Cardiovascular System Essays (Examples)

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Cardiovascular Surgery

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45849353

Cardiovascular surgery includes operations on the heart and blood vessels of the body to repair structural defects of the cardiovascular system. If a patient's heart condition poses a significant risk to their health and livelihood, surgery is the preferred treatment option. There are more than a half million heart surgeries performed in the U.S. each year for heart problems. Heart surgery may be performed on both children and adults. Heart surgery can reduce symptoms, improve quality of life, and increase lifespan (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute).

There are many different types of heart surgery. Surgeries are performed to:

Repair or replace valves controlling the direction of blood flow through the heart's chambers

Bypass or widen blocked or narrowed arteries to the heart

Destroy small amounts of tissue that disturb electrical flow through the heart

Repair damaged or abnormal structures of the heart

Implant medical devices that are used to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Medline Plus. Heart Surgery. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Oct. 2011. Web. January 2012.

National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. What is heart surgery? Apr 1, 2011. Web. January 2012. <  http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hs/ >

Schools in the U.S.A.com. Cardiovascular Surgeon. 2003-2012. Web. January 2012.
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Cardiovascular and Gastrointestinal Systems Integrated

Words: 2173 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56960433

Integration of Cardiovascular/Gastrointestinal Systems

Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body

The integration of the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems allow for nutrients to be introduced, broken down, and absorbed by body to maintain and promote healthy bodily functions. Independently, these systems serve separate functions, but when working in conjunction, help to transport necessary nutrients throughout the body, while maintaining and promoting homeostasis within the systems. Any imbalance within these systems will greatly affect the body, as a whole, and can lead to potentially fatal results.

Integration of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems within the human body

The gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems of the human body help to breakdown and transport items that are ingested, such as food and medication, to the necessary parts of the body, expelling wastes that are not needed. Separately, the gastrointestinal and cardiac systems have different functions, but when the systems work in conjunction…… [Read More]

References:

Bowen, R 2002, Salivary glands and saliva, Colorado State University, viewed 14 September 2011,  http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/digestion/pregastric/salivary.html 

Cleveland Clinic 2005, The structure and function of the digestive system, viewed 29 September 2011, http://www.cchs.net/health/health-info/docs/1600/1699.asp?index=7041

Cotterill, S 2000, The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer, Department of Child Health, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, viewed 14 September 2011, http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm

Gregory, M n.d., The circulatory system, Clinton Community College, State University of New York, viewed 15 September 2011, http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm
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Cardiovascular Interventions

Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61991949

Pathophysiology

Cardiovascular Interventions

Cardiovascular disease is especially dangerous and one of the only effective measures to handle it is prevention. This ultimately makes interventions so crucial, especially with patients with a history of cardiovascular disease and those still showing signs of cardiovascular health. For the case in question, it is crucial to establish with the patient a need to start interventions so that he can avoid further cardiovascular problems. The patient witnessed an abnormal treadmill test, which ultimately signifies issues with the cardiovascular system that may endanger the patient's health.

First, there are interventions that deal with lifestyle changes. These are the least invasive because they do not entail the introduction of medicines or the need for surgery. Rather, they aim to intervene with unhealthy lifestyle choices within the life of the patient. Changes in lifestyle include diets, exercise routines, and other changes that promote better cardiovascular health (Lauer, 2008).…… [Read More]

References

Aijaz, Bilal, Babuin, Luciano, Squires, Ray, & Kopecky, Stephen. (2008). Long-term mortality with multiple treadmill exercise test abnormalities: Comparison between patients with and without cardiovascular disease. American Heart Journal. Web. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/581591_4

Artinian, Nancy T., Fletcher, Gerald F., Mozaffarian, Dariush, Kris-Etherton, Penny, & Van Horn, Linda. (2010). Interventions to promote physical activity and dietary lifestyle changes for cardiovascular risk factor reduction in adults. Circulation, 122(2010), 406-441.

Dunn, Steven P., Holmes, David., & Moliterno, David J. (2012). Drug-drug interactions in cardiovascular catheterizations and interventions. Journal of American College of Cardiovascular Interventions, 5(12), 1195-1208.

Lauer, Michael S. (2008). The exercise treadmill test: Estimating cardiovascular prognosis. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 75(6), 424-430.
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Cardiovascular Disorders One of the

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15397723

Those who are the vulnerable will have specific genes they inherit from their relatives, who were impacted by the condition. This increases their chances of having similar complications when they become older. (Kolata, 2010)

Congestive Heart Failure and Hypertension

Congestive heart failure and hypertension are interconnected with each other. According to a study conducted by the University of Texas, they found that there are 660 thousand new cases reported each year. This is accounting for 7% of all deaths associated with cardio vascular disease. One of the biggest factors that will determine if someone is at risk is hypertension. As this is used in 75% of all cases, to predict if someone will be impacted by congestive heart failure and the long-term effects it will have on them. (Merla, 2009)

Hypertension can lead to complications by increasing the chances of ventricle or systolic dysfunction taking place. This improves the chances…… [Read More]

References

Heart Disease Fact. (2013). CDC. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm 

Heart Disease and Stroke. (2012). Lasker Foundation. Retrieved from:

http://www.laskerfoundation.org/media/pdf/factsheet2cardiovasc.pdf

Heart Failure. (2013). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/heart-failure/DS00061
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Cardiovascular Alterations Sudden Death of

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25926719

Therefore, it is very crucial for all the nurses examining the athletes to carefully differentiate the murmurs of the behaviors of athletes and recommend if it is safe for them to continue sports behaviour.

Discussion 2: Anaphylactic Shock

Anaphylaxis shock is a very dangerous and life threatening allergy reaction that needs right, quick and aggressive treatment on time. Due to lack of recognition, the exact evidence of this condition is difficult to know. There are also no laboratory markers or any particular tests that can be used in the emergency to diagnose this situation.

According to the Canadian Pediatric Surveillance Program it is "a severe allergic reaction to any stimulus, having sudden onset and generally lasting less than 24 hours, involving one or more body systems and producing one or more symptoms such as hives, flushing, itching, angioedema, stridor, wheezing, shortness of breath, vomiting, diarrhea or shock" (Simons, Chad and…… [Read More]

References

Bille, K., Figueiras, D., Schamasch, P., Kappenberger, L., Brenner, J., Meijboom, J and Meijboom J. (2006). 'Sudden cardiac death in athletes: the Lausanne Recommendations'.

Eur Journal Cardiovascular Rehabilitation. 2006 Dec; 13(6):859-75.

Maron, B.(2003). Sudden death in young athletes. N Engl J. Med. 2003;349: 1064 -- 75

Simons FER, Chad, ZH and Gold M. (2002). Real-time reporting of anaphylaxis in infants,
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Cardiovascular Program 60-Year-Old Walk-A-Thon Training

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58189815



Walking: Slow down your walking to a regular pace for 5 minutes.

If needed utilize heat or ice therapy to knees after walk.

Friday

Stretching: Sit down on the floor and reach for your toes. Hold this position for 1 minute and do not bounce. Next, sit with your legs crisscrossed, place your arms out to the sides and rotate your center slowly from side to side. Finally, stand up and face the wall. Slow begin walking your feet away from the wall until you feel a stretch in your calves.

Walking: Walk at a regular pace for 5 minutes.

Increase your pace for 8 minutes.

Frequency: Once per day

Intensity: Your heart rate should be at 80 bpm during the fast-paced walking. If you find that it is becoming hard to breath, then slow down to a normal pace until your breathing is back under control.

Walking: Slow down…… [Read More]

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Cardiovascular Case Study Management

Words: 3112 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51501524

Although the severities of congestive signs may be similar, medical evaluation should be instructed to determine whether there is accompanying proof of cardiovascular disease. Physical proof of cardiovascular disease contains the narrow pulse pressure, cool arms, and legs, and sometimes changed mentation, with supporting proof sometimes provided by reducing serum sodium level and deteriorating renal function. Cardiovascular disease is frequently difficult to recognize through phone contact but may be suspected when previously effective diuretic increases fail, nurses report lower blood pressure, or patients explain improved lethargy.

Facilitators and barriers to optimal disorder management and outcomes

Environmental factors and cultural beliefs; motivators and hinders

In this case, the client thought he was suffering from a heart attack and feared to come to the hospital. The symptoms had presented for four days before the patient sought help. The patient had been suffering from similar symptoms for the past six months, but thought…… [Read More]

References

American Association of Cardiovascular (2013). Guidelines for cardiac rehabilitation and secondary prevention programs. John Wiley & Sons.

Bunting-Perry, L.K., & Vernon, G.M. (2007). Comprehensive nursing care for Parkinson's disease. New York: Springer Pub.

Holloway, N.M. (2014). Medical-surgical care planning. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Gulanick, M. (2007). Nursing care plans: Nursing diagnosis and intervention. St. Louis: Mosby.
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Spaceflight on the Cardiovascular and Haemostatic System

Words: 425 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30489472

Spaceflight on the Cardiovascular and Haemostatic System

Several physiological changes occur during spaceflights, the most noticeable of which are on the cardiovascular and haemostatic system of the body.

Since the human body is adapted to live in a world of gravity, it has developed ways of combating the gravity's downward force. For example, due to the earth's gravity blood tends to accumulate in the lower limbs but the body is equipped with a system to help monitor and maintain the blood flow and pressure so that the upper body and organs get an adequate supply of blood. In the zero gravity environment during spaceflights when there is no downward force, the upper body gets more than its share of blood. This triggers the monitoring receptors which signal to the body to reduce the volume of blood. As blood passes through the kidney, the excess plasma volume is excreted, lowering total…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bird, Patrick J. (1996). "Keeping Fit" Spaceflight and Exercise. University of Florida Website. http://hermes.hhp.ufl.edu/keepingfit/ARTICLE/FLIGHT.htm

Snare, Carolyn C. (2002). "Research Examines Adaptations of Cardiovascular System to Microgravity." Space Research. NASA Website. [Available online]. Accessed on October 20, 2004 from http://spaceresearch.nasa.gov/research_projects/cardiovascular_06-2002.html

'When Space Makes You Dizzy." (2002). Science @ NASA. [Available online]. Accessed on October 20, 2004 from http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/25mar_dizzy.htm

Plasma is the liquid part of the blood
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Influence of Mean Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Performance

Words: 2734 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88942822

Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Performance

HEART-LUNG CONNECTION

The Influence of Mean Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Performance

Breathing, also known as pulmonary ventilation, is the basic connection between the heart and lungs (Williams & Whitney, 2006). The connection allows air between the lungs and the atmosphere and the exchange of gases between the air and the alveoli in the lungs. Body receptors can detect changes involved in the movement of air and the pressure that accompanies it. These receptors can either increase or decrease breathing rate. They encourage slower breathing when blood pressure rises and faster breathing rate if the blood pressure goes down. Meanwhile, an exchange of gases between body tissues and capillaries is needed to maintain life. It brings in the gases living tissues need for survival. Blood carries oxygen molecules when leaving the heart and distributes it throughout the body. Very small capillaries coordinate in the flow and…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Byrd, R.P. And Mosenifar, Z. (2010). Mechanical ventilation. Medscape: WebLLC.

Retrieved on August 18, 2011 from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/304068-overview

Daoud, E.G. (2007). Airway pressure release ventilation. Vol 2 (4) Annals of Thoracic

Medicine: Pub Med Central. Retrieved on August 12, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2732103
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Renin-Angiotensin System and Control of Blood Pressure

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89147192

Endocrine control of BP

Hormonal Control of Osmotic pressure: Stimulation

Arterial blood pressure (BP) is under tight control by the mammalian nervous system, cardiovascular system, kidneys, and endocrine system (Vivas et al., 2014). The VII, IX, and X cranial nerves conduct peripheral taste, osmo-sodium, volume, and baroreceptor information to the solitary tract, while the distinct bundles of neurons in the lamina terminalis respond to changes in plasma and cerebral spinal fluid sodium levels, osmolality, and angiotensin II levels. The information thus received is transmitted to the median preoptic, supraoptic, paraventricular, lateral parabrachial, and dorsal raphe nucleus for integration. The neurotransmitter systems involved include angiotensin, vasopressin, oxytocin, and serotonin.

The overall response to reductions in BP and electrolyte content of bodily fluids is to trigger the sympathetic nervous system, endocrine system, and appropriate behavior to correct the deficiency (Vivas et al., 2014). The most important arm of BP control is the…… [Read More]

References

Chopra, S., Baby, C., & Jacob, J.J. (2011). Neuro-endocrine regulation of blood pressure. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Suppl. 4, S281-8.

Duka, A., Duka, I., Gao, G., Shenouda, S., Gavras, I., & Gavras, H. (2006). Role of bradykinin B1 and B2 receptors in normal blood pressure regulation. American Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, 291(2), E268-74.

Farrao, F.M., Lara, L.S., & Lowe, J. (2014). Renin-angiotensin system in the kidney: What is new? World Journal of Nephrology, 3(3), 64-76.

Vivas, L., Godino, A., Dalmasso, C., Caeiro, X.E., Macchione, AF., & Cambiasso, M.J. (2014). Chapter 9: Neurochemical circuits subserving fluid balance and baroreflex: A role for serotonin, oxytonin, and gonadal steroids. In L.A. De Luca Jr., J.V. Menani, & A.K. Johnson (Eds.), Neurobiology of body fluid homeostasis: Transduction and integration (pp. 141-166). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
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Broken Heart Syndrome Cardiovascular Case Study Broken

Words: 1057 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39907338

Broken Heart Syndrome

Cardiovascular Case Study

Broken heart syndrome, otherwise called stress or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), represents an adverse physiological response to an acute psychological or physical stressor (Derrick, 2009). The death of a loved one or experiencing a physically traumatic event, represent two examples of life stressors that can cause this reversible form of cardiomyopathy. Although effective treatment is available, the seriousness of the condition is such that it explains how a person can literally die of a broken heart.

TTC Demographics

An estimated 1.2 million people suffered from an myocardial infarction (MI) in 2007 and approximately 1% (Derrick, 2009, p. 50) to 2% (Wittstein, 2012, p. 2) of MI events was probably due to TTC. Women are far more susceptible to TTC than men and represent approximately 89% of all cases (Derrick, 2009, p. 50). This gender bias shifts the estimated prevalence of TTC among female MI patients…… [Read More]

References

American Heart Association, American Stroke Association. (2011). Women & cardiovascular disease: Statistical fact sheet 2012 update. Heart.org. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from  http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/heart-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_319576.pdf 

Derrick, Dawn. (2009). The "broken heart syndrome": Understanding Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Critical Care Nurse, 29, 49-57.

Fitzgerald, Helen. (2000). Helping a grieving parent: Working through Grief. AmericanHospice.org. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from http://www.americanhospice.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=84&Itemid=8

Liao, Joshua. (2011). Takotsubo: Octopus trap. Journal of Medical Humanities. Published ahead of print online Aug. 9. Retrieved 4 Feb. 2012 from http://www.springerlink.com/content/ak0776051x43w701/
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Tissue Maturation Body System Effects

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40406059

e. hypertrophy). In the elderly, this process is reverse. Hence, the functional reserve capacities of the skeletal muscles decline with age, largely due to diminished levels of physical activity. As a result daily tasks once taken for granted become progressively more difficult, and eventually impossible, to perform. In illustration, a great deal of muscle force is required to simply stand up or to climb stairs. Therefore, skeletal system is relying upon the reserve capacity of the heart to provide the endurance needed to perform such activities. If an elderly person does not engage in some sort of endurance-based activities, he or she will not have the cardiac reserve capacity needed for daily tasks. More importantly, diminished capacity may not counteract illnesses or diseases. Although strength-based activities help the cardiac reserve, it may not benefit the skeletal system. "While resistance exercise promotes fiber hypertrophy in skeletal muscles, the explosive power of…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, R. (2011). Muscle tissue. About.com Guide. Retrieved from http://biology.about.com/od/anatomy/a/aa022808a.htm

Carpi, A. (1999). Basic anatomy - tissues & organs. Retrieved from http://web.jjay.cuny.edu/~acarpi/NSC/14-anatomy.htm

Lakatta, E.G. (1994). Cardiovascular reserve capacity in healthy older humans. Laboratory of Cardiovascular Science, Gerontology Research Center, National Institute on Aging, 6(4): 213-23.

Courtesy of Musculartory System BlogSpot
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Cardiac Cardiovascular Case Study Hypertension

Words: 530 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12218809

The "pain" caused to the heart due to tissue damage can be misplaced in the body due to these nerve pathways and connections; heart attacks are often felt in the left arm and elsewhere on that side of the body between the heart and brain.

5)

Diuretics would encourage the elimination of sodium and a lessened fluid retention, easing the pressure in his arteries.

6)

The increased acidity in J.M.'s blood indicates reduced heart functionality and creatine phosphokinase levels are elevated which indicates muscle damage; low-normal lactate dehydrogenase suggest no recent prior infarctions, however, and without further tests this particular measure is not especially edifying.

7)

The drug relaxes blood vessels, allowing easier passage of blood reducing chest pain (which elevates stress and blood pressure) and easing the underlying problem, as well

8)

Aspirin inhibits the collection of platelets at the site of a plaque rupture, preventing a full blockage…… [Read More]

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Affect of Tylenol Overdose on the Cardiopulmonary System

Words: 2649 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63499844

Tylenol Overdose

Health Sciences 101

The Health Impact of Acetaminophen Overdose

Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common over-the-counter (OTC), antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic that is more commonly known as Tylenol®, a product of Johnson & Johnson1. Overseas the drug is called paracetamol and is manufactured and sold by countless generic drug makers.

A number of concerns regarding the safety of APAP have arisen over the past several years, including liver and kidney toxicity and adverse cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary effects. This essay will provide an overview of APAP, its uses, and safety issues, with an emphasis on the cardiopulmonary system.

Mechanisms of APAP Activity

The analgesic and antipyretic activity of APAP was thought to be similar to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications because it was believed to inhibit prostaglandin (PGE2) synthesis2,3. This assumption has not withstood the test of time, for either APAP or other popular OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The main evidence…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Tylenol (TN): Substance summary (SID 7847284). PubChem 2011. Accessed 5 Nov 2011 at http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?sid=7847284

2. Hamza M, Dionne RA. Mechanisms of non-opioid analgesics beyond cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition. Curr Mol Pharmacol 2009; 2(1):1-14.

3. Kaufman G. Basic pharmacology of non-opioid analgesics. Nurs Stand 2010; 24(30):55-61.

4. Chan AT, Manson JE, Albert CM, Chae CU, Rexrode KM, Curhan GC, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and the risk of cardiovascular events. Circulation 2006; 113(12):1578-1587.
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Magnetic Resonance System on Patients Magnetic Resonance

Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80574645

Magnetic Resonance System on patients

Magnetic resonance System (Imaging), here after referred to as (MRS), or nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI), is a medical imaging technique widely used in radiology to visualize detailed internal structure and limited function of the body. It provides great contrast between the different soft tissues of the body, making it particularly useful in neurological (brain), musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and ontological (cancer) imaging. MRS uses a powerful magnetic field to align the nuclear magnetization of (usually) hydrogen atoms in water in the body (Adams, 1989). To systematically alter the alignment of this magnetization, Radio frequency (RF) fields are used, enhancing the generation of a rotating magnetic field by the hydrogen nuclei that can be detected using a scanner.

MRS can detect the chemical composition of diseased tissue and produce color images of brain function. This signal can be controlled by more magnetic fields to build up adequate…… [Read More]

References

Adams, R.D. & Victor, M. (1989). Intracranial neoplasm: Principles of neurology. (4th Ed.) New

York. McGraw-Hill.

Clark, C.A., et al. (2003). White Matter Fiber Tracking in Patients with Space-Occupying Lesions of the Brain: A New Technique for Neurosurgical Planning? Neuroimage 20: 1601-1608.

Hammell K. (1994). Psychosocial outcome following spinal cord injury. Paraplegia 32: 771 -- 779.
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Healthcare System in the Netherlands

Words: 4143 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15355310

Specialist doctors will normally examine only those patients who have been referred to their clinic by a general practitioner. (U.S. Department of State, n. d.)

The Government of Netherlands is not responsible or the ongoing management of the healthcare system on a daily basis which is offered by private healthcare service providers. However the government is charged with the accessibility and ensuring appropriate standards of the healthcare. A new healthcare insurance system has been launched since January 2006 under which every citizen is required to purchase a basic health insurance package. Under the basic package, one is covered medical treatment, inclusive of services by General Practitioners, hospitals and also specialists, indoor stay, dental care and different medical appliances. People working in the private sector in the Netherlands might decide buying a collective health insurance policy which can be a good alternative since it is cheaper. The fees of the basic…… [Read More]

References

Banta, H. David. (2004) "Healthcare Technology and its assessment in eight countries"

Diane Publishing.

Flood, Colleen M. (2003) "International Health Care Reform"

Routledge.
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Health Belief System Theory Health

Words: 1314 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34331907

For instance, using the Cultural Competence and Confidence model we are able to explain, describe, influence, and hopefully predict learning and development of cultural competency within a specific care paradigm. Because this model is interrelated and transmissive, it takes into account historical observations and data, and juxtaposes cognitive, practical and affective measures for a specific set of issues (Jeffreys, 2006, p.26).

Measurment, then, can be done using a metric such as the Transcultural Self-Efficacy Tool (TSET), molded to a specific community and example. if, for example, we were looking at Community a regarding HIV infection among high school students in a heavily multi-ethnic community, we would find that we had barriers of education, prejudice, and assumptions that needed to be handled prior to implementing any healthcare educational program. The idea for healthcare modeling is, then, to use the model to increase competence within culturally diverse groups in order to provide…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Adler, N., et.al. (1994), "Health Psychology: Why do Some People Get Sick and Some

Stay Well?," Annual Review of Psychology, 45.

http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.ps.45.020194.001305

Blair-O'Connor, B. (1994). Healing Traditions: Alternative Medicine and the Health
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Female Gender Disparities in Cardiovascular

Words: 2805 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36678633

Gender variation in clinical decision-making was measured, including (1) the number, types, and certainty levels of diagnoses considered and (2) how diagnoses vary according to patient characteristics, when patients have identical symptoms of CHD (Maserejian et al., 2009).

This was a factorial experiment presenting videotaped CHD symptoms, systematically altering patient gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES) and race, and physician gender and level of experience. The primary end point was physicians' most certain diagnosis. The results: Physicians (n=128) mentioned five diagnoses on average, most commonly heart, gastrointestinal, and mental health conditions. Physicians were significantly less certain of the underlying cause of symptoms among female patients regardless of age, but only among middle-aged women were they significantly less certain of the CHD diagnosis. Among middle-aged women, 31.3% received a mental health condition as the most certain diagnosis, compared with 15.6% of their male counterparts. An interaction effect showed that females with high…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chou, Anne F., Sarah Hudson Scholle, Carol S. Weisman, Arlene S. Bierman, Rosaly

Correa-de-Araujo, & Lori Mosca (2007). "Gender Disparities in the Quality of Cardiovascular Disease Care in Private Managed Care Plans." In Women's Health

Issues 17: 120 -- 130.

DeVon, H., Ryan, C.J., Ochs, a.L., & Shapiro, M. (2008). "Symptoms Across the Continuum of Acute Coronary Syndromes: Differences Between Women and Men." In Am J. Crit Care 17:14-24.
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Alabama and Colorado Health Care Systems

Words: 1412 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94331125

Health Care Reform

The objective of this study is to review the state of health care in two U.S. states and to compare and contrast what the websites reveal about health insurance in each state and to report what conclusion can be drawn. This study will additionally compare and contrast the general health statistics of the population in the state as well as the state's health ranking and to compare and contrast the influence of health care reform on professional nursing practice in both states.

The two states chosen for comparison and contrast in this study are the states of Alabama and Colorado. Alabama is reported to have the health ranking of number forty (40) among U.S. states while Colorado's health ranking is reported to be number nineteen (19) among U.S. states.

Alabama

It is reported that nearly nine out of every 10 Alabama residents have some type of Health…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Colorado (2014) Healthcare.org. Retrieved from: http://www.healthcare.org/colorado

Alabama (2014) lHealthcare.org. Retrieved from: http://www.healthcare.org/alabama
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Healthcare System Management Is the

Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71180711



Based upon the fact the baby boomers are all approaching retirement age, it would be a good idea for the organization to pursue programs that are geared towards seniors. Programs that are geared towards seniors are a great way to produce quality comprehensive health care for those in the community that need it. The organization might pursue the idea of opening a PACE program. " The Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) is a capitated benefit authorized by the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA) that features a comprehensive service delivery system and integrated Medicare and Medicaid financing" (Program of All Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), 2009). The PACE program features complete medical and social services that rely on an interdisciplinary team approach in an adult day health center that includes in-home and referral services depending on the person's needs (Program of All Inclusive Care for the…… [Read More]

References

Baker, J. Judith & Baker, R.W. (2006). Healthcare Finance, Basic Tools for Nonfinancial

Managers. Maryland: Aspen Publications, Inc.

Bury, Elizabeth, Carter, Kara S., Feigelman, Masha and Grant, Jennifer M. (n.d.). Retrieved June

2, 2009, from Web site:
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Benefits of Acist Cvi for the Use of Angiographic Imaging System

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36765625

ACIST CVi Angiographic Imaging System

The ACIST CVi is an angiographic imaging system used to diagnose diseases and treat over 15 million patients globally. The ACIST CVi is able to simplify a contrast injection using all procedure ranging from small injections for a coronary artery to peripheral vasculature and a large volume injection for ventricles, which consequently enhance efficiency, safety, image quality, and control. The CVi system assists in improving procedural efficiency and image quality. Moreover, the system minimizes a radiation exposure as well as reducing the patient contrast dose. The CVi system also helps in reducing time to carry out imaging procedure, which is beneficial to both healthcare professionals and patients. (Ferebee, & Scoville, 2009).

Objective of this paper is to investigate the ACIST CVi imaging system and its benefits for the Invasive Cardiac Catheterization.

Benefits of the ACIST CVi imaging system for the Invasive Cardiac

The ACIST CVi…… [Read More]

Reference

Business Wire (2015). ACIST Medical Systems Announces the ACIST CVi product introduction at the TCT: The ACIST CVi - Trust Experience. Rely on Innovation. ACIST Medical Systems, Minneapolis.

Ferebee, D. & Scoville, G.S. (2009). Adoption of new contrast injection method: Impact on costs, patient length-of-stay, and physician and staff satisfaction. ACIST Medical Systems, Inc.

Chahoud, G. Khoukaz, S. El-Shafei, A. et al. (2001). Randomized comparison of coronary angiography using 4F catheters: 4F manual versus "ACISTed" power injection technique. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions. 2001;53(2):221-224.

National Institutes of Health (2012). Explore Cardiac Catheterization. Department of Health and Human Services.
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Evaluating the Financial Health of Baystate Health System

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34861823

Baystate Health, Inc.

Baystate Health is the largest health delivery system for Western Massachusetts, with three medical centers located in Springfield, Greenfield, and Ware (Deloitte & Touche, LLP, 2014). Baystate Medical Center (BMC), located in Springfield, is the largest with 715 beds. BMC is the only tertiary care/Level I trauma center for Western Massachusetts and the only neonatal and pediatric ICU for Western New England (Ernst & Young, LLP, 2013). BMC also serves as a teaching hospital for Tufts University Medical School.

The hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and hospice centers are not-for-profit, tax-exempt organizations providing integrated health care to the region (Deloitte & Touche, LLP, 2014). Baystate Health, Inc. also includes two ambulance services that operate for profit. Baystate Health participates in the Health Safety Net, a state-mandated health insurer system, which provides health insurance coverage to almost all Massachusetts residents through a combination of public and subsidized private insurers.…… [Read More]

References

Baystate Health. (2014). Quality. Baystate Health awards and rankings for quality and safety. Retrieved 22 May 2014 from http://baystatehealth.org/Baystate/Main+Nav/About+Us/Quality/Measuring+Quality+and+Safety/Quality+and+Safety+Awards+Received+by+Baystate+Health.

Deloitte & Touche, LLP. (2014). Baystate Health, Inc. And Subsidiaries. Consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended September 30, 2013 and 2012, consolidating supplementary financial information as of and for the year ended September 30, 2013, and independent auditors' report. Retrieved 22 May 2014 from  http://2012.bhannualreport.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Baystate-FS-2012-AFS-only-Final.pdf .

Ernst & Young, LLP. (2013). Consolidated financial statements: Baystate Health, Inc. And subsidiaries years ended September 30, 2012 and 2011 with report of independent authors. Retrieved 22 May 2014 from
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Endocrinology Amazing Hormones Counterbalance of Sugar and

Words: 2340 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87661716

Endocrinology

AMAZING HORMONES

Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon

Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (Bowen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (Bowen).

Insulin and Glucagon

The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Biomed (2002). Insulin/glucagons. Brown University. Retrieved on November 25, 2013

from http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/B1108/B1108_2002_Groups/pancstems/stemcell/insulin_glucagon.htm

Bowen, R.A. (2001). Hormones, receptors and control systems. University of Colorado.

Retrieved on November 25, 2013 from  http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/index.html
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Direct Examination of Subjects for

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80339430



Instruments

Instrumentation needed for the research study will be relatively minimal and straightforward; necessary equipment for a standard checkup to determine cardiovascular health and other basic signs of chronic disease as well as scrapers, swabs, and vials for the collection of bacterial samples will be needed. It is possible that culturing of the bacterial samples will be desired, in which case additional instruments and controlled environment equipment will also be needed for the full completion of the study. In order to assess the exclusionary criteria related to weight, a standard scale and height ruler will need to be utilized along with caliper measurements to determine body mass index. Other than this and the instruments necessary for recording and analyzing the data collected using these instruments, it is not expected that any other resources will be necessary for this research study.

Procedure

Following initial measurements to determine suitability for inclusion in…… [Read More]

Following these general examinations and the more extensive examinations of cardiovascular health, specifically identified areas in participants' mouths will be variously swabbed or scraped to obtain bacteria samples, and levels of bacteria in these areas and in the mouth as a whole will be measured using a variety of techniques. If necessary, the bacteria collected through this direct methodology will be cultured in an appropriate lab setting using standard equipment, with twenty-four hours being sufficient time for the culture to grow to be identifiable in most instances. Examination of bacteria types, growth patterns in the mouth, and correlation with cardiovascular disease will be identifiable with the data collected via these methods, enabling appropriate analysis and a determination of correlation.

Data Analysis

The latest available version of SPSS software operated by an experienced statistician, under the observation and supervision of the lead researcher, will be utilized to analyze the raw data collected in this study. Specifically, regression analyses will be utilized in order to determine the correlation, if any, that exists between the existence of certain types or levels of bacteria in the mouth or in certain areas of the mouth and cardiovascular disease. The Mann-Whitney test will also be used to determine which if any variables are statistically different between the participant group with cardiovascular disease and those without. Again, this is in keeping with similarly designed studies already successfully completed (Johansson et al. 2008).
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Psychological and Physiological Effects of Exercise on the Mind and the Body

Words: 1900 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97000787

Exercise has been described as the best medicine for depression. It can help a person get through rough times. Physical exercise is very important for a person's mental and physical health. Exercise helps in pumping more blood through the veins. This results in the increase in size of the arteries and it prevents fats from clogging the arteries. It also prevents blood clots. A person who exercises regularly is protected from a variety of diseases and it helps in curbing cholesterol. Exercise benefits a human body as it lowers blood pressure and conditions the lungs. Exercise has its various advantages. It successfully counters stress, depression and anxiety. It has been named as the best fighting force for all these problems. Exercise is also instrumental in improving a person's nervous, cardiovascular and immune system. It also increases our metabolism, digestion and stimulation. (University of Michigan Health System) (http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm)

Sometimes people feel…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/primry/fit02.htm

Marissa Beck, Relieving Stress Through Exercise, The Tufts Daily, 2003

Richard Harvey, The Physician and Sports Medicine - September 1995

Harvard Health Publications Special Health Report, Depression Report, 2002
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Scientific Effects of Smoking on the Human

Words: 942 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96151006

scientific effects of smoking on the human body especially on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We will give a brief analysis on how smoking affects the mentioned systems and see how the human body system works if the individual does not smoke. We will also support our paper with scientific and statistical evidence regarding the facts related to smoking.

Smoking and its effects

Before looking at smoking and its effects lets review on how the respiratory and cardiovascular systems work. When we breathe air it first enters Trachea/windpipe through which it enters on each of the bronchi present at both of the lungs. The bronchus is spread throughout the lungs like branches on trees and at its tips is as thin as a hair (bronchioles). Each lung has about thirty thousand bronchioles. At the tip of every bronchiole lies an area which leads to tiny air sacs known as alveoli.…… [Read More]

References

Timmins, William. (1989). Smoking and the workplace. New York: Quorum Books.

Klarreich, Samuel. (1987). Health and fitness in the workplace. New York: Praeger.

Weiss, Stephen. (1991). Health at work. New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum Associates.

Bunton, Robin. (2002). Health Promotion. London: Routledge.
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Non-Cardiac Chest Pain Background- Chest Pain Is

Words: 1987 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97434616

Non-Cardiac Chest Pain

Background- Chest pain is one of the most common reasons people call for or visit the Emergency Room for help. Heart attack education has brought to light the urgency of seeking immediate medical treatment if one suspects they are having heart issues. However, chest pain does not always signal a heart attack, and may be totally unrelated to issues with the cardiovascular system. Often no clear reason for such pain presents itself during examination, but understanding the perception and pain experience can help medical professionals understand different experiences that lead to patient panic about chest pain (Jerlock, Gaston-Johansson, & Danielson, 2005). Typically, if chest pain is related to a cardiac issue it is usually associated with one of the following symptoms: 1) pressure, fullness or extreme tightness in the chest; 2) crushing or searing pain that radiates to the back, upward through the jaw, and especially through…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Unexplained Chest Pain Can be Due To Stress. (2009, February 9). Retrieved from Science Daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090209094551.htm

Cunha, J. (2011, March). Chest Pain - Overview, Causes, Symptoms. Retrieved from eMedicineHealth: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/chest_pain/article_em.htm

Hershcovici, T., Navarro-Rodriguez, T., & Fass, R. (2011). Non-Cardiac Chest Pain: An Update. CML Gastroenterology, 30(2), 37-54.

Jerlock, M., Gaston-Johansson, F., & Danielson, E. (2005). Living with unexplained chest pain. Issues in Clinical Nursing, 14(2), 956-64.
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Clinical Learning Points

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80162637

Clinical Learning Points

Clinical Case Study Key Learning Points

Given the patient's history with angina and cardiac conditions, there is a clear need to ensure that he does not allow bad habits to continue in addition to the careful management and monitoring of his health. The patient's medical history also includes known diagnoses for diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. His father had also passed from heart disease, indicating a genetic predisposition to cardiac problems. The patient recently was discharged just a few days prior for a stent placement. He returned for an evaluation, claiming that his major cardiac symptoms, including crushing chest pain, shortness of breath and diaphoretic had subsided dramatically. Still, there is thought to be a high risk of future complications in regards to his cardiac health because of the fact that he has a very minimal support system in order to help him change his dietary and lifestyle…… [Read More]

References

American Heart Association. (2007). Patient-teaching for cardiac nurses. Nursing, 37(10), 14-16.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/healthy_living.htm 

John Hopkins Medicine. (2014). High Cholesterol (Hypercholesterolemia). Heart & Vascular Institute. Retrieved from http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/heart_vascular_institute/conditions_treatments/conditions/high_cholesterol.html
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Program Design Project

Words: 3118 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59976246

Sport: Basketball

More sport and physiological testing has become increasingly common as the interaction between scientists and coaches (tanner & Gore, 2013). When it comes to popular sports that are watched al over the world, team games like basketball generally have a heightened game tempo, a tougher body game and a more acute variability in the techniques and methods used (Singh & Deol, 2012). "An increased performance level can only be achieved by working and training of all major components i.e. technique, coordination, tactics, physical fitness, physiological qualities and psychological qualities. Basketball is one of the most popular team-based sports played and watched throughout the world" (Singh & Deol, 2012). This puts the aspect of physiological testing as an extreme priority for a variety of reasons. "Physiological exercise testing is important in basketball to help identify potential talent but also to provide the players, trainers and coaching staff with some…… [Read More]

References

Bangsbo, J. (2006). Training and testing of the elite athlete.Copenhagen Muscle Research

Centre, 4(1), 1-9.

Changela, P.K., & Bhatt, S. (2012). The correlational study of the vertical jump test and wingate cycle test as a method to assess anaerobic power in high school basketball players. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 2(6), 2-9.

Cissik, J. (2013, February 15). The point guard off-season workout plan. Retrieved from http://www.stack.com/2013/02/15/point-guard-off-season-workout/
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Senior Fitness

Words: 2521 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66413783

* The effects on normal aging and metabolism is that after the age of forty, metabolism usually decreases by about 5% every ten years. That does not mean that metabolism cannot be controlled to some extent; it can. Metabolism is loosely defined as the chemical workings within our bodies that help us to maintain a certain level of energy use, calorie burning and general energy (even at rest). As we age, our metabolism rate slows down, meaning that we burn less calories and the ones we do burn are burned at a slower rate. It also means that we may have less energy and our overall health slows as well.
* As individuals grow older their muscle mass is less likely to maintain its composition. Bill Sonnemaker, the 2007 IDEA Health and Fitness Personal Trainer of the year states that building muscle mass at any age provides a number of…… [Read More]

References
American College of Sports Medicine (1995) Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription, 5th Ed. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, pp. 1-373
American Diabetes Association (2011) Hyperglycemia, accessed on May 5, 2011 at http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/blood-glucose-control/hyperglycemia.html
Van Dusen, A. (2011) Tips to build your muscle mass at any age, accessed on May 1, 2011 at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20515088/ns/health-forbescom/

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High Blood Pressure Awareness Proposal

Words: 3591 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7368154

The utility of these sessions can be important as it will provide a platform for interacting with the physician regarding prescribed medicines; guidance for remembering to adhere to appropriate drug regimen and suggestions for tackling difficulties related to taking medicines for instance missed dosages, side effects, and drug interactions. ("Activities for priority groups and settings," n. d.) iii) Support Programs: Religious gathering and other memberships groups are preferably located to present education and support programs. In certain cases, High BP control exercises can also be included into available groups. For instance, a meal function can consist of food prepared from recipes in the DASH Eating Plan, a team of elderly people could watch through a film regarding high blood pressure during a particular meeting and make program for a health walk during another occasion; and one more auxiliary could organize a support group. The DASH Eating plan could be effective…… [Read More]

References

American Heart Association. (2007) "Heart Attack, Stroke and Cardiac Arrest Warning

Signs." Retrieved 18 September, 2007 at http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=3053

Cooper, Richard. S; Rotimi, Charles, N; Ward, Ryk. (n. d.) "The puzzle of hypertension in African-Americans." Scientific American. Retrieved 17 September, 2007 at http://www.unl.edu/rhames/courses/110/af_blood/af_blood.html

Krieger, N. (1990) "Racial and gender discrimination: risk factors for high blood pressure?"
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Metabolic Syndrome in the United

Words: 1177 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10894107



Metabolic syndrome is significant for our patient for several reasons. As we have noted, the syndrome is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Those patients who have metabolic syndrome tend to develop coronary atherosclerosis at a higher rate than those who have coronary risk factors alone. Obesity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome but so does pre-obesity, or BMI ranging from 25-30. Women who have been diagnosed with polycystic ovarian syndrome are noted to be at increased risk of hypertension, dylipidemia, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and Type II diabetes. Because of all these comorbidities, women with PCOS also tend to be at greater risk for patients with subclinical carotid atherosclerosis, especially in the premenopausal population (Talbot, et al., 2000). For these same reasons, women diagnosed with PCOS have a 5 fold increased risk for the development of complications of coronary and cerebrovascular atherosclerosis.

Mrs. Stiller has many…… [Read More]

Reference:

Reaven G. (2002) Metabolic syndrome. Pathophysiology and implications for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation.106:286-288

Manson JE, Willet WC, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ, Hankinson SE, et al. (2005) Body weight and mortality among women. N Eng J. Med 333:677-85

Juahan-Vague I, Alessi MC. (1997) PAI-1, obesity, insulin resistance and risk of cardiovascular events. Thromb Haemost 78:656-60

Wilson PW. (2004) Estimating cardiovascular disease risk and the metabolic syndrome: a Framingham view. Endocrinol Metab Clin N. Am. 33:467-81
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Patient Assessment and Analysis

Words: 825 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89222306

Patient Assessment

DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT PLAN

Diagnosis and Disease Processes

Using an appropriate patient assessment form (Sample Forms, 2013), D.M. has been found to have uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, uncontrolled hypertension, chronic anemia, and probable hypothyroidism (Sample Forms).

Diabetes Type 2

is most probably on a poorly controlled diet of high cholesterol and high simple sugars. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a metabolic disease wherein the body is not able to properly use ingested food because of insulin resistance. If more simple or refined sugars are consumed, the less the body is able to process them as nutrients. These tend to stay and float in the blood stream, un-used, and in this condition, they cause trouble in the different parts of the body. These include the end organs, such as the brain, the eyes, the kidneys, the heart, and even the feet. A poorly controlled diet and the lack…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Glasgow, R.E., et al. (2005). Development and validation of the patient assessment of chronic illness care. Vol. 43 # 5, Medical Care: PuMed. Retrieved on October 15,

2014 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15838407 

Sample Forms (2013). Patient assessment form. Sample Forms.org. Retrieved on October 15, 2014 from http://www.sampleforms.org/patient-assessmentform.html
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Measuring Heart and Ventilation Rate During and

Words: 1446 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20368597

Measuring Heart and Ventilation Rate During and After Moderate Exercise

A useful perspective to begin the process of conducting an experiment to measure heart and ventilation rate during and after a moderate exercise is to explain the central purpose of the experiment. Generally speaking, if we can measure the heart and the ventilation rate of an individual, we will be able to ascertain the individual's level of fitness. In addition, during an exercise activity, measuring the heart and ventilation rate can be a strategy for indicating the presence of disease in the subject's system. Furthermore, this kind of experiment can enable a researcher to determine the subject's maximum capacity, which, in turn, can serve not only as a barometer for determining the subject's cardiac capacity but also of his/her fatigue level. The following sections explored the objectives, steps and procedures for the experiment for measure the heart rate and ventilation…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allaby, M 2011, Cardiac Cycle, A Dictionary of Zoology. Encyclopedia.com, . viewed April 7, 2011, < http://www.encyclopedia.com >.

Davis M. 2000, The Relaxation and Stress Reduction Workbook, New Harbinger inc., Sacramento, CA.

Goleman D & Gurin J. 1993, Mind Body Medicine, Consumer Books

Hawkins M. 1993, Rebounding for Health and Fitness, Thorsons, London
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Veterinary Nursing Anesthesia and Analgesia Case Journal

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88864222

Veterinary Nursing Anesthesia and Analgesia Case Journal

The objective of this study is to address anesthesia needs in two specific cases with the first being a 12-week-old Jack Russell puppy and the second being a 12-year-old geriatric cat.

12-Week-old Jack Russell Puppy

This 12-week-old Jack Russell Puppy has eaten a babies dummy. This case study will highlight the anesthesia requirements and protocol and highlight the relevance of effect on renal function, speed of recovery, analgesia, emphasis on knowledge and understanding. Even at 12-weeks of age, this puppy is considered a pediatric patient according to the work of Gleed and Seymour (1991). This means that the patient has a higher oxygen requirement that the adult. The tongue of this patient due to his age is large and the airway is small in diameter. As well, there is a lower functional renal capacity in this age patient all of which make the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bennett, RC, et al. (2008) Comparison of sevoflurane and isoflurane in dogs anaesthetized for clinical surgical or diagnostic procedures. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 49, 392-397.

Gleed, R and Seymour C (Eds) (1991) Manual of Small Animal Anesthesia and Hall, LW Clarke KW Trim CM 2001 Veterinary Anesthesia 10th edition Myerscough College 2011 Drugs used for Premedication

HEDip CVN VN 2020 Veterinary Anesthesia: Anesthesia for Specific Scenarios. Session Introduction Myerscough College 2011.

Hollingshead KW & Mckelvey D (2000) Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia 3rd Edn Mosby Missouri
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Leukemia Blood and Bone Marrow

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55908582



The two types of chronic leukemia must be discussed separately. In CML, "the leukemia cell that starts the disease makes blood cells (red cells, white cells and platelets) that function almost like normal cells" (Leukemia and Lymphoma, 2010). Moreover, the number of red cells usually declines in CML, which causes anemia (Leukemia and Lymphoma, 2010). CML does not tend to reduce the number of white cells or platelets, and their performance remains somewhat normal, however their counts are high and can continue to rise, causing health complications (Leukemia and Lymphoma, 2010). If white blood counts rise too high, blood flow can slow down, causing severe anemia (Leukemia and Lymphoma, 2010).

In CLL, the leukemia cell makes lymphocytes that do not function properly, instead, "the leukemia cell that starts the disease makes too many lymphocytes that do not function. These cells replace normal cells in the marrow and lymph nodes. They…… [Read More]

References

The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. (2010, Mar. 3). Leukemia. Retrieved from http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org/all_page-item_id=7026

My Health Code. (Unk). Circulatory system. Retrieved from http://www.circulatory-

system.org/
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Lungs What Are the Lungs

Words: 3387 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31909477

However, it was 1953 that the formation of serotonin was from the lungs was substantiated. It is also observed that detoxification of the blood takes place in the lungs. Later, it was observed that one of the important activities of the lung is to provide chemical filtration by shielding the regular circulation of blood from the attack of vasoactive mixtures and other exogenous compounds present in the arteries. The physiology of the lungs and its location makes the lung exclusively suitable to perform these activities. (Wet; Moss, 1998)

The total output from the cardiac system is obtained by the lungs whereas other organs acquire only a very small quantity of output. The blood that circulates the lungs is subject to the vast capillary endothelial plane of the body which is of seventy square meters. This aspect of output and circulation enable the lung to perform the efficient function of biochemical…… [Read More]

References

Bennett, Taylor. B. (1996) "Essentials for Animal Research: A Primer for Research Personnel"

Diane Publishing.

De Reuck, a.V. S; O'Connor, Maeve. (1962) "CIBA Foundation Symposium on Pulmonary

Structure and Function" a. Churchill Ltd.: London.
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Alcohol the Search for Pleasure

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7643887

Alcohol is classified as a depressant because it slows down the release of neurochemicals that inhibit certain behaviors. The subjective feelings associated with alcohol intoxication are due to its effects on the brain and central nervous system but that system also controls our behaviors. The depression of certain neurotransmitters often reduces reflex time and reduces general inhibitions.

The digestive system is also strongly affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol is absorbed almost entirely by the small intestine, from where the alcohol seeps into the blood. The liver is strongly affected by the absorption of alcohol and is in fact the main organ responsible for metabolizing alcohol. When too much alcohol is consumed, the liver becomes overtaxed and cannot filter the toxins from the body as fast as it normally can. Over the long-term, the liver can become permanently damaged from too much alcohol consumption.

The heart and circulatory system are also…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alcohol Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination." California DUI Help. Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.californiaduihelp.com/dui_investigation/alcohol.asp

Boggan, Bill. "Alcohol Chemistry and You." Kennesaw State University, 2003.
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Fantastic Voyage-Fem Artery to Right Lung a

Words: 1077 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15030377

Fantastic Voyage-Fem artery to Right lung

A Fantastic Voyage from the Right Femoral Artery to the Right Lung

The human body is an intricate system of labyrinths that work together to maintain essential functions and thus maintain an individuals physical health. Two systems that work together are the circulatory and cardiopulmonary systems. Together, these systems help to transport gasses, nutrients, wastes, and hormones to various organs in the body. While it is may be easy to get lost in the multitude of paths that lead to the rest of the body from the heart, finding one's way from the right femoral vein to the lower lobe of the right lung via the right pulmonary artery is much simpler than would be expected.

Let us begin our journey in the right femoral vein. After a long and treacherous journey, we find ourselves in the right femoral vein and must figure out…… [Read More]

References

Cotterill, S. (2000). The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer. Department of Child Health. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Retrieved 19 July 2012, from  http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm 

Gregory, M (n.d.). The circulatory system. Clinton Community College. State University of New York. Retrieved 19 July 2012, from http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm

Inner Body (2011). All systems. Retrieved 19 July 2012, from http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html
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Cardiac Health and Lifestyle

Words: 568 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36543295

incidence rates of childhood obesity are linked to socio-economic factors. Core drivers of obesity in both children and adults are diet and exercise, and research has shown that a calorie is not a calorie. That is to say that certain foods serve as triggers for metabolic responses and physiological events that impact the overall health of individuals. The old adage that people can focus on loosing weight -- the associated implication is that they will be healthy as a result -- has shown not to be true. Much of the prepackaged food consumed today -- particularly so-called junk food -- is high in sugar, fats, and calories. However, this statement is too reductionist to be of help to people who are interested in improving their diets in order to actually become healthier.

Recent research indicates that obesity is certainly a factor in the incidence of diabetes, as is total caloric…… [Read More]

References

Basu, S., Yoffe, P., Hills, N., & Lustig, R.H. (2013). The relationship of sugar to population-level diabetes prevalence: An econometric analysis of repeated cross-sectional data. PLoS ONE, 8(2): e57873. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873

Breen, C., Ryan, M., McNulty, B., Gibney, M., Canavan, R., & O'Shea, D. (2014, February). High saturated-fat and low-fibre intake: a comparative analysis of nutrient intake in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Nutrition and Diabetes, 4, e104. doi: 10.1038/nutd.2014.2.

Eckel, R.H. (1997). Obesity and Heart Disease: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Nutrition Committee, American Heart Association. Circulation, 96, 3248-3250. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.96.9.3248

[Type text]
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Marfan Syndromme Is a Multisystem

Words: 3574 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30500281

This became more so with the advancement of molecular Biology Tests. Subsequently a group of clinicians met in Ghent Belgium and came up with the current diagnostic criteria known as the Ghent Nosology. (De Paepe et al. 1996) Similar to the Berlin Nosology the Ghent criteria was based on clinical findings in the various organ systems as well as the nature of family history and relationships, a major criteria was classified as which has a high diagnostic specificity because it was less frequent in other conditions and in the general population. A point of divergence from the Berlin Nosology was the conversion of minor criteria in the skeletal system into major criteria. For one to be diagnosed with Marfan's the patient must have a first degree relative diagnosed with the disease in addition two systems must be involved with one having a major sign. In the absence of a family…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beighton, P., de Paepe, a., Danks, D., Finidori, G., Gedde-Dahl, T., Goodman, R., Hall, J.G., Hollister, D.W., Horton, W., McKusick, V.A., Opitz, J.M., Pope, F.M., Pyeritz, R.E., Rimoin, D.L., Sillence, D., Spranger, J.W., Thompson, E., Tsipouras, P., Viljoen, D., Winship, I., Young, I (1988). International nosology of heritable disorders of connective tissue. Am. J. Med. Genet. 29: 581-594,

Borger F (1914): Uber zwei Falle von Arachnodaktylie. Zschr Kinderheilk 12: 161 -1-84.

Baer RW, Taussig HB, Oppenheimer EH (1943): Congenital aneurysmal dilatation of the aorta associated with arachnodactyly. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 72:309-33 1.

De Paepe, a., Devereux, R.B., Dietz, H.C., Hennekam, R.C.M., Pyeritz, R.E.( 1996) Revised diagnostic criteria for the Marfan syndrome. Am. J. Med. Genet. 62: 417-426
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Benefits of Physical Activity and Exercise on One's Health

Words: 3536 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30574410

Lack of physical activity and exercises increase the risk of early death by 23%, hence, showing the significance of physical activity and exercise. Incorporating other unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, abusing alcohol, and abuse of other drug complexes the health status of an individual; hence, a premature death (Tarnopolsky, 2010).

A strong relationship exists between physical activity and exercises and the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Poor lifestyles contribute to a variety of risk factors such as high levels of lipids in the blood, obesity, smoking, and high blood pressure that causes cardiovascular complications. Significant evidence shows that reducing these risk factors reduces the risks of an individual having cardiovascular conditions such as stroke, cardiac arrest, and coronary heart disease. Regular exercises and physical activity reduce these risk factors in a number of ways. For instance, it promotes the reduction of the body weight that helps in the reduction of…… [Read More]

References

8 Benefits of exercising. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u- _NNCL_eXA&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Benefits of Exercise for your Health. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vC7qpvhhCL0&feature=youtube_gdata_player

Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. (n.d.). Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical hea...: Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://journals.lww.com/co-psychiatry/Fulltext/2005/03000/Exercise_and_well_being__a_review_of_mental_and.13.aspx

Medical aspects of exercise: benefits and risks.. (1991). London: Royal College of Physicians of London.
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Neurofibroma Genetic Traits and Impact

Words: 5537 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52789543

However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.

Respiratory System

Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…… [Read More]

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Differential Diagnosis and Treatment for Several Possible Maladies

Words: 999 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28502346

Healthcare -- Nursing -- Case Study

I am required to make differential diagnosis, examine health issues and their management, order diagnostic tests and provide health teachings/health promotion for "Ted." Ted is a 55-year-old Caucasian man with general malaise and a 6-day history of a productive cough. During this time he had noticed a gradual accumulation of fluid in his legs and feet. He had not seen a health care professional in 3 years. His social history was significant because he smoked about a pack of cigarettes a week. Ted reported having a dry, hacking cough for years, but he attributed it to 30 years of smoking. The review of systems was unremarkable. Generally he appeared well nourished and in no acute distress. The physical exam showed the following: weight 142 pounds, height 5'8," blood pressure 150/92 mmHg left arm and 158/96 mmHg right arm, temperature 99.2 degrees F, and oxygen…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ackley, B. J., & Ladwig, G. B. (2014). Nursing diagnosis handbook: An evidence-based guide to planning care, 10th ed. Maryland Heights: Elsevier-Mosby.

Jensen, M., & Rhoads, J. (2014). Differential diagnosis for the advanced practice nurse. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
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Laughter Is Laughter the Best

Words: 1639 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45760589

Life can be very stressful. It would be helpful if there were actually "time outs" during the day for hearing a couple of jokes or watching a 15-minute humorous video. If it is true that it can be as healthy as aerobics, then we are getting double the advantage -- both a mental and physiological benefit.

Recently I have read a few articles about nursing homes hiring "comic coaches," to come in and cheer up the residents. Given the fact that many of these individuals have been alone for days except for staff, because they either do not have family or people live too far away to visit often, this added humor can surely be of great benefit. As noted by Berk, many of these elderly men and women are bedridden or in wheelchairs. What better way to have their body respond than through laughter?

Overall, it amazes me that…… [Read More]

References:

Berk, R.A. (2001) the active ingredients in humor. Educational Gerontology. 27, 323-339.

Burchowski, M., Majchrazak, K., Blomquist, K. Chen, K., Byrne, D., and Bachorowski, J. (2007). Energy expenditure of genuine laughter. 31(1), 131-137

Martin, R. (2002). Is laughter the best medicine? Current Directions in Psychological Science. 11(6), 218-220

Miller M & Fry W.F. (2009) the effect of mirthful laughter on the human cardiovascular system. Med Hypotheses. 73(5), 636-639.
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Anesthesia Inhalation Agents Effects on

Words: 1587 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33227949



Gurkan, Y., Canatay, H., Agacdiken, a., Ural, E., & Toker, K. (2003). Effects of halothane and sevoflurane on QT dispersion in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth, 13(3), 223-227.

Kerssens, C., Ouchi, T., & Sebel, P.S. (2005). No evidence of memory function during anesthesia with propofol or isoflurane with close control of hypnotic state. Anesthesiology, 102(1), 57-62.

Macario, a., Dexter, F., & Lubarsky, D. (2005). Meta-analysis of trials comparing postoperative recovery after anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane. Am J. Health Syst Pharm, 62(1), 63-68.

Marczin, N. (2004). Editorial I: Tiny wonders of tiny impurities of nitrous oxide during anaesthesia. Br J. Anaesth, 93(5), 619-623.

Ng, a. (2005). Sevoflurane sedation in infants - a fine line between sedation and general anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth, 15(1), 1-2.

Preckel, B., Mullenheim, J., Hoff, J., Obal, D., Heiderhoff, M., Thamer, V., et al. (2004). Haemodynamic changes during halothane, sevoflurane and desflurane anaesthesia in dogs before and after…… [Read More]

References

Desalu, I., Kushimo, O.T., & Odelola, M.A. (2004). Cardiovascular changes during halothane induction in children. Niger Postgrad Med J, 11(3), 173-178.

Gungor, I., Bozkirli, F., Celebi, H., & Gunaydin, B. (2003). Comparison of the effects of neuroleptanesthesia and enflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia on neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium. J Anesth, 17(2), 129-132.

Gurkan, Y., Canatay, H., Agacdiken, a., Ural, E., & Toker, K. (2003). Effects of halothane and sevoflurane on QT dispersion in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth, 13(3), 223-227.

Kerssens, C., Ouchi, T., & Sebel, P.S. (2005). No evidence of memory function during anesthesia with propofol or isoflurane with close control of hypnotic state. Anesthesiology, 102(1), 57-62.
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Skin Blood Flow Thermoregulation Is

Words: 6746 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92554129



The picture to the left depicts the various elements that are responsible for thermoregulation in human skin. The illustrations shows the various layers of skin along with the veins, arteries and capillaries of the circulatory system that assist in insuring that the thermoregulatory system works properly. The sweat glands are responsible for selectively removing materials from the blood the sweat glands then concentrates or alters these toxins, and secretes them for elimination from the body. The perspiration or sweat is then removed through the sweat pore. This has a twofold purpose: to remove toxins and thermoregulation (in this case cooling the body).

Thermoregulation involving perspiration is brought about by both internal and environmental heat and exercise. As it relates to the latter, there have been many studies related to exercise and thermoregulation. According to Marino (2004)

"thermoregulatory effector responses of humans and concluded that temperature regulation during exercise is dissimilar…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, Julius D. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature. 1997;389:816-824.

Dugan SA, Powell LH, Kravitz HM, Everson Rose SA, Karavolos K, Luborsky J (2006)

Musculoskeletal pain and menopausal tatus. Clin J. Pain 22: 325 -- 331

Deecher, D.C.K. Dorries (2007)Understanding the pathophysiology of vasomotor symptoms
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Major Depression

Words: 4777 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90936662

Clinical Depression

Major depressions or unipolar depressions are some of the names by which the term Clinical depression is known, which is a type of depressive disorder. To explain, it is a condition that is to be diametrically observed, in the sense that the expert does not count on a patient's self-report but checks for indications of depression that can be noticed and recognized. (Schatzberg, 2002) Clinical depression is a term that explains a situation serious enough to require medical, that is expert help and may even require pharmacological involvement. Clinical depression, as stated by various medical sources, survives for a period of two weeks and is usually not impetuous because of any external being or thing.

In a year, clinical depression affects at least 19 million American individuals. Not considering whether the individual is young or old, man or woman, regardless of race or income any body can be…… [Read More]

References

Abeles, Norman & Victor, Tara (2003) Unique Opportunities for Psychology in Mental Health Care for Older Adults, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice V10 N1

Denton, Donald D. (2003) Beating Depression: The Journey to Hope. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1533-a-1534-a

Fink, Max (2003) Dealing With Depression: A Commonsense Guide to Mood Disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1365-1366

Frank, Ellen & Kupfer. David J. (2003) Progress in the Therapy of Mood Disorders: Scientific Support. American Journal of Psychiatry; 160: 1207-1208
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Home Energy Audit Energy Sources

Words: 855 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24767353



All other sources of energy used within my home: Apart from the electricity which is used in the home for most appliances, gas is also used in the kitchen to power the stove and the hot water boiler system for the house. This is also then used in the heating system in the house. Water is the other main source of energy which is used in the house, for washing dishes such as in the dishwasher, washing clothes, having showers, washing the car and watering the lawn. Gas is used for an emergency generator in the case of a power cut to the house, and also for some of the tools such as the lawnmower. Logs are also burned on the fire in the winter.

Areas in the home where energy efficiency could be improved: Energy efficiency could be improved by making sure that all electrical items are turned off…… [Read More]

Bibliography

African-American Environmentalist Association (2000). Our Unfair Share III. Retrieved on January 21, 2009, from www.aaenvironment.com/OUS3.doc.

ATSDR (1999) ToxFAQs: Sulfur dioxide. Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry. Retrieved on January 21, 2009, at  http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/tfacts116.html .

Pepco (2009). Retrieved on January 21, 2009, at http://www.pepco.com.

Tunbridge Wells Borough Council (No date) Common Pollutants and Health Effects. Retrieved on January 21, 2009, at http://www2.tunbridgewells.gov.uk/pdf.aspx?page=1291.
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Health Risk Behaviors Substance Abuse

Words: 2763 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35020469

The presence of violence is one of the most dangerous behaviors associated with substance abuse particularly with alcoholism for the reason that it is a behavior that can cause significant injuries or fatality associated with substance abuse consequences. Substance abuse is a psychological and mental morbidity as a form of another issue for the fact that it signifies maladaptive behaviors that are not usual for a normal person. These are the main issues that are addressed for the reason that these symptoms should be given the consideration to be treated in the most convenient way to improve the client's wellness upon providing interventions as indicated by Brenston (2009).

Some basic life skills that will be helpful for substance abusers are the ability to create therapeutic environment such as providing the patient with a calm environment that will decrease their level of aggressive and agitative behaviors. Establishing rapport is one of…… [Read More]

Reference

ACDE (American Council for Drug Education) (2011). Basic facts about drugs: Alcohol. Available: http://www.acde.org/common/alcohol2.pdf.

Brenston, Alfred (2009). Importance of counseling. Phoenix: Fox press.

Boston, Randy (2011). Effects of alcohol in the body. Available: http://www.jhu.edu/health/pdfdocs/EtOHEffects.pdf.

Delton, Hilda (2009). Implications of Substance Abuse Patterns. Dallas: Lance and Rogers.
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Fluoxetine Prozac Since Its Approval for Use

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61933670

Fluoxetine (Prozac)

Since its approval for use in the United States by the FDA in 1987, fluoxetine (commonly known as Prozac) has been the subject of great debate. Fluoxetine, now available in generic form, has been proven useful in the treatment of depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, some eating disorders, panic disorder, insomnia, migraines, schizophrenia, and more (Schmetzer, 2002). However, this drug does have a range of possible side effects including sexual dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, agitation, tremors, irritability, hypomania, impulsivity, and gastrointestinal distress (Kerr, 2008). In addition, it may be too early to tell what the consequences of long-term (more than 20 years) use of fluoxetine might be on the human brain (Murray, 2006).

As a psychoactive drug, fluoxetine works by affecting the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. Neurotransmitters in the brain are synthesized in neurons, stored in vesicles, and upon nerve impulse stimulation, are released into the synaptic cleft. Here they…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Borne, R. (1994). Serotonin: the Neurotransmitter for the '90s. Drug Topics, 108+.

Keltner, N. (2000). Mechanisms of Antidepressant Action: In Brief. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 69.

Kerr, L. (2008). Is Social Anxiety Making Us Depressed? Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry, 16+.

Murray, T.J. (2006). The Other Side of Psychopharmacology: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 309+.
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Benefits After Quitting Smoking

Words: 1370 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13629470

Benefits After Quitting Smoking

Among the many health risks that toll life, smoking is considered as the most preventable cause of mortality. Globally, smoking has been one of the principal factors that lead to diverse type of diseases, such as cancer, coronary heart disease, lung disease, and many others. The number of smokers worldwide grows everyday, both in developed and developing countries. According to Karl Fagerstrom's Epidemiology of Smoking, from a 1995 estimate, the rate of smoking-related mortality will grow from 3 million to 10 million annually by 2030.

In response to the risks that smoking causes to the increasing number of smokers', many health organizations worldwide conduct different programs that are hoped to minimize and prevent people from smoking. This includes the provision of enough information on the effects of smoking to one's health, as well as information on how to quit from the smoking habit.

Many research and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fagerstrom, Karl. "The Epidemiology of Smoking."

Fagerstrom Consulting (2002): 1-9.

Benefits of Quitting Smoking."

Texas Medical Association. 02 April 2004. http://www.texmed.org/cme/phn/ndt/benefits_quitting.asp
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Laughter and Healing the Effects of Laughter

Words: 5014 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31705476

Laughter and Healing

The Effects of Laughter on the Healing Process and the Use of Technology to Track Statistics

How Laughter Works

Benefits of Laughter

Using Technology in Humor Research

Humor Therapy

The Effects of Laughter on the Healing Process and the Use of Technology to Track Statistics

In the United States, billions of dollars are spent every year on medical treatments (Diggs, 2004). However, according to Diggs, people often "overlook the coping mechanisms we have been endowed with." The human body has innate mechanisms that provide self-care, which is often better than drugs. The Bible says: "A merry heart doeth good like a medicine, but a broken spirit drieth the bones."

There has been a great deal of research on the effects of laughter on a person's physical and mental health (Diggs, 2004). These studies show that when we laugh, there is an actual chemical change in our bodies…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berk LS, Felten DL, Tan SA, et al.: "Modulation of neuroimmune parameters during the eustress of humor-associated mirthful laughter." Alternative Therapies 2000; Vol. 7, No. 2, Pages 62-76.

Berk, Lee, Dr. P.H., M.P.H. & Stanley Tan, M.D. Ph.D. (1996). "The Laughter-Immune Connection." Available from: http://www.touchstarpro.com/laughbb3.html (17 April 1997).

Bunnell T: "The effect of 'healing with intent' on pepsin enzyme activity." Journal of Scientific Exploration 1999; Vol. 13, No. 2, Article 1.

Cousins, Norman (1979). Anatomy of an Illness As Perceived by the Patient. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
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Pursuit of Silence the Book in Pursuit

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95957631

Pursuit of Silence

The book In Pursuit of Silence: Listening for Meaning in a World of Noise is about the difficulties faced by modern people in a world that is full of cacophony. What author George Prochnik believes is that the world has changed in the recent past because there are no places you can go where you can have true silence. Prochnik surveyed men and women from many different aspects of society to try to find the importance that they place on sound and on silence. He further asserts that there is a real danger in this bombardment of sounds. This constant noise is creating in the body some severe ramifications in terms of the cardiovascular system, in terms of the mental processes of the human mind, and in the ways we converse, communicate, and debate with our fellow men and women.

The human body's cardiovascular system controls the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Prochnik, George. (2010). In Pursuit of Silence: Listening for Meaning in a World of Noise.

Doubleday: New York, NY.
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Cardiac Cycle Diastole and Systole Phases and

Words: 1411 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90976222

Cardiac Cycle: Diastole and Systole Phases and Heart Disease

The objective of the research in this study is to examine the cardiac cycle from the anatomy and physiology perspective. Toward this end, literature in this area of inquiry, which for the purpose of this study is the cardiac cycle, is examined and reported.

Two Phases of the Cardiac Cycle

The work of Klabunde reports that the single cycle of cardiac activity may be divided into two primary phases stated to be those of: (1) the diastole phase; and (2) the systole phase. (Klabunde, 2012, p.1, p.1) Diastole is representative of the span of time when the "ventricles are relaxed…blood is passively flowing from the left atrium (LA) and right atrium (RA) into the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV), respectively." (Klabunde, 2012, p.1) The mitral and triscuspid or atrioventircular valves are reported to "separate the atria from the ventricles…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chute, RM (2012) Chapter 19: The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels. Retrieved from:  http://www.apchute.com/ap2chap/chapt19.htm 

Fukuta, H. And Little, W.C. (2008) The Cardiac Cycle and the Physiological Basis of Left Ventricular Contraction, Ejection, Relaxation, and Filling. Heart Fail Clin. 2008. Jan 4(1):1-11. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2390899/

Klabunde, R.E. (2012) Cardiac Cycle. Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts. Retrieved from: http://www.cvphysiology.com/Heart%20Disease/HD002.htm

Limacher, MC (2004) Understanding the Impact of Abnormal Cardiac Activation on Cardiac Function. J Am Cardiol 2004;43(9): 1532-1533. Retrieved from: http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1135544
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Program Cultivate Personal a 6-Month Period In

Words: 2185 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41117927

program cultivate personal a 6-month period. In developing program draw reference relevant theory research. The include following sections Description well-being (definition outcomes) measurement well-being processes reflections.

Cultivating personal wellness

Description: My definition of wellness

Wellness is defined as a state of optimizing one's physical, mental, social, and civic health. With this in mind, I have decided upon the following plan to cultivate my own state of physical wellness.

Physical and mental wellness: Measurement of well-being and well-being processes

Exercise must be the core of every physical wellness prescription. It is important to maintain a healthy weight and regular exercise can significantly impact longevity. According to the American Heart Association, "Intensive exercise prevented shortening of telomeres, a protective effect against aging of the cardiovascular system, according to research reported in Circulation: Journal of the American Heart Association" (The anti-aging benefits of exercise, 2009, LA Times). Regular physical activity increases high-density lipoprotein…… [Read More]

References

7 benefits of physical activity. 2011. The Mayo Clinic. Viewed 8 April 2011 at:

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/exercise/HQ01676

The anti-aging benefits of exercise. 2009. Los Angeles Times. Viewed 8 April 2011 at:

http://www.latimes.com/sns-health-exercise-anti-aging,0,1725925.story
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Belts Over the Past Year and a

Words: 1045 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75815766

Belts

Over the past year and a half, there have been a high number of recordable and reportable back injuries in the warehouse and production areas. To address the issue and reduce and/or eliminate back related injuries, an investigation into preventive measures, including the use of back belts was done. Several studies have been conducted and the findings are all the same. There is no evidence to support the claim that back belts prevent back injuries. Even NIOSH declined to recommend use of back belts to reduce or eliminate work place back injuries. In fact, there is some evidence to suggest that they may increase the number and severity of work related back injuries (Youngstown State University, 1997). The results of most of these studies recommend training and ergonomic awareness programs as the most effective means of reducing/eliminating back injuries.

There are different types of back belts or supports but…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control. (2002, March 1). Summary of NIOSH back belt studies. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/beltsumm.html 

ITA-Med Co. (2009). Back and abdominal supports. Retrieved from:

http://www.itamed.com/backAbd.html

Ohio Bureau of Workers Compensation. (1993). Lifting belts / back supports / back braces:
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Nursing & Education Theory This

Words: 5668 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34391212

" (Jarvis, nd) Jarvis states that it is precisely "this movement along a maturity gradient that Mezirow regards as a form of emancipatory learning..." (Jarvis, nd) Jarvis states that according to Mezirow "emancipation is from libidinal, institutional or environmental forces which limit our options and rational control over our lives but have been taken for granted as beyond human control." (Jarvis, nd) Mezirow suggests that there are various levels of reflection which exist over the course of the individual's life and states that seven of these which occur during adult learning are those as follows:

reflectivity;

Affective reflectivity;

Discriminant reflectivity;

Judgmental reflectivity;

Conceptual reflectivity;

Psychic reflectivity; and Theoretical reflectivity. (Jarvis, nd)

II. MARGARET NEWMAN

Newman writes in the work entitled: "Health as Expanding Consciousness" that intuition plays a key role in her life and for example, in the books that she chooses to read, the people she meets, and the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Benner is Back! (2008) FOUCHE December 2008, Vol. 24, No. 2. Online available at http://www.Fouche.org.za/index.php/FOUCHE/article/viewFile/63/63

Benner P. From Novice to Expert, Excellence and Power in Clinical Nursing Practice. Menlo Park: Addison-Wesley, 1984.

Boverie, Patricia Eileen, and Kroth, Michael (2001) Transforming Work: The Five Keys to Achieving Trust, Commitment and Passion in the Workplace. 2001 Basic Books.

Dreyfus HL, Dreyfus S. A five-stage model of the mental activities involved in directed skill acquisition. Unpublished study, University of California, Berkeley, 1980.
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Stress Definition of Stress Researchers Define Stress

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5991786

Stress

Definition of stress

Researchers define stress as a physical, mental, or emotional response to events that causes bodily or mental tension. Simply put, stress is any outside force or event that has an effect on our body or mind. Acute stress is the most common form of stress. It comes from demands and pressures of the recent past and anticipated demands and pressures of the near future. Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting. Acute stress can be episodic or chronic.

Depending on the stressors and the types of changes or events, stress can manifest itself physically, emotionally and/or mentally. Physical stress occurs when the body as a whole starts to suffer as a result of a stressful situation. Symptoms can manifest in a variety of ways and vary in their seriousness. Emotional stress are responses due to stress affecting the mind…… [Read More]

References

AIS (NDI). Stress, definition of stress, stressor, what is stress?, Eustress?" The American institute of stress. Retrieved October10, 2011, from http://www.stress.org/topic-definition-stress.htm

Barr, N. (2008, August 14) What stress does to your body. Marie Claire. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.marieclaire.com/health-fitness/news/stress-effects-body

Mayo Clinic Staff (2010). Stress symptoms: Effects on your body, feelings and behavior. American psychological association's "Stress in America report." Mayo Clinic. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stress-symptoms/SR00008_D

Miller, L.H. & Smith, A.D. (1993). Stress: The different kinds of stress. American psychlolgical association. In The Stress Solution. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress-kinds.aspx
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Environmental Management Read Instructions File 1 Files

Words: 2172 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22459058

Environmental Management Read Instructions File #1 Files Attached

Environmental management

The Water Permitting Board

Natural gas represents an important resource within the United States and more efforts are made to create energy sustainability using the resource. Still, the creation of a Schuylkill Energy LLC power plant and gas drilling facility in Mock County is not hereby a recommended course of action.

The arguments in support of this recommendation are drawn from the specialized literature; are all objective and based on scientific facts. The dangers to gas drilling are far too significant for the population and the environment and they are real, even if only visible in the long-term.

Another problem associated with gas processing and drilling is represented by the lack of contingency plans and alternative solutions in case energy situations materialize. In such a setting then, it is recommended to focus on solar and wind energy generation, and to…… [Read More]

References:

Calborn, T., Kwiatkowski, C., Schultz, K., Bachran, M., 2011, Natural gas operations from a public perspective, The International Journal of Human and Risk Assessment

Finkel, M., Law, A., 2011, The rush to drill for natural gas: a public health cautionary tale, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 101, No. 5

Inhofe, J.M., Fannon, F., 2005, Energy and the environment: the future of natural gas in America, Energy Law Journal, Vol. 26, No. 2

Osborn, S.G., Vengosh, A., Warner, N.R., Jackson, R.B., 2011, Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing, PNAS, Vol. 18, No. 20
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Psychoneuroimmunology

Words: 1860 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73957139

Therefore, this explains why stress would have such an effect on the immune functions of the body, at least from the perspective of someone who is doing an evolutionary investigation into the issue of the reasons why we see these phenomena occur.

Thus, psychoneuroimmunology is one of the most important and fastest growing areas of medicine to bridge the gap between neurological theory and medicinal practice. The literature is quickly evolving and changing. Indeed, there is an increasing hope that this field may be the one to deliver on the promise of the discovery of "the scientific foundations for a new type of treatment whose essence is to combat disease by strengthening the body's own defenses against stress" ("Association for the Advancement of Applied Psychoneuroimmunology"):

What is of importance is not whether we have our emotional ups and downs, but rather that lingering unresolved emotions and inflexible ways of coping,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Association for the Advancement of Applied Psychoneuroimmunology." Retrieved November 26, 2003 at http://hometown.aol.com/AAAPNI/.

De Kooker, Margo. "Psychoneuroimmunology: An Overview." Retrieved November 26, 2003 at http://www.wellness.org.za/html/pni.html.

PNI Adaptiveness." Retrieved November 26, 2003, at http://www.lgu.ac.uk / psychology/staff/elander/health/PNIAdaptiveness.html.

Psychoneuroimmunology." Retrieved November 26, 2003, at http://www.datacomm.ch/kmatter/psychone.htm#_Toc442256827.
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Fantastic Voyage Welcome Aboard the SS William

Words: 1587 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96147003

Fantastic Voyage

Welcome aboard the SS William Harvey! As you well know the human body is a complex system of intricate cells that work together to maintain a perfect and efficient environment on which an individual can thrive. Two systems in the human body that work together to ensure that a human individual remains healthy are the circulatory and the cardiopulmonary systems. Working in conjunction with each other, these systems help with the transportation of gasses, nutrients, and hormones to different organs within the human body. While the intricate mazes that make up the different systems in the human body may confuse some individuals, finding one's way from the femoral vein in the circulatory system to the lungs is not as complicated as it sounds.

Join us as we embark on this Fantastic Voyage through the human body as we visit and discover new cells and organs of the human…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cotterill, S. (2000). The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer. Department of Child Health. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from  http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm 

Gregory, M (n.d.). The circulatory system. Clinton Community College. State University of New York. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm

How does the body fight infections? (n.d.). WiseGeek. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://www.wisegeek.com/how-does-the-human-body-fight-infections.htm

Inner Body. (2011). All systems. Retrieved 27 July 2012, from http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html
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Computer Vision Syndrome

Words: 3073 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75177703

Computer Vision Syndrome

According to the Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is "A variety of problems related to prolonged viewing of a computer screen. Short-term effects include dry eyes, blurred vision, eye fatigue and excessive tearing. Long-term effects include migraines, cataracts and visual epilepsy. Some solutions are to keep reflections and glare to a minimum and to provide a non-fluorescent, uniform light source. Special lamps are available that maintain the proper light around the monitor and generate light at much higher frequencies than regular light bulbs"

With the ever increasing amount of time consumers are spending in front of their computer screens, this disability is considered on of the fastest growing work related health problems in the country today. For many Americans, the problem cannot be left behind at the office. Individuals come home, to spend time surfing the web, corresponding via email, and pursuing various computer-based entertainment…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anshel, J. 1997, July 1. Computer vision syndrome: causes and cures.

Managing Office Technology.

Chambers, Anne. 1999, Oct. 1. Computer Vision Syndrome: Relief Is in Sight.

Occupational Hazards.
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Analyzing the Hashimoto Thyroiditis

Words: 1997 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70935211

Hashimoto Thyroiditis

ACRONYMS

TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

T3 Triiodothyronine

T4 Thyroxine

Hashimoto Thyroiditis

The condition, Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, is named after Hakaru Hashimoto, a Japanese scientist, who uncovered the disease in the year 1912. Amino, DeGroot, and Akamizu (2013) write that Hashimoto explained the conditions of four types of individuals having a chronic thyroid disorder, that he labeled as "struma lymphomatosa." These individuals' thyroid glands had diffused lymphocytic infiltration, parenchymal atrophy, fibrosis, and eosinophilic acinar-cell change. Pathological as well as clinical researches of Hashimoto Thyroiditis have been conducted frequently since Hashimoto first described the affliction.

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, is an autoimmune syndrome wherein a person's immune system attacks body tissues, organs and cells. Persons suffering from this affliction have a thyroid malfunction, a condition known as hypothyroidism, wherein the thyroid gland ceases to secrete sufficient hormones to meet the needs of the body. This gland, situated at the anterior part of the…… [Read More]

Reference: www.ghr.nlm.nih.gov

Kresser, C. (2010, June 28). The Most Important Thing You May Not Know About Hypothyroidism. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from Chris Kresser; Let's Take Back Your Health: www.chriskresser.com

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. (2013, February 25). Hashimoto's Disease. Retrieved February 2, 2016, from National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: www.niddk.nih.gov

The American Thyroid Asspciation Taskforce. (2011). Guidelines of the American Thyroid

Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and Postpartum. Thyroid, 1081-1125. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
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Sickle Cell Disease or Sickle

Words: 2708 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22416082

This is often associated with an infection by Parvovirus B-19. The bone marrow's replacement of the cells is disrupted. This usually manifests with a rapid drop in hemoglobin levels. Luckily, this condition is usually self limited, and the treatment is mostly supportive. Recovery is usually heralded by an increase in the reticulocyte count.

In children and in adolescents, sickle cell disease causes growth retardation, a delay in the manifestation of secondary sexual characteristics and sexual maturation, and usually results in the child being significantly underweight. It often happens in childhood that the spleen enlarges, especially in the first year of life, resulting from the sequestration of a large number of sickled cells within the spleen. This is a painful process. The spleen will then have repeated infarcts, and splenic function is impaired during the enlargement. Eventually, the repeated episodes of infarct leave the spleen fibrotic and it shrinks in size,…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, K; Morris, JS; Thomas, P; Serjeant, GR. 1992. Fetal hemoglobin and early manifestations of homozygous sickle cell disease. Arch. Dis. Child. 67:517-20.

Charache, et. al. 1995. Effect of hydroxyurea on the frequency of painful crises in sickle cell anemia. Investigators of the Multicenter Study of Hydroxyurea in Sickle Cell Anemia. N Engl J. Med 332:1317-22.

Platt, OS; Brambilla, DJ; Rosse, WF; Milner, PF; Castro, O; Steinberg, MH; Klug, PP. 1994. Mortality in sickle cell disease. Life expectancy and risk factors for early death. N. Engl. J. Med 330: 1639-44.

Powars, D, et al. 1993. Sickle cell anemia. Beta's gene cluster haplotypes as genetic markers for severe disease expression. Am. J. Dis. Child. 147:1197-1202.
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Thromboembolism Venous Thromboembolism Cancer Care

Words: 1776 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15623853

bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7369/887

Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMBOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160

Dirix LY,

Salgado R,

Weytjens R,

Colpaert C,

Benoy I,

Huget P, van Dam P,

Prove a,

Lemmens J,

Vermeulen P. (2002), 'Plasma fibrin D-dimer levels correlate with tumor volume, progression rate and survival in patients with metastatic Breast Cancer', British Journal of Cancer, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875705

John a Heit, (Sep 2005), "Cancer and Venous Thromboembolism: Scope of the Problem', Cancer Control, Vol! 2, Supplement 1.

Diana M. Beck, (Oct 2006), 'Venous Thromboembolism: Prophylaxis: Implications for Medical Surgical Nurses,"

MEDSURG Nursing -- October 2006 -- Vol. 15/No. 5, Available online at, http://www.medsurgnursing.net/ceonline/2008/article10282288.pdf

Race, Tara Kay BSN, RN, CCRN; Collier, Paul E. MD, (July-Sep 2007), 'The Hidden Risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis -- the Need for Risk Factor Assessment: Case Reviews.', Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 30(3):245-254

Susan Begelman MD, 'Venous Thromboembolism',…… [Read More]

Bibliography

MF Scully (2005), 'Clinical Guide Cancer and Thrombosis', retrieved Feb 28th 2008, at http://www.tigc.org/pdf/cancervte05.pdf

Alexander G. Turpie, (2002) 'ABC of Antithrombotic Therapy', British Medical Journal, available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7369/887

Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMBOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160

Dirix LY,
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Cognitive Changes Developmental Cognitive Occur Starting Age

Words: 2472 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19195806

Cognitive Changes

Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.

Developmental and cognitive changes

The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).

Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…… [Read More]

References

Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.

Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.

Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...

Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
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Gingko Biloba

Words: 2356 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30442773

Ginko Biloba

Gingko Biloba -- Part I

What are the author's general conclusions (summarized) on the effectiveness of Gingko Biloba as a cognitive enhancer?

According to the author, effects of Gingko on cognition are perplexing because of its dual actions as following. It's seen improving short-term memory but at the same time it impairs digit recall ability. It slows down mental decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease but has lower dose response curve than acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors. Gingko slows mental decline during dementia owing to its action as an anti-oxidant and ability to combat stress. This action is of short-term and isn't seen chronically. Gingko has more scores for improvement seen in patients when compared to acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors like Donepezil but has fewer efficacies than the later. Effects of Gingko are mainly attributable not to its direct action on improving memory but to its indirect action of improving attention…… [Read More]

References:

Mark A. McDaniel, Steven F. Maier, and Gilles O. Einstein. (2003) 'Brain-specific nutrients: A memory cure?' Nutrition, vol. 19, pp. 957-973

Paul E. Gold, Larry Cahill, and Gary L. Wenk. (2002) 'Gingko Biloba: A cognitive enhancer?' Psychological Science in Public Interest, vol. 3, May, pp. 2-10.
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Mid Range Theory

Words: 2211 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33928832

Nursing Theory

Within the field of nursing there are many theories that receive a great deal of attention for the manner in which they assist nurses in treating patients. The middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms was developed many years ago and has proved to be beneficial to nurses treating patients with various ailments. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate the middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms as it relates to cancer patients. This subject was chosen because of the substantial number of patients that are affected by cancer. As a result of the presence of so many cancer patients, Nurses must understand how to effectively treat people with this disease. The middle range theory of unpleasant symptoms is one of the tools that can assist in the treatment of cancer patients.

Overview of theory

According to Smith & Liehr (2008) Middle range theory is defined as "a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dirksen, S.r, Belyea, M.J., Epstein, D.R. (2009)Fatigue-Based Subgroups of Breast Cancer Survivors with Insomnia. Cancer Nurs. 32(5): 404 -- 411

Kim, H., Barsevick A.M. (2009) Predictors of the Intensity of Cluster Symptoms in Patients With Breast Cancer J. Nurs Scholarsh. 2009; 41(2): 158 -- 165.

Otte, J.L. And Carpenter J.S. Theories, Models, and Frameworks Related to Sleep-Wake Disturbances in the Context of Cancer. Cancer Nurs. 2009; 32(2): 90 -- 106

Smith, M.J. & Liehr P.R. (2008) Middle Range Theory for Nursing. http://www.springerpub.com/samples/9780826119162_chapter.pdf
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Inpatient Care to Outpatient Care

Words: 765 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89933746

Inpatient Care to Outpatient Care

Explain the advantage or disadvantage of the movement away from inpatient care to outpatient care. Do you think this trend will eventually reverse or stabilize?

Medicare's compensation solutions for out-patient as well as in-patient services and Medicare's out-patient as well as in-patient prospective payment systems (PPSs) possess a corresponding fundamental framework. The two include a basic rate revised for variations in kinds of situation or program in addition to geographic variations in income. Nevertheless, along with various systems of service, every PPS features a distinct group of compensation controls (Rossi et al., 2004).

Acute in-patient compensation method

Medicare's acute in-patient PPS (IPPS) compensates medical facilities with a fixed quantity for the majority of discharges. The cost price stands out as the unit of the basic cost rate along with a related weight that demonstrates the anticipated costliness associated with cases in a specific medical category…… [Read More]

References

Barry, D.M., Luband, C.A. And Lutz, H.T. (2013). The Impact of Healthcare Reform Legislation on Medicare, Medicaid and CHIP. Accessed from: http://www.healthlawyers.org/Events/Programs/Materials/Documents/HCR10/barry_luband_lutz.pdf

Rossi, P.H., Lipsey, M.W. And Freeman, H.E. (2004). Evaluation: a systematic approach. 7th edition, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.