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Cardinal Health and Industry Competition
The pharmaceutical and generic drug industries are highly competitive and, simultaneously, tremendously risk oriented. Both of these characteristics are significantly present in the current outlook for Cardinal Health. The producer of generic drugs is a Fortune 500 company which, according to Leger (2012), pulls in roughly $103 billion in revenue on an annual basis. However, the company is also the target of fierce competition from fellow pharmaceutical giants such as the McKesson Corporation and Amerisource Bergen and is the target of troubling legal charges that threaten to impact both its reputation and its profitability. As the discussion here will demonstrate, the above-noted competitors have seized a relative competitive advantage over Cardinal Health. The discussion assesses the nature of the challenges thereby imposed upon Cardinal Health.
First and foremost among the challenges facing Cardinal Health is its own internal and legal crisis. At present, the company…
Alexander, S. (2010). Why Cardinal Health Is the Best of the Bunch. Seeking Alpha.
Leger, D.L. (2012). DEA Aims Big in Cardinal Health Painkiller Case. USA Today.
Zirnbibl, M. & Jordan, G. (2012). Cardinal Health (CAH). Wikinvest.com.
All of these factors taken together assisted the company in attaining tis objectives of implementing an advanced by and analytics platform.
Do you have any experience with your company succeeding in embracing advanced BI techniques?
While working for a company that specialized in distribution sales and service, a large-scale analytics and BI platform was implemented. The goals of the new system were to better manage pricing, price optimization, inventory levels, credit levels by resellers, and analyze reseller and large account customer data to better predict product requirements. It was also being used for forecast analysis of the emerging channel assembly business, which is where the distributor was offering to build systems to order for larger customers. The amount of data for all these strategies had been in over 40 different systems, and often pricing levels were wrong in the legacy ERP system. The result of these shortcoming was the company…
The first project is for Micron Technology. The net present value analysis will be used to evaluate this project. The net present value (NPV) technique involves discounting future cash flows to present dollars, to take into account the firm's opportunity cost of capital. As a basic rule, projects that have a positive net present value will add value to the company above and beyond existing operations. All such projects with a positive NPV should be accepted, while projects with a negative NPV should be rejected.
There are a few different approaches to calculating the net present value, but they are all fundamentally the same, based on the principle of discounted cash flow analysis. The first flow is the initial cash outlay. Because this particular cash flow is made today, it is not discounted. This is because payments made today are already in present value format. Future cash flows,…
Investopedia. (2012). Net present value. Investopedia. Retrieved December 15, 2012 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/n/npv.asp#axzz2F8IJvZ1U
Reynolds, I., Kubo, N., Fuse, T., & Shiraki, M. (2012). Elpida in talks to merge with Micron, Nanya: Report. Retrieved August, 2012 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/01/24/us-elpida-idUSTRE80M2IZ20120124
Yahoo! Finance. (2012). Competitors. Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved December 15, 2012 from http://finance.yahoo.com/q/co?s=CAH+Competitors
The paradox for Cardinal Health was the need to reign in the intellectual curiosity that BI and analytics applications can generate while staying focused just on the most critical aspects of automating and adding insight into their core businesses. The goals Cardinal Health defined prior to the implementation were to consolidate 20 different enterprise systems, improve user interfaces of their enterprise systems and resolve 2K issues. The three success factors of the implementation centered on the use of a common data model, limiting the variety of end user tools to keep the overall scope of analysis within the boundaries of strategic goals, and most important, the development and continual investment in a robust support environment. ll these of factors combined to drive up the level of adoption and utilization of the BI and analytics systems.
What also accelerated adoption was the level of trust across the entire social fabric of…
Analysis of the Cardinal Health Case
The implementation of any ERP system can take months to years of effort within an enterprise and often will only deliver a portion of the total information expected. With millions spent many enterprises fail to gain the insights and intelligence they need to make full use of all the features in an ERP systems as well. Add in the complexity of BI, analytics and reporting tools, and the potential for confusion and the proliferation of reports, some of interest yet marginally valuable to a business, can easily happen. The paradox for Cardinal Health was the need to reign in the intellectual curiosity that BI and analytics applications can generate while staying focused just on the most critical aspects of automating and adding insight into their core businesses. The goals Cardinal Health defined prior to the implementation were to consolidate 20 different enterprise systems, improve user interfaces of their enterprise systems and resolve 2K issues. The three success factors of the implementation centered on the use of a common data model, limiting the variety of end user tools to keep the overall scope of analysis within the boundaries of strategic goals, and most important, the development and continual investment in a robust support environment. All these of factors combined to drive up the level of adoption and utilization of the BI and analytics systems.
What also accelerated adoption was the level of trust across the entire social fabric of the company; many of those using the systems had been working together for decades. One of the greatest inhibitors of new enterprise system development and implementation is the lack of trust that often exists across departments and divisions of a business (Aladwani, 2001). This is especially the case where data is financial and production-centric in nature, concentrating on the areas of profitability as well, as bonuses and compensation are often tied to these metrics (Francoise, Bourgault, Pellerin, 2009). For Cardinal Health, the tightness of their social networks internally, the social fabric of the company was so strong that people trusted and relied on each other well before the ERP R/3 instance was implemented. The BI tools and analytics applications were seen as valuable and useful as the system architects had taken the time
Cardinal Health, its mission and its current situation. An environmental analysis is presented to analyze the current environment in which the company operates. A SWOT analysis summarizes the company's internal strengths, weaknesses, potential opportunities, and potential threats. The issue in the case study is overviewed, and supporting facts and significant factors are presented that support the problem. Three potential alternative solutions are given, with an evaluation of each solution's strengths and weaknesses. Lastly, a potential solution will be presented, as well as how Cardinal Health can monitor the solution for its effectiveness.
Cardinal Health is a primarily American health care services organization. Headquartered in Dublin, Ohio. The company provides services and products to hospitals, pharmacies, physician offices, and ambulatory surgery center. Cardinal distributes a wide range of products including over-the-counter products, pharmaceutical, radiopharmaceutical, surgical, medical, and laboratory products. With approximately 31,200 employees, the company reported revenues of $98,502.8…
Company profile: Cardinal Health, Inc. (2010). Retrieved December 16, 2010, from http://360.datamonitor.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/Product?pid=61924892-3CF6-4FDE-8BD6-8724F97D0200 .
Fei-Yuan, H. & Weng-Foung, H. (2010). "Price regulation, new entry, and information shock on pharmaceutical market in Taiwan." BMC Health Services Research, 10. p. 218-225.
Golec, J., Hegde, S., & Vernon, J. (Feb 2010). "Pharmaceutical R&D spending and threats of price regulation." Journal of Financial & Quantitative Analysis, 45(1). p. 239-264.
Pearce, J., & Robinson, R. (2004). Strategic Management: Formulation, Implementation, and Control (12th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Advertising Case Study
Cardinal health advertising
This is a firm that is based in Dublin, Ohio. The main preoccupation of the firm is focused on distribution of pharmaceuticals as well as medical products with coverage of more than 60,000 locations. Cardinal health also manufactures medical and surgical products ranging from surgical apparels, gloves, fluid management products among others (Cardinal health Facebook Profile, 2012).
The target of the advertisements by cardinal health would be retailers and distributors of the pharmaceuticals and the medical products that they manufacture. They will also target the medical institutions like the hospitals as well as medical training institutions. The other target group is the medical or biological laboratories that make frequent use of the products that they produce.
The best media to use in passing this kind of advertisement that will reach such am diverse target audience is the use of internet as well as…
Cardinal health Facebook Profile, (2012). Cardinal Health. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.facebook.com/pages/Cardinal-Health/109556449069756?fref=ts
Erick Clemons, (2009). Why Advertising Is Failing On The Internet. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://techcrunch.com/2009/03/22/why-advertising-is-failing-on-the-internet/
The developed worlds are becoming older. America's population is approaching retirement age due in large part to the baby boomer generation. Those individuals born between 1946 and 1964 will be eligible for more social security and retirement benefits as time passes. As such, pharmaceutical companies, health services, and the medical industry at large will benefit from this influx of older individuals. As competition for new patents, facilities, drugs and more becomes more intense, companies will undoubtedly go bankrupt. Those companies that can continually innovate and provide products that are demanded will eventually prosper as our population ages. Cardinal Health, McKesson Corporation and Amerisource Bergen are at the forefront of this innovation. They continually push the existing boundaries of science to provide better products for society. How they accomplish this task however is very distinct to each company. By delving into the annual reports of each company an individual…
1) "Businessweek." MCKESSON CORP (MCK:New York): Financial Ratios -. Web. 05 Apr. 2012. .
2) "Cardinal Health Plans $90 Million in China Acquisitions - ChinaBio® Today." Cardinal Health Plans $90 Million in China Acquisitions. Web. 05 Apr. 2012. .
Culture's Impact On Healthcare
Culture: Midwestern, (White Female)
The following are the top 5 characteristics of my culture:
Conservative political values. May cause a closed mine and limit the imagination. Political lines are dogmatic and prevent free thinking.
Family orientated. This bias may cause the individual to be too loyal on one's family. It is very difficult to see our families for who they truly are.
Open minded: Too much open-mindedness may lead to foolish mistakes and jumping on any bandwagon that may come along.
Love of the outdoors and social activities. Too much of this behavior, may lead to not refining the indoor skills that are important in life.
Trusting to new experiences. Too many new experiences may lead to becoming ungrounded.
The Midwestern culture is very conservative and many within the culture base their decisions on popular notions and ideas. Health care to Midwestern culture…
Arterberry, K. (nd). Cultural Competence. Provided by customer.
Hearnden, M. (2008). Coping with differences in culture and communication in health care. Nursing Standard, 23, 11, 49-57.
This internal reflection may reveal a problematic absence of ethical orientation, a core lack of accountability, a flawed set of procedures or a misapprehension of the company's best competitive advantages. Naturally, the scale and scope of the company will determine how much media attention a given crisis receives. For instance, a company such as retail-giant Walmart has faced constant speculation over its unethical labor practices and, as a result, has worked to improve the internal culture within which store employees are frequently mistreated.
In contexts where broad organizational growth, as opposed to crisis, has prompted the need for a reexamination of internal culture, time is usually needed to observe patterns requiring change. In other words, in the face of rapid company growth, consistency and procedure are often lost in the shuffle. A period of leveling out from growth is required, within which the company's culture may be refined and redefined.…
This is discussed at length by Fusick and ordeau (2004) "...school-based counselors need to be aware of the disturbing inequities that exist in predominantly Afro-American urban school districts, where nearly 40% of Afro-American students attend school in the United States" (Fusick and ordeau, 2004) This again places emphasis on the need for mental health programs in these areas of concern. This is also related to findings from a study by McDavis et al. (1995) Counseling African-Americans, which refers to research that stresses the "...widening achievement gap between Afro-American and Euro-American students." (McDavis, et al. 1995)
An important study Laura a. Nabors, Evaluation of Outcomes for Adolescents Receiving School-ased Mental Health Services (2002) refers to the particular issue and problems experience at inner-city schools. The author states that, "School mental health (SMH) programs are an important setting for providing mental health services to adolescents, especially urban youth who typically face in-…
Smith, P.B., Buzi, R.S., & Weinman, M.L. (2001). Mental Health Problems and Symptoms among Male Adolescents Attending a Teen Health Clinic. Adolescence, 36(142), 323. Retrieved December 9, 2008, from Questia database:
The FDA also, amongst others, has recommended that clinical trials used to support advertising claims be approved by the FDA and to institute stiff fines against those found gaily of deceptive tactics. (Turning Medicine Into Snake Oil...) There is little doubt from the research that pharmaceutical companies have to be made more accountable for their products and advertising promises.
Borden Anne. Vioxx Stroke isk could last for Years. 2007. etrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/articles/00888/vioxx-stroke-risk.html
Deceptive Prescription Drug Marketing Tactics 'Common and Dangerous'. 2006.
etrieved June 1,2007, at http://www.uspirg.org/newsroom/health-care/health-care-news/deceptive-prescription-drug-marketing-tactics-common-and-dangerous
Introduction to the Health Care Industry: Health Expenditures and Services in the U.S. etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.plunkettresearch.com/HealthCare/HealthCareTrends/tabid/294/Default.aspx
O'Connor K. x for prescription drugs. etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.oconnorhealthanalyst.com/pgs/rx.html
Oxycontin Manufacturer Agrees to Plead Guilty and Pay Fine of $600,000,000.
etrieved June 1, 2007, at http://tyler.injuryboard.com/defective-products/oxycontin-manufacturer-agrees-to-plead-guilty-and-pay-fine-of-600000000.php?googleid=8636
Prescription Meds Changing Health Care. etrieved June 1, 2007, from Spending http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/medicalnews.php?newsid=60788…
Borden Anne. Vioxx Stroke Risk could last for Years. 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2007 at http://www.lawyersandsettlements.com/articles/00888/vioxx-stroke-risk.html
Deceptive Prescription Drug Marketing Tactics 'Common and Dangerous'. 2006.
Retrieved June 1,2007, at http://www.uspirg.org/newsroom/health-care/health-care-news/deceptive-prescription-drug-marketing-tactics-common-and-dangerous
Introduction to the Health Care Industry: Health Expenditures and Services in the U.S. Retrieved June 1, 2007, at http://www.plunkettresearch.com/HealthCare/HealthCareTrends/tabid/294/Default.aspx
McKesson Corporation (Mckesson) is an American pharmaceutical distributor with operations mainly in the U.S. The firm has been in operation since 1833, and boasts extensive market share, robust financial strength, and strong market power. The firm has built strong relationships with its key stakeholders, which adds to its strengths. Nonetheless, limited diversification and market focus as well as the threats of competition, unfavourable regulatory changes, and counterfeits present significant concerns for the company. To enhance its competitive advantage in the rigorously competitive pharmaceutical landscape, it is imperative for the firm to take advantage of consolidation, strategic partnerships, increased healthcare expenditure, and emerging markets.
McKesson Corporation (Mckesson) is an American health care company involved in the distribution of pharmaceutical productions as well as provision of health information technologies and care management tools majorly in the U.S. With a history that stretches back to close to two centuries, the organisation has…
Amabile, T., & Kramer, S. (2011, October 10). Valuing your most valuable assets. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from: https://hbr.org/2011/10/valuing-your-most-valuable
Benn, S., Abratt, R., & O'Leary, B. (2016). Defining and identifying stakeholders: views from management and stakeholders. South African Journal of Business Management, 47(2), 1-11.
Buente, M., Danner, S., Weissbacker, S., & Ramme, C. (2013). Pharma emerging markets 2.0: how emerging markets are driving the transformation of the pharmaceutical industry. Retrieved from: http://www.strategyand.pwc.com/media/file/Strategyand_Pharma-Emerging-Markets - 2.0.pdf
Chae, B., Olson, D., & Sheu, C. (2014). The impact of supply chain analytics on operational performance: a resource-based view. International Journal of Production Research, 52(16), 4695-4710.
" (Allen 2008) This means that nursing educators are also a key stakeholder.
Other stakeholders include healthcare facility administrators, corporate trustees and public office holders, who will often have entangled or competing interests relating to the profitability of operations and the political expediency of policy orientation. This will also be true of the various professional advocacy groups, nursing associations and lobby groups that will vie for influence in the discussion on any legislation relating to the nursing shortage.
A primary policy objective is to endorse any legislation that would aggressively enforce better recruitment of nursing students, better training of existing nurses, improvements in working conditions for nurses and mandated nurse-to-patient ratios. These objectives are underscored by evidence of the opportunities to save lives facilitated by mandated ratios. According to the text by Health Services Research (HSR) (2010), "key findings of the study reportedly include that 10-13% 'fewer surgical…
Allan, L. (2008). The nursing shortage continues as faculty shortage grows. Nursing Economics, 26(1), 35-40.
Berkowitz, B. (2012). The Policy Process. .
Cullen, E.; Ranji, U. & Salganicoff, A. (2010). Addressing the Nursing Shortage. Kaiseredu.org.
GovTrack. (2010). S. 1031: National Nursing Shortage Reform and Patient Advocacy Act. govTrack.us.
Taking the history of a patient is a crucial aspect of patient assessment and treatment. A good history can mean the difference between a successful patient outcome and unsatisfactory outcomes. However, taking a complete and useful history is a skill that is developed by means of training and practice; it is not some talent that is innate (Bickley & Szilagyi, 2007; McKenna et al., 2011). According to Craig (2007) nurses are increasingly being asked to take patient histories. Given these growing responsibilities nurses need training and guidelines to taking an adequate patient history. The following is a summary and critique of Craig, L. H, (2007), A "Guide to Taking a Patient's History" in Nursing Standard, volume 22, issue 13, pages 42-48.
Craig (2007) takes a comprehensive approach to explaining the interview and history taking process. This approach is applicable for most any patient population; however, Craig does not…
Alarcon, R.D. (2009). Culture, cultural factors and psychiatric diagnosis: Review and projections. World Psychiatry, 8, 131 -- 139.
Bickley, L.S. & Szilagyi, P.G. (2007). Bates' Guide to Physical Examination and History
Taking. 9th ed. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
Craig, L.H. (2007). A guide to taking a patient's history. Nursing Standard, 22 (13), 42-48.
EDITING STUDENT'S ORIGINAL CORRESPONDENCE
Please consider this respectful appeal of the decision of the Department of Student Progress Committee resulting in my dismissal from the Masters program in Communicative Sciences and Disorders. That decision was the result of difficulties that I experienced completing an off-campus practicum at Eger Healthcare Center during the all of 2010 which resulted in my receiving a grade of "" for the course E34.2118.
Originally, I took on my four-day-per-week off-campus practicum at Eger Health Care Center in Staten Island and my second one-day-per-week off-campus practicum site at Terence Cardinal Cooke Health Care Center in Manhattan during my last scheduled semester at NYU prior to my anticipated graduation in January 2011. Unfortunately my family experienced unexpected financial difficulties after my husband's untimely loss of his employment in early October of 2010. The resulting financial hardship affected my academic performance tremendously because my husband's job had been…
Fortunately, after an exhaustive three-month job search, my husband was offered a permanent full-time job at the end of December 2010. It was a tremendous relief for our family. Now that our acute financial difficulties have been resolved, I have stopped tutoring and I am fully prepared and committed to resuming my studies and to completing my degree for which I have already worked so hard for years.
I am hopeful that in light of the circumstances, you might reconsider your previous decision and allow me to the opportunity to repeat the off-campus practicum in the Fall 2011 semester so that I might complete my degree at NYU. Thank you kindly for your consideration.
Nursing Theory Application
Case Study Overview from the viewpoint of a new EMT -- Patient was a 78-year-old mail presenting breathing difficulties. Patient had early stage cancer with a DRN bracelet and note. Patient's wife was aware of the DNR, but her natural reaction was to try to save her husband. The call, then, was more to assure the wife than the husband, who accepted the situation but was still distressed.
Nursing Theory Applied -- "Nursing as Caring" was developed by Boykin and Schoenhofer in the 1980s when looking at the dimensions of caring and how it applied to the overall patient/health care paradigm. In general, the theory is a framework that guides and acts as a tool box when dealing with common issues in modern health care. The central dimensions of the theory is that caring is what makes humans 'human,' that caring is a moment to moment and…
Cardinal Stritch University. (2010, June). Anne Boykin & Sarvina Schoenhoffer - Nursing as Caring. Retrieved from stritch.edu: http://www.stritch.edu/Library/Doing-Research/Research-by-Subject/Health-Sciences-Nursing-Theorists/Anne-Boykin-Sarvina-Schoenhofer-Nursing-as-Caring/
Kubler-Ross, E. (2007). On Grief and Grieving. New York: Scribner.
Kubler-Ross, E. (2007, April). The Kubler-Ross Grief Cycle. Retrieved from Changing Minds:: http://changingminds.org/disciplines / change_management/kubler_ross/kubler_ros s.htm
Kubler-Ross, E. (2013, January). On Death and Dying. Retrieved from ELR Foundation: http://www.ekrfoundation.org/
Getting old is not very fun when considering the opinions of the elderly. This is true because many hard and difficult decisions must be made in terms of health and health care. Two options immediately arise when one is not able to take care of themselves and seek the assistance of others. The first option is home health care and the other is nursing home health care. The purpose of this essay is to examine, weigh and discuss these two options. This essay will then conclude on when it is best to choose nursing home care and when it is not wise or advisable to do such a thing.
Home Health Care
What exactly is home health care and what does it entail? Home health care helps seniors live independently for as long as possible, given the limits of their medical condition. It covers a wide range of…
Berger, Joseph, (2012). A Shift From Nursing Homes to Managed Care at Home. The New York Times, 23 Feb 2012. Web. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/24/nyregion/managed-care - keeps-the-frail-out-of-nursing-homes.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Bojorquez, Manuel, (2013). Eleven states get failing grades for nursing home care. CBS News, 9 Aug 2013. Web . http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-18563_162-57597944/eleven-states - get-failing-grades-for-nursing-home-care/
Friedland, R. (2009). Home Care vs. Nursing Home Care. Care, 25 Nov 2009. Retrieved from http://www.care.com/senior-care-home-care-versus-nursing-home-care-p1017- q14698.html
Klauber, M. (2001). The 1987 Nursing Home Reform Act. Public Policy Institute, Feb 2001. Retrieved from http://www.aarp.org/home-garden/livable-communities/info - 2001/the_1987_nursing_home_reform_act.html
The other problem is regarding third party reimbursements and state regulators which have had a significant effect on hospitals during the last ten years. Another factor that is brought out by the study is that during both 1983 and 1986 there were important variations in the inpatient reimbursement system that helped in improving the operating and final margins of hospitals. At the same time there are the health insurance companies who provide a large portion of the funds to hospitals are continually on the look out for reducing payment amounts. There are methods through which this is done and one of that is changing from inpatient settings to ambulatory surgery. Another set of problems come from settlements with labor unions. As an example a major portion of the health care providers were affected due to the settlement with Local 1199. This settlement also created similar effects in other…
Brennan, Phil. (April 12, 2002) "Church Crises Threaten Charities, Schools, Hospitals"
Retrieved from http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/4/11/212641.shtml Accessed on 27 June, 2005
"Challenge of being chief of the hospitals" Retrieved from http://www.thisisworcester.co.uk/worcestershire/worcester/news/WEN_NEWS_FEATURES_COUNTY9.html Accessed on 27 June, 2005
Donoghue, Richard J. (December, 1990) "Evaluation of hospitals as entities able to continue as going concerns" The CPA Journal. Retrieved from http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/old/09691991.htm Accessed on 27 June, 2005
nursing, despite some early events in my life that might have derailed my career. I was studying for my R.N. degree when my husband became ill and I had to return to full-time work. However, I was able to earn my LPN through the Army Reserve. Recently, it has been my privilege to offer support and assistance to the families of troops deployed in Iraq with the Army Reserve 801st Combat Support. The sometimes-sad nature of this work is balanced by my work within the Aurora Health System in Pediatrics. Although the children have health challenges, working with young people is a truly joyful aspect of a nursing career. I also teach Heartsaver classes for new parents with special needs before their discharge from the hospital.
In my spare time, I work with battered mothers and children in Lake County, and help at the village food pantry. I teach CPR…
Politicalization of Obesity -- Policy Analysis
One of the most prevalent health issues presently in the United States is that of childhood obesity. The goal of this work in writing is to analyze a specific health care policy issue, which specifically is that of obesity. This work will further propose nursing strategies to address the problem. This work will use two bills currently in Congress. Two pieces of legislation have been introduced to address the problem of childhood obesity are those of H.. 3144 and H.. 3092. This work in writing conducts a policy analysis of these two bills presently before the U.S. Congress.
Politicalization of Obesity -- Policy Analysis
One of the most prevalent health issues presently in the United States is that of childhood obesity. The goal of this work in writing is to analyze a specific health care policy issue, which specifically is that of obesity. This…
Dahlkemper, Kathy (2009) Healthcare: House Bills 3092, 3144 aim to cut obesity rate and related illnesses. The Hill 16 July 2009. Available online. Retrieved from: http://thehill.com/special-reports/healthcare-july-2009/55607-healthcare-house-bills-3092-3144-aim-to-cut-obesity-rate-and-related-illnesses
Hellmich, Nancy (2009) Obesity a Key Link to Soaring Health Tag as Costs Double. Health Affairs -- USA Today. 28 July 2009. Available online. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2009-07-27-costofobesity_N.htm
Whelan, Ellen-Marie, Russell, Lesley, and Sekhar, Sonia (2010) Confronting America's Childhood Obesity Epidemic: How the Health Care Reform Law Will Help Prevent and Reduce Obesity. May 2010. The Center for American Progress. Available online. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2010/05/pdf/childhood_obesity.pdf
H.R. 3144 -- Healthy Communities Act of 2009. Bill Summary & Status 111th Congress (2009-2010) CRS Summary. The Library of Congress. Available online. Retrieved from: http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/D-d111:60:./temp/~bdI0gM:@@@D&summ2=m&
The importance of the code of ethics in nursing
The Code of Ethics forms the foundation for candidates who aspire to join the nursing occupation. The guide is an indispensable set of standards that every nurse must embrace. It also acts as a reminder about their social responsibilities and commitments as nurses. The Code of Ethics further stipulates that nurses should enhance their learning together with evidence-based service. The transformations in the code depend on both moral variations and societal ideals (Y?ld?z, 2019). This section of the papers highlights the code's significance specifically for a Registered Nurse (RN). To attain this milestone, the paper identifies the American Nurses Association Standards of Practice that focuses on nurses' licensure. The paper refers to scholarly sources to support the significance of the code.
The nursing practice involves decisions that oscillate between life and death. Ethics are hence essential in the maintenance of nursing…
American Nurses Association (2010). Nursing: Scope and standards of practice. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.
Davis, C. (2014). The importance of professional standards. Nursing Made Incredibly Easy!, Volume 12(Issue 5) - p 4.
Gibbons, S. W., & Jeschke, E. A. (2016). Nursing ethics: A lifelong commitment. Annual review of nursing research, 34(1), 1-14.
Y?ld?z, E. (2019). Ethics in nursing: A systematic review of the framework of evidence perspective. Nursing Ethics, 26(4), 1128-1148.
Another way to put the patient at ease during moments like this is for the nurse to be absolutely certain that she is not showing any signs of being judgmental. If this happens, it could throw the patient off guard and create an uncomfortable situation where the patient no longer feels comfortable being honest with the nurse. Once this happens, the nurse will have an inaccurate patient history and the patient runs the risk of not being treated properly for the underlying symptoms.
In order for the history to be as accurate as possible, the nurse should ask questions regarding several issues that may affect the patient's health. The patient's past medical history is vitally important to the process because it can serve as a guide to what has worked in the past and what treatments are ineffective. The patient's mental health is also important. This will give the nurse…
Lloyd, H. And Craig, S. (2007). A guide to taking a patient's history. Nursing Standard. 22(13),
The objective is to impede rumination. 3. In the third stage -- relapse prevention or rehabilitation -- Mr. Thomas will be encouraged to participate in activities (such as hobbies that he enjoys, listening to music, socializing, his work and so forth) and to move towards increased interest in his work, and other components of his life outside of his depressing domestic situation. The whole model would focus around prevention and intervention where prevention aims at reducing the individual's psychobiological vulnerability (via for instance reducing the stress facing Mr. Thomas by enlisting the aid, for instance, of his children and coworkers) whilst intervention seeks to strengthen that same vulnerability (via for instance cognitive-behavioral techniques or other depression-reducing interventions).
oemtiems, conflicts in commucantion occur inthis type sof stiaution when ethical condudresm are invoeld such as a perosn wishing to die whislt eveyroen else wants her to live on, or the gnawing unceratiny…
Berne, D. Games People Play. Grove Press, Inc., 1954
Couric, K. (2011) The best advice I ever got: Lessons from extraordinary lives. NY: Random House
Goulston, M. (2010). Just listen USA: AMACOM
Jaffe, C. & Ehrlich, C.H. (1997). All kinds of love: Experiencing hospice. New York,
GLAXOSMITHKLINE (GSK) - SUCCESSFUL INTENAL INNOVATION ead case study answer 4 questions . Do write a report. 1. Based GSK's past performance, critical implementation issues GSK internal innovation? Justify answer.
GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) -- Successful Internal Innovation
Critical implementation issues for GSK with regards to internal innovation
Implementation processes are complex endeavors which need to be thoroughly assessed and carefully decided upon. This is true in any situation and in the case of virtually all economic agents, but while this necessity is valid, it is to be differently approached and resolved across companies. In other words, the dimensions of a strategy to be implemented are sensitive to a wide array of organizational and situational particularities, including, among other things:
The size of the economic agent
The availability of resources (capitals, labor force, commodities and technologies)
The intellectual capitals possessed and the ability to gain, transfer and capitalize on knowledge
McDavid, J.C., hawthorn, L.R.L., 2006, Program evaluation and performance measurement: an introduction to practice, SAGE
Schulman, J., 1969, Remaking an organization: innovation in a specialized psychiatric hospital, SUNY Press
Sitkin, S.B., Cardinal, L.B., Bijlsma-Frankema, K.M., 2010, Organizational control, Cambridge University Press
2010, GlaxoSmithKline Plc., Hoovers, http://www.hoovers.com/company/GlaxoSmithKline_plc/crkxri-1.html last accessed on December 22, 2010
Negative feedbacks and criticisms cannot be avoided at this point, especially upon knowing that it is necessary for them to undergo training on how this program will be implemented, including its advantages for them as teachers.
Educators, especially those who have been practicing the profession for a long time have a greater tendency to abhor going through the learning process once more. As a principal, they should be encouraged to undergo the learning process again and become students, therefore, joining their trainings would promote confidence in learning new ideas once more.
As the teachers become students, the idea of the students becoming teachers at some point upon the implementation of the program would somehow alleviate their fear of integrating the use of technology in their learning process. ithin the 30 minutes math lad, they should be allowed to explore the program and share among their classmates what they have learned…
Franklin, J. (2002) the Importance of Instructional Leadership. The Necessary Principal.
Allen, R. (2002) Honing the Tools of Instruction: How Research Can Improve Teaching for the 21st Century.
Shu-Sheng, L. (2004) Considerations for developing constructivist Web-based learning. International Journal of Instructional Media.
Dermatology Differential Diagnoses
Dermatology Differential Diagnosis
Skin conditions can be notoriously difficult to diagnose. It is crucial to understand the epidemiology and pathology of common conditions in order to make a thorough diagnosis of the current case. Here, the research states that "key questions for the patient include the time of onset, duration, location, evolution, and symptoms of the rash or lesion. Additional information on family history, occupational exposures, comorbidities, medications, and social or psychological factors may be helpful" (Goldstein et al., 2012). All of this knowledge provided by the patient can ultimately help lead to differential diagnoses that can then prepare treatment.
In this current case study, there is a 33-year-old male suffering from a rash. The patient has a rash of 2-weeks duration located behind the knees and elbows bilaterally. It is itchy, red, somewhat raised, and dry. At times it has had clear drainage. Thus, the "papules…
Dunphy, L., Winland-Brown, J., Porter, B., & Thomas, D. (2011) Primary care: The art and science of advanced practice nursing (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.
Feldman, Steven R., Dellavalle, Robert P., Duffin, Kristina C., & Ofori, Albena O. (2013). Treatment of Psoriasis.
Feldman, Steven R., Dellavalle, Robert P., Duffin, Kristina C., & Ofori, Albena O. (2014). Epidemiology, clinical manifestations and diagnosis of psoriasis.
Among the research findings in this regard was the view that field independent student are often more successful in the distance learning environment. Other factors such as introversion and extroversion were discussed and introverted personality types were seen to be more successful in the distance teaching environment. It was also found that extracurricular concerns can have both positive and negative course completion outcomes. Support from family or employer was also found to be a very significant variable that had a positive effect.
Another relevant area of discussion was study skills. It was generally found that good study skills and habits were a central determining factor for the distance students. Furthermore, procrastination was found to be a very negative factor, especially if one takes into account the demands of the distance education.
The difference between the classrooms and the distance learning environment was also discussed, with many students stating that they…
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."
Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.
Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…
At-Risk Students in Milwaukee
How Do at-Risk Children in Milwaukee Benefit from Alternative Schools?
The City of Milwaukee has a population of about 602,191 (an estimate from the U.S. Census as of 2007) and roughly 15% of Milwaukee's population is between the ages of 10 to 19 years (school age). There are about thirty-six alternative schools in Milwaukee to provide support and scholastic assistance to those students who are not producing in "regular" schools, including high schools in Milwaukee. This paper will review the support provided by two alternative high schools in Milwaukee:
One, Assata Alternative High School (2023 est isconsin Avenue); and two, Grandview High School (Seeds of Health) (1445 South 32nd Street)
Assata Alternative High School was founded in 1992 and operates full-day alternative programs for grades nine through twelve. Assata is a partner with the Division of Diversified Community Schools -- within the Milwaukee Public Schools system,…
Assata Alternative High School. (2009). Assata High School Educational Plan. Retrieved May 11, 2009, from http://mpsportal.milwaukee.k12.wi.us/portal/server.pt .
Grandview High School (Seeds of Health). (2009). MPS Reviewed Educational Plan.
Retrieved May 11, 2009, from
It therefore follows that if a young woman has a poor sense of self-esteem as a result of prescribed ideals about body image, then this will also affect self-representation and even behavior patterns; for example, the woman may react negatively in an attempt to meet social norms about self-image and become Anorexic.
However, the literature also makes a clear distinction between personal self-image and esteem and group esteem and expectations. One would expect that groups that are discriminated against in society would have low level of self-esteem. This is not always the case. In fact as a study by Verkuyten ( 1989) shows, high levels of personal self-esteem may result in groups that have a low social level of esteem and acceptance. "The presumption of lower self-esteem among minority youth, given their confrontation with discrimination, disregards the perspectives of minorities themselves" (Verkuyten, 1998, p. 479). This refers to "The…
Bornman, E. (1999). Self-Image and Ethnic Identification in South Africa. Journal of Social Psychology, 139(4), pp.411-425
Fiske S.T. (2004) Social Beings. Ho Boken, NJ: Wiley.
Klein, H.A. (1995). Self-Perception in Late Adolescence: An Interactive Perspective. Adolescence, 30(119), 579+.
Monteath, S.A., & McCabe, M.P. (1997). The Influence of Societal Factors on Female Body Image. Journal of Social Psychology, 137(6), pp. 708-727. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from Questia database:
Sangster, DeLillo, Nature and God
hat is the opposite of Nature? There are a number of different answers we could give in playing the game of finding an antonym. e are accustomed to speaking of "nature vs. nurture," but "nature" here is a shorthand for the phrase "human nature." In referring to Nature in its environmental sense, we are more likely to speak of "nature vs. culture" or "nature vs. art" -- environment is defined as something which stands apart from human habitation or cultivation. In this sense, it is paradoxical to approach the subject of nature in a work of art -- the fact of its being art serves to remove us in some way from the realm of Nature. I would like to examine the treatment of Nature as a concept in two very different works: the nineteenth-century Canadian poem "The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay" by Charles…
Bentley, DMR. The Gay[Grey Moose: Essays on the Ecologies and Mythologies of Canadian Poetry. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press, 1992. Print.
Buell, Lawrence. "Toxic Discourse." Critical Inquiry 24 (3): 639-665. Web. Accessed online at: http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/2637816/Buell_ToxicDiscourse.pdf?sequence=4
DeLillo, Don. White Noise. New York: Penguin, 1986. Print.
Sangster, Charles. "The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay." Web. Accessed online at: http://canadianpoetry.org/longPoems/Sangster_Charles/St_Lawrence_and_Saguenay/The_St_Lawrence_and_Saguenay.html
HSBC: An Outlook
BNP Paribas: A Helicopter View
Comparison Between HSBC and BNP Paribas in the Banking Field
SWOT Analysis and the Bank's Operations in Middle East Especially in Dubai & Bahrain
PEST Analysis And the Bank's Operations in Middle East Especially in Dubai & Bahrain
External Analysis of HSBC and BNP
Competitive Profile Matrix (CPM)
Example of HSBC and BNP Around the World
Customer Values Analysis
Value Chain Analysis of the Banks
The current corporate world and environment can be referred as the resolution of administration. Way backed in which bread-and-butter development depends entirely on accurate and automated inventions. However, in the avant-garde apple acceptable administration is all-important for able and able alive of organization, forth with abstruse advancement. Administration is all the added significant between the ambience of the enterprises of the business, neither a business can run on itself nor…
Adelman, C. (1998). Women and Men of the Engineering Path: A Model for Analyses of Undergraduate
Bhote, K. (2002). The Ultimate Six Sigma: Beyond Quality Excellence to Total Business Excellence. New York: American Management Association.
Bossert, J. (2003). "Lean and Six Sigma -- Synergy Made in Heaven." Quality Progress. 31-32.
Breyfogle, F.; Cupello, J.; and Meadows, B. 2000. Implementing Six Sigma: Smarter solutions using statistical methods. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
oyal Dutch Shell PLC
A Brief ecent History of oyal Dutch Shell PLC
eason Behind Choosing
Information Gathering and Accounting Business techniques
esult, Analysis, Conclusion & ecommendations
SWOT Analysis of DSP
Porter's Five Forces Analysis of the Chosen Company
Financial Analysis of DSP
Finance is the name of allocating the funds at a place from where the likelihood of receiving a good return is bright (Bragg, S2006). Organization is basically referred to a place wherein hundreds of people work together just to achieve a specific goal (Cinnamon, & Larsen, B.2006). The goal may be of two fold, like the goal can be economical or can be non-economical. According to the organizational officials and analysts, investment decisions are always tough to take as far as an organization is concerned (Cinnamon, & Larsen, B.2006). The economic decisions include ad hoc research, analysis and lots of study as well. The essence of risk…
Bragg, S (2006), Financial Analysis: A Control Guide, New York McGraw Hill Publications
Cinnamon, R & Larsen, B.H (2006), How to understand Business Finance, New York McGraw Hill Publications
Christian, G (2007), Econometrics & Financial Analysis, California John Wiley & Sons Professional Publications
Danial, L (2009), Financial & Business Analysis Techniques, New York McGraw Hill Publications
Gordon Willard Allport, one of the most influential of American psychologists in the 1900s, was the youngest of four brothers. He was born in Montezuma, Indiana in 1897. One of his elder brothers, Floyd Henry Allport, was also an influential psychologist, and it is said inspired him (Hall & Lindzey). Allport, who graduated from Harvard with a Ph.D. In 1922, was a long time member of the faculty at Harvard University from 1930 until his death in 1967. He produced a number of influential books and professional works over his career such as the influential book The Nature of Prejudice. Allport was initially exposed to Freudian notions of behavior as a graduate student, but he rejected the notions of Freudian psychology and later notions of behaviorism (in fact there is the famous story of his meeting with Freud that often used to explain the development of his own theories). Allport…
Allport, G.W. (1937a). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: Holt and Company.
Allport, G.W. (1937b). The functional autonomy of motives. American Journal of Psychology, 50, 141-156.
Allport, G.W. (1955). Becoming: Basic considerations for a psychology of personality. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Allport, G.W. (1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations
This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.
ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations
UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations
Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior
Results from Baucus and Near's research model
SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS
NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY
hat is organizational behavior?
Purpose of organizational behavior
An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components
Basic models of organizational behaviors
PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION
Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business
Review, 03-01-1999, pp 65.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
History of RSD
The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for "burning pain." He wrote that, "Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl." Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms…
Allen, G., Galer, B.S., & Schwartz, L. (1999). Epidemiology of complex regional pain syndrome: a retrospective chart review of 134 patients. Pain, 80(3), 539-544.
Aronoff, G.M., Harden, N., Stanton-Hicks, M., Dorto, A.J., Ensalada, L.H., Klimek, E.H., Mandel, S., & Williams, J.M. (2002). American Academy of Disability Evaluating Physicians (AADEP) Position Paper: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (RSD): Impairment and Disability Issues. Pain Med, 3(3), 274-288.
Bakewell, S. (1995). The Autonomic Nervous System. Update in Anesthesia, 6(5), 1.
Barolat, G., Schwartzman, R., & Woo, R. (1989). Epidural spinal cord stimulation in the management of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 53(1), 29-39.
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
"…people with NES tend to be more depressed than obese people without NES, and the mood of those with NES tends to worsen during the evening, something not seen in other obese people"(Logue, 2004, p. 185).
Among the many studies that provide insight into the background and origins of this syndrome, one of the most enlightening was Obesity by Stunkard, in Fairburn and Brownell (2002). This provides an in-depth analysis of night eating syndrome as well as a concise overview of the background of this condition. Stunkard also refers to a detailed overview of this condition.
Studies using the above criteria estimate that the prevalence of the night eating syndrome in the general population is approximately 1.5% and that prevalence increases with increasing weight, from about 10% of persons enrolling in obesity clinics to as high as 25% of patients undergoing surgical treatment for obesity…it occurs among about 5% of…
Allison K. et al. ( 2005) Neuroendocrine Profiles Associated with Energy Intake, Sleep, and Stress in the Night Eating Syndrome . The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 90(11), pp. 6214-6217.
Amanda Ursell's: Feel Good. (2001, January 7). Sunday Mirror (London, England), p. 16. Retrieved April 23, 2010, from Questia database:
Leading and Managing a Change in Clinical Practice: Patient on Ventilator and the Usage of Saline in Performing Suctioning
Organizational direction depends on many factors. Most of them were an integral part of clinical practice for a while, but until the latter part of the 20th century has been so prominent in the organizational structure. This paper will explore the four factors that influence the management of clinic and are characterized by efficient designs. This paper will discuss about the leadership and management in relation to improving quality, change, care management, values and results. We will also present integration and possible implementation concepts, tools and strategies.
Suctioning the patient on ventilator pose a unique challenge in following a clinical pathway or case management model of care. Our patient is on ventilator and we are performing suctioning by the usage of saline solution. Multiple decisions need to be made when…
Dougherty, Lisa and Lister, Sara (2004) The Royal Marsden Hospital Manual of Clinical Nursing Procedures Sixth Edition (Royal Marsden Nhs Trust) Wiley-Blackwell; 6th Edition (24 Jun 2004) 896 pages
Hamric, A.B. (with Spross, J.A, Hanson, C.M.), Spross, J.A.(with Hanson, C.M.), & Hanson, C.M. (2005). Advanced practice nursing an integrative approach (Third, pp. 311-335)
Kelly, Diane. (2007) Applying quality management in healthcare: A systems approach. 2nd Edition: Health Administration Press. P. 17-89
Kovner, A.R., Neuhauser, D., (ed). (2004). Health Services Management; Readings, Cases, and Commentary (eighth, pp 125-271). Chicago, IL: Health Administration Press. Washington, D.C.: AUPHA Press
49% which shows that the company is able to earn $22 by investing $100 which is certainly a sign of financial healthy company. After analyzing the profitability ratio, let's now examine the efficiency ratios of the company.
Efficiency atio Analysis
Efficiency ratios (E) are the ratios which used to assess the effectiveness of a company. The specific rations come under the ambit of E are eturn on Asset (OA) and eturn on Equity (OE) (Daniel, 1992). Let's examine both the ratios.
eturn on Assets (OA) Analysis
An indicator of how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. OA gives an idea as to how helpful management is at using its assets to produce profit (Groves & Edward, 2004). Calculated by dividing a company's annual wages by its total assets, OA is displayed as a percentage. The computed OA figure and its graph is mentioned below,
Anthony, G & Cornyn, D (1982), Company Analysis, Pearson Group Publications
Alexander, J (2007), Value Creation and Analysis, Pearson Group Publications
Archand, T (2003), Strategic Company Analysis, John Wiley & Sons Professional Publications
David, P & Hussey, E (2001), Company Analysis: Determining Strategic Capability, McGraw Hill Publications
5 times the actual value of equity.
The return on investment is calculated by dividing the total net profits by the total assets value and shows the "overall effectiveness to generate profits from total investment in assets." At the Colorado Group, the return on investment amounted to 20.4% in 2006 and 21.5% in 2005. The small decrease from 2005 to 2006 can be explained by the fact that that the net profits decreased significantly during this period of time and that the decrease of the total assets value was by no means similar in value.
The gross profit margin is calculated by dividing the net sales minus the cost of goods sold by the net sales value and shows the "profitability of a company's sales after the cost of sales has been deducted." In this case, in 2006 this ratio was equal to 54.4%, as compared to 55.9% in 2005.…
1. Financial Ratios. Cardinal Stritch University Library. On the Internet at http://library.stritch.edu/guides/financialratio.htm
2. The company's 2006 Annual Report
Financial Ratios. Cardinal Stritch University Library. On the Internet at
There have been several studies that have confirmed the effects of caffeine and the personality dimension of impulsivity (Smith 2002). Performance, according to Smith (2002), is "an interactive function of task difficulty, caffeine and impulsivity" (2002).
Performance on an easy letter cancellation task was improved as caffeine dose increased, but on a difficult task impulsive subjects (less aroused) improved while non-impulsive subjects (more aroused) improved then deteriorated. Other results do not fit this pattern and could reflect other individual differences such as expectancies or caffeine usage (Smith 2002).
Another study conducted by Sawyer, Julia and Turin (1982) showed that caffeine does indeed play a role in behavior, which includes changes in "arousal, anxiety, and performance" (1982). Once again, Sawyer et al. (1982) found that personality plays a big role in caffeine's effects on humans as does sensitivity, adaption to caffeine, and the way that caffeine may interact with both nicotine…
Dews, P.B. (1984). Behavioral effects of caffeine. Caffeine. Springer: New York.
Foxx, R.M. & Rubinoff, a. (1979). Behavioral treatment of caffeinism: reducing excessive coffee drinking. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis,12(3): 335-
Greden, J.F. (1974). Anxiety or caffeinism: A diagnostic dilemma. American Journal of Psychiatry,131: 1089-1092.
Griffiths, R.R., Bigelow, G.E. & Liebson, I.A. (1986). Human coffee drinking:
isk Communication and Its Importance for the Security Manager
Identify what risk communication is and explain its importance for the security manager
Communication is a significant factor in all aspects and sectors of life. The social, political or economic features of are transmitted exclusively through communication. Communication is the act of conveying information and messages from an individual to another or a group. It serves to, teach, educate, learn, entertain and to warn among other purposes. Thus, in any organization or area of a corporate or personal life, it is imperative to have effective and efficient communication. The safety of a person, corporate organization or a nation can always be assured. Communication is, therefore, needed in ensuring this safety.
What is risk communication?
If you are told that, in the path, you are about to take, there is a gargantuan poisonous snake lying by the side of the path; you…
Roeser, S., Hillerbrand, R., Sandin, P., & Peterson, M. (2012). Handbook of Risk Theory:
Epistemology, Decision Theory, Ethics, and Social Implications of Risk. Dordrecht:
Hayes, R. (2007). Retail security and loss prevention. Basingstoke [u.a.: Palgrave Macmillan
Lesson for Children With Learning Disabilities
Developing a Lesson for Children with Learning Disabilities
Learning disability is a term misused severally. In essence, it applies to students who have different learning challenges. Most people associate learning disability to the development of a child, thus assuming that it is a short-term condition and disappears as the person matures. The accepted definition, provided by the National Adult Literacy and Learning Disability Center states that; learning disability is generic and refers to a composite group of disorders that become evident in the person; through observing that they have challenges in the acquisition and use of speaking, listening, reading, reasoning and execution of mathematical concepts, as well as, understanding social skills. As teachers process the learning procedure in class, they encounter various children with varied challenges, which constitute the learning disorders (Aster & Shalev, 2007). Thus, they have the obligation to accommodate those children…
Aster, M.G. v., M.D., & Shalev, R.S., M.D. (2007). Number development and developmental dyscalculia. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 49(11), 868-73. Retrieved
Canizares, D.C., Crespo, V.R., & Alemany, E.G. (2012). Symbolic and non-symbolic number magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia. The Spanish Journal
of Psychology, 15(3), 952-66. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1439791245?accountid=458
Italy is a cultural hub of gender identity where issues of feminism and masculinism have been deeply entrenched for many years. For centuries Italy has been considered a more masculine country, though the majority of work documented related to masculinism actually is sparse. Issues of feminism and masculinity has surfaced in the workplace, where naturally access to issues such as equal employment and technology have surfaced. Gender inequality issues in Italy have in fact created a basis for the continuance of a feminism-masculinism dichotomy.
Masculinism has been defined as "the property by which humans of the male sex are defined as manly" (Noumenal, 2004). Alternatively, Simone de Beauvoir described femininity as "neither a natural nor an innate entity, but rather a condition brought about by society." This statement is more true than any other, as evidenced by gender inequality differences largely the result of the paternalistic nature of the culture…
Angier, N. 2000. "Women: An Intimate Geography." Anchor.
Barker, P. 1998. "Michel Foucault -- An Introduction." Edinburgh University Press.
Beccalli, B. 1994. The Modern Women's Movement in Italy, in New Left Review. Volume a, Issue 204: 86-112.
Boccia, M.L. 1991. "The Gender Representation." In Bono and Kemp, "Italian Feminism." Blackwell.
Theoretical Perspective of the Approach
The approach's personality models are grounded on biological models. The models are based on empirical human and animal findings concerning the associations between neurological system functions and personality dimensions. Traits that are measured are reward-dependence, harm avoidance, novelty-seeking etc. The hypothesis is that they are grounded on genetic and neurochemical influences. For instance, sensation-seeking and explorative tendencies like drug usage make use of dopaminergic pathways, and such a characteristic corresponds to novelty-seeking behavior in Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TQP). People who are high on the novelty-seeking spectrum tend to be impulsive and take a lot of risks. Serotonin is linked to harm and punishment avoidance. Lower serotonin levels result in a "neurotic" personality. eward dependence is linked to noradrenaline. People that lean more towards harm avoidance tend to be more affectionate and sentimental. Those on the other end of the scale tend to be pragmatic and…
Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: H. Holt and. Company. Biological Approaches.(n.d.). Retrieved November 11, 2015, from http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/psych101/personality/section5.rhtml
Cattell, R. B. (1965). The scientific analysis of personality. Baltimore: Penguin Books.
Eysenck, H. J. (1952). The scientific study of personality.
Eysenck, H. J. (1966). Personality and experimental psychology. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society.
" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)
There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…
Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.
Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/044ed112.html
Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.ashtreepublishing.com/bookshop/carolyn-dean.php
Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938986
THE CACAO TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)
WHAT IS IN THE COCOA BEAN?
MAKING AND EATING CHOCOLATE
State of the At of Cocoa
Is Cocoa good fo you?
Buden of Poof
CHOCOLATE AS A FAT
EFFECTS ON BLOOD LIPIDS
WHAT IS OK
CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH AND DISEASE
H. Immune Function
J. Othe Disodes
N. Dental Caies
K. Heat Health
Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…
references for fats in foods: relationships to diet and body composition. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1991; 53:908-915.
Green SM, Delargy HJ, Joanes D. And Blundell JE A satiety quotient: a formulation to assess the satiating effect of food. Appetite. 1997; 29:291-304.
Seligson FH, Krummel DA and Apgar JR. Patterns of chocolate consumption. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1994;60:S1060-S1067.
Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health; 1989. NIH Publication No. 89-2925.
Kritchevsky D. Effects of Triglyceride Structure on Lipid Metabolism. Nutrition Reviews. 1988;46:177-181.
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
There is also a specific technique involving this method that is specifically intended to relieve the withdrawal symptoms of addiction (Addicted to caffeine).
In the final analysis, it was a combination of a healthy diet and a planned exercise program, complemented by yoga and a changing mindset that helped Nick to finally overcome his problem. One of the cardinal factors in his rehabilitation process was the understanding of what caffeine was doing to his body and his life. The most important factor in his recovery was the realization that he was in fact addicted and that his problem was not helped by a regular intake of coffee but was in fact worsened by the excessive amount of caffeine that he was ingesting. Once he realized that caffeine was not an aid but rather the central cause of his stress and anxiety he soon began to change his habits. At first…
Addicted to caffeine. Retrieved September 25, 2009, from http://www.queendom.com/advices/advice.htm?advice=241 >
Am I Addicted to Caffeine? Retrieved September 25, 2009, from http://www.wisegeek.com/am-i-addicted-to-caffeine.htm
Common Sources of Caffeine. Retrieved September 25, 2009, from http://lds.about.com/library/weekly/aa121202b.htm
GERD. Retrieved September 25, 2009, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/gerd.html
A brief but insightful article that stresses the importance of communication is Autistic Kids Benefit from Dads' Involvement. This also applies to the issue of parental stress but echoes other studies that emphasize the importance of communication skills in treating autistic children. There article notes that autism is a disability or disorder that appears during the first three years of life and is characterized by problems interacting and communicating with others. elated to this is a discussion of the father's role in communication. esearchers found that, …teaching fathers how to talk to and play with their autistic children in a home setting improved communication, increased the number of intelligible words the youngsters spoke by more than 50% and helped dads get more involved in their care."
( Autistic Kids Benefit from Dads' Involvement)
An article that explores the issue of communication, nursing and the autistic child is Observing communication skills…
'Autistic Kids Benefit from Dads' Involvement', [Online] Available at:
Azeem M. And Imran N. 2007, Autism: Assessment and Management, [Online]
Available at: http://pjms.com.pk/issues/octdec207/article/reviewarticle2.html
Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet thus correspond to the seven chakras located along the spinal column." (Fuller 242) Crystal therapy is therefore based on the control and manipulation of these energies so that there is the "correct" or appropriate and balanced amount of this energy in each of the chakras.
The most touted of New Age healing techniques has been the use of crystals. Enthusiasts claim that because rock crystal is almost entirely devoid of color, it is an almost perfect capacitor of divine white light. Explanations of exactly how crystals wield their healing powers vary from practitioner to practitioner. Some maintain that the unique properties of crystals make them excellent receptors of metaphysical energies.
rief history of crystal therapy
As has already been mentioned, the history of this form of therapy is to be found in many historical documents and in myths, stories and…
Albanese, Catherine L. "Chapter 6 the Magical Staff: Quantum Healing in the New Age." Perspectives on the New Age / . Ed. James R. Lewis and J. Gordon Melton. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1992. 68-84. Questia. 11 Mar. 2007
Non-Governmental Organization Placement: Examination of the Experience of Students In NGO Placement
The objective of this work is to examine the experience of students on the NGO placement in Nigeria. The NGO at focus is that of St. Joseph Orphanage and Women Development Center. The writer of this work was provided with an excellent opportunity to exam the organization chart and policy of the non-governmental and non-profit organization. In addition, the writer of this work was provided with insight on how the organization raises money to finance and sustain its diverse projects in Nigeria. During the course of job placement of this researcher with this NGO organization, and specifically St. Joseph Women Development and orphanage center it was amazing to realize that Media and Communication organizations play a significant role in the promotion and creation of community awareness and awareness on the national level. Consideration of the barriers…
Anderson, P., Lawton, L., Rexeisen, R., & Hubbard, A. (2006). Short-term study abroad and intercultural sensitivity: A pilot study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 457-469.
Artz, L. (2001). Critical ethnography for communication studies: Dialogue and social justice. The Southern Communication Journal, 66(3), 239-250.
Astin, A. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory of higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25(4), 297-308.
Backhouse, Judy Pamela (2009) Doctoral Education in South Africa: Models, Pedagogies and Stucent Experiences. February 2009.
They very seldom become fully integrated into society or become independent. (Mental etardation: Free Health Encyclopedia)
The is little doubt that mental retardation has an effect on society in general and in terms of care and treatment of the affected person. However, it is also true that with the knowledge and expertise that has been accumulated about mental retardation it is also become more feasible to accommodate the mentally retarded person as a productive member of society.
My perception of the mentally retarded in society is that are less fortunate and that the mentally healthy members of society should help and assist these individuals wherever possible. The research for this paper has made me aware that we often categorize the mentally retarded in a general way without realizing that there are different categories and degrees of retardation. Cognizance should be taken of the fact that many people who…
References. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at http://www.cloudnet.com/~edrbsass/mrdefinitions2.htm
Goldstein, G. And Shapiro B. (2007) Mental Retardation. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://www.dana.org/news/brainhealth/detail.aspx?id=9836
Lustig D.C. (1996)
Family adaptation to a young adult with mental retardation. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825 " Journal of Rehabilitation,
Nursing & omen's Roles Pre-and-Post Civil ar
The student focusing on 19th century history in the United States in most cases studies the Civil ar and the causes that led to the war. But there are a number of very important aspects to 19th century American history that relate to women's roles, including nursing and volunteering to help the war wounded and others in need of care. This paper delves into the role nurses played in the Civil ar (both Caucasian and Black nurses), the way in which the Civil ar changed the woman's work roles, the role women (both Black and Caucasian) played before, during, and after the war, and the terrible injustices thrust on women of color in a number of instances throughout the 19th century.
The oman's role in America prior to the Civil ar
"A woman's work is never done," is an old maxim but it…
Brockett, Linus Pierpont, and Vaughan, Mary C. (1867). Woman's Work in the Civil War: A
Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Chicago, IL: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co.
Child, Lydia. (1837). The Family Nurse [or] Companion of the American Frugal Housewife.
Bedford, MA: Applewood Books (originally published by Charles Hendee in Boston).
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels…
Abbink, J. & Kessel, I.V. (Eds.). (2005). Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics, and Conflict in Africa. Boston: Brill. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610
Bility K.M. (1999) School Violence and Adolescent Mental Health in South Africa: Implications for School Health Programs. "http: Sociological Practice, Vol. 01, No, 4, pp. 285-303 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Carton, B. (2003). The Forgotten Compass of Death: Apocalypse Then and Now in the Social History of South Africa. Journal of Social History, 37(1), 199+. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database:
Perhaps the most fundamental tenet of my nursing philosophy is the administration of care in an intrinsically empathetic manner which benefits the patient. I unequivocally believe in patient-centered care and that nurses who are able to maintain this component of their practice as their primary goal are able to produce the greatest efficacy in administering to patients. Moreover, with all of the concerns of the contemporary healthcare market, including various facets of financial and technological concern, the shortage of various practitioners, and innovations in precision medicine, it is easy to forget that the most vital component of the health care industry is the patients themselves. Quite simply, patients have the most to gain and lose from the health care system. Therefore, I readily believe that keeping those patients as the center of the care delivered by me and others within my profession is the best way we can…
Andrist, C., Nicholas, P. and Wolf, K. (2006). The Evolution of the Environment Paradigm in Nursing. A history of nursing ideas (pp. 97- 108). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Bourdeau, M. Auguste Comte. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2015/entries/comte/
McEvoy, L., Duffy, A. (2008). Holistic practice -- a concept analysis. Nurse Education in Practice. 8, 412-419.
Zborowsky, T. (2014). The legacy of Florence Nightingale's environmental theory: nursing research focusing on the impact of healthcare environments. Health Environments Research & Design Journal. 7(4), 19-34.
These programs include the service of a registered dietician. (Monti, 2006) These and other programs and research adds to the insight and knowledge about prenatal nutrition that offer a valuable resource and knowledge base for the professional nurse.
Brody, N. (1995). Beyond Family Influences. Psychological Inquiry, 6(2), 142-145. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77033875
Dolby V. (1998) Practice good prenatal nutrition, for baby's sake. Better Nutrition,
Eriksson J.G., Forsen T., Tuomilehto J, Winter P.D., Osmond C. And Barker D.
J.P. (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ, 318, 427-431.
McCollister, B. (2001) the Social Necessity of Nurturance. Humanist, 61 (1).
Mead, M.N. (2007). You Are What Your Mother Ate. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(10), 492+. etrieved February 20, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023613182
Monti, Davorka (2003) Not so Common Nutrition Exercises for Your Childhood
Education Classes. International Journal…
Rather, the reader is only exposed to the short, choppy explanations of a first person narrator. Very little explanation is given as to why the events are happening or who the characters really are underneath their outward expressions and appearances. This tends to add to the general confusion the narrator feels during the intensely scary situation. One moment the narrator was thinking about tailgating with friends, and the next he is on the floor after being hit by a bus. The level of description coincides with the overall tone of confusion. The events following the initial accident also tend to carry this sense of confusion, but the atmosphere is much faster paced. The hospital and the ensuing trouble the narrator faces is in a much more rapid and hectic atmosphere than the dull and dreary atmosphere seen in Butler's work.
Overall, it is clear that the two works may share…
Butler, Katy. "What Broke My Father's Heart." New York Times. 2010. Web. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/20/magazine/20pacemaker-t.html?pagewanted=all
Riederer, Rachel. "Patient." The Missouri Review, 33(1), 2010. Pp 152-166.