Cell Biology Essays (Examples)

View Full Essay

Complexity of Cell Division

Words: 1475 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12632910

Cell Division

All living things are complex organisms that are made up of cells. Some are made up of a single cell while others comprise of numerous cells working together. Cells are the basic functional and structural units of living organisms and are known to be the building blocks of life. In humans it is from a group of cells that tissues are made and from tissues that organs are made which enable beings to live.

Cells obtain food and oxygen through their membranes and each membrane has a specific area which can serve contents of only a given volume. Any increase in volume of the cell requires that the area of the membrane increases. Basically, when cells grow the membrane becomes insufficient in aiding the movement of substances in and out and thus to maintain a favourable surface area to volume ratio, cell division must take place. Furthermore, cell…… [Read More]


Bolsover, S., E. Shephard, H. White, and J. Hyams. Cell Biology: A Short Course. 3. Wiley-

Blackwell, 2011. 432.

Conger, Krista. "Scientists turn skin cells into neural precursors, bypassing stem-cell stage." Stanford School of Medicine. n. page. Print.

Morgan, David. The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control. New Science Press, 2007.
View Full Essay

Passage of Energy in Cells

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91589769

Cell Biology

Define ATP

ATP is necessary for any cell to produce energy and perform specific actions. This involves using three different compounds that are connected with each other to achieve these larger objectives. The most notable include: C10H16N5O13 and P3.The process enables biologists to understand the way cells function. (Bergen, 2015) (Falls, 2012)

Describe how and where energy (ATP) is generated

The ATP is an enzyme that is used to transport energy to different parts of the cell where it is needed the most. This consists of purine compounds to store and retrieve the energy (via a process known as glycolic). As the food is consumed, this energy is released to numerous regions to perform various functions. The most notable include: the production of glucose, beta oxidation, fermentation, anaerobic respiration and for ATP production / recycling. These areas are important, as they are demonstrating how this helps it to…… [Read More]


Bergen, J. (2015). The New Power Brew. Fitness Magazine. Retrieved from: http://www.fitnessmagazine.com/health/energy-boosters/tips/healthy-energy-drinks/

Falls, W. (2012). Biology. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
View Full Essay

Biology There Are Several Possible

Words: 1530 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94676250

The blood with the IgG must be effectively removed from the body, or reduced to levels that will not allow the cells to be a danger to the infant. If caught early enough, plasma transfers for the mother can result in enough of a reduction of IgG levels to forestall the effects to the fetus.


Autoimmune diseases occur when, for a variety of reasons, the body responds to its own cells as though they were dangerous foreign cells. In this way they are similar to an allergic response; an unrecognized but harmless entity is viciously attacked by the body in an attempt to destroy the perceived intruder. This is annoying (and possibly deadly) when it comes to allergies, and far more so when the body essentially becomes allergic to itself.

Though the reasons behind the onset of Type I diabetes are still not fully understood, the disease occurs when…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Biology Qs Microbes Exist All

Words: 1525 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89102749

Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).


There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…… [Read More]


CDC. (2009). "Malaria." Accessed 22 September 2009.  http://www.cdc.gov/Malaria/index.htm
View Full Essay

Biology Qs the Primary Source

Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82910581

Most fungi can also reproduce through sexual reproduction both with the same organism mixing gametes and with reproduction between two separate organisms. The cells of many fungi are primarily copies of each other, without differentiation of organs (except in the fruiting sections of the organism, such as the mushrooms and molds typically visible and known to humans).


Fungi are considered a separate kingdom for several reasons. They are different from plants in their inability to produce energy from sunlight, and in fact most grow in dark places. Unlike animals and many protozoa, they cannot move; unlike most protozoa, they exist almost entirely as multicellular and colonial organisms.


The various classifications of fungi are determined based on their method(s) of reproduction. Zygomycota produce both asexual and sexual spores, while Basidiomycota rarely produce asexually and produce a different type of sexual spore. Ascomycota produce asexual spores, and can also grow…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Biology How Are Glucose Proteins

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45329542

Once in the cells, the glucose is burned in order to create heat and adenosine triphosyphate, (ATP) which is a molecule that stores and releases energy as required by the cell.

The metabolism of glucose into energy happens either in combination with oxygen which is called aerobic metabolism or without it which is called anaerobic metabolism. The oxygen used comes from the mitochondria. Red blood cells do not have mitochondria, so they convert glucose into energy without the use of oxygen, unlike some other cells.

Glucose is also converted to energy inside muscle cells. These are probably the most important energy users. Muscle cells contain mitochondria so they can process glucose with oxygen. Even if the level of oxygen levels in the muscle-cell mitochondria fall too low, the cells can proceed to convert glucose into energy without oxygen. The down side is that making glucose into energy without oxygen produces…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"How We Turn Glucose Into Energy." (2006). 28 February 2010.

"Lipids." (n.d.). 28 February 2010.

Singh, Mike. (2010). "How Is Energy Produced and Used Up in Our Body?" 28 February 2010,
View Full Essay

Biology Function of the Metabolic

Words: 2030 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64208353


The primary organ that is accountable for regulating metabolism is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is situated on the brain stem and forms the floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle of the cerebrum. The main functions of the hypothalamus is to control and integrate activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), production and regulation of feelings of rage and aggression, regulation of body temperature and regulation of food intake (Graham, 2005).

BM goes down with age and with the loss of lean body mass. Increased muscle mass and cardiovascular exercise can help to increase BM, even when the body is at rest. Measured in calories, metabolic rates vary with exertion, recent food ingestion, muscle exertion, environmental temperature, emotional state, body temperature, pregnancy, menstruation, level of thyroid hormones stress hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine), fear and illness. The human body requires energy in order to stay alive…… [Read More]


Basal Metabolic Rate. (2010). Retreived July 22, 2010, from Buzzle Web site:


Basal metabolic rate. (2010). Retreived July 22, 2010, from Wellness.com Web site:

View Full Essay

Biology in Stress Coping Stimulates

Words: 540 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26455237

In other words, performance on the learning tests is associated with neurogenesis. The gene expression measures were taken to aide future research.

The results showed that performance on the learning tests did change, and the hypothesis was proven. Stress from the change, the intermittent pairings, did increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult male squirrel monkeys. Learning, especially spatial learning, was enhanced. Moreover, the corresponding gene expressions changed accordingly.

The authors suggest that the results may be generalized to a human population. With special attention paid to human beings suffering from depression, the authors suggest that specially-designed psychotherapeutic interventions for coping with stress will help stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Hippocampal neurogenesis is in turn associated with improved cognition. Therefore, effective coping mechanisms are likely to have a positive impact on overall psychological functioning.

This research demonstrates several key areas of interest, such as the ability for researchers to use non-human primates to…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Biology the Invader Within Eukaryotic

Words: 781 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47949019

In one laboratory experiment, bacteria exposed to high levels of pathogenic bacteria over several hundred generations eventually adapted "their progeny became dependent on having the formerly pathogenic bacteria in food vacuoles...(Jeon, 1991)" (Armstrong) There are several ways in which bacteria may subsume other bacteria, including ingesting them and maintaining them in food vacuoles as in the Jeon experiment, or they may become infected by bacteria that are acting as parasites. Mitochondria, for example, could have been parasitic and fed off the host at the same time that they proved useful to it. Chloroplasts, because they are significantly self-supporting, are more likely to have been introduced as food. This theory continues to suggest that after many generations of true symbiosis, the mitochondria and chloroplasts lost their independence.

If the endosymbiosis theory was correct, there are many things which should hypothetically prove true in experimentation. For example, it should be evidenced that…… [Read More]


Armstrong. Customer supplied source.

Smith, V. et all. "Endosymbiotic theory." EvoWiki. http://wiki.cotch.net/index.php/Endosymbiotic_theory
View Full Essay

Biology Ronald Levy the Purpose

Words: 724 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33238127

Probably one of the most important elements of this research is that the antibodies from the b-cells attack only the cancer cells, not the surrounding healthy cells, and so, they are far less invasive and intimidating than other types of treatment like radiation or surgery.

The drug ituxan is also used in concert with other treatments to gain the best results in more patients, and the only downside so far has been that not all patients of certain cancer types, such as lymphoma, respond to the drug (Editors). That is Levy's biggest challenge for the future, to discover why all or most patients do not respond favorably to treatment. If he can discover that, the implications for future treatment and elimination of certain cancers is even more promising.

In addition, these therapies have been used to treat many types of lymphomas, and have sent them into remission, which gives patients…… [Read More]


Antibody therapeutics dominate meeting. (2005). Retrieved 7 Nov. 2007 from the Genengnews.com Web site:  http://www.genengnews.com/articles/chitem.aspx?aid=872&chid=3 .

Conger, K. (2004). Ronald Levy, the antibody hero. Retrieved 7 Nov. 2007 from the Stanford School of Medicine Web site:  http://stanmed.stanford.edu/2004fall/levy.html .

Hobson, K. (2004). Ronald Levy: Cancer's natural enemy. Retrieved 7 Nov. 2007 from the U.S. News.com Web site:  http://health.usnews.com/usnews/health/articles/040712/12levy.htm .
View Full Essay

Biology Life Is Great A

Words: 2505 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61345251

In fact, I think I'll just keep eating for a while, I'm not feeling quite full yet. There, that did it.

Did I mention there's a whole bunch of us hanging out in here? Well, it seems there were quite a few of us in that fish our human ate, and we've all taken up residence here. Some of us are in the intestines, but most of us are just hanging out here, enjoying the company. After breakfast, I just take a little time to digest my meal, and then it's time for my own morning cleansing. I'll excrete my nasty stuff, right into my human's bile, and then it will travel out along with my human's excretions. I spend some time shifting around and making sure I'm securely attached, so I don't head outside along with the morning meal, and then, I'm ready to do my favorite thing for…… [Read More]


Editors. "Clonorchiasis." Centers for Disease Control & Prevention. 2007. 17 Nov. 2007.  http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/DPDX/HTML/Clonorchiasis.htm 

Fan, P.C. "Viability of metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Frozen or Salted Freshwater Fish." International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 28, No. 4, 1998, April. 603-605.

Lin, Rui Lin, and Xueming Li, Chungeng Lan, Senhai Yu, Kawanaka Masanori. "Investigation on the Epidemiological Factors of Clonorchis sinensis Infection in an Area of South China." Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health. Vol. 36, No 5, 2005. 1114-1117.

Shin, Hai-Rim, and Chae-Un Lee, Hyung-Jong Park, Sang-Young Seol, Jung-Myeong Chung, Ha-Chin Choi, Yoon-Ok Ahn, Takao Shigemastu. "Hepatitis B and C Virus, Clonorchis sinensis for the Risk of Liver Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Pusan, Korea." International Journal of Epidemiology Vol. 25, No. 5, 1996. 933-940.
View Full Essay

Biology it Was Hypothesized That

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15117378

Moreover, it was unknown which specific chemical fertilizers would be more conducive to plant growth in Brassica rapa in particular. Another possible reason for the unexpected results is differential application of the fertilizer. For this research, the same .07 grams of fertilizer was applied to each cell. Yet it is possible that some types of fertilizer, such as liquid fertilizer, require more or less than the .07 grams. Future research would take into account the different chemical compositions of fertilizers, making sure to control for those differences. Also, future research would take into account the fact that the same amount of liquid, pellet, or powder may not yield results. The commercial instructions for each of the fertilizers should be followed. Also, it would be helpful to monitor plant growth for more than 64 hours. Future research could also include plant varieties other than Brassica rapa in case this particular species…… [Read More]


"Fertilizing Your Organic Garden," (n.d.). Dummies.com. Retrieved online:  http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/fertilizing-your-organic-garden.html 

Relf, D., McDaniel, A. & Donohue, S. (2009). Fertilizing the vegetable garden. Virginia Cooperative Extension. Retrieved online:  http://pubs.ext.vt.edu/426/426-323/426-323.html
View Full Essay

Use of Stem Cells in Parkinson's Patients

Words: 2013 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79904362

Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's

Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges

was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").

ho is the leading authority on stem cell research?

There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gallup Poll. (2011). Stem Cell Research. Retrieved March 7, 2012, from  http://www.gallup.com/poll/21676/stem-cell-research.aspx .

Gogel, S. Gubernator, M., and Minger, SL. (2011). Progress and prospects: stem cells and Neurological diseases. Gene Therapy, 18(1), 1-6.

Krause, D.S. (2002). Plasticity of marrow-driven stem cells. Gene Therapy, 9(11), 754-8.

Lo, Bernard, and Parham, Lindsay. (2010). Resolving Ethical Issues in Stem Cell Clinical
View Full Essay

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to

Words: 2115 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87064250

3.3 Data Collection

Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.

Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.

4. Conclusion

4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations

The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…… [Read More]


Abuhatzira, L., Shemer, R., & Razin, A. (2009). MeCP2 involvement in the regulation of neuronal alpha-tubulin production. Human Molecular Genetics, 1415-1423.

Condic, M.L., & Rao, M. (2008). Regulatory Issues for Personalized Pluripotent Cells. Stem Cells, 2753-2758.

Dindot, S., Antalffy, B., Meenakshi, B., & Beaudet, A. (2008). The Angelman syndrome ubiquitin ligase localizes to the synapse and nucleus, and maternal deficiency results in abnormal dendritic spine morphology. Human Molecular Genetics, 111-118.

Dobkin, B. (2007). Behavioral, temporal, and spatial targets for cellular transplants as adjuncts to rehabilitation for stroke. Stroke, 832-839.
View Full Essay

Biology and Technology in the Real World

Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60692352

Stem Cells

Hello, my friend. I am truly sorry and sympathize as much as I can regarding your traumatic car accident and subsequent spinal injury. I appreciate that you have kept me abreast of your treatment options. Your team of physicians agree that you would be a fine candidate for treatment specifically with stem cells. Most people have heard of stem cells and are aware of the scientific and ethical controversies surrounding them, but not as many people have performed productive research to find out what they really are and what the possible medical applications (and pitfalls) that come with stem cells. I have taken it upon myself to do some research for you, so that you are in a better position to make a more informed decision regarding this option for treatment of your spinal cord injury. In the next couple of pages, I will do my best to…… [Read More]


Mayo Clinic. (2013). Stem Cells: What They Are and What They Do. Mayo Clinic, Web, Available from:  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/stem-cells/CA00081 . 2013 May 31.

National Institute of Health. (2013). Basic Questions about Stem Cells. NIH, Web, Available from:  http://stemcells.nih.gov/research/Pages/Default.aspx . 2013 May 31.
View Full Essay

Biology Lab

Words: 342 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37175489

Eukaryotic Cell

Try to identify the following structures in an amoeba (Fig. 4.2):

Nucleus: A single, membrane-bounded oval structure.

Food vacuoles: Membrane-bounded spheres that contain engulfed food. Are these present? Yes.

Contractile vacuoles: Transparent, membrane-bounded spheres used to expel excess water. Are these present? Yes.

Animal Cell Structure

Animal cells contain all the structures in Table 4.1 except they do not have a cell wall and do not have chloroplasts. Can animal cells make their own organic food? No. Why or Why not?

Plants have chloroplasts which allows them to convert solar energy to carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are the organic food that plants then use for energy. Animals do not have chloroplasts and so are not capable of making their own organic food.

Observation: Elodea (Anacharis)

Can you locate the cell nucleus? Yes. It may be hidden by the chloroplasts, but when visible, it appears as a faint, gray lump…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Cell Phones Can Cause Cancer

Words: 1031 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61926507

Are Cell Phones Safe?

The topic of this paper is cell phone radiation and whether or not it is harmful to a person’s health. My position on the topic is that cell phone radiation is harmful to people’s health, as has been shown in numerous studies (Nylund & Leszczynski, 2006; Gandhi, Morgan, de Salles et al., 2012). Two opposing viewpoints on the topic are that 1) cell phone radiation is not harmful to a person’s health—which is what the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has argued, and 2) there is just not enough information on the topic to make an informed decision.

Three reasons to support my position are: 1) that cell phones have been shown to affect brain development (Kesari, Siddiqui & Meena, 2013); 2) cell phones have been shown to affect fetal development and children’s development (Gandhi et al., 2012); and 3) cell phones have been shown to alter…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Biology of the Mind The

Words: 1285 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34730696

This system results in stable blood concentrations of the hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland (Reiser and Kemp, p.1).

This complex system of self-regulation means that there are multiple opportunities for the glands to stop working properly.

The hypothalamus, which is located in the brain, is, in many ways, the control center of the endocrine system. The hypothalamus secretes hormones that, in turn, either suppress or stimulate hormone release by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland then uses the messages it receives from the hypothalamus to govern its secretion of stimulating hormones to other glands in the endocrine system. The pituitary gland sends messages to other glands in the endocrine system, as well as producing important hormones that regulate bodily functions without requiring the intervention of other glands. The hormones produced by the pituitary gland include: growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Harriet. "For Some, Psychiatric Trouble May Start in the Thyroid." The New York

Times. N.p. 21 Nov. 2011. Web. 10 Dec. 2012.

Rieser, Marianne and Stephen Kemp. "Anatomy of the Endocrine System." Emedicine Health.

1-11. 7 Dec. 2011. Web. 9 Dec. 2012.
View Full Essay

Biology DNA

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70119464


Understanding the structure and function of DNA has allowed scientists to uncover truths about the origin of human life on planet earth. In "Ancient ussian's DNA Sheds Light on Neanderthal Interbreeding," Dunham (2014) discusses one of the recent discoveries in human genetic history. A DNA sample was extracted from the tibia of a Homo sapiens called "Kostenki man" because of the village in which the skeleton was found. Because so much is now known about DNA, it is possible to take samples from 37,000-year-old skeletons. The article also shows that DNA remains intact in the bones of living creatures thousands of years after they die. Moreover, the article is about the fact that the DNA samples from Kostenki man show that some 50,000 years ago, Homo sapiens had interbred with Neanderthals, who had "colonized the region thousands of years earlier," (Dunham, 2014). As a result of these findings, researchers…… [Read More]


Alberts B, Johnson A., Lewis J, et al. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. New York: Garland Science.

Dunham, W. (2014). Ancient Russian's DNA sheds light on Neanderthal interbreeding. Reuters. Nov 6, 2014. Retrieved online:  http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/11/06/us-science-genome-idUSKBN0IQ2QK20141106
View Full Essay

Biology Laboratory Report

Words: 2056 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10813950

Living organisms are subdivided into 5 major kingdoms, including te Monera, te Protista (Protoctista), te Fungi, te Plantae, and te Animalia. Eac kingdom is furter subdivided into separate pyla or divisions. Generally "animals" are subdivided into pyla, wile "plants" are subdivided into divisions.

Kingdom of Protista

Brown Alga

Scientific Classification










Laminariales (kelps) etc.

Te Brown algae are a large group of multi-cellular algae, including various sorts of seaweed. Teir distinctive greenis-brown color comes from te pigment fucoxantin. Well-known members include kelps and bladder wrack. Genetic studies sow teir closest relatives are te yellow-green algae.

Red Alga

Scientific Classification









Te red algae (Rodopyta) are a large group of mostly multi-cellular, marine algae, including many notable types of seaweed. Most of te coralline algae, wic secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building…… [Read More]



View Full Essay

Biology of Algae Choanoflagellates

Words: 329 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75618246

life forms in the world. It is important to examine the biology of chonanoflagellates and how it occurs in nature.


Choanoflagellates are colorless flagellates which are 5-10 micron and have a well-defined collar. They may be individual or live in colonies and "may live free in the water, or attached to substrates such as the spines of the Chaetoceros affinis (thalassa.gso.uri.edu/rines/ecology/choanofl.htm)."

Choanoflagellates are made up of only about 150 species and are not "a diverse group of protists. They are small single-celled protests, found in both fresh waters and the oceans, taking their name ("collar-flagellate") from the circle of closely packed microvilli, or slender fingerlike projections, that surrounds the single flagellum by which choanoflagellates both move and take in food (www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/choanos.html)." The funnel-shaped collar is contractible and strains out the bacteria which the choanoflagellate feeds on (www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/biolink/student/olc2/chap31outline.htm).

Protists belong to the "kingdom Protoctista, a new classification in most modern…… [Read More]

Works Cited

(Choanoflagellates. (accessed 10 November, 2003).

< halassa.gso.uri.edu/rines/ecology/choanofl.htm>).

(Introduction to the Choanoflagellates. (accessed 10 November, 2003).

View Full Essay

Biology Chemistry

Words: 321 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71006398

abundant elements that occur in living organisms are as follows: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous. These and all elements are made up of atoms, which are the primary units of matter. Molecules are groups of atoms that are covalently bonded. Covalent bonds occur when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. This is different from ionic bonds, which arise when an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions takes place. Elements are substances that cannot be chemically dissected into simpler kinds of matter. Compounds, however, are atoms of two or more elements that are united by chemical bonds.

The parts of an atom include protons, neutrons, and electrons. These are all called subatomic particles. Protons, which are part of the nucleus of an atom, have positive electrical charges. Neutrons, which are also part of the nucleus of an atom, and as the name indicates, are neutral…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

B Cells T-Cells Hemoglobin

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47138901

Deliberately reducing the amount of PO2 circulating in the breathable atmosphere around a person -- such as Kara accomplishes at sea-level with her tent -- ultimately produces a lowered rate of hemoglobin oxygenation in the arterial blood. This condition, hypoxia, can be dangerous and can, of course, impair aerobic physical exercise -- however the trick that Kara is taking advantage of is the body's ability to undergo acclimatization, in which the body's physiology and metabolism will engage in adjustments that improve the body's ability to tolerate the low-PO2 levels through different means, such as adjusting its own acidity (to change the level of interior biochemical reactivity in order to boost absorbable oxygen levels) but also -- more importantly for Kara and her endurance training -- by improving metabolism on the cellular level and blood circulation (to maximize the value of the oxygen actually obtained) and, most importantly, by "increased synthesis…… [Read More]


McCardle, WD, Katch, F, and Katch, VL (2009). Exercise physiology. 7th ed. New York: LWW.

Murphy, K. (2011). Janeway's immunobiology. 8th ed. New York: Garland Science.
View Full Essay

What Does the Cell Do in the Body

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39080830

Cell is important because it is the building block of the body. It is a replicating organism that has proteins and cytoplasm and nucleic acids inside a membrane Alberts (2002). Cells are in everything from humans to plants, though each representation of life has its own particular cells. Cells are very small and impossible to see with a microscopic lens. That is why the cell was not actually noticed until such technology came along in the 17th century. Indeed, the name cell, which means small room in Latin, comes from the discoverer of the cell, who thought they looked like the small rooms that monks in the medieval era used to live in, which were called cells (Karp, 2009). Essentially, all living organisms are made up of cells and if there were no cells there would be no life. So the cell is very important.

What do cells do? That…… [Read More]


Alberts, B. (2002). Molecular Biology of the Cell. UK: Taylor and Francis.

Karp, G. (2009). Cell and Molecular Biology. UK: Wiley and Sons.
View Full Essay

B And T Lymphocytes the Biology of

Words: 1265 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69729583

B and T. Lymphocytes

The Biology of B. And T. Lymphocytes and the eactions between Them

The Biology of B. Lymphocytes

B lymphocytes originated in 1960s and 1970s era through experiments conducted in animal models, clinical evaluation of patients having immune system diseases, and the nascent technology of cell surface molecule characterization. In fact, the origin of B. And T. lymphocytes took place simultaneously. The differentiation of the haematopoietic stem cells gives birth to the formation of common lymphoid progenitors, which actually generate B. lymphocytes. They are generated and developed in yolk sac, fetal liver, and the adult liver present in the body (Austyn & Wood, 1994). B lymphocytes are present in areas that come in close contact with foreign substances. They act as defensive mechanism against invading microorganisms, viruses and parasites and play a vital role in humoral immune response. Since these cells originate in the Bone marrow, they…… [Read More]


Austyn, J., M. And Wood, J., K. (1994). Principles of Cellular and Molecular Immunology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Beltman, J., B., Maree, A. & Boer, R. (2007), Spatial modelling of brief and long interactions between T cells and dendritic cells, Australian Society for Immunology, Pp. 1-9, Retrieved October 14, 2012.

House, B., R. & Descotes, J. (2010), Cytokines in Human Health: Immunotoxicology, Pathology,

and Therapeutic Applications (Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology), New
View Full Essay

Somatic Cell Division An Overview

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66408097

On average, male skeletons are larger than female skeletons, but just as some women are larger than some males, this distinction does not hold firm in all instances. Female pelvic regions tend to be wider than male pelvic regions, an evolutionary feature that has made childbirth easier. Female bones tend to be thinner and less dense than male bones, and thus the female skeleton tends to be lighter than male skeletons.

The skull is one of the most notable sites of difference between male and female skeletons. The teeth of males tend to be larger, and above their eye sockets men tend to have a more visible brow ridge while women often have none. The male skull tends to have a squarer (as opposed to a pointed) chin and is more angular in its demarcations than the female skull. Women's nose openings are more apt to be pointed, rather than…… [Read More]


The cell cycle & mitosis tutorial. (1997). The Biology Project. University of Arizona. Updated 2004. Retrieved February 10, 2010 at  http://www.biology.arizona.edu/Cell_bio/tutorials/cell_cycle/cells3.html 

Cell division via mitosis. (2010). Ivy Rose UK. Retrieved February 10, 2010 at  http://www.ivy-rose.co.uk/HumanBody/Cells/Cell-Division_Mitosis.php 

Richards, a. (2002). Male and female skeletons. Retrieved February 10, 2010 at http://transwoman.tripod.com/skeleton.htm
View Full Essay

Artificial Cell Building an Artificial

Words: 409 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90863799

Only if the cell can take in nourishment and excrete waste can the other components of the cell like the mitochondria engage in their essential tasks. hen a cell can take in nourishment and excrete wastes, this is the surest first sign of independent life

The problem is that the Cell-u-life Corporation wants an artificial cell that can do more than nourish itself. It wants a cell that can take the place of living stem cells and reproduce, and it is not certain of aerogels can do this. Thus another possibility is trying to create lipid-like structures to make cell membranes in the lab from fat cells in the body that do not come from human sources such as embryos but can reproduce like fat cells.

orks Cited

Team receives grant to study artificial cell membranes."(24 Aug 2005). Stanford News:

Press Release. Retrieved 3 Jun 2007 at h ttp://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2005/august24/aerogel-082405.html… [Read More]

Works Cited

Team receives grant to study artificial cell membranes."(24 Aug 2005). Stanford News:

Press Release. Retrieved 3 Jun 2007 at h ttp://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2005/august24/aerogel-082405.html
View Full Essay

Stem Cell Are Commonly Known

Words: 495 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73370232

Study of human embryonic stem cell will lead to major advances in human biology, specifically:

Embryonic stem cell research will provide critical insights into mechanisms of cell differentiation, growth, and death (Young, 2006).

Understanding stem cells may provide keys to why people age (Young, 2006).

Scientists are interested in stem cells because they have the potential to become very practical in a way that any other kind of cell in the body might be used to replace tissues that have failed (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3144925.stm,2003).

And lastly, scientists believed that if they become successful in finding cure for lymphoma, and leukemia with this study, there is a great possibility that they can also cure diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, diabetes among others in the near future (http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt,2006).

orks Cited

Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521

Young, ise. Morality of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006.  http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521 

Young, Wise. Morality of Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006.  http://carecure.rutgers.edu/Lectures/Morality/StemCells_Notes.ppt 

Embryonic Stem Cells; an Introduction to Science ethics and Legislation.. 7 October 2006.  http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt 

Mining Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://arts.usask.ca/policynut/courses/soc292-8.ppt
View Full Essay

Adipose Cells the Medical and

Words: 1574 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67763648

"Given the rising prevalence of obesity with age in both childhood and adult life, the prevalence of adult obesity cannot be predicted from childhood data, but increasing childhood obesity heralds a greater health burden in adult life"(James & al 2001, p. 232S). Thus, the future focus is on child obesity and how it can be treated to bring well-being for the adult.

esearch for adipose cells is not at the beginning, but has become increasingly intensive in the last years. Obesity is rapidly spreading across the globe but all the scientific breakthroughs won't do magic in the presence of disinterest and neglect towards the human body, so the first step should come from each individual.


Albright, AL & Stern, JS 1998, "Adipose Tissue," Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, vol. 15

Bosello, O & al. 1980,"Adipose tissue cellularity and weight reduction forecasting," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33,…… [Read More]


Albright, AL & Stern, JS 1998, "Adipose Tissue," Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, vol. 15

Bosello, O & al. 1980,"Adipose tissue cellularity and weight reduction forecasting," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 776-782

Gomillion, CT & Burg, KJL 2006, "Stem cells and adipose tissue engineering," Biomaterials, no. 27, pp. 6052 -- 606

Greenberg, AS & Obin, MS 2006, "Obesity and the role of adipose tissue in inflammation and metabolism," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 461-465
View Full Essay

Eukaryotic Cells

Words: 1477 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72282896

Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell:

There are two types of cells found, that originate from a common ancestor - The prokaryotes and eukaryotes. While Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles and are mostly unicellular, but some exceptions are found. In contrast Eukaryotes have their cells have complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The principal membrane bound structure is the nucleus. All animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. (Diffen, 2013) Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth until the more complex eukaryotes evolved from them.

Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells:

The distinctions between these two types of cells create the differences in organisms Thus the groups of organisms that belong basically to the prokaryotes are non-membranous and in contrast the eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Though this is the basic difference, the…… [Read More]


Cooper, GM. (2000) "The Cell: A Molecular Approach." Sunderland (MA): Sinauer


Diffen. (2013) "Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell" Retrieved 18 April, 2013 from  http://www.diffen.com/difference/Eukaryotic_Cell_vs_Prokaryotic_Cell 

Gregory, Michael. (n. d.) "Protists" Lecture notes. Retrieved 18 April, 2013 from http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/bio%20102/bio%20102%20lectures/protists/protists.htm
View Full Essay

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regenerative Medicine

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39588755

However, there would also need to be an extended period of longitudinal analysis of the effects of the therapy on the experimental group mice's health to see if the improvement continued and did not produce damaging side effects.

The MSCs in the liver therapy are not derived from human embryos and thus the objections to discarding human embryos are not a factor in the ethical discussion about the therapy. In fact, "the number of MSCs that can be obtained from a donor is significantly lower than the number needed for tissue regeneration. Therefore, MSCs are expanded ex-vivo in media supplemented with growth factors" and created in a lab ("MSC growth factors," R&D Systems, 2013). The main ethical objections to the use of MCSs revolve around the question of scientists' right to create new organs and the possible risks involved. The Japanese research team "relied on a 'cocktail' of so-called induced…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]


"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) growth factors." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]

View Full Essay

Senescent Cells Are Essentially Cells

Words: 771 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28302829

When DNA is damaged, cells can react through cell cycle checkpoints which allows repair to begin before further division can occur. There is also the prokaryotic SOS response which changes gene expression in bacteria as a result of DNA damage. This response is regulated by the production of certain proteins. Moreover, eukaryotic cells also react to DNA damage through producing proteins that begin the process of DNA repair.

8. Mice are often the favored mammalian in the testing of aging interventions. This is often because of the fact that there are many mice easily available for testing but also the fact that "generation time is short" (Yuan et al. 2011). Essentially, the aging process and testing in interventions can be done on a much shorter time scale then with tests using monkeys.

9. Enzymes may change the transcription patterns of a cell by adding chemical groups to histone proteins. This…… [Read More]


Books. W.R. Clark. (2009). Human genetic diseases that mimic the aging process. Progeria? The Progeria Project Foundation. Web. http://www.progeriaproject.com/progeria/mimic.htm

Conboy, I.M., Conboy, M.J., Wagers, a.J., Girma, E.R., Weissman, I.L., & Rando, T.A. (2005). Rejuvenation of aged progenitor cells by exposure to a young systemic environment. Nature, 17(433), 760-764.

Conti, Matteo. (2008). The Selfish Cell: An Evolutionary Defeat. Springer Publishing.

McClintock, D., Ratner, D., Lokuge, M. (2007). The mutant form of Lamin a that causes Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria is a biomarker of cellular aging in human skin. PLOS One, 2(2). Web.  http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001269
View Full Essay

Behavioral Biology

Words: 2124 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34673982

ehavioral iology

iopsychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes through a biological approach (Cooper 2000). Practitioners in this field believe that biological processes may explain certain psychological phenomena, such as learning, memory, perception, attention, motivation, emotion, and cognition, particularly problems and issues connected with these phenomena. iopsychology is also called biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral biology or behavioral neuroscience (Cooper).

Practitioners in this new field use varied and overlapping fields of study: cognitive neuroscience, which primarily examines the brain to understand the neural workings of mental processes; psychopharmacology, which deals with the effects of drugs on psychological functions; neuro-psychology, which is concerned with the psychological effects of brain damage in humans; behavioral genetics, which deals with behavior and psychological traits; evolutionary psychology, which is involved with how psychological processes have evolved; and comparative psychology, which compares findings among different species (Cooper). The last science centers on ethology, which…… [Read More]


Chudler, E. (2001). Biopsychology.  http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html 

2003). The Mystery of the Human Brain. The Quest Team. http://library.thnkques.org/TQ0312238/cgi-bin/view.cgi

Cooper, Cat. (2000). Biopsychology. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia. http://www.angelfire.com/az2/MystiCat/biopsychology.htm

Cummings, Benjamin. Behavioral Biology. Pearson Education, Inc. http://biosci.usc.edu/documents/bisc121-fuhrman_11/403.pdf
View Full Essay

Ethics - Stem Cells the

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15356357

That is not to suggest that scientific criteria can necessarily pinpoint any specific instant or moment in time when a developing fetus can logically be considered a living human being, but only because such precision is impossible.

In principle, there is no doubt that medical science can identify the various stages of fetal development associated with the biological structures and processes that make us human. Likewise, they can identify the point where suffering becomes possible because neurological development produces the ability to perceive pain (Levine, 2008).

Therefore, the appropriate use of scientific criteria would be to link ethical concern for the fetus to sentience, and simply to err on the side of caution where pinpoint identification of sentience is impossible to know with certainty.

In principle, science (the discipline) is strictly objective; in practice, scientists are susceptible to human failings such as malice, egoism, and greed. The field of ethics…… [Read More]


Dershowitz, a.M. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Kinsley, M. (2007) "Commentary: Why Science Can't Save the GOP: Time (Dec. 10/07), p. 36.

Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque Iowa: McGraw Hill.

Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House
View Full Essay

Paradoxes of Evolutionary Biology in

Words: 1635 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51151411

The purpose of this set of questions is to see whether they would engage in similar action even if they know that the other individual will not reciprocate given the reverse of their circumstances. All individuals will answer blindly, and we will anonomously collect all of the information.


There are many different results that are possible within this experiment. First, the expected result is that the majority of individuals will answer that they would act altruistically. However, they could act altruistically in some cases, as when they are giving change back to others, but selfishly when it comes to saving a drowning person and risking their own lives. Another scenario is that they could act selfishly when they are in the room by themselves, but when they are doing so in conjunction with someone else, they might be motivated by the visual sign of someone else to be altruistic.…… [Read More]

Simon, HA. "A mechanism for social selection and successful altruism." Science. 1990.

Trivers, RL. "The evolution of reciprocal altruism." The Quarterly Review of Biology. 1971. 46:35-55.

Wilkinson, GS. "Reciprocal food sharing in the vampire bat." Nature. 1984. 308:181-184.
View Full Essay

Stem Cell Differentiation the Need to Restore

Words: 3613 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42462808

Stem Cell Differentiation

The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of…… [Read More]


Wang, J., Collins, J. et al., (2012). Functional analysis of transcription factor binding sites in human promoters. Genome Biology, doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-9-r50

Guillot PV, Cui W, Fisk NM, Polak DJ. (2007). Stem cell differentiation and expansion for clinical applications of tissue engineering. J Cell Mol Med. 11:935-944.

Gerrard L, Rodgers L, Cui W. (2005). Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Neural

Lineages in Adherent Culture by Blocking Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling. Stem Cells 23: 1234-1241.
View Full Essay

Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is

Words: 1811 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26433183

With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.


1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22

2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189

3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th…… [Read More]


1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007  http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22 

2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189

3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th 2010, available online at,  http://oralcancerfoundation.org/dental/pdf/oral_cavity.pdf 

4) Keyvan Nouri, 'Skin Cancer: Oral Cancer', McGraw-Hill Professional, 2007
View Full Essay

Stem Cells and Umbilical Cords

Words: 4604 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68647678

Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.

Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Colino, Stacey. (2001). Making Sense of Stem Cells. Lifetime.

Prescott, Bonnie. (2001). Animal Study Find Embryonic Stem Cells Can Repair Heart Muscle. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.

Reaves, Jessica. (2002). The Great Debate Over Stem Cell Research. Time Magazine.

Recer, Paul. (2002). Study says stem cells have fewer mutations than previously thought. AP Online.
View Full Essay

Human Stem Cell Medical -

Words: 4660 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11610140

This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:

1) Identify novel genetic sequences;

2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…… [Read More]


O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?

Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at  http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .

Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November

Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:.  http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
View Full Essay

Reviewing Biology and Anatomy

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33213911

worth 1 point.

The energy-storing compound found in all cells is


A cell placed in a ____ solution will swell.


A form of an element that differs in its atomic weight from other forms of that same element is a (n)


A cord of connective tissue that joins a muscle to a bone is called a (n)


The muscle separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity is the diaphram

A change in the genetic material of a cell is called a (n)


The scientific term for the widening of the blood vessels is dilation

The primary sensory area is found in the ____ lobe.


The neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction is called acetycholine

The ____ side of the heart pumps blood over longer distances than the other side.


The abdominal gland that secretes glucagon and digestive enzymes is the pancreas

The…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells Linked to the

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33647649

evolution of eukaryotic cells linked to the increase of atmospheric oxygen concentration during the Precambrian?

Increase of atmospheric oxygen during the Precambrian period led to creatures which were more dependent on oxygen in the atmosphere. Oxygen levels in the atmosphere increased from 1% to 15% of the modern level of oxygen. The increase in oxygen in the air led to the evolution of more expansive lungs which were capable of taking in more air and converting it into energy. As eukaryotic cells evolved, they became more capable of respiration which added to the complexity of the evolutions of creatures.

Scientists believe that if there are no controls on the emission of CO2 from burning fossil fuels, the concentration of this gas could double by the end of the current century, leading to a significant rise in the average temperature of the Earth. What would be some of the likely evolutionary…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Environmental Biology

Words: 2097 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88934326

Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean

The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adler, T. (1996, Feb.). The expiration of respiration; oxygen - the missing ingredient in many bodies of water. Science News, (149) 88.

Boukhari, S. (1998, July-Aug.). Marine blues. UNESCO Courier, (2) 47.

Conformer." Glossary of Marine Biology. Retrieved November, 7, 2002 from:  http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/glossary.c.html .

Energy Intelligence Group. (2002, May). Oil spills play small role in ocean pollution.
View Full Essay

Micro Biology

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24188325

Pertussis, sometimes called "whooping cough," is a sometimes severe respiratory illness caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussim or. B. pertussi, which is Gram-negative (Todar, 2002). Its reservoir is restricted to humans and possibly other higher primates such as chimpanzees (Todar, 2002). Pertussis can be a mild disease in adults, sometimes misdiagnosed as bronchitis (AMA, 2002), but has a significant rate of mortality in infants. Until a vaccine was developed for B. pertussi, pertussis was a frequent and severe illness among infants in the United States as well as the rest of the world. It is spread through exposure to the bacteria, by inhaling the B. pertussi from others who have coughed or sneezed (AMA, 2002).

Pertussis has an incubation period of one to three weeks (CHP, 2002). Once the infected person becomes ill, the disease presents in two stages. During the first stage, it resembles a milder respiratory illness, with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Medical Association (AMA). 1998. Medem: Medical Library. "Pertussis (Whooping Cough)." Accessed via the Internet 10/9/02.  http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZPWVII1AC&sub_cat=286 .

Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (CHP). 2002. Infectious Diseases. "Whooping Cough (Pertussis)." Accessed via the Internet 10/9/02.  http://www.chp.edu/greystone/infectious/pertus.php 

Todar, Kenneth. 2002.. Center for Disease Control. "National Vaccine Program." Accessed via the Internet 10/9/02.  http://www.bact.wisc.edu /Bact330/lecturebpertussis" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
View Full Essay

Burned on Stove Biology Scenario

Words: 1137 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82618830

Or pressure. Or temperature (hot and cold, separately). Or vibration (both high- and low-frequency)." (Hancock, 1995) All over the surface f the skin are receptors that report warmth and there are others that report cold. Several types of nerves exist that have the ability to sense "cold, warmth pressure, pain, and more. The nerves that sense and transmit pain are called nociceptors. Nociceptors transmit electrical signals to your spinal column. In the spinal cord, electrical pain signals causes a release of chemicals which are called neurotransmitters, which activate other nerve cells that process and transmit the information to the brain. Important decisions occur in the spinal column: Acute pain like that from touching a hot surface raises a red flag and is routed to the brain immediately.. "The larger fibers convey electrical impulses very rapidly to the brain, and are thought to cause sharp pricking pain, while the very fine…… [Read More]


DeSanti, Leslie (2005) Pathophysiology and Current Management of Burn Injury Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Volume 18(6), July/August 2005, pp 323-332

Hancock, Elise (1995) The Handy Guide to Touch - April 1995. Online available at  http://www.jhu.edu/~jhumag/495web/touch.html .

Kane, Daniel (2004) Feb 19 How Your Brain Handles Love and Pain MSNBC Online available at  http://www.sciam.com/search/index.cfm?QT=Q&SCC=Q&Q=burns%3A+skin+receptors .

Britt, Robert Roy (2006) The Pain Truth: How and Why We Hurt - Health Sci-Tech 31 January 2006 Live Science Online available at  http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=signals+to+brain+from+burn&page=4&nt=SG1_S  I0&userid=-7493026336042476887&invocationType=topsearchbox.search&c lickstreamid=-7493026336042476889
View Full Essay

Meaning of Biology and Its Different Fields

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88285491


The word biology means the study of life. It is a combination of "bio," which means "life," and "ology," which means "wisdom" or "science of." Thus, the term itself tells us what its meaning is: it is the science or study of life.

However, there are many fields in biology, which look at specific sectors or areas of "life." Because life on this planet is abounding and so complex, it is required that there be several fields of biological science. For instance, marine biology studies life in water (such as in oceans or lakes). Human biology studies the complexities of the human body. Cellular biology takes an even closer look at biological studies by closing in on the activities and structures of cells, which are just one part of life.

Advancements in biological knowledge have taken place over many centuries throughout the history of the world. In fact, all…… [Read More]


Editorial Board. (2012). Biology, 1st Edition. IL: Words of Wisdom.

Woods, T. (2005). How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization. DC: Regnery

View Full Essay

Health Care Law and Biology

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73371786

Health Care Law


Read: Compliance needs a shrewd strategic plan

Link: http://www.healthcarefinancenews.com/news/compliance-needs-shrewd-strategic-plan

Discuss the reasons why healthcare organizations should include a compliance program into their strategic planning?

In short, the Cerrato story linked above discusses and makes clear, more or less, that it is a non-optional part of doing business in the healthcare business and sphere. He noted that healthcare providers must comply with "a long list of healthcare-related laws and regulations" and that it remains "a major challenge for provider organizations around the country" (Cerrato, 2013). Just a short list of reasons why compliance should be a focal point within the broader strategic planning sphere for healthcare organizations is because doing otherwise can open a company to civil liability, can open up a company to agency sanction, can open up a company to criminal charges (in extreme cases), can lead to a degradation or failure to improve patient…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

International Relations and Biology

Words: 7088 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58334919

Scientific and Political Aspects

of Genetically Modified Foods

While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.

Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…… [Read More]


"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004

Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food

Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
View Full Essay

Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of

Words: 5874 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95138553

For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."

Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.

Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

 http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
View Full Essay

Isotonic Hypertonic Hypotonic and Relate

Words: 1589 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98217246

For instance when patients who have lost plenty of blood are brought in a hospital ER room, the clinical officers may actually administer the wrong solutions to patients as they attempt to save their lives Stoker ()

. The volume of the IV fluid to be administered should always be followed with precaution and be based on medical directions of the hospital's protocol as well as the patient's response to the fluid being administered. Another precaution is that all IV fluid bags should always be well labeled since the labels provide important information that is needed during administration of the fluids.

hen administered to the wrong and in appropriate IV fluid solutions, a patient's health may be put at severe risk and other fatalities. This may result to legal and disciplinary action to the medical practitioner. Thus, an IV fluid bag should always be read correctly as they also have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Biology, American Society for Cell, HighWire Press, and National Institutes of Health . PubMed Central. Molecular Biology of the Cell. American Society for Cell Biology, 2003. Print.

De Vita, V. And Theodore, S. "Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology." Annual advances in oncology 1 (2010). Print.

Galvagno, S.M. Emergency Pathophysiology: Clinical Applications for Prehospital Care. Teton NewMedia, 2003. Print.

Michael, J., and S. Sircar. Fundamentals of Medical Physiology. Thieme, 2010. Print.
View Full Essay

Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes

Words: 3768 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50250294

Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes

Prokaryotes or eukaryote is the organism that makes up the microbial world. Prokaryotes are deficient of internal unit membranes and are self-sufficient cells or organisms. The best-known prokaryotic organisms are the bacteria. The cell membrane in prokaryotes makes up the cell's primary osmotic barrier and consists of a phsopholipids unit membrane. The ribosome carries out translation and protein synthesis and is present in the cytoplasm. Normally, the nuclear regions consist of circular, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid.

Plasmids, the accessory self-replicating genetic structure is present in many prokaryotes with extra not necessary cell functions like encoding proteins to inactivate antibiotics. On the other hand, the eukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane, well-defined chromosomes, mitochondria, a sector device, an endoplasmic reticulum and digestive system with many cell types. The prokaryotes are deficient of structural multiplicity and consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organism, which is well-known among eukaryotes…… [Read More]


Desiccation tolerance of prokaryotes" Retrieved at  http://www.cryonet.org 

Engineering desiccation tolerance in Escherichia coli" Billi, Daniela; Wright, Deborah J; helm, Richard F. Pricket, Todd; Potts, Malcolm; Crowe. John H. Retrieved at http://www.nencki. gov. pl

Major groups of prokaryotes" Retrieved at  http://www.bact.wisc.edu 

Mechanisms of plant desiccation tolerance" Hoekstra, Folkert A; Golovina, Elena; Buitink, Julia. Retrieved at  http://www.plantstress.com
View Full Essay

Family Background Plant Breeding History Plan Wisconsin

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26543255

Family Background Plant, Breeding History Plan

isconsin fast plants were developed in the mid-1980's by professor Paul illiams as a way of enabling individuals to study the life cycle of plants in a relatively short period of time. isconsin fast plants are of the brassica rapa species, and are ideal for short-term studies because they develop celeritously over a life cycle which is completed within a year's time. They typically bloom in the winter. Although there are many different varieties of brassica rapa (which includes strains such as brassica rapa ssp. campestris L., brassica rapa ssp. sarson and others) (Itis), they are all part of the family known as cruciferae. These plants look like many types of vegetables including mustards, turnips and cabbage. Virtually all of the plants in this family have four petals that cross one another similar to a crucifix, which is where the name of this family…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Marstaller, Tess, Hanmer, Tasia, Lang, Caitlin. "Assessing Fast Plant Growth in Different pH Levels." http://communityemmawillard.org. 2003. Web.  http://community.emmawillard.org/Math/mathscienceweb/Fast%20plant%20growth%20in%20different%20pH%20levels_files/Fast%20plant%20growth%20in%20different%20pH%20levels.htm 

Itis. "Brassica Rapa." www.itis.gov. No date. Web.  http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt-search_topic=TSN&search_value=23063 

Williams, P.H., Hill, C.B. "Rapid-Cycling Populations of Brassica." Science. 232 1385-1389. 1986. Web.  http://www.fastplants.jp/pdf/science.pdf
View Full Essay

Due to Run Off From

Words: 1115 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9402806

The inquiry cited above makes use of the functions of analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Analysis is the act of reviewing and comparing data. In the inquiry of the herbicides, the analysis occurs with the review of prior evaluations and inquires. This analysis of studies regarding the effect of atrazine allowed the inquiry to come up with its hypothesis and thus direct the actual experiment. Without an analysis of the original, existing data the concept of comparing use of atrazine, isoxaflutale and a mix of both would not have been thought of.

The concept of synthesis refers to the integration of two or more existing elements in order to create something new. In the inquiry, there are numerous levels of synthesis. First and foremost is the agricultural practice of combining atrazine with isoxaflutale as a method of creating a new, supposedly less toxic herbicide that would comply with the regulations issued…… [Read More]


Heston, Emily D., Kathleen Brundage. The Immunotoxic Effect of a Mixture of Atrazine and Isoxaflutole. Mountain State University: Department of Microbology, Immunology and Cell Biology.

Lee, Jennifer. "Popular Pesticide Faulted for Frogs Sexual Abnormalities," New York Times, 2003-06-19, p. 20.

Wackett LP, Sadowsky, MJ, Martinez B. Biodegradaton of Atrazine Degradation in Natural Environments. Biodegradation. 13: 11-19, 2002.

Walsh, Edward. "EPA Stops Short of Banning Herbicide," Washington Post, 2003-02-01, p. A14.
View Full Essay

Genetic Diversity

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65189179

Genetic diversity: Discuss the issues related to genetic diversity: mutations, sexual reproduction, migration, and population size.

Under most circumstances, when "an individual possesses a trait or traits that allow it to compete better for food, shelter, mates, and nesting sites, then that individual will produce more offspring because it is better nourished, is better protected, lives longer and has mate(s) with which to reproduce more offspring" (Furr n.d.). Thus, if a species produces a spontaneous mutation which is beneficial for the species' survival, the mutated organism will live, grow, and reproduce and pass on the mutation to successive generations. The mutation may survive as a heterogeneous allele, but if the mutation is common enough or the mutation produces enough offspring, eventually the useful mutation will manifest itself in greater and greater numbers in the population. "Sexual reproduction allows the genetic information of two parents to recombine to form a new…… [Read More]


Chapter 6. Mendelian genetics in populations II: Migration, genetic drift and non-random

Mating. (n.d.). Buffalo State University. Retrieved:  http://faculty.buffalostate.edu/penaloj/bio405/outline6.html 

Furr, Susan H. (n.d.). Sources of genetic diversity: A web learning experience.

University of Arizona. Retrieved:  http://biology.arizona.edu/sciconn/lessons2/Furr/GeneticDiversity/GeneticDiversityHome.htm
View Full Essay

Intended Major My Intended Major

Words: 1326 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83222924

My family can be considered to be a middle-class family. I experienced a normal family life growing up. After graduating from high school, I applied to a university that I really wanted to get into; however, I failed to get into the university. After that, I studied once again and succeeded to get into a university in Seoul. However, during 6 months of campus life, I was supposed to serve for the country in the Army. During that period, I switched gears and decided to study abroad. I wanted to gain a more broad and real world experience. Finally, I decided to come to the United States, which I thought of at the time and have come to learn is an ideal place to learn in the world over. I have studied for two and half years in this country up to the present time. For the first six months,…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Histone H2AX in the Study

Words: 5478 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64159440

These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).

Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.

Now, let us see how histone…… [Read More]


Abraham, R.T. (2001). "Cell cycle checkpoint signaling through the ATM and ATR kinases." Genes Dev 15(17): 2177-96.

Alexiadis, V., T. Waldmann, J. Andersen, M. Mann, R. Knippers and C. CGruss (2000). "The protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK changes the topology of chromatin and reduces the efficiency of DNA replication in a chromatin-specific manner." Genes Dev 14(11): 1308-12.

Aten, R. And H. Behrman (1989). Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor from bovine ovaries. Purification and identification of histone H2A. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11065-11071.

Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor/histone H2A in rat luteal and granulosal cells. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11072-11075.
View Full Essay

Nagel's Account of Intertheoretic Reduction

Words: 2376 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14284528

Nagel's Model of Inter-Theoretic Reduction

Nagel's Model of Inter-Theoretical Reduction

Reductionism has to do with the classification of knowledge, particularly the classification of scientific knowledge. Many philosophers, such as Nagel, believe that the all current scientific knowledge can be broken down into discrete theories. Accordingly, progress in science is measured by the development of new theories.

These theories are used to explore and control the phenomena in their domains and to systematise, organise and summarise our knowledge about them. In fact, mastering any field of science requires an understanding of its fundamental theories.

Examples of scientific theories are the quantum theory in physics, the evolutionary theory in biology, and the general equilibrium theory in economics.

Definition of a Theory

The first issue which all must face is defining a theory and its constituents. The second issue, often resolved in the definition of the theory, is the relation of a theory…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nagel, E. (1961). The structure of science: Problems in the logic of scientific explanation. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Nagel, E. (?). Issues in the Logic of Reductive Explanations, p. 905-921.

Ladyman, J., Ross, D., Spurrett, D., & Collier, J. (2007). 2. "Scientific Realism, Constructive Empiricism, and Structuralism."

Sklar, L. (1967). Types of inter-theoretic reduction. British Journal for the Philosophy
View Full Essay

Shigella Dysenteriae Around the Globe

Words: 1577 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98177074

Micro-Organism: Syghella dysenteriae

Genus: Shigella (Castellani and Chalmers 1919)

Type species: Shigella dysenteriae (Shiga 1897) Castellani and Chalmers 1919 (Approved Lists 1980)

Gammaproteobacteria, from the family of enterobacteriaceae (GBIF.org)

Gram-negative, non-acid-fast bacilli; no spores, no capsules; non-motile; do not posses flagella, rod-shaped bacteria (Todar, 008-01)

Picture was obtained from Sciencephoto Library

According to the national Institute of Health, "Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) causes the most severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery"

Shigella dysenteriae type 1 is rare in the U.S., but it causes epidemics in the developing countries (Todar, 008-01)

Shigella dysenteriae is one of the four species of Shigella, also known as group A (World Health Organization, 005).

The microorganism produces a toxin called Shiga toxin (Bhunia, 007). I causes shigellosis, characterized by bacillary dysentery (mucoid bloody stool).

Shigella micro-organisms are present in soil and water. They will become infective only in the presence of the "invasion plasmid…… [Read More]