertension in adults aged 30-40 years old), this study aims to investigate the relationship between hypertension and type 2 diabetes in Saudi Arabia.
In Saudi Arabia obesity is an emerging problem and hypertension is on the increase (Al Othaimeen, Al Nozha & Osman, 2007; Al-Nozha, Abdullah, Arafah et al., 2007). Investigating the dietary habits of Saudis and the onset of hypertension and diabetes type 2 among adults aged 25-40 will be helpful in establishing a preventive medicine approach that can be implemented by health care practitioners in the KSA to help reduce the spread…… [Read More]
However, fruit juices, consumed in moderation, can be a healthy addition to a diet, as long as they are not consumed in lieu of actually eating any whole fruits.
My nutritional analysis revealed that I am not eating a balanced diet. I am consuming too much protein and too little fiber, issues that plague the diets of many Americans. To remedy these problems, I need to increase my intake of fruits, vegetables, and grain products, while reducing my intake of meat products. In addition, because my intake of milk products was also low, I need to look at how to increase my milk intake without increasing protein intake.
Here is the food displayed for jjohn90 on 9/10/2008
Select your serving sizes and specify how many servings you consumed for each. When you are done, click Save & Analyze to save your food entry information and to analyze your food…… [Read More]
Patient, Mr. D., is a 74-year-old male Caucasian, married and retired. Mr. D. complains of dizziness and weakness. Type-2 diabetes was diagnosed in 1994, hypertension in 2002, and arthritis in 2007. Mr. D. is currently taking 20mg Lipitor/daily; 81 mg Aspirin/daily; 333mg Calcium/daily; 5mg zinc/daily, and 500mg Vitamin C/3X day. He denies any drug or herbal use, and uses 650 mg of Tylenol for pain as needed. He has no known food allergies, does not use tobacco or illicit drugs, but has a family history of diabetes and heart disease with both mother and father. His general health acuity is strong (bowels, urinary, etc.), but has occasional slurred speech, weakness in right lower limb, syncope, vertigo, and vision fluctuations. Mr. D. reports that his wife complains he asks the same question repeatedly within a short time period.
Areas for Focused Assessment- The combination of syncope, vertigo, vision, and memory issues…… [Read More]
Found in both plant and animal products, such as olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil, and in some plant foods such as avocado (Nutristrategy [N], 2005). Phospholipids are major components of the cell membrane. Phospholipids limit the passage of water-soluble compounds through the membrane, enabling the cell to keep its contents separate from the outside environment. Lastly, just wanted to give five ways that one can cut one's fat intake by watching what foods one consumes. Convert some of the foods one eats. Eat plenty of vegetables, increase the amount of whole grains, concentrate on the proper fats that one's body needs, eat healthy proteins, consume more low and nonfat dairy foods (Nelson, Lichtenstein, & Lindner, 2005). Hope this all helps in one's decision. Good luck, hope you make healthy choices, and let us talk if there are questions.
Encarta Encyclopedia (2005). Lipids. etrieved August 11,2005, at http://encantra.msn.com/encyclopedia_761566842/Lipids.html
Nelson,…… [Read More]
abundant elements that occur in living organisms are as follows: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous. These and all elements are made up of atoms, which are the primary units of matter. Molecules are groups of atoms that are covalently bonded. Covalent bonds occur when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. This is different from ionic bonds, which arise when an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions takes place. Elements are substances that cannot be chemically dissected into simpler kinds of matter. Compounds, however, are atoms of two or more elements that are united by chemical bonds.
The parts of an atom include protons, neutrons, and electrons. These are all called subatomic particles. Protons, which are part of the nucleus of an atom, have positive electrical charges. Neutrons, which are also part of the nucleus of an atom, and as the name indicates, are neutral…… [Read More]
Diabetes and Thyroid
What is the mechanism of action of insulin and what are the differences in insulin therapy for Type I and Type II diabetes mellitus?
The pancreas secretes insulin, and it is used for the regulation of glucose from the blood into the cells. Insulin assists in lowering blood glucose by causing peripheral glucose uptake by skeletal muscle cells. The breakdown of fat, proteins, and manufacture of glucose is inhibited by insulin. Insulin will also increase protein synthesis and the conversion of excess glucose to fat. Patients suffering from diabetes are not able to produce enough insulin, and this leads to hyperglycemia. Insulin therapy for type I diabetes mellitus is aimed at increasing or providing insulin in the patient's body (Trauner, ichert, & Luddeke, 2013). For type II diabetes, insulin therapy is aimed at controlling blood sugar, increasing insulin levels, and lowering the patient's resistance to insulin.…… [Read More]
Health Fitness Human Performance
One of the most important parts of an athlete's training regime is nutrition because of its role in human performance. Athletes need to focus on nutrition because the failure to ingest adequate calories can contribute to a lack of vital macro and micro nutrients. Moreover, nutrition is a crucial element in any athlete's training regime given the influences of food on a person's physical mankind. Throughout history, certain foods have been regarded as essential in preparation for strenuous physical activity or exercise. As part of focus on nutrition, athletes need to consider various factors that contribute to nutrition in relation to physical activity and exercise. Some of these important considerations include certain types of food and food sources that help in preparation for physical activity, heath, fitness, and human performance.
hat is glycogen? hy is it important for exercise? 5. hat are some activities that are…… [Read More]
THE CACAO TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)
WHAT IS IN THE COCOA BEAN?
MAKING AND EATING CHOCOLATE
State of the At of Cocoa
Is Cocoa good fo you?
Buden of Poof
CHOCOLATE AS A FAT
EFFECTS ON BLOOD LIPIDS
WHAT IS OK
CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH AND DISEASE
H. Immune Function
J. Othe Disodes
N. Dental Caies
K. Heat Health
Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…… [Read More]
Drugs thought to enhance serotonin-mediated neurotransmission have been shown to diminish appetite for carbohydrates. In a study done by Heraief, Burckhardt, Wurtman and Wurtman, (1985), they examined the ability of tryptophan (TP), serotonin's amino acid precursor, or a placebo to influence weight loss among 62 obese Swiss outpatients who were on a reducing diet known as the Protein-Sparing Modified Fast (PSMF) Diet which is often associated with severe carbohydrate craving. This diet provided relatively large amounts of protein but little carbohydrates, thus stimulating ketone body production. Its consumption also reduced the ratio of plasma TP to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids, thereby probably diminishing brain TP and serotonin levels. It was found that among moderately obese patients the TP significantly enhanced weight loss, especially during the first treatment month but also during the total. The TP didn't modify the reported adherence to the PSMF diet.…… [Read More]
Interaction of Variables
Overeating: Interaction of variables
As obesity rates climb, there has been a proliferation of research to determine what weight loss methods are effective and ineffective. However, human beings do not live in laboratories, and multiple factors can affect their eating and exercise behaviors. Of course, some studies attempt to meticulously track how many calories subjects consume and how much activity subjects engage in over a specific period of time. But these studies are invariably of short duration, and cumbersome to administer. The result is that experimental and observational data on what promotes weight loss is often contradictory and frustrating for dieters. Overeating is caused by an interaction of multiple variables, including total calories consumed, perceptions of certain foods, and emotional 'triggers' for overeating that are not always immediately apparent.
Conventional wisdom, even amongst scientists, has been it is not what subjects eat but the amount of calories…… [Read More]
That means teaching dieters the difference between complex carbohydrates and simple carbohydrates, for example, instead of prescribing a nearly complete moratorium on all types of carbohydrates in the manner of the very popular Atkins Diet (Larson-Duyff, 2002).
The Atkins Diet has proven extremely successful over the short-term because it allows dieters to satisfy food cravings associated with severe carbohydrate restrictions by consuming high-fat foods. However, according to several studies, that approach is impractical with respect to long-term weight maintenance by virtue of the eventual increase in cravings for the restricted food types, such as carbohydrates in the case of the Atkins Diet (Sizer & Whitney, 2003). Therefore, the preferred approach emphasizes understanding the difference between so-called "good" (i.e. complex) carbohydrates and so-called "bad" (i.e. simple) carbohydrates that enables the dieter to restrict only the portion of those types of carbohydrates most responsible for unwanted weight gain. This approach offers comparable…… [Read More]
Background- Tasty Baking Company (TBC) manufactures, co-packages, and sells a variety of premium single portion cakes, pies, snack bars, pretzels and brownies under the name Tastykake. At present there are about 100 different varieties. The company posts revenues of a bit over $200 million. One of the products that TBC brought to market was the Sensable Sugar Free line of treats, which many called a sugar-free Twinkie (Prouty, 2008). Sensables are marketed with only 2-5 grams of net carbs per serving, but have only a 21 day shelf life at room temperature.
New Product Development- In business and engineering there is a process required to bring new products to market. It is typically an eight stage process in which different tasks are the focus, allowing the development process to remain robust. In the era of computers, however, some of the steps have been truncated, thus decreasing time to…… [Read More]
The Effects Corporatocracy Has in Government
Corporatocracy occurs when a government is found to be run not by its own people, but by corporations or conglomerates within the country. The mixture of business and government allows corporations to control a country by deciding its governmental direction or economic plans (Mooney, Knox, and Schacht 256). Whether a corporation involves itself in a country's government for the good of its people or its profits, corporatocracy effects all involved, from employees and citizens to government and business. It is not uncommon for there to be a blurred line between government and business, but it is unfortunately a line that is all too often crossed.
Perhaps one of the strongest and most notable displays of corporatocracy in America was that of General Motors. In 1987, GM produced a solar powered car named Sun aycer which won the first World Solar Challenge, hosted by…… [Read More]
Fantastic Voyage Through the Body
The man is eating a hamburger and French fries while drinking a root beer. He is mechanically separating the food into smaller units, and then he is swallowing it. For this exercise, it is important to realize that there are four different types of material that will be absorbed by the body and that they are all absorbed differently. These are fiber from the leafy greens on the hamburger, fats from the hamburger and French fries, proteins from the hamburger, and carbohydrates in many forms which make up the bulk of the meal. They start off in a common area, but they end up going through different processes to either leave or remain in the body.
The first part of the journey is taken by all of the nutrition types. The man bites off a chunk of burger or fires, or drinks a swallow of…… [Read More]
Therefore, the only value of a diet is in its capacity to be maintained over the course of a lifetime; otherwise there is no point to it.
To lose excess body weight and maintain a healthy weight and body composition without excess fat over the long-term, the nutrition plan must eliminate fats of all kinds as much as possible as well as simple carbohydrates. Both fats and simple carbohydrates are readily converted to body fat if calorie consumption exceeds calorie expenditure. With respect to body weight issues, all sources of fat (i.e. both "good" fats and "bad" or saturated fats) are equally problematic. Meanwhile, complex carbohydrates need not be avoided or substantially restricted. Whereas simple carbohydrates (such as sugars, white flour, regular pasta, white rice, white potatoes, and some fruits) are easily converted into blood sugar and then stored as body fat, complex carbohydrates (such as dark wheat,…… [Read More]
In practical terms, there is very little difference between Gatorade and PowerAde. Both are forms of dietary supplements which often pose an unknown source of danger for individuals growing up to be sportsmen. All the growing up sportsmen should be educated on the subject as they are likely to face troubles in their life later, otherwise.
Many products that are marketed provide good returns for the marketing organization, but little benefits for the user.
The products are sports drinks and they are promoted with the images of sportsmen and Michael Jordan appeared on Gatorade bottles, but he did not get the benefit of having his own flavor. Now there is a new favorite of the sports world, and he is LeBron James, and his image will be the advertising for PowerAde's Flava 23. When the flavor was selected, James was a part of the process. The process took…… [Read More]
Food Menu and Nutrition
Food Menu Overview
The objective of this study is to create two food menus as follows: (1) one healthy food menu; and (2) one unhealthy food menu, from a local fast food restaurant. Following the creation of these menus, this work will write a nutritional analysis of the meal created, discuss the reaction of the writer to this information and describe how this will affect the food choices of the writer in the future in terms of food choices from fast food restaurants.
The food choices that one makes when dining at fast food restaurants make a great difference in the amount of nutrition received from dining at fast food restaurants as well as the total calories that are consumed and the other factors that make foods either healthy or unhealthy for consumption. One might assume that dining at a fast food restaurant is in general…… [Read More]
Digestion and diabetes: Overview of the process
The digestive process begins even before food is consumed. Looking at or anticipating food causes salivation. Saliva aids digestion, along with chewing. For example, when Jane Doe looks at a plate consisting of a whole wheat turkey sandwich (garnished by vegetables and mayonnaise), potato chips, and apple juice, her body will begin to anticipate eating by secreting digestive juices. The first major involuntary muscular movement for Jane Doe will not occur until she consciously decides to swallow the food in front of her. "Although you are able to start swallowing by choice, once the swallow begins, it becomes involuntary and proceeds under the control of the nerves" (Your digestive system, 2010, NIH). The swallowed food is pushed into the esophagus, the organ that connects the teeth, mouth, and tongue through the throat to the stomach. "At the junction of the esophagus and…… [Read More]
Quality Tools in Decision Making:
Issues and Organizational Examples
In the competitive atmosphere of the business world today, it is not simply enough to have a good idea of what the present may hold for one's company or one's own personal investments. It is also important to develop organizational strategies and production goals with an eye upon the future. Critical to creating a proper decision-making strategy is the use of proper quality control tools to improve the strategy-creating process. Indeed, as noted by the authors Katherine Manley and S. Sytsma, the quality-control processes of histograms, cause and effect diagrams, and check sheets can and are frequently used to aid in any kind of process, but particularly in regards to organizational quality control in the corporate world. (Manely & Sytsma, 1999) These quality control procedures are particularly useful in business, when properly deployed because they can help managers to 'crunch' incomprehensibly…… [Read More]
Nutrigenomics is an important field of study. It finds in roots in modern times, because of the direct relation to advances in science and technology. Nutrigenomics also straddles the nature vs. nurture divide. The publication of the relatively preliminary results of the Human Genome has given greater impetus to the idea of Nutrigenomics. One might assuredly say that the publication of the Human Genome is preliminary because the current versions of the genome are merely representatives of a very select group of individuals. (Lander et al., 2001; Venter et al., 2001) What makes individuals unique of course is the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs. It is these SNPs that give each of us our individuality. Hence each individual's genome is his or her genotype. A genotype is an individual's genome -- the genetic coding that identifies the character traits that govern existence. In the context of Nutrigenomics, a…… [Read More]
daily dietary log reveals a relatively balanced diet, with mainly vegetarian sources of protein, whole grains providing complex carbohydrates, and wholesome fats such as olive oil offering lipids. Over the three days, I consumed two eggs, a package of tofu, and several cups of beans as my primary sources of protein. Also during this period, I consumed several cups of whole grains, cooked fresh at home including brown rice and quinoa. To this base of whole grains, I usually add steamed or wok-fried vegetables including kale, carrots, chard, broccoli, or whatever happens to look fresh at the market. I usually add garlic, onions, chili peppers, and other spices to enhance flavor and sometimes cook a coconut milk-based curry. Breakfasts often consist of whole grain cereals with nut milks, but once or twice a week I will switch to yogurt because I appreciate the probiotics. To the yogurt I may add…… [Read More]
Diet, Ageing, And Longevity
Does a Longevity Diet eally Exist? What does it Constitute of?
Certain groups have been found to lead exceptionally longer lives than others, and are, to this end, usually referred to as the 'lucky lot'. The islanders of Okinawa in the Pacific Ocean, for instance, enjoy a significantly high life expectancy of eighty-one years - three years more than the average life expectancy in the U.S. (Jaret, 2014). Of even more significance is the four to seven-year difference in life expectancy between Seventh Day Adventist members, who are largely vegetarians, and the rest of the society (Jaret, 2014). So what then causes these differences and makes these groups so lucky?
Studies have, in the past, suggested that there indeed is such a thing as a longevity diet, and that diet is, in fact, one of the most fundamental components of anti-aging and longevity. So, what then…… [Read More]
Managerial Social Responsibility - Volkswagen Diesel Scandal
In 2015, Volkswagen was accused of installing secret software in its engine management computers to cheat strict fuel economy and emissions tests. In order to determine the ethical decision Volkswagen should have made, one can use ethical decision-making models, such as: Utilitarianism; Kantian Ethics; Ethical Rights; and Distributive Justice. Though these four models use different approaches, one or more of them can result in a justified recommendation for the correct ethical decision that Volkswagen should have made.
Facts Underpinning the Ethical Dilemma
In 2015, Volkswagen was accused of installing secret software in its engine management computers to cheat strict fuel economy and emissions tests. In 2014-2015, U.S. emissions experts tested some Volkswagen vehicles and found deliberate fraud through the use of "defeat device" software that turns emissions equipment on for emissions tests and off for actual driving (Plungis & Hull, 2015). The deception…… [Read More]
Jenny Craig stresses its ease of fitting into a busy lifestyle, as the food is pre-prepared, and also its healthful balance. It is not low-carb and does it entirely cut out sweets and indulgent foods -- portion control is important in the program, as it is for Lean Cuisine. It also offers counseling for women about emotional over-eating. Learning how not to over-eat for comfort, not conforming to an ideal of past, youthful beauty, is the focus of Jenny Craig. It is thus a plan that addresses the needs and concerns of a woman who basically accepts herself, but wants to abandon some of her more unhealthy eating habits.
One of the unique facets of the Atkins diet promotional campaign is that it does not only feature women. This may sound unremarkable, but given that the major diet retailers usually use women, who are presumably more weight-conscious than…… [Read More]
In males, the canine teeth tend to be longer, and sharper. Additionally, there appears to be greater variation in size and shape of male canines, in comparison to the relatively stable size and shape of the female canine. Often, the size differences between male and female teeth are seen more in the height of the crown of the tooth than in the length or width of the lower portions of the tooth (Plavcan, 29).
Further dimorphism can be seen in the anterior surface of the canine teeth. Researchers note that, in males, there is a groove that runs the length of the tooth, whereas in females, this groove in generally absent. Additionally, even in cases where the female tooth does have this groove, it is much less pronounced than that of the male primate (Plavcan, 29).
The mandibular premolar also appears to show signs of dimorphism. In males, this tooth…… [Read More]
Date of Research 4 / / 09 -- Authoritative Web Sites:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2009) The Surgeon General's
Call to Action to Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved April
22, 2009 from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration public website, at:
National Institutes of Health (2008) NIH Obesity Research. Retrieved April 22,
2009 from the National Institutes of Health public website, at:
The main thrust of the two government websites is the direct link between overweight and obesity and numerous diseases such as diabetes and various cardiac, circulatory system, and other serious diseases. According to the sources, overweight and obesity is increasing at nearly epidemic proportions in the U.S., and even includes
children of whom a very high percentage are clinically overweight and at risk of lifelong obesity (HHS, 2009; NIH, 2008). Both the U.S. Surgeon General and the National
Institutes…… [Read More]
Another popular fat reduction program that focuses on the negative effects of carbs is the Atkins diet. Unlike the South Beach Diet, Atkins places a more stringent elimination on the consumption of all types of carbohydrates. According to Atkins, Western eating habits are prone to creating obesity because of the large focus on refined carbohydrates found in sugar, flour and high-fructose corn syrups. Further, Atkins argues that saturated fat is not an obesity factor but that trans fat is and thus need to be completely avoided. With such a foundation, the Atkins Diet essentially argues against the food pyramid, arguing that the base level of grains is actually what causes obesity instead of health.
A third fat loss program is Weight Watchers, a company that focuses on providing dieting products to assist individuals in obtaining weight loss. One method of weight loss advocated under this program is the Flex System.…… [Read More]
This increased their word of mouth advertising and eventually led to a very large order from a grocery chain, Fresh Market. This word of mouth marketing helped expand their distribution channels as well.
The greatest opportunity for a small business, like Sweet Grass, is to focus on what they do best and serve a niche market. Sweet Grass isn't trying to be the largest dairy producer, with an all-encompassing product mix, instead, they are satisfied by providing consistent high quality cheeses. And it is cheese that they do oh so well.
Small businesses have the ability to focus all of their efforts on a limited line up of products. They can discover what they do best, and differentiate themselves from the rest of the market by doing just that. Small businesses may not be able to compete in areas such as cost or large deliverable quantities, but quality is an…… [Read More]
PCR GAPDH Genes Parsley
PCR Analysis of GAPDH Genes in Parsley
The purpose of this review is to consider the structure and the function of the protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, EC 126.96.36.199) in Petroselinum crispum and Coriandrum sativum cells. For over three decades, GAPDH was studied for its pivotal role in glycolysis. As an abundant cell protein, it proved useful as a model for investigations examining basic mechanisms of enzyme action as well as the relationship between amino acid sequence and protein structure. Further, with the advent of molecular technology, GAPDH, as a putative 'house-keeping' gene, provided a model with which to use new methods for gene analysis to advance our understanding of the mechanisms through which cells organize and express their genetic information.
As with many things in life, what is thought to be simple and relatively straight-forward turns out to be quite complex and elaborate. In this regard,…… [Read More]
Physiological Effects of Endurance Training
Endurance training produces many physiological changes, both during training and after the training period is complete. These changes are biochemical and also involve changes in the cardio-pulmonary system. The correct way to perform endurance training has been a subject of controversy in recent years. There are many differences in training methods. These differences and the effects of endurance training will be the subject of this research. The jury is still out as to what constitutes the perfect duration and intensity of training program.
Studies have shown that a focused training program can increase maximum oxygen intake by 15-30% over a three-month period (7) and that can increase to 50% if the training is sustained for over 2 years. The body makes many metabolic adaptations as well. These adaptations drop rapidly in the first few weeks after training is stopped (1).
Duration and Intensity of Different…… [Read More]
Integrated Marketing Strategy for…a New Protein Bar
In the fitness community, there has been increasing concern that protein bars -- traditionally marketed as a healthy source of fiber and protein for the fitness-obsessed -- are too full of sugar and are nothing more than glorified candy bars. However, bars with all-natural ingredients like Lara Bars and Kind Bars often lack adequate amounts of protein for a full 'recovery' meal. This new product is a protein bar that will be marketed as all natural, healthy, and yet a true meal replacement bar, not a candy bar. An integrated marketing strategy will be suggested to market this particular good in which all facets of the advertising, marketing, and promotions of the product will stress its naturalness and its healthy qualities (IMC, 2014, Medill School of Journalism).
Product or service description
PowerNatural Bars will be marketed to health-conscious people who work out, need…… [Read More]
Country Worst Obesity
Three countries: Why obesity rates are so high
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), obesity is no longer a disease of affluence. As noted in its 2015 Fact Sheet on the issue of obesity and overweight worldwide, over-nutrition rather than under-nutrition is linked to a higher percentage of deaths across the globe. Broadly speaking, this phenomenon is associated with an expansion of industrialization and a more Westernized, processed diet, causing a dramatic decrease in caloric expenditure and an increase in easily-consumed calories from processed foods. Obesity is a multi-factorial disease, linked to changes in "health, agriculture, transport, urban planning, environment, food processing, distribution, marketing and education" ("Obesity and overweight," 2015).
The United States has one of the highest obesity rates in the world: 30.6% ("Obesity: Countries compared," 2015). This has caused a great deal of understandable shock and consternation in many quarters. How is it…… [Read More]
Organic & Inorganic Molecules
Of course, many people focus on the organic molecules when people focus on life. There are four major types of organic molecules. Those are the carbohydrates, the proteins, the lipids and the nucleic acids. Carbohydrates are energy-rich, are part of cell respiration, they have a structure role in the cellulose/cell walls of plants and they serve as building blocks in the form of carbohydrate polysaccharides (which are themselves composed of simple sugars. Proteins are the enzymes, are also structural, are carrier molecules and…… [Read More]