Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
The first heart sound is generally longer and lower than the second, producing a heartbeat that sounds like lub-dup, lub-dup, lub-dup.
Blood pressure, the pressure exerted on the walls of blood vessels by the flowing blood, also varies during different phases of the cardiac cycle. Blood pressure in the arteries is higher during systole, when the ventricles are contracting, and lower during diastole, as the blood ejected during systole moves into the body's capillaries. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters (mm) of mercury using a sphygmomanometer, an instrument that consists of a pressure recording device and an inflatable cuff that is usually placed around the upper arm. Normal blood pressure in an adult is about 120 mm of mercury during systole, and about 80 mm of mercury during diastole. Blood pressure is usually noted as a ratio of systolic pressure to diastolic pressure for example, 120/80. A person's blood pressure…
Anaemia. (2007). Retrieved 3 March 2008, at http://www.homehealth-uk.com/medical/anaemia.htm
BLOOD TYPES and COMPATIBILITY. (2005). Retrieved 3 March 2008, from: BLOODBOOK.COM http://www.bloodbook.com/compat.html
Cardiac Conduction System Diagram. (1996). Retrieved 3 March 2008, at http://library.med.utah.edu/kw/ecg/mml/ecg_ccs.html
Cohen, Barbara Janson. (2005). Memmler's Structure and Function of the Human Body. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. http://books.google.com/books?id=o77tddua_MUC&dq=atrial+systole+ventricular+ystole+and+diastole&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
Cardiovascular system allows humans to survive. It is an essential component to the very complicated machinery that guides the functioning of the human body. It is this reason that has led to numerous research projects in order to discover news ways of making the heart function better. By improving the heart, the remainder of the body will be able to better operate. It was with this exact purpose that research teams were able to come up with a way to regenerate cardiac muscle cells in order to reprogram the heart into making new cells and repairing itself. As explained in Scientific American (2012), the heart already has the capacity of regenerating itself, however, the regeneration process is an extremely low one, and is tremendously limited. The actual study conducted by Eulalio et al. (2012) and published in Nature (2012) provides the proof necessary to support the idea of cardiac cell…
Smith, K. (2012) Heart Cells Can Be Coaxed to Regenerate at Low Rates. Scientific American.
Eulalio, A., Mano, M., Dal Ferro, M., Zentilin, L., Sinagra, G.,Zacchigna, S., & Giacca, M. (2012). Functional screening identifies miRNAs inducing cardiac regeneration. Nature. 492(7429), 376-381.
By staying fit, you maximize your chances of having a long and vigorous life" (Biller, 2002, p. 165). In addition, cardiovascular health usually deteriorates with age, and so, exercise is even more important as individuals get older. Another author writes, "Aging people begin to experience an increase in systolic blood pressure and a reduction in over-all cardiac output at rest and during exercise. The valves of the heart may begin to deteriorate and heart muscles decrease in size, reducing the ability to pump large amounts of blood ("Exercise Helps Put off," 1993, p. 7). As the body ages, it changes, and a good exercise program can help keep these changes at a minimum and help people live longer, more productive lives.
Proof also exists that a good exercise regimen can also help stave off the symptoms of adult-onset (Type 2) diabetes. A major clinical trial indicated that adults who are…
Biller, H.B. (2002). Creative fitness: Applying health psychology and exercise science to everyday life. Westport, CT: Auburn House.
Diet exercise delay Type 2 diabetes. (2001, September). FDA Consumer, 35, 10.
Exercise helps put off the inevitable. (1993, October). USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 122, 7.
Glaros, N.M., & Janelle, C.M. (2001). Varying the mode of cardiovascular exercise to increase adherence. Journal of Sport Behavior, 24(1), 42.
Export Import Company Consider organization work organization familiar. Reflect professional experiences organization. Consider experiences relate bases power, coercive power, reward power, legitimate power, expert power, referent power.
The cardiovascular system: The effects of aging
To fully understand the effects of aging on the human cardiovascular system, the fundamental structure of the heart must also be comprehended The heart has two sides: the right which enables the body to excrete carbon dioxide by sending blood to the lungs so they can receive oxygen and the left which "pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of body" (Dugdale 2010). Usually, the heart is efficient at regulating itself. But the heart is a muscle, and just as the visible muscles of the body lose their integrity with aging, so does the heart. The heart muscles degenerate and the heart valves stiffen, which can cause a heart murmur or other complications. "The heart has a…
"Cardiovascular system." American Academy of Health and Fitness. AAHF. [28 Sept 2012]
Dugdale, David C. "Aging changes in the heart and blood vessels." Medline Plus Encyclopedia,
2010. [28 Sept 2012] http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/004006.htm
High blood pressure or hypertension is defined as a consistent recording of systolic blood pressure of 140mm HG or greater, and a diastolic blood pressure recording of 90mm HG or greater. High blood pressure is the most common circulatory disorder among human beings. Hypertension occurs all over the world, mostly in middle-aged or elderly men and women. Nearly half of all Americans who reach the age of 74 develop high blood pressure. Table 1. elow provides a classification of blood pressure for adults. As indicated in Table 1, hypertension can be classified as normal, pre-hypertensive, Stage 1, or Stage 2 (National Institutes of Health). Cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance determines blood pressure. Cardiac output is the total volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute, and total peripheral resistance is the force that the heart must work against to pump the blood. Cardiac output is a central factor…
Black, H.R. "The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease: Following the Link from Hypertension to Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure." Am J. Hypertens 16.9 Pt 2 (2003): 4S-6S.
Giles, T.D. "Hypertension and Heart Failure Sine Heart Failure. The Acc/Aha Guidelines: A Misadventure in the Lexicography of Cardiomyopathy and Heart Failure, Particularly for the Hypertensive." J. Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 5.4 (2003): 280-1.
Lu, M., et al. "[Hypertension and Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis in a General Population of a Rural Areas in China]." Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 25.10 (2004): 841-4.
National Institutes of Health. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Blood pressure classification. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Hbp/HBP.html
Both the respiratory and cardiovascular systems are essential for the maintenance of life in the human body. The respiratory system is primarily responsible for gas exchange, as oxygen is taken in via the mouth or nose, eventually being expelled as carbon dioxide. The circulatory, or cardiovascular, system is responsible for circulating blood through the body. The respiratory and cardiovascular systems work together by delivering oxygen and essential nutrients to all the cells of the body.
The basic process of the respiratory system from initial respiration through gas exchange begins when a person takes a breath. Air enters through the mouth or nose, travels down the throat area’s pharynx, larynx, and trachea, and from there to the bronchial tubes (bronchi). The trachea itself splits to form the upper region of the left and right bronchial tubes (“Gas Exchange”). Each of the two primary bronchial tubes is then further divided into secondary,…
“Cardiovascular System,” (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.innerbody.com/image/cardov.html
“Gas Exchange.” Biology. Retrieved online: http://www.passmyexams.co.uk/GCSE/biology/gas-exchange.html
Lechtzin, N. (n.d.). Exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide. Merck Manuals. Retrieved online: http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/lung-and-airway-disorders/biology-of-the-lungs-and-airways/exchanging-oxygen-and-carbon-dioxide
Integration of Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Systems
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The integration of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems allow for nutrients to be introduced, broken down, and absorbed by body to maintain and promote healthy bodily functions. Independently, these systems serve separate functions, but when working in conjunction, help to transport necessary nutrients throughout the body, while maintaining and promoting homeostasis within the systems. Any imbalance within these systems will greatly affect the body, as a whole, and can lead to potentially fatal results.
Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body
The gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems of the human body help to breakdown and transport items that are ingested, such as food and medication, to the necessary parts of the body, expelling wastes that are not needed. Separately, the gastrointestinal and cardiac systems have different functions, but when the systems work in conjunction…
Bowen, R 2002, Salivary glands and saliva, Colorado State University, viewed 14 September 2011, http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/salivary.html
Cleveland Clinic 2005, The structure and function of the digestive system, viewed 29 September 2011, http://www.cchs.net/health/health-info/docs/1600/1699.asp?index=7041
Cotterill, S 2000, The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer, Department of Child Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, viewed 14 September 2011, http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm
Gregory, M n.d., The circulatory system, Clinton Community College, State University of New York, viewed 15 September 2011, http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm
Cardiovascular disease is especially dangerous and one of the only effective measures to handle it is prevention. This ultimately makes interventions so crucial, especially with patients with a history of cardiovascular disease and those still showing signs of cardiovascular health. For the case in question, it is crucial to establish with the patient a need to start interventions so that he can avoid further cardiovascular problems. The patient witnessed an abnormal treadmill test, which ultimately signifies issues with the cardiovascular system that may endanger the patient's health.
First, there are interventions that deal with lifestyle changes. These are the least invasive because they do not entail the introduction of medicines or the need for surgery. ather, they aim to intervene with unhealthy lifestyle choices within the life of the patient. Changes in lifestyle include diets, exercise routines, and other changes that promote better cardiovascular health (Lauer, 2008).…
Aijaz, Bilal, Babuin, Luciano, Squires, Ray, & Kopecky, Stephen. (2008). Long-term mortality with multiple treadmill exercise test abnormalities: Comparison between patients with and without cardiovascular disease. American Heart Journal. Web. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/581591_4
Artinian, Nancy T., Fletcher, Gerald F., Mozaffarian, Dariush, Kris-Etherton, Penny, & Van Horn, Linda. (2010). Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults. Circulation, 122(2010), 406-441.
Dunn, Steven P., Holmes, David., & Moliterno, David J. (2012). Drug-drug interactions in cardiovascular catheterizations and interventions. Journal of American College of Cardiovascular Interventions, 5(12), 1195-1208.
Lauer, Michael S. (2008). The exercise treadmill test: Estimating cardiovascular prognosis. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 75(6), 424-430.
Those who are the vulnerable will have specific genes they inherit from their relatives, who were impacted by the condition. This increases their chances of having similar complications when they become older. (Kolata, 2010)
Congestive Heart Failure and Hypertension
Congestive heart failure and hypertension are interconnected with each other. According to a study conducted by the University of Texas, they found that there are 660 thousand new cases reported each year. This is accounting for 7% of all deaths associated with cardio vascular disease. One of the biggest factors that will determine if someone is at risk is hypertension. As this is used in 75% of all cases, to predict if someone will be impacted by congestive heart failure and the long-term effects it will have on them. (Merla, 2009)
Hypertension can lead to complications by increasing the chances of ventricle or systolic dysfunction taking place. This improves the chances…
Heart Disease Fact. (2013). CDC. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm
Heart Disease and Stroke. (2012). Lasker Foundation. Retrieved from:
Heart Failure. (2013). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-failure/DS00061
Therefore, it is very crucial for all the nurses examining the athletes to carefully differentiate the murmurs of the behaviors of athletes and recommend if it is safe for them to continue sports behaviour.
Discussion 2: Anaphylactic Shock
Anaphylaxis shock is a very dangerous and life threatening allergy reaction that needs right, quick and aggressive treatment on time. Due to lack of recognition, the exact evidence of this condition is difficult to know. There are also no laboratory markers or any particular tests that can be used in the emergency to diagnose this situation.
According to the Canadian Pediatric Surveillance Program it is "a severe allergic reaction to any stimulus, having sudden onset and generally lasting less than 24 hours, involving one or more body systems and producing one or more symptoms such as hives, flushing, itching, angioedema, stridor, wheezing, shortness of breath, vomiting, diarrhea or shock" (Simons, Chad and…
Bille, K., Figueiras, D., Schamasch, P., Kappenberger, L., Brenner, J., Meijboom, J and Meijboom J. (2006). 'Sudden cardiac death in athletes: the Lausanne Recommendations'.
Eur Journal Cardiovascular Rehabilitation. 2006 Dec; 13(6):859-75.
Maron, B.(2003). Sudden death in young athletes. N Engl J. Med. 2003;349: 1064 -- 75
Simons FER, Chad, ZH and Gold M. (2002). Real-time reporting of anaphylaxis in infants,
Walking: Slow down your walking to a regular pace for 5 minutes.
If needed utilize heat or ice therapy to knees after walk.
Stretching: Sit down on the floor and reach for your toes. Hold this position for 1 minute and do not bounce. Next, sit with your legs crisscrossed, place your arms out to the sides and rotate your center slowly from side to side. Finally, stand up and face the wall. Slow begin walking your feet away from the wall until you feel a stretch in your calves.
Walking: Walk at a regular pace for 5 minutes.
Increase your pace for 8 minutes.
Frequency: Once per day
Intensity: Your heart rate should be at 80 bpm during the fast-paced walking. If you find that it is becoming hard to breath, then slow down to a normal pace until your breathing is back under control.
Walking: Slow down…
Although the severities of congestive signs may be similar, medical evaluation should be instructed to determine whether there is accompanying proof of cardiovascular disease. Physical proof of cardiovascular disease contains the narrow pulse pressure, cool arms, and legs, and sometimes changed mentation, with supporting proof sometimes provided by reducing serum sodium level and deteriorating renal function. Cardiovascular disease is frequently difficult to recognize through phone contact but may be suspected when previously effective diuretic increases fail, nurses report lower blood pressure, or patients explain improved lethargy.
Facilitators and barriers to optimal disorder management and outcomes
Environmental factors and cultural beliefs; motivators and hinders
In this case, the client thought he was suffering from a heart attack and feared to come to the hospital. The symptoms had presented for four days before the patient sought help. The patient had been suffering from similar symptoms for the past six months, but thought…
American Association of Cardiovascular (2013). Guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention programs. John Wiley & Sons.
Bunting-Perry, L.K., & Vernon, G.M. (2007). Comprehensive nursing care for Parkinson's disease. New York: Springer Pub.
Holloway, N.M. (2014). Medical-surgical care planning. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Gulanick, M. (2007). Nursing care plans: Nursing diagnosis and intervention. St. Louis: Mosby.
Spaceflight on the Cardiovascular and Haemostatic System
Several physiological changes occur during spaceflights, the most noticeable of which are on the cardiovascular and haemostatic system of the body.
Since the human body is adapted to live in a world of gravity, it has developed ways of combating the gravity's downward force. For example, due to the earth's gravity blood tends to accumulate in the lower limbs but the body is equipped with a system to help monitor and maintain the blood flow and pressure so that the upper body and organs get an adequate supply of blood. In the zero gravity environment during spaceflights when there is no downward force, the upper body gets more than its share of blood. This triggers the monitoring receptors which signal to the body to reduce the volume of blood. As blood passes through the kidney, the excess plasma volume is excreted, lowering total…
Bird, Patrick J. (1996). "Keeping Fit" Spaceflight and Exercise. University of Florida Website. http://hermes.hhp.ufl.edu/keepingfit/ARTICLE/FLIGHT.htm
Snare, Carolyn C. (2002). "Research Examines Adaptations of Cardiovascular System to Microgravity." Space Research. NASA Website. [Available online]. Accessed on October 20, 2004 from http://spaceresearch.nasa.gov/research_projects/cardiovascular_06-2002.html
'When Space Makes You Dizzy." (2002). Science @ NASA. [Available online]. Accessed on October 20, 2004 from http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/25mar_dizzy.htm
Plasma is the liquid part of the blood
Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Performance
The Influence of Mean Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Performance
reathing, also known as pulmonary ventilation, is the basic connection between the heart and lungs (Williams & Whitney, 2006). The connection allows air between the lungs and the atmosphere and the exchange of gases between the air and the alveoli in the lungs. ody receptors can detect changes involved in the movement of air and the pressure that accompanies it. These receptors can either increase or decrease breathing rate. They encourage slower breathing when blood pressure rises and faster breathing rate if the blood pressure goes down. Meanwhile, an exchange of gases between body tissues and capillaries is needed to maintain life. It brings in the gases living tissues need for survival. lood carries oxygen molecules when leaving the heart and distributes it throughout the body. Very small capillaries coordinate in the flow and…
Byrd, R.P. And Mosenifar, Z. (2010). Mechanical ventilation. Medscape: WebLLC.
Retrieved on August 18, 2011 from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/304068-overview
Daoud, E.G. (2007). Airway pressure release ventilation. Vol 2 (4) Annals of Thoracic
Medicine: Pub Med Central. Retrieved on August 12, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2732103
The circulatory or cardiovascular system is responsible for moving nutrients, wastes and gases between body cells, transporting blood across the whole body and battling disease (Circulatory System). Its principal elements are the heart, numerous blood vessels, and blood.
The heart forms the circulatory system's core. This 2-sided, 4-chambered pump which distributes blood to various arteries comprises of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria. The ventricles, situated within the heart's lower half, are responsible for pumping blood to the whole body (away from our heart), whilst the atria, situated within the heart's upper half are in charge of receiving blood from different parts of the human body. The right and left ventricles pump de-oxygenated and oxygenated blood, respectively; de-oxygenated blood is pumped to lungs while oxygenated blood is pumped to the remainder of the human body (smith, 2013). These 4 chambers are connected to one another by…
Broken Heart Syndrome
Cardiovascular Case Study
Broken heart syndrome, otherwise called stress or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), represents an adverse physiological response to an acute psychological or physical stressor (Derrick, 2009). The death of a loved one or experiencing a physically traumatic event, represent two examples of life stressors that can cause this reversible form of cardiomyopathy. Although effective treatment is available, the seriousness of the condition is such that it explains how a person can literally die of a broken heart.
An estimated 1.2 million people suffered from an myocardial infarction (MI) in 2007 and approximately 1% (Derrick, 2009, p. 50) to 2% (Wittstein, 2012, p. 2) of MI events was probably due to TTC. Women are far more susceptible to TTC than men and represent approximately 89% of all cases (Derrick, 2009, p. 50). This gender bias shifts the estimated prevalence of TTC among female MI patients…
American Heart Association, American Stroke Association. (2011). Women & cardiovascular disease: Statistical fact sheet 2012 update. Heart.org. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_319576.pdf
Derrick, Dawn. (2009). The "broken heart syndrome": Understanding Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Critical Care Nurse, 29, 49-57.
Fitzgerald, Helen. (2000). Helping a grieving parent: Working through Grief. AmericanHospice.org. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from http://www.americanhospice.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=84&Itemid=8
Liao, Joshua. (2011). Takotsubo: Octopus trap. Journal of Medical Humanities. Published ahead of print online Aug. 9. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/ak0776051x43w701/
e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…
Bailey, R. (2011). Muscle tissue. About.com Guide. Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa022808a.htm
Carpi, A. (1999). Basic anatomy - tissues & organs. Retrieved from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm
Lakatta, E.G. (1994). Cardiovascular reserve capacity in healthy older humans. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 6(4): 213-23.
Courtesy of Musculartory System BlogSpot
The "pain" caused to the heart due to tissue damage can be misplaced in the body due to these nerve pathways and connections; heart attacks are often felt in the left arm and elsewhere on that side of the body between the heart and brain.
Diuretics would encourage the elimination of sodium and a lessened fluid retention, easing the pressure in his arteries.
The increased acidity in J.M.'s blood indicates reduced heart functionality and creatine phosphokinase levels are elevated which indicates muscle damage; low-normal lactate dehydrogenase suggest no recent prior infarctions, however, and without further tests this particular measure is not especially edifying.
The drug relaxes blood vessels, allowing easier passage of blood reducing chest pain (which elevates stress and blood pressure) and easing the underlying problem, as well
Aspirin inhibits the collection of platelets at the site of a plaque rupture, preventing a full blockage…
Health Sciences 101
The Health Impact of Acetaminophen Overdose
Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common over-the-counter (OTC), antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic that is more commonly known as Tylenol®, a product of Johnson & Johnson1. Overseas the drug is called paracetamol and is manufactured and sold by countless generic drug makers.
A number of concerns regarding the safety of APAP have arisen over the past several years, including liver and kidney toxicity and adverse cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary effects. This essay will provide an overview of APAP, its uses, and safety issues, with an emphasis on the cardiopulmonary system.
Mechanisms of APAP Activity
The analgesic and antipyretic activity of APAP was thought to be similar to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications because it was believed to inhibit prostaglandin (PGE2) synthesis2,3. This assumption has not withstood the test of time, for either APAP or other popular OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The main evidence…
1. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Tylenol (TN): Substance summary (SID 7847284). PubChem 2011. Accessed 5 Nov 2011 at http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?sid=7847284
2. Hamza M, Dionne RA. Mechanisms of non-opioid analgesics beyond cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition. Curr Mol Pharmacol 2009; 2(1):1-14.
3. Kaufman G. Basic pharmacology of non-opioid analgesics. Nurs Stand 2010; 24(30):55-61.
4. Chan AT, Manson JE, Albert CM, Chae CU, Rexrode KM, Curhan GC, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and the risk of cardiovascular events. Circulation 2006; 113(12):1578-1587.
Magnetic esonance System on patients
Magnetic resonance System (Imaging), here after referred to as (MS), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMI), is a medical imaging technique widely used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structure and limited function of the body. It provides great contrast between the different soft tissues of the body, making it particularly useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and ontological (cancer) imaging. MS uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body (Adams, 1989). To systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, adio frequency (F) fields are used, enhancing the generation of a rotating magnetic field by the hydrogen nuclei that can be detected using a scanner.
MS can detect the chemical composition of diseased tissue and produce color images of brain function. This signal can be controlled by more magnetic fields to build up adequate…
Adams, R.D. & Victor, M. (1989). Intracranial neoplasm: Principles of neurology. (4th Ed.) New
Clark, C.A., et al. (2003). White Matter Fiber Tracking in Patients with Space-Occupying Lesions of the Brain: A New Technique for Neurosurgical Planning? Neuroimage 20: 1601-1608.
Hammell K. (1994). Psychosocial outcome following spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 32: 771 -- 779.
Gender variation in clinical decision-making was measured, including (1) the number, types, and certainty levels of diagnoses considered and (2) how diagnoses vary according to patient characteristics, when patients have identical symptoms of CHD (Maserejian et al., 2009).
This was a factorial experiment presenting videotaped CHD symptoms, systematically altering patient gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES) and race, and physician gender and level of experience. The primary end point was physicians' most certain diagnosis. The results: Physicians (n=128) mentioned five diagnoses on average, most commonly heart, gastrointestinal, and mental health conditions. Physicians were significantly less certain of the underlying cause of symptoms among female patients regardless of age, but only among middle-aged women were they significantly less certain of the CHD diagnosis. Among middle-aged women, 31.3% received a mental health condition as the most certain diagnosis, compared with 15.6% of their male counterparts. An interaction effect showed that females with high…
Chou, Anne F., Sarah Hudson Scholle, Carol S. Weisman, Arlene S. Bierman, Rosaly
Correa-de-Araujo, & Lori Mosca (2007). "Gender Disparities in the Quality of Cardiovascular Disease Care in Private Managed Care Plans." In Women's Health
Issues 17: 120 -- 130.
DeVon, H., Ryan, C.J., Ochs, a.L., & Shapiro, M. (2008). "Symptoms Across the Continuum of Acute Coronary Syndromes: Differences Between Women and Men." In Am J. Crit Care 17:14-24.
Based upon the fact the baby boomers are all approaching retirement age, it would be a good idea for the organization to pursue programs that are geared towards seniors. Programs that are geared towards seniors are a great way to produce quality comprehensive health care for those in the community that need it. The organization might pursue the idea of opening a PACE program. " The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) is a capitated benefit authorized by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) that features a comprehensive service delivery system and integrated Medicare and Medicaid financing" (Program of All Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), 2009). The PACE program features complete medical and social services that rely on an interdisciplinary team approach in an adult day health center that includes in-home and referral services depending on the person's needs (Program of All Inclusive Care for the…
Baker, J. Judith & Baker, R.W. (2006). Healthcare Finance, Basic Tools for Nonfinancial
Managers. Maryland: Aspen Publications, Inc.
Bury, Elizabeth, Carter, Kara S., Feigelman, Masha and Grant, Jennifer M. (n.d.). Retrieved June
2, 2009, from Web site:
ACIST CVi Angiographic Imaging System
The ACIST CVi is an angiographic imaging system used to diagnose diseases and treat over 15 million patients globally. The ACIST CVi is able to simplify a contrast injection using all procedure ranging from small injections for a coronary artery to peripheral vasculature and a large volume injection for ventricles, which consequently enhance efficiency, safety, image quality, and control. The CVi system assists in improving procedural efficiency and image quality. Moreover, the system minimizes a radiation exposure as well as reducing the patient contrast dose. The CVi system also helps in reducing time to carry out imaging procedure, which is beneficial to both healthcare professionals and patients. (Ferebee, & Scoville, 2009).
Objective of this paper is to investigate the ACIST CVi imaging system and its benefits for the Invasive Cardiac Catheterization.
Benefits of the ACIST CVi imaging system for the Invasive Cardiac
The ACIST CVi…
Business Wire (2015). ACIST Medical Systems Announces the ACIST CVi product introduction at the TCT: The ACIST CVi - Trust Experience. Rely on Innovation. ACIST Medical Systems, Minneapolis.
Ferebee, D. & Scoville, G.S. (2009). Adoption of new contrast injection method: Impact on costs, patient length-of-stay, and physician and staff satisfaction. ACIST Medical Systems, Inc.
Chahoud, G. Khoukaz, S. El-Shafei, A. et al. (2001). Randomized comparison of coronary angiography using 4F catheters: 4F manual versus "ACISTed" power injection technique. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions. 2001;53(2):221-224.
National Institutes of Health (2012). Explore Cardiac Catheterization. Department of Health and Human Services.
The delivery health care system takes into account the assimilation of physicians, healthcare facilities, together with other medical services with plan to facilitate the provision of the total continuum of medical care for its consumers. In a whole incorporated system, the three fundamental components including physicians, medical facilities and the membership to health plans are counterpoised in terms of equating medical resources with the necessities of patients and purchasers (Coddington, Moore, and Fischer., 1994). One of the key concerns in the present delivery of healthcare is cost. Increasing costs of healthcare has been a major worry in the past number of years, making the United States to have one of the most expensive systems of healthcare. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the different costs linked to healthcare delivery system, and delineate the manner in which these costs impact different populations and how it also affects…
Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon
Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (owen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (owen).
Insulin and Glucagon
The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…
Biomed (2002). Insulin/glucagons. Brown University. Retrieved on November 25, 2013
Bowen, R.A. (2001). Hormones, receptors and control systems. University of Colorado.
Retrieved on November 25, 2013 from http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/index.html
Instrumentation needed for the research study will be relatively minimal and straightforward; necessary equipment for a standard checkup to determine cardiovascular health and other basic signs of chronic disease as well as scrapers, swabs, and vials for the collection of bacterial samples will be needed. It is possible that culturing of the bacterial samples will be desired, in which case additional instruments and controlled environment equipment will also be needed for the full completion of the study. In order to assess the exclusionary criteria related to weight, a standard scale and height ruler will need to be utilized along with caliper measurements to determine body mass index. Other than this and the instruments necessary for recording and analyzing the data collected using these instruments, it is not expected that any other resources will be necessary for this research study.
ollowing initial measurements to determine suitability for inclusion in…
Following these general examinations and the more extensive examinations of cardiovascular health, specifically identified areas in participants' mouths will be variously swabbed or scraped to obtain bacteria samples, and levels of bacteria in these areas and in the mouth as a whole will be measured using a variety of techniques. If necessary, the bacteria collected through this direct methodology will be cultured in an appropriate lab setting using standard equipment, with twenty-four hours being sufficient time for the culture to grow to be identifiable in most instances. Examination of bacteria types, growth patterns in the mouth, and correlation with cardiovascular disease will be identifiable with the data collected via these methods, enabling appropriate analysis and a determination of correlation.
The latest available version of SPSS software operated by an experienced statistician, under the observation and supervision of the lead researcher, will be utilized to analyze the raw data collected in this study. Specifically, regression analyses will be utilized in order to determine the correlation, if any, that exists between the existence of certain types or levels of bacteria in the mouth or in certain areas of the mouth and cardiovascular disease. The Mann-Whitney test will also be used to determine which if any variables are statistically different between the participant group with cardiovascular disease and those without. Again, this is in keeping with similarly designed studies already successfully completed (Johansson et al. 2008).
Exercise has been described as the best medicine for depression. It can help a person get through rough times. Physical exercise is very important for a person's mental and physical health. Exercise helps in pumping more blood through the veins. This results in the increase in size of the arteries and it prevents fats from clogging the arteries. It also prevents blood clots. A person who exercises regularly is protected from a variety of diseases and it helps in curbing cholesterol. Exercise benefits a human body as it lowers blood pressure and conditions the lungs. Exercise has its various advantages. It successfully counters stress, depression and anxiety. It has been named as the best fighting force for all these problems. Exercise is also instrumental in improving a person's nervous, cardiovascular and immune system. It also increases our metabolism, digestion and stimulation. (University of Michigan Health System) (http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm)
Sometimes people feel…
Marissa Beck, Relieving Stress Through Exercise, The Tufts Daily, 2003
Richard Harvey, The Physician and Sports Medicine - September 1995
Harvard Health Publications Special Health Report, Depression Report, 2002
scientific effects of smoking on the human body especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We will give a brief analysis on how smoking affects the mentioned systems and see how the human body system works if the individual does not smoke. We will also support our paper with scientific and statistical evidence regarding the facts related to smoking.
Smoking and its effects
Before looking at smoking and its effects lets review on how the respiratory and cardiovascular systems work. When we breathe air it first enters Trachea/windpipe through which it enters on each of the bronchi present at both of the lungs. The bronchus is spread throughout the lungs like branches on trees and at its tips is as thin as a hair (bronchioles). Each lung has about thirty thousand bronchioles. At the tip of every bronchiole lies an area which leads to tiny air sacs known as alveoli.…
Timmins, William. (1989). Smoking and the workplace. New York: Quorum Books.
Klarreich, Samuel. (1987). Health and fitness in the workplace. New York: Praeger.
Weiss, Stephen. (1991). Health at work. New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.
Bunton, Robin. (2002). Health Promotion. London: Routledge.
Non-Cardiac Chest Pain
Background- Chest pain is one of the most common reasons people call for or visit the Emergency Room for help. Heart attack education has brought to light the urgency of seeking immediate medical treatment if one suspects they are having heart issues. However, chest pain does not always signal a heart attack, and may be totally unrelated to issues with the cardiovascular system. Often no clear reason for such pain presents itself during examination, but understanding the perception and pain experience can help medical professionals understand different experiences that lead to patient panic about chest pain (Jerlock, Gaston-Johansson, & Danielson, 2005). Typically, if chest pain is related to a cardiac issue it is usually associated with one of the following symptoms: 1) pressure, fullness or extreme tightness in the chest; 2) crushing or searing pain that radiates to the back, upward through the jaw, and especially through…
Unexplained Chest Pain Can be Due To Stress. (2009, February 9). Retrieved from Science Daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090209094551.htm
Cunha, J. (2011, March). Chest Pain - Overview, Causes, Symptoms. Retrieved from eMedicineHealth: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/chest_pain/article_em.htm
Hershcovici, T., Navarro-Rodriguez, T., & Fass, R. (2011). Non-Cardiac Chest Pain: An Update. CML Gastroenterology, 30(2), 37-54.
Jerlock, M., Gaston-Johansson, F., & Danielson, E. (2005). Living with unexplained chest pain. Issues in Clinical Nursing, 14(2), 956-64.
Clinical Learning Points
Clinical Case Study Key Learning Points
Given the patient's history with angina and cardiac conditions, there is a clear need to ensure that he does not allow bad habits to continue in addition to the careful management and monitoring of his health. The patient's medical history also includes known diagnoses for diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. His father had also passed from heart disease, indicating a genetic predisposition to cardiac problems. The patient recently was discharged just a few days prior for a stent placement. He returned for an evaluation, claiming that his major cardiac symptoms, including crushing chest pain, shortness of breath and diaphoretic had subsided dramatically. Still, there is thought to be a high risk of future complications in regards to his cardiac health because of the fact that he has a very minimal support system in order to help him change his dietary and lifestyle…
American Heart Association. (2007). Patient-teaching for cardiac nurses. Nursing, 37(10), 14-16.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/healthy_living.htm
John Hopkins Medicine. (2014). High Cholesterol (Hypercholesterolemia). Heart & Vascular Institute. Retrieved from http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/heart_vascular_institute/conditions_treatments/conditions/high_cholesterol.html
More sport and physiological testing has become increasingly common as the interaction between scientists and coaches (tanner & Gore, 2013). When it comes to popular sports that are watched al over the world, team games like basketball generally have a heightened game tempo, a tougher body game and a more acute variability in the techniques and methods used (Singh & Deol, 2012). "An increased performance level can only be achieved by working and training of all major components i.e. technique, coordination, tactics, physical fitness, physiological qualities and psychological qualities. Basketball is one of the most popular team-based sports played and watched throughout the world" (Singh & Deol, 2012). This puts the aspect of physiological testing as an extreme priority for a variety of reasons. "Physiological exercise testing is important in basketball to help identify potential talent but also to provide the players, trainers and coaching staff with some…
Bangsbo, J. (2006). Training and testing of the elite athlete.Copenhagen Muscle Research
Centre, 4(1), 1-9.
Changela, P.K., & Bhatt, S. (2012). The correlational study of the vertical jump test and wingate cycle test as a method to assess anaerobic power in high school basketball players. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2(6), 2-9.
Cissik, J. (2013, February 15). The point guard off-season workout plan. Retrieved from http://www.stack.com/2013/02/15/point-guard-off-season-workout/
* The effects on normal aging and metabolism is that after the age of forty, metabolism usually decreases by about 5% every ten years. That does not mean that metabolism cannot be controlled to some extent; it can. Metabolism is loosely defined as the chemical workings within our bodies that help us to maintain a certain level of energy use, calorie burning and general energy (even at rest). As we age, our metabolism rate slows down, meaning that we burn less calories and the ones we do burn are burned at a slower rate. It also means that we may have less energy and our overall health slows as well.
* As individuals grow older their muscle mass is less likely to maintain its composition. Bill Sonnemaker, the 2007 IDEA Health and Fitness Personal Trainer of the year states that building muscle mass at any age provides a number of…
American College of Sports Medicine (1995) Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 5th Ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 1-373
American Diabetes Association (2011) Hyperglycemia, accessed on May 5, 2011 at http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/hyperglycemia.html
Van Dusen, A. (2011) Tips to build your muscle mass at any age, accessed on May 1, 2011 at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20515088/ns/health-forbescom/
Metabolic syndrome is significant for our patient for several reasons. As we have noted, the syndrome is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Those patients who have metabolic syndrome tend to develop coronary atherosclerosis at a higher rate than those who have coronary risk factors alone. Obesity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome but so does pre-obesity, or BMI ranging from 25-30. Women who have been diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome are noted to be at increased risk of hypertension, dylipidemia, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and Type II diabetes. Because of all these comorbidities, women with PCOS also tend to be at greater risk for patients with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, especially in the premenopausal population (Talbot, et al., 2000). For these same reasons, women diagnosed with PCOS have a 5 fold increased risk for the development of complications of coronary and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis.
Mrs. Stiller has many…
Reaven G. (2002) Metabolic syndrome. Pathophysiology and implications for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation.106:286-288
Manson JE, Willet WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, et al. (2005) Body weight and mortality among women. N Eng J. Med 333:677-85
Juahan-Vague I, Alessi MC. (1997) PAI-1, obesity, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular events. Thromb Haemost 78:656-60
Wilson PW. (2004) Estimating cardiovascular disease risk and the metabolic syndrome: a Framingham view. Endocrinol Metab Clin N. Am. 33:467-81
DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT PLAN
Diagnosis and Disease Processes
Using an appropriate patient assessment form (Sample Forms, 2013), D.M. has been found to have uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, uncontrolled hypertension, chronic anemia, and probable hypothyroidism (Sample Forms).
Diabetes Type 2
is most probably on a poorly controlled diet of high cholesterol and high simple sugars. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a metabolic disease wherein the body is not able to properly use ingested food because of insulin resistance. If more simple or refined sugars are consumed, the less the body is able to process them as nutrients. These tend to stay and float in the blood stream, un-used, and in this condition, they cause trouble in the different parts of the body. These include the end organs, such as the brain, the eyes, the kidneys, the heart, and even the feet. A poorly controlled diet and the lack…
Glasgow, R.E., et al. (2005). Development and validation of the patient assessment of chronic illness care. Vol. 43 # 5, Medical Care: PuMed. Retrieved on October 15,
2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15838407
Sample Forms (2013). Patient assessment form. Sample Forms.org. Retrieved on October 15, 2014 from http://www.sampleforms.org/patient-assessmentform.html
Measuring Heart and Ventilation Rate During and After Moderate Exercise
A useful perspective to begin the process of conducting an experiment to measure heart and ventilation rate during and after a moderate exercise is to explain the central purpose of the experiment. Generally speaking, if we can measure the heart and the ventilation rate of an individual, we will be able to ascertain the individual's level of fitness. In addition, during an exercise activity, measuring the heart and ventilation rate can be a strategy for indicating the presence of disease in the subject's system. Furthermore, this kind of experiment can enable a researcher to determine the subject's maximum capacity, which, in turn, can serve not only as a barometer for determining the subject's cardiac capacity but also of his/her fatigue level. The following sections explored the objectives, steps and procedures for the experiment for measure the heart rate and ventilation…
Allaby, M 2011, Cardiac Cycle, A Dictionary of Zoology. Encyclopedia.com, . viewed April 7, 2011, .
Davis M. 2000, The Relaxation and Stress Reduction Workbook, New Harbinger inc., Sacramento, CA.
Goleman D & Gurin J. 1993, Mind Body Medicine, Consumer Books
Hawkins M. 1993, Rebounding for Health and Fitness, Thorsons, London
Veterinary Nursing Anesthesia and Analgesia Case Journal
The objective of this study is to address anesthesia needs in two specific cases with the first being a 12-week-old Jack Russell puppy and the second being a 12-year-old geriatric cat.
12-Week-old Jack Russell Puppy
This 12-week-old Jack Russell Puppy has eaten a babies dummy. This case study will highlight the anesthesia requirements and protocol and highlight the relevance of effect on renal function, speed of recovery, analgesia, emphasis on knowledge and understanding. Even at 12-weeks of age, this puppy is considered a pediatric patient according to the work of Gleed and Seymour (1991). This means that the patient has a higher oxygen requirement that the adult. The tongue of this patient due to his age is large and the airway is small in diameter. As well, there is a lower functional renal capacity in this age patient all of which make the…
Bennett, RC, et al. (2008) Comparison of sevoflurane and isoflurane in dogs anaesthetized for clinical surgical or diagnostic procedures. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 49, 392-397.
Gleed, R and Seymour C (Eds) (1991) Manual of Small Animal Anesthesia and Hall, LW Clarke KW Trim CM 2001 Veterinary Anesthesia 10th edition Myerscough College 2011 Drugs used for Premedication
HEDip CVN VN 2020 Veterinary Anesthesia: Anesthesia for Specific Scenarios. Session Introduction Myerscough College 2011.
Hollingshead KW & Mckelvey D (2000) Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia 3rd Edn Mosby Missouri
However, it was 1953 that the formation of serotonin was from the lungs was substantiated. It is also observed that detoxification of the blood takes place in the lungs. Later, it was observed that one of the important activities of the lung is to provide chemical filtration by shielding the regular circulation of blood from the attack of vasoactive mixtures and other exogenous compounds present in the arteries. The physiology of the lungs and its location makes the lung exclusively suitable to perform these activities. (Wet; Moss, 1998)
The total output from the cardiac system is obtained by the lungs whereas other organs acquire only a very small quantity of output. The blood that circulates the lungs is subject to the vast capillary endothelial plane of the body which is of seventy square meters. This aspect of output and circulation enable the lung to perform the efficient function of biochemical…
Bennett, Taylor. B. (1996) "Essentials for Animal Research: A Primer for Research Personnel"
De Reuck, a.V. S; O'Connor, Maeve. (1962) "CIBA Foundation Symposium on Pulmonary
Structure and Function" a. Churchill Ltd.: London.
Alcohol is classified as a depressant because it slows down the release of neurochemicals that inhibit certain behaviors. The subjective feelings associated with alcohol intoxication are due to its effects on the brain and central nervous system but that system also controls our behaviors. The depression of certain neurotransmitters often reduces reflex time and reduces general inhibitions.
The digestive system is also strongly affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol is absorbed almost entirely by the small intestine, from where the alcohol seeps into the blood. The liver is strongly affected by the absorption of alcohol and is in fact the main organ responsible for metabolizing alcohol. hen too much alcohol is consumed, the liver becomes overtaxed and cannot filter the toxins from the body as fast as it normally can. Over the long-term, the liver can become permanently damaged from too much alcohol consumption.
The heart and circulatory system are also…
Alcohol Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination." California DUI Help. Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.californiaduihelp.com/dui_investigation/alcohol.asp
Boggan, Bill. "Alcohol Chemistry and You." Kennesaw State University, 2003.
Fantastic Voyage-Fem artery to ight lung
A Fantastic Voyage from the ight Femoral Artery to the ight Lung
The human body is an intricate system of labyrinths that work together to maintain essential functions and thus maintain an individuals physical health. Two systems that work together are the circulatory and cardiopulmonary systems. Together, these systems help to transport gasses, nutrients, wastes, and hormones to various organs in the body. While it is may be easy to get lost in the multitude of paths that lead to the rest of the body from the heart, finding one's way from the right femoral vein to the lower lobe of the right lung via the right pulmonary artery is much simpler than would be expected.
Let us begin our journey in the right femoral vein. After a long and treacherous journey, we find ourselves in the right femoral vein and must figure out…
Cotterill, S. (2000). The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer. Department of Child Health. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Retrieved 19 July 2012, from http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm
Gregory, M (n.d.). The circulatory system. Clinton Community College. State University of New York. Retrieved 19 July 2012, from http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm
Inner Body (2011). All systems. Retrieved 19 July 2012, from http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html
incidence rates of childhood obesity are linked to socio-economic factors. Core drivers of obesity in both children and adults are diet and exercise, and research has shown that a calorie is not a calorie. That is to say that certain foods serve as triggers for metabolic responses and physiological events that impact the overall health of individuals. The old adage that people can focus on loosing weight -- the associated implication is that they will be healthy as a result -- has shown not to be true. Much of the prepackaged food consumed today -- particularly so-called junk food -- is high in sugar, fats, and calories. However, this statement is too reductionist to be of help to people who are interested in improving their diets in order to actually become healthier.
ecent research indicates that obesity is certainly a factor in the incidence of diabetes, as is total caloric…
Basu, S., Yoffe, P., Hills, N., & Lustig, R.H. (2013). The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: An econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS ONE, 8(2): e57873. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873
Breen, C., Ryan, M., McNulty, B., Gibney, M., Canavan, R., & O'Shea, D. (2014, February). High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Nutrition and Diabetes, 4, e104. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2014.2.
Eckel, R.H. (1997). Obesity and Heart Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation, 96, 3248-3250. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.96.9.3248
This became more so with the advancement of molecular iology Tests. Subsequently a group of clinicians met in Ghent elgium and came up with the current diagnostic criteria known as the Ghent Nosology. (De Paepe et al. 1996) Similar to the erlin Nosology the Ghent criteria was based on clinical findings in the various organ systems as well as the nature of family history and relationships, a major criteria was classified as which has a high diagnostic specificity because it was less frequent in other conditions and in the general population. A point of divergence from the erlin Nosology was the conversion of minor criteria in the skeletal system into major criteria. For one to be diagnosed with Marfan's the patient must have a first degree relative diagnosed with the disease in addition two systems must be involved with one having a major sign. In the absence of a family…
Beighton, P., de Paepe, a., Danks, D., Finidori, G., Gedde-Dahl, T., Goodman, R., Hall, J.G., Hollister, D.W., Horton, W., McKusick, V.A., Opitz, J.M., Pope, F.M., Pyeritz, R.E., Rimoin, D.L., Sillence, D., Spranger, J.W., Thompson, E., Tsipouras, P., Viljoen, D., Winship, I., Young, I (1988). International nosology of heritable disorders of connective tissue. Am. J. Med. Genet. 29: 581-594,
Borger F (1914): Uber zwei Falle von Arachnodaktylie. Zschr Kinderheilk 12: 161 -1-84.
Baer RW, Taussig HB, Oppenheimer EH (1943): Congenital aneurysmal dilatation of the aorta associated with arachnodactyly. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 72:309-33 1.
De Paepe, a., Devereux, R.B., Dietz, H.C., Hennekam, R.C.M., Pyeritz, R.E.( 1996) Revised diagnostic criteria for the Marfan syndrome. Am. J. Med. Genet. 62: 417-426
Lack of physical activity and exercises increase the risk of early death by 23%, hence, showing the significance of physical activity and exercise. Incorporating other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, abusing alcohol, and abuse of other drug complexes the health status of an individual; hence, a premature death (Tarnopolsky, 2010).
A strong relationship exists between physical activity and exercises and the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Poor lifestyles contribute to a variety of risk factors such as high levels of lipids in the blood, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure that causes cardiovascular complications. Significant evidence shows that reducing these risk factors reduces the risks of an individual having cardiovascular conditions such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and coronary heart disease. egular exercises and physical activity reduce these risk factors in a number of ways. For instance, it promotes the reduction of the body weight that helps in the reduction of…
8 Benefits of exercising. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u - _NNCL_eXA&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Benefits of Exercise for your Health. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vC7qpvhhCL0&feature=youtube_gdata_player
Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. (n.d.). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://journals.lww.com/co-psychiatry/Fulltext/2005/03000/Exercise_and_well_being__a_review_of_mental_and.13.aspx
Medical aspects of exercise: benefits and risks.. (1991). London: Royal College of Physicians of London.
However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.
Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…
Gurkan, Y., Canatay, H., Agacdiken, a., Ural, E., & Toker, K. (2003). Effects of halothane and sevoflurane on QT dispersion in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth, 13(3), 223-227.
Kerssens, C., Ouchi, T., & Sebel, P.S. (2005). No evidence of memory function during anesthesia with propofol or isoflurane with close control of hypnotic state. Anesthesiology, 102(1), 57-62.
Macario, a., Dexter, F., & Lubarsky, D. (2005). Meta-analysis of trials comparing postoperative recovery after anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane. Am J. Health Syst Pharm, 62(1), 63-68.
Marczin, N. (2004). Editorial I: Tiny wonders of tiny impurities of nitrous oxide during anaesthesia. Br J. Anaesth, 93(5), 619-623.
Ng, a. (2005). Sevoflurane sedation in infants - a fine line between sedation and general anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth, 15(1), 1-2.
Preckel, B., Mullenheim, J., Hoff, J., Obal, D., Heiderhoff, M., Thamer, V., et al. (2004). Haemodynamic changes during halothane, sevoflurane and desflurane anaesthesia in dogs before and after…
Desalu, I., Kushimo, O.T., & Odelola, M.A. (2004). Cardiovascular changes during halothane induction in children. Niger Postgrad Med J, 11(3), 173-178.
Gungor, I., Bozkirli, F., Celebi, H., & Gunaydin, B. (2003). Comparison of the effects of neuroleptanesthesia and enflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia on neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium. J Anesth, 17(2), 129-132.
Gurkan, Y., Canatay, H., Agacdiken, a., Ural, E., & Toker, K. (2003). Effects of halothane and sevoflurane on QT dispersion in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth, 13(3), 223-227.
Kerssens, C., Ouchi, T., & Sebel, P.S. (2005). No evidence of memory function during anesthesia with propofol or isoflurane with close control of hypnotic state. Anesthesiology, 102(1), 57-62.
The picture to the left depicts the various elements that are responsible for thermoregulation in human skin. The illustrations shows the various layers of skin along with the veins, arteries and capillaries of the circulatory system that assist in insuring that the thermoregulatory system works properly. The sweat glands are responsible for selectively removing materials from the blood the sweat glands then concentrates or alters these toxins, and secretes them for elimination from the body. The perspiration or sweat is then removed through the sweat pore. This has a twofold purpose: to remove toxins and thermoregulation (in this case cooling the body).
Thermoregulation involving perspiration is brought about by both internal and environmental heat and exercise. As it relates to the latter, there have been many studies related to exercise and thermoregulation. According to Marino (2004)
"thermoregulatory effector responses of humans and concluded that temperature regulation during exercise is dissimilar…
Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, Julius D. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature. 1997;389:816-824.
Dugan SA, Powell LH, Kravitz HM, Everson Rose SA, Karavolos K, Luborsky J (2006)
Musculoskeletal pain and menopausal tatus. Clin J. Pain 22: 325 -- 331
Deecher, D.C.K. Dorries (2007)Understanding the pathophysiology of vasomotor symptoms
Learning in theory and practice: Vygotsky’s ZPD and physical education in primary education
Age-graded schooling is one of the most common and conventional features of today’s academic environment. For younger learners in the primary education levels, this separation of young children from adolescents may seem on the face of it like a common sense approach to education—yet, as Gray and Feldman (2004) point out, separation such as this actually is more restrictive to the educative experience than it is facilitative. The reason is found in Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (ZPD) theory. Vygotsky was an early 20th century Soviet thinker who articulated the idea that individuals learn most effectively when they are aided by other skilled individuals who know how to perform a certain task. Child learners can benefit, for example, from being placed in a zone of proximal development: alone or confined to a sphere in which they…
Since its approval for use in the United States by the FDA in 1987, fluoxetine (commonly known as Prozac) has been the subject of great debate. Fluoxetine, now available in generic form, has been proven useful in the treatment of depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, some eating disorders, panic disorder, insomnia, migraines, schizophrenia, and more (Schmetzer, 2002). However, this drug does have a range of possible side effects including sexual dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, agitation, tremors, irritability, hypomania, impulsivity, and gastrointestinal distress (Kerr, 2008). In addition, it may be too early to tell what the consequences of long-term (more than 20 years) use of fluoxetine might be on the human brain (Murray, 2006).
As a psychoactive drug, fluoxetine works by affecting the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters in the brain are synthesized in neurons, stored in vesicles, and upon nerve impulse stimulation, are released into the synaptic cleft. Here they…
Borne, R. (1994). Serotonin: the Neurotransmitter for the '90s. Drug Topics, 108+.
Keltner, N. (2000). Mechanisms of Antidepressant Action: In Brief. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 69.
Kerr, L. (2008). Is Social Anxiety Making Us Depressed? Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 16+.
Murray, T.J. (2006). The Other Side of Psychopharmacology: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 309+.
enefits After Quitting Smoking
Among the many health risks that toll life, smoking is considered as the most preventable cause of mortality. Globally, smoking has been one of the principal factors that lead to diverse type of diseases, such as cancer, coronary heart disease, lung disease, and many others. The number of smokers worldwide grows everyday, both in developed and developing countries. According to Karl Fagerstrom's Epidemiology of Smoking, from a 1995 estimate, the rate of smoking-related mortality will grow from 3 million to 10 million annually by 2030.
In response to the risks that smoking causes to the increasing number of smokers', many health organizations worldwide conduct different programs that are hoped to minimize and prevent people from smoking. This includes the provision of enough information on the effects of smoking to one's health, as well as information on how to quit from the smoking habit.
Many research and…
Fagerstrom, Karl. "The Epidemiology of Smoking."
Fagerstrom Consulting (2002): 1-9.
Benefits of Quitting Smoking."
Texas Medical Association. 02 April 2004. http://www.texmed.org/cme/phn/ndt/benefits_quitting.asp
Pursuit of Silence
The book In Pursuit of Silence: Listening for Meaning in a orld of Noise is about the difficulties faced by modern people in a world that is full of cacophony. hat author George Prochnik believes is that the world has changed in the recent past because there are no places you can go where you can have true silence. Prochnik surveyed men and women from many different aspects of society to try to find the importance that they place on sound and on silence. He further asserts that there is a real danger in this bombardment of sounds. This constant noise is creating in the body some severe ramifications in terms of the cardiovascular system, in terms of the mental processes of the human mind, and in the ways we converse, communicate, and debate with our fellow men and women.
The human body's cardiovascular system controls the…
Prochnik, George. (2010). In Pursuit of Silence: Listening for Meaning in a World of Noise.
Doubleday: New York, NY.
Cardiac Cycle: Diastole and Systole Phases and Heart Disease
The objective of the research in this study is to examine the cardiac cycle from the anatomy and physiology perspective. Toward this end, literature in this area of inquiry, which for the purpose of this study is the cardiac cycle, is examined and reported.
Two Phases of the Cardiac Cycle
The work of Klabunde reports that the single cycle of cardiac activity may be divided into two primary phases stated to be those of: (1) the diastole phase; and (2) the systole phase. (Klabunde, 2012, p.1, p.1) Diastole is representative of the span of time when the "ventricles are relaxed…blood is passively flowing from the left atrium (LA) and right atrium (RA) into the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV), respectively." (Klabunde, 2012, p.1) The mitral and triscuspid or atrioventircular valves are reported to "separate the atria from the ventricles…
Chute, RM (2012) Chapter 19: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels. Retrieved from: http://www.apchute.com/ap2chap/chapt19.htm
Fukuta, H. And Little, W.C. (2008) The Cardiac Cycle and the Physiological Basis of Left Ventricular Contraction, Ejection, Relaxation, and Filling. Heart Fail Clin. 2008. Jan 4(1):1-11. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2390899/
Klabunde, R.E. (2012) Cardiac Cycle. Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts. Retrieved from: http://www.cvphysiology.com/Heart%20Disease/HD002.htm
Limacher, MC (2004) Understanding the Impact of Abnormal Cardiac Activation on Cardiac Function. J Am Cardiol 2004;43(9): 1532-1533. Retrieved from: http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1135544
Blood pressure is the strength of blood pushing against arteries’ walls as the heart beats. Adults have a 120/80 mmHg e normal blood pressure. The numerator represents the systolic pressure which is the measure of blood pressure during active heart beats while the denominator represents the diastolic pressure, which is the blood pressure during passive heart beats (Low & Tomalia, 2015).
Consistent rise of blood pressure to over 140/90 mmHg results to high blood pressure, medically referred as hypertension which puts an individual on risk of stroke. On the other hand, low blood pressure medically referred to as hypotension occurs when the blood pressure is below 90/60. On the contrary, a drop in blood pressure to below 90/60 results to an inadequate brain air supply which results in light-headedness or dizziness and fainting. Once the body’s is unable to rapidly bring blood pressure back to normal one suffers…
program cultivate personal a 6-month period. In developing program draw reference relevant theory research. The include following sections Description well-being (definition outcomes) measurement well-being processes reflections.
Cultivating personal wellness
Description: My definition of wellness
Wellness is defined as a state of optimizing one's physical, mental, social, and civic health. With this in mind, I have decided upon the following plan to cultivate my own state of physical wellness.
Physical and mental wellness: Measurement of well-being and well-being processes
Exercise must be the core of every physical wellness prescription. It is important to maintain a healthy weight and regular exercise can significantly impact longevity. According to the American Heart Association, "Intensive exercise prevented shortening of telomeres, a protective effect against aging of the cardiovascular system, according to research reported in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association" (The anti-aging benefits of exercise, 2009, LA Times). egular physical activity increases high-density lipoprotein…
7 benefits of physical activity. 2011. The Mayo Clinic. Viewed 8 April 2011 at:
The anti-aging benefits of exercise. 2009. Los Angeles Times. Viewed 8 April 2011 at:
Over the past year and a half, there have been a high number of recordable and reportable back injuries in the warehouse and production areas. To address the issue and reduce and/or eliminate back related injuries, an investigation into preventive measures, including the use of back belts was done. Several studies have been conducted and the findings are all the same. There is no evidence to support the claim that back belts prevent back injuries. Even NIOSH declined to recommend use of back belts to reduce or eliminate work place back injuries. In fact, there is some evidence to suggest that they may increase the number and severity of work related back injuries (Youngstown State University, 1997). The results of most of these studies recommend training and ergonomic awareness programs as the most effective means of reducing/eliminating back injuries.
There are different types of back belts or supports but…
Centers for Disease Control. (2002, March 1). Summary of NIOSH back belt studies. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/beltsumm.html
ITA-Med Co. (2009). Back and abdominal supports. Retrieved from:
Ohio Bureau of Workers Compensation. (1993). Lifting belts / back supports / back braces:
Therefore, this explains why stress would have such an effect on the immune functions of the body, at least from the perspective of someone who is doing an evolutionary investigation into the issue of the reasons why we see these phenomena occur.
Thus, psychoneuroimmunology is one of the most important and fastest growing areas of medicine to bridge the gap between neurological theory and medicinal practice. The literature is quickly evolving and changing. Indeed, there is an increasing hope that this field may be the one to deliver on the promise of the discovery of "the scientific foundations for a new type of treatment whose essence is to combat disease by strengthening the body's own defenses against stress" ("Association for the Advancement of Applied Psychoneuroimmunology"):
What is of importance is not whether we have our emotional ups and downs, but rather that lingering unresolved emotions and inflexible ways of coping,…
Association for the Advancement of Applied Psychoneuroimmunology." Retrieved November 26, 2003 at http://hometown.aol.com/AAAPNI/ .
De Kooker, Margo. "Psychoneuroimmunology: An Overview." Retrieved November 26, 2003 at http://www.wellness.org.za/html/pni.html.
PNI Adaptiveness." Retrieved November 26, 2003, at http://www.lgu.ac.uk / psychology/staff/elander/health/PNIAdaptiveness.html.
Psychoneuroimmunology." Retrieved November 26, 2003, at http://www.datacomm.ch/kmatter/psychone.htm#_Toc442256827.
Welcome aboard the SS William Harvey! As you well know the human body is a complex system of intricate cells that work together to maintain a perfect and efficient environment on which an individual can thrive. Two systems in the human body that work together to ensure that a human individual remains healthy are the circulatory and the cardiopulmonary systems. Working in conjunction with each other, these systems help with the transportation of gasses, nutrients, and hormones to different organs within the human body. While the intricate mazes that make up the different systems in the human body may confuse some individuals, finding one's way from the femoral vein in the circulatory system to the lungs is not as complicated as it sounds.
Join us as we embark on this Fantastic Voyage through the human body as we visit and discover new cells and organs of the human…
Cotterill, S. (2000). The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer. Department of Child Health. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm
Gregory, M (n.d.). The circulatory system. Clinton Community College. State University of New York. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm
How does the body fight infections? (n.d.). WiseGeek. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://www.wisegeek.com/how-does-the-human-body-fight-infections.htm
Inner Body. (2011). All systems. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html
Definition of stress
esearchers define stress as a physical, mental, or emotional response to events that causes bodily or mental tension. Simply put, stress is any outside force or event that has an effect on our body or mind. Acute stress is the most common form of stress. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting. Acute stress can be episodic or chronic.
Depending on the stressors and the types of changes or events, stress can manifest itself physically, emotionally and/or mentally. Physical stress occurs when the body as a whole starts to suffer as a result of a stressful situation. Symptoms can manifest in a variety of ways and vary in their seriousness. Emotional stress are responses due to stress affecting the mind…
AIS (NDI). Stress, definition of stress, stressor, what is stress?, Eustress?" The American institute of stress. Retrieved October10, 2011, from http://www.stress.org/topic-definition-stress.htm
Barr, N. (2008, August 14) What stress does to your body. Marie Claire. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.marieclaire.com/health-fitness/news/stress-effects-body
Mayo Clinic Staff (2010). Stress symptoms: Effects on your body, feelings and behavior. American psychological association's "Stress in America report." Mayo Clinic. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress-symptoms/SR00008_D
Miller, L.H. & Smith, A.D. (1993). Stress: The different kinds of stress. American psychlolgical association. In The Stress Solution. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress-kinds.aspx
Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.
Developmental and cognitive changes
The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).
Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…
Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.
Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.
Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...
Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
Gingko Biloba -- Part I
What are the author's general conclusions (summarized) on the effectiveness of Gingko Biloba as a cognitive enhancer?
According to the author, effects of Gingko on cognition are perplexing because of its dual actions as following. It's seen improving short-term memory but at the same time it impairs digit recall ability. It slows down mental decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease but has lower dose response curve than acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. Gingko slows mental decline during dementia owing to its action as an anti-oxidant and ability to combat stress. This action is of short-term and isn't seen chronically. Gingko has more scores for improvement seen in patients when compared to acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors like Donepezil but has fewer efficacies than the later. Effects of Gingko are mainly attributable not to its direct action on improving memory but to its indirect action of improving attention…
Mark A. McDaniel, Steven F. Maier, and Gilles O. Einstein. (2003) 'Brain-specific nutrients: A memory cure?' Nutrition, vol. 19, pp. 957-973
Paul E. Gold, Larry Cahill, and Gary L. Wenk. (2002) 'Gingko Biloba: A cognitive enhancer?' Psychological Science in Public Interest, vol. 3, May, pp. 2-10.
ithin the field of nursing there are many theories that receive a great deal of attention for the manner in which they assist nurses in treating patients. The middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms was developed many years ago and has proved to be beneficial to nurses treating patients with various ailments. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms as it relates to cancer patients. This subject was chosen because of the substantial number of patients that are affected by cancer. As a result of the presence of so many cancer patients, Nurses must understand how to effectively treat people with this disease. The middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms is one of the tools that can assist in the treatment of cancer patients.
Overview of theory
According to Smith & Liehr (2008) Middle range theory is defined as "a…
Dirksen, S.r, Belyea, M.J., Epstein, D.R. (2009)Fatigue-Based Subgroups of Breast Cancer Survivors with Insomnia. Cancer Nurs. 32(5): 404 -- 411
Kim, H., Barsevick A.M. (2009) Predictors of the Intensity of Cluster Symptoms in Patients With Breast Cancer J. Nurs Scholarsh. 2009; 41(2): 158 -- 165.
Otte, J.L. And Carpenter J.S. Theories, Models, and Frameworks Related to Sleep-Wake Disturbances in the Context of Cancer. Cancer Nurs. 2009; 32(2): 90 -- 106
Smith, M.J. & Liehr P.R. (2008) Middle Range Theory for Nursing. http://www.springerpub.com/samples/9780826119162_chapter.pdf
Computer Vision Syndrome
According to the Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is "A variety of problems related to prolonged viewing of a computer screen. Short-term effects include dry eyes, blurred vision, eye fatigue and excessive tearing. Long-term effects include migraines, cataracts and visual epilepsy. Some solutions are to keep reflections and glare to a minimum and to provide a non-fluorescent, uniform light source. Special lamps are available that maintain the proper light around the monitor and generate light at much higher frequencies than regular light bulbs"
With the ever increasing amount of time consumers are spending in front of their computer screens, this disability is considered on of the fastest growing work related health problems in the country today. For many Americans, the problem cannot be left behind at the office. Individuals come home, to spend time surfing the web, corresponding via email, and pursuing various computer-based entertainment…
Anshel, J. 1997, July 1. Computer vision syndrome: causes and cures.
Managing Office Technology.
Chambers, Anne. 1999, Oct. 1. Computer Vision Syndrome: Relief Is in Sight.