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Stem cells are cells that can develop into other forms of cells; Evans's cells could develop into entire mice. Evans eventually began altering the genetic material in the stem cells, creating mice that had genetic material from other creatures and could pass that material on to their offspring" (313). These findings, together with the research conducted separately by Capecchi and Smithies, enabled several teams of researchers to develop knockout mice (Lauerman 313).
In 2007, Evans received the Nobel Prize for medicine for these discoveries and the development of knockout mice that could be used to help scientists better understand and possibly cure diseases such as cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes and cancer (Briton wins Nobel Prize 4). According to the editors of Environmental Health Perspectives (2005), the Comparative Mouse Genomics Centers Consortium (CMGCC) already has 54 transgenic or knockout mouse models developed at varying stages of construction and characterization (with…… [Read More]
G Protein-Linked eceptors
An organism must respond appropriately to its internal and external environments day after day in order to survive. The organism's cells respond to internal and external stimuli much like tiny computers that process numerous inputs and also produce numerous outputs in daily existence (Kennedy 2004). These stimuli are signals that come from the general environment or the cells of other or co-existing organisms, proximate or distant, and this exchange of stimuli and responses involves three sequential processes. These are signal that binds to the receptor protein, the binding that sends a message to the receiving cell's cytoplasm that amplifies it, and the receiving cell's change or response to the signal (Kennedy).
Cells must process the perceived information from the environment and form appropriate responses to it and not all cells can do this. In order to interpret signals, a cell should have the appropriate receptor protein (Kennedy…… [Read More]
In the tissue culture, they usually proliferate indefinitely. The normal constraints which limit the growth of the cells absent in the cancerous state and are also characterized by the division ability for number of generations which is unlimited.
Cell cycle and cancer
With millions of chemical reactions taking place concurrently and in specific areas, the human body can be thought of as a small laboratory. It is the only "machine" with the ability to save fuel when fed in excess and also know to bring out the reserves when facing starvation, capable to protect itself from attacks by viruses and bacteria, ability to make adjustments to withstand changes of weather and the ability to learn, think and create on its own. The human body system is well integrated and organized, able to perform vital functions important to its survival. Malfunctions in the body can have damaging results that range in…… [Read More]
All living things are complex organisms that are made up of cells. Some are made up of a single cell while others comprise of numerous cells working together. Cells are the basic functional and structural units of living organisms and are known to be the building blocks of life. In humans it is from a group of cells that tissues are made and from tissues that organs are made which enable beings to live.
Cells obtain food and oxygen through their membranes and each membrane has a specific area which can serve contents of only a given volume. Any increase in volume of the cell requires that the area of the membrane increases. Basically, when cells grow the membrane becomes insufficient in aiding the movement of substances in and out and thus to maintain a favourable surface area to volume ratio, cell division must take place. Furthermore, cell…… [Read More]
ATP is necessary for any cell to produce energy and perform specific actions. This involves using three different compounds that are connected with each other to achieve these larger objectives. The most notable include: C10H16N5O13 and P3.The process enables biologists to understand the way cells function. (Bergen, 2015) (Falls, 2012)
Describe how and where energy (ATP) is generated
The ATP is an enzyme that is used to transport energy to different parts of the cell where it is needed the most. This consists of purine compounds to store and retrieve the energy (via a process known as glycolic). As the food is consumed, this energy is released to numerous regions to perform various functions. The most notable include: the production of glucose, beta oxidation, fermentation, anaerobic respiration and for ATP production / recycling. These areas are important, as they are demonstrating how this helps it to…… [Read More]
The blood with the IgG must be effectively removed from the body, or reduced to levels that will not allow the cells to be a danger to the infant. If caught early enough, plasma transfers for the mother can result in enough of a reduction of IgG levels to forestall the effects to the fetus.
Autoimmune diseases occur when, for a variety of reasons, the body responds to its own cells as though they were dangerous foreign cells. In this way they are similar to an allergic response; an unrecognized but harmless entity is viciously attacked by the body in an attempt to destroy the perceived intruder. This is annoying (and possibly deadly) when it comes to allergies, and far more so when the body essentially becomes allergic to itself.
Though the reasons behind the onset of Type I diabetes are still not fully understood, the disease occurs when…… [Read More]
Given a mosquito's vastly shorter life span, preventing the spread of the infection to more human hosts greatly reduces the number of viable parasites in existence (CDC 2009).
There are several reasons that viral infections are more difficult to treat and diagnose than bacterial infections. For one thing, viruses are not truly alive, and this makes it difficult to kill them. They are essentially packets of genetic information in tough protein shells; there are no real biological mechanisms for medicines to disrupt. In addition, the virus' use of host cells as reproduction sites means that drugs used to attack the virus often als due damage to healthy cells and the body's natural defenses. The basic life cycle of an animla virus includes hijacking a host cell and reproducing until rupture, where the process continues in new host cells. Most viruses can remain viable indefinitely outside a host, so the…… [Read More]
Most fungi can also reproduce through sexual reproduction both with the same organism mixing gametes and with reproduction between two separate organisms. The cells of many fungi are primarily copies of each other, without differentiation of organs (except in the fruiting sections of the organism, such as the mushrooms and molds typically visible and known to humans).
Fungi are considered a separate kingdom for several reasons. They are different from plants in their inability to produce energy from sunlight, and in fact most grow in dark places. Unlike animals and many protozoa, they cannot move; unlike most protozoa, they exist almost entirely as multicellular and colonial organisms.
The various classifications of fungi are determined based on their method(s) of reproduction. Zygomycota produce both asexual and sexual spores, while Basidiomycota rarely produce asexually and produce a different type of sexual spore. Ascomycota produce asexual spores, and can also grow…… [Read More]
Once in the cells, the glucose is burned in order to create heat and adenosine triphosyphate, (ATP) which is a molecule that stores and releases energy as required by the cell.
The metabolism of glucose into energy happens either in combination with oxygen which is called aerobic metabolism or without it which is called anaerobic metabolism. The oxygen used comes from the mitochondria. Red blood cells do not have mitochondria, so they convert glucose into energy without the use of oxygen, unlike some other cells.
Glucose is also converted to energy inside muscle cells. These are probably the most important energy users. Muscle cells contain mitochondria so they can process glucose with oxygen. Even if the level of oxygen levels in the muscle-cell mitochondria fall too low, the cells can proceed to convert glucose into energy without oxygen. The down side is that making glucose into energy without oxygen produces…… [Read More]
The primary organ that is accountable for regulating metabolism is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is situated on the brain stem and forms the floor and part of the lateral walls of the third ventricle of the cerebrum. The main functions of the hypothalamus is to control and integrate activities of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), production and regulation of feelings of rage and aggression, regulation of body temperature and regulation of food intake (Graham, 2005).
BM goes down with age and with the loss of lean body mass. Increased muscle mass and cardiovascular exercise can help to increase BM, even when the body is at rest. Measured in calories, metabolic rates vary with exertion, recent food ingestion, muscle exertion, environmental temperature, emotional state, body temperature, pregnancy, menstruation, level of thyroid hormones stress hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine), fear and illness. The human body requires energy in order to stay alive…… [Read More]
In other words, performance on the learning tests is associated with neurogenesis. The gene expression measures were taken to aide future research.
The results showed that performance on the learning tests did change, and the hypothesis was proven. Stress from the change, the intermittent pairings, did increase hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult male squirrel monkeys. Learning, especially spatial learning, was enhanced. Moreover, the corresponding gene expressions changed accordingly.
The authors suggest that the results may be generalized to a human population. With special attention paid to human beings suffering from depression, the authors suggest that specially-designed psychotherapeutic interventions for coping with stress will help stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. Hippocampal neurogenesis is in turn associated with improved cognition. Therefore, effective coping mechanisms are likely to have a positive impact on overall psychological functioning.
This research demonstrates several key areas of interest, such as the ability for researchers to use non-human primates to…… [Read More]
In one laboratory experiment, bacteria exposed to high levels of pathogenic bacteria over several hundred generations eventually adapted "their progeny became dependent on having the formerly pathogenic bacteria in food vacuoles...(Jeon, 1991)" (Armstrong) There are several ways in which bacteria may subsume other bacteria, including ingesting them and maintaining them in food vacuoles as in the Jeon experiment, or they may become infected by bacteria that are acting as parasites. Mitochondria, for example, could have been parasitic and fed off the host at the same time that they proved useful to it. Chloroplasts, because they are significantly self-supporting, are more likely to have been introduced as food. This theory continues to suggest that after many generations of true symbiosis, the mitochondria and chloroplasts lost their independence.
If the endosymbiosis theory was correct, there are many things which should hypothetically prove true in experimentation. For example, it should be evidenced that…… [Read More]
Probably one of the most important elements of this research is that the antibodies from the b-cells attack only the cancer cells, not the surrounding healthy cells, and so, they are far less invasive and intimidating than other types of treatment like radiation or surgery.
The drug ituxan is also used in concert with other treatments to gain the best results in more patients, and the only downside so far has been that not all patients of certain cancer types, such as lymphoma, respond to the drug (Editors). That is Levy's biggest challenge for the future, to discover why all or most patients do not respond favorably to treatment. If he can discover that, the implications for future treatment and elimination of certain cancers is even more promising.
In addition, these therapies have been used to treat many types of lymphomas, and have sent them into remission, which gives patients…… [Read More]
In fact, I think I'll just keep eating for a while, I'm not feeling quite full yet. There, that did it.
Did I mention there's a whole bunch of us hanging out in here? Well, it seems there were quite a few of us in that fish our human ate, and we've all taken up residence here. Some of us are in the intestines, but most of us are just hanging out here, enjoying the company. After breakfast, I just take a little time to digest my meal, and then it's time for my own morning cleansing. I'll excrete my nasty stuff, right into my human's bile, and then it will travel out along with my human's excretions. I spend some time shifting around and making sure I'm securely attached, so I don't head outside along with the morning meal, and then, I'm ready to do my favorite thing for…… [Read More]
Moreover, it was unknown which specific chemical fertilizers would be more conducive to plant growth in Brassica rapa in particular. Another possible reason for the unexpected results is differential application of the fertilizer. For this research, the same .07 grams of fertilizer was applied to each cell. Yet it is possible that some types of fertilizer, such as liquid fertilizer, require more or less than the .07 grams. Future research would take into account the different chemical compositions of fertilizers, making sure to control for those differences. Also, future research would take into account the fact that the same amount of liquid, pellet, or powder may not yield results. The commercial instructions for each of the fertilizers should be followed. Also, it would be helpful to monitor plant growth for more than 64 hours. Future research could also include plant varieties other than Brassica rapa in case this particular species…… [Read More]
Stem Cell Research / Parkinson's
Since Barack Obama has become president, the field of stem cell research has been given new life. One of Obama's campaign pledges
was to allow deeper research -- including the use of federal research funds -- into the use of pluripotent stem cells in order to find solutions for some of the terrible diseases Americans suffer from. Among those medical problems is Parkinson Disease (PD). This paper reviews and delves into the literature in terms of the potential of stem cell interventions into Parkinson Disease (also called "Parkinson's Disease").
ho is the leading authority on stem cell research?
There is no one "leading authority" reflected in the literature; however there are renowned scientists that are considered pathfinders in this field. Dr. Diane S. Krause, Associate Professor of Laboratory Medicine and Associate Director of Stem Processing at Yale University is "…one of the discoverers of previously…… [Read More]
3.3 Data Collection
Is maternal UE3A active following iPS treatment: Data will be gathered on the iPS-treated mice via positron emission tomography, and in vivo brain slice preparation, and Western lot Analysis. H1 will essentially be ascertained following these tests.
Does iPS treatment rescue the motor and cognitive deficits associated with Angelman Syndrome: Data will be gathered from testing the treated mice in scientifically recognized tests of cognitive ability in a mouse model. This project proposes using the water maze test, the electric shock test, and the submerged platform test. H2 will effectively be answered using the data gleaned from these tests.
4.1. Potential Therapeutic and Other Considerations
The potential of using iPS treatment to rescue/alleviate the severe motor and cognitive deficits witnessed in Angelman Syndrome is theoretically viable. Reliable mouse models of AS exist with which to run the tests. The technology needed to tease iPS stem…… [Read More]
Hello, my friend. I am truly sorry and sympathize as much as I can regarding your traumatic car accident and subsequent spinal injury. I appreciate that you have kept me abreast of your treatment options. Your team of physicians agree that you would be a fine candidate for treatment specifically with stem cells. Most people have heard of stem cells and are aware of the scientific and ethical controversies surrounding them, but not as many people have performed productive research to find out what they really are and what the possible medical applications (and pitfalls) that come with stem cells. I have taken it upon myself to do some research for you, so that you are in a better position to make a more informed decision regarding this option for treatment of your spinal cord injury. In the next couple of pages, I will do my best to…… [Read More]
Try to identify the following structures in an amoeba (Fig. 4.2):
Nucleus: A single, membrane-bounded oval structure.
Food vacuoles: Membrane-bounded spheres that contain engulfed food. Are these present? Yes.
Contractile vacuoles: Transparent, membrane-bounded spheres used to expel excess water. Are these present? Yes.
Animal Cell Structure
Animal cells contain all the structures in Table 4.1 except they do not have a cell wall and do not have chloroplasts. Can animal cells make their own organic food? No. Why or Why not?
Plants have chloroplasts which allows them to convert solar energy to carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are the organic food that plants then use for energy. Animals do not have chloroplasts and so are not capable of making their own organic food.
Observation: Elodea (Anacharis)
Can you locate the cell nucleus? Yes. It may be hidden by the chloroplasts, but when visible, it appears as a faint, gray lump…… [Read More]
Are Cell Phones Safe?
The topic of this paper is cell phone radiation and whether or not it is harmful to a person’s health. My position on the topic is that cell phone radiation is harmful to people’s health, as has been shown in numerous studies (Nylund & Leszczynski, 2006; Gandhi, Morgan, de Salles et al., 2012). Two opposing viewpoints on the topic are that 1) cell phone radiation is not harmful to a person’s health—which is what the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has argued, and 2) there is just not enough information on the topic to make an informed decision.
Three reasons to support my position are: 1) that cell phones have been shown to affect brain development (Kesari, Siddiqui & Meena, 2013); 2) cell phones have been shown to affect fetal development and children’s development (Gandhi et al., 2012); and 3) cell phones have been shown to alter…… [Read More]
This system results in stable blood concentrations of the hormones that are regulated by the pituitary gland (Reiser and Kemp, p.1).
This complex system of self-regulation means that there are multiple opportunities for the glands to stop working properly.
The hypothalamus, which is located in the brain, is, in many ways, the control center of the endocrine system. The hypothalamus secretes hormones that, in turn, either suppress or stimulate hormone release by the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland then uses the messages it receives from the hypothalamus to govern its secretion of stimulating hormones to other glands in the endocrine system. The pituitary gland sends messages to other glands in the endocrine system, as well as producing important hormones that regulate bodily functions without requiring the intervention of other glands. The hormones produced by the pituitary gland include: growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating…… [Read More]
Understanding the structure and function of DNA has allowed scientists to uncover truths about the origin of human life on planet earth. In "Ancient ussian's DNA Sheds Light on Neanderthal Interbreeding," Dunham (2014) discusses one of the recent discoveries in human genetic history. A DNA sample was extracted from the tibia of a Homo sapiens called "Kostenki man" because of the village in which the skeleton was found. Because so much is now known about DNA, it is possible to take samples from 37,000-year-old skeletons. The article also shows that DNA remains intact in the bones of living creatures thousands of years after they die. Moreover, the article is about the fact that the DNA samples from Kostenki man show that some 50,000 years ago, Homo sapiens had interbred with Neanderthals, who had "colonized the region thousands of years earlier," (Dunham, 2014). As a result of these findings, researchers…… [Read More]
Living organisms are subdivided into 5 major kingdoms, including te Monera, te Protista (Protoctista), te Fungi, te Plantae, and te Animalia. Eac kingdom is furter subdivided into separate pyla or divisions. Generally "animals" are subdivided into pyla, wile "plants" are subdivided into divisions.
Kingdom of Protista
Laminariales (kelps) etc.
Te Brown algae are a large group of multi-cellular algae, including various sorts of seaweed. Teir distinctive greenis-brown color comes from te pigment fucoxantin. Well-known members include kelps and bladder wrack. Genetic studies sow teir closest relatives are te yellow-green algae.
Te red algae (Rodopyta) are a large group of mostly multi-cellular, marine algae, including many notable types of seaweed. Most of te coralline algae, wic secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building…… [Read More]
life forms in the world. It is important to examine the biology of chonanoflagellates and how it occurs in nature.
Choanoflagellates are colorless flagellates which are 5-10 micron and have a well-defined collar. They may be individual or live in colonies and "may live free in the water, or attached to substrates such as the spines of the Chaetoceros affinis (thalassa.gso.uri.edu/rines/ecology/choanofl.htm)."
Choanoflagellates are made up of only about 150 species and are not "a diverse group of protists. They are small single-celled protests, found in both fresh waters and the oceans, taking their name ("collar-flagellate") from the circle of closely packed microvilli, or slender fingerlike projections, that surrounds the single flagellum by which choanoflagellates both move and take in food (www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/choanos.html)." The funnel-shaped collar is contractible and strains out the bacteria which the choanoflagellate feeds on (www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/biolink/student/olc2/chap31outline.htm).
Protists belong to the "kingdom Protoctista, a new classification in most modern…… [Read More]
abundant elements that occur in living organisms are as follows: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous. These and all elements are made up of atoms, which are the primary units of matter. Molecules are groups of atoms that are covalently bonded. Covalent bonds occur when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. This is different from ionic bonds, which arise when an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions takes place. Elements are substances that cannot be chemically dissected into simpler kinds of matter. Compounds, however, are atoms of two or more elements that are united by chemical bonds.
The parts of an atom include protons, neutrons, and electrons. These are all called subatomic particles. Protons, which are part of the nucleus of an atom, have positive electrical charges. Neutrons, which are also part of the nucleus of an atom, and as the name indicates, are neutral…… [Read More]
Deliberately reducing the amount of PO2 circulating in the breathable atmosphere around a person -- such as Kara accomplishes at sea-level with her tent -- ultimately produces a lowered rate of hemoglobin oxygenation in the arterial blood. This condition, hypoxia, can be dangerous and can, of course, impair aerobic physical exercise -- however the trick that Kara is taking advantage of is the body's ability to undergo acclimatization, in which the body's physiology and metabolism will engage in adjustments that improve the body's ability to tolerate the low-PO2 levels through different means, such as adjusting its own acidity (to change the level of interior biochemical reactivity in order to boost absorbable oxygen levels) but also -- more importantly for Kara and her endurance training -- by improving metabolism on the cellular level and blood circulation (to maximize the value of the oxygen actually obtained) and, most importantly, by "increased synthesis…… [Read More]
Cell is important because it is the building block of the body. It is a replicating organism that has proteins and cytoplasm and nucleic acids inside a membrane Alberts (2002). Cells are in everything from humans to plants, though each representation of life has its own particular cells. Cells are very small and impossible to see with a microscopic lens. That is why the cell was not actually noticed until such technology came along in the 17th century. Indeed, the name cell, which means small room in Latin, comes from the discoverer of the cell, who thought they looked like the small rooms that monks in the medieval era used to live in, which were called cells (Karp, 2009). Essentially, all living organisms are made up of cells and if there were no cells there would be no life. So the cell is very important.
What do cells do? That…… [Read More]
B and T. Lymphocytes
The Biology of B. And T. Lymphocytes and the eactions between Them
The Biology of B. Lymphocytes
B lymphocytes originated in 1960s and 1970s era through experiments conducted in animal models, clinical evaluation of patients having immune system diseases, and the nascent technology of cell surface molecule characterization. In fact, the origin of B. And T. lymphocytes took place simultaneously. The differentiation of the haematopoietic stem cells gives birth to the formation of common lymphoid progenitors, which actually generate B. lymphocytes. They are generated and developed in yolk sac, fetal liver, and the adult liver present in the body (Austyn & Wood, 1994). B lymphocytes are present in areas that come in close contact with foreign substances. They act as defensive mechanism against invading microorganisms, viruses and parasites and play a vital role in humoral immune response. Since these cells originate in the Bone marrow, they…… [Read More]
On average, male skeletons are larger than female skeletons, but just as some women are larger than some males, this distinction does not hold firm in all instances. Female pelvic regions tend to be wider than male pelvic regions, an evolutionary feature that has made childbirth easier. Female bones tend to be thinner and less dense than male bones, and thus the female skeleton tends to be lighter than male skeletons.
The skull is one of the most notable sites of difference between male and female skeletons. The teeth of males tend to be larger, and above their eye sockets men tend to have a more visible brow ridge while women often have none. The male skull tends to have a squarer (as opposed to a pointed) chin and is more angular in its demarcations than the female skull. Women's nose openings are more apt to be pointed, rather than…… [Read More]
Only if the cell can take in nourishment and excrete waste can the other components of the cell like the mitochondria engage in their essential tasks. hen a cell can take in nourishment and excrete wastes, this is the surest first sign of independent life
The problem is that the Cell-u-life Corporation wants an artificial cell that can do more than nourish itself. It wants a cell that can take the place of living stem cells and reproduce, and it is not certain of aerogels can do this. Thus another possibility is trying to create lipid-like structures to make cell membranes in the lab from fat cells in the body that do not come from human sources such as embryos but can reproduce like fat cells.
Team receives grant to study artificial cell membranes."(24 Aug 2005). Stanford News:
Press Release. Retrieved 3 Jun 2007 at h ttp://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2005/august24/aerogel-082405.html… [Read More]
Study of human embryonic stem cell will lead to major advances in human biology, specifically:
Embryonic stem cell research will provide critical insights into mechanisms of cell differentiation, growth, and death (Young, 2006).
Understanding stem cells may provide keys to why people age (Young, 2006).
Scientists are interested in stem cells because they have the potential to become very practical in a way that any other kind of cell in the body might be used to replace tissues that have failed (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3144925.stm,2003).
And lastly, scientists believed that if they become successful in finding cure for lymphoma, and leukemia with this study, there is a great possibility that they can also cure diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, diabetes among others in the near future (http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt,2006).
Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521
Young, ise. Morality of…… [Read More]
"Given the rising prevalence of obesity with age in both childhood and adult life, the prevalence of adult obesity cannot be predicted from childhood data, but increasing childhood obesity heralds a greater health burden in adult life"(James & al 2001, p. 232S). Thus, the future focus is on child obesity and how it can be treated to bring well-being for the adult.
esearch for adipose cells is not at the beginning, but has become increasingly intensive in the last years. Obesity is rapidly spreading across the globe but all the scientific breakthroughs won't do magic in the presence of disinterest and neglect towards the human body, so the first step should come from each individual.
Albright, AL & Stern, JS 1998, "Adipose Tissue," Encyclopedia of Sports Medicine and Science, vol. 15
Bosello, O & al. 1980,"Adipose tissue cellularity and weight reduction forecasting," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 33,…… [Read More]
Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell:
There are two types of cells found, that originate from a common ancestor - The prokaryotes and eukaryotes. While Prokaryotes are organisms without a cell nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles and are mostly unicellular, but some exceptions are found. In contrast Eukaryotes have their cells have complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The principal membrane bound structure is the nucleus. All animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes. (Diffen, 2013) Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth until the more complex eukaryotes evolved from them.
Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells:
The distinctions between these two types of cells create the differences in organisms Thus the groups of organisms that belong basically to the prokaryotes are non-membranous and in contrast the eukaryotes contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Though this is the basic difference, the…… [Read More]
However, there would also need to be an extended period of longitudinal analysis of the effects of the therapy on the experimental group mice's health to see if the improvement continued and did not produce damaging side effects.
The MSCs in the liver therapy are not derived from human embryos and thus the objections to discarding human embryos are not a factor in the ethical discussion about the therapy. In fact, "the number of MSCs that can be obtained from a donor is significantly lower than the number needed for tissue regeneration. Therefore, MSCs are expanded ex-vivo in media supplemented with growth factors" and created in a lab ("MSC growth factors," R&D Systems, 2013). The main ethical objections to the use of MCSs revolve around the question of scientists' right to create new organs and the possible risks involved. The Japanese research team "relied on a 'cocktail' of so-called induced…… [Read More]
When DNA is damaged, cells can react through cell cycle checkpoints which allows repair to begin before further division can occur. There is also the prokaryotic SOS response which changes gene expression in bacteria as a result of DNA damage. This response is regulated by the production of certain proteins. Moreover, eukaryotic cells also react to DNA damage through producing proteins that begin the process of DNA repair.
8. Mice are often the favored mammalian in the testing of aging interventions. This is often because of the fact that there are many mice easily available for testing but also the fact that "generation time is short" (Yuan et al. 2011). Essentially, the aging process and testing in interventions can be done on a much shorter time scale then with tests using monkeys.
9. Enzymes may change the transcription patterns of a cell by adding chemical groups to histone proteins. This…… [Read More]
iopsychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes through a biological approach (Cooper 2000). Practitioners in this field believe that biological processes may explain certain psychological phenomena, such as learning, memory, perception, attention, motivation, emotion, and cognition, particularly problems and issues connected with these phenomena. iopsychology is also called biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral biology or behavioral neuroscience (Cooper).
Practitioners in this new field use varied and overlapping fields of study: cognitive neuroscience, which primarily examines the brain to understand the neural workings of mental processes; psychopharmacology, which deals with the effects of drugs on psychological functions; neuro-psychology, which is concerned with the psychological effects of brain damage in humans; behavioral genetics, which deals with behavior and psychological traits; evolutionary psychology, which is involved with how psychological processes have evolved; and comparative psychology, which compares findings among different species (Cooper). The last science centers on ethology, which…… [Read More]
That is not to suggest that scientific criteria can necessarily pinpoint any specific instant or moment in time when a developing fetus can logically be considered a living human being, but only because such precision is impossible.
In principle, there is no doubt that medical science can identify the various stages of fetal development associated with the biological structures and processes that make us human. Likewise, they can identify the point where suffering becomes possible because neurological development produces the ability to perceive pain (Levine, 2008).
Therefore, the appropriate use of scientific criteria would be to link ethical concern for the fetus to sentience, and simply to err on the side of caution where pinpoint identification of sentience is impossible to know with certainty.
In principle, science (the discipline) is strictly objective; in practice, scientists are susceptible to human failings such as malice, egoism, and greed. The field of ethics…… [Read More]
The purpose of this set of questions is to see whether they would engage in similar action even if they know that the other individual will not reciprocate given the reverse of their circumstances. All individuals will answer blindly, and we will anonomously collect all of the information.
There are many different results that are possible within this experiment. First, the expected result is that the majority of individuals will answer that they would act altruistically. However, they could act altruistically in some cases, as when they are giving change back to others, but selfishly when it comes to saving a drowning person and risking their own lives. Another scenario is that they could act selfishly when they are in the room by themselves, but when they are doing so in conjunction with someone else, they might be motivated by the visual sign of someone else to be altruistic.…… [Read More]
Stem Cell Differentiation
The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of…… [Read More]
With our progressing knowledge in molecular biology and the increasing understanding of the various signaling pathways there is no question of doubt that in the near future the prognosis for OSCC would be considerably improved. As with any other disease, prevention is better than cure. Avoiding the well-known risk factors, a well-balanced nutritional plan and regular dental health checkups are the most effective means of preventing Oral cancers.
1) Michael King, Kourt Chatelain & Dustin Farris et.al, 'Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma proliferative Phenotype is modulated by Proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for Oral Cancer', MC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2007, 7:22, 19 June 2007 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6882/7/22
2) M. Chidzonga, L. Mahomva, 'Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, maxillary antrum and lip in a Zimbabwean population: A descriptive epidemiological study, Oral Oncology, 2006, Volume 42, Issue 2, Pages 184-189
3) National Cancer Institute, 'Oral Cavity', Accessed Jan 15th…… [Read More]
Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.
Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…… [Read More]
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…… [Read More]
worth 1 point.
The energy-storing compound found in all cells is
A cell placed in a ____ solution will swell.
A form of an element that differs in its atomic weight from other forms of that same element is a (n)
A cord of connective tissue that joins a muscle to a bone is called a (n)
The muscle separating the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity is the diaphram
A change in the genetic material of a cell is called a (n)
The scientific term for the widening of the blood vessels is dilation
The primary sensory area is found in the ____ lobe.
The neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular junction is called acetycholine
The ____ side of the heart pumps blood over longer distances than the other side.
The abdominal gland that secretes glucagon and digestive enzymes is the pancreas
The…… [Read More]
evolution of eukaryotic cells linked to the increase of atmospheric oxygen concentration during the Precambrian?
Increase of atmospheric oxygen during the Precambrian period led to creatures which were more dependent on oxygen in the atmosphere. Oxygen levels in the atmosphere increased from 1% to 15% of the modern level of oxygen. The increase in oxygen in the air led to the evolution of more expansive lungs which were capable of taking in more air and converting it into energy. As eukaryotic cells evolved, they became more capable of respiration which added to the complexity of the evolutions of creatures.
Scientists believe that if there are no controls on the emission of CO2 from burning fossil fuels, the concentration of this gas could double by the end of the current century, leading to a significant rise in the average temperature of the Earth. What would be some of the likely evolutionary…… [Read More]
Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean
The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small…… [Read More]
Pertussis, sometimes called "whooping cough," is a sometimes severe respiratory illness caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussim or. B. pertussi, which is Gram-negative (Todar, 2002). Its reservoir is restricted to humans and possibly other higher primates such as chimpanzees (Todar, 2002). Pertussis can be a mild disease in adults, sometimes misdiagnosed as bronchitis (AMA, 2002), but has a significant rate of mortality in infants. Until a vaccine was developed for B. pertussi, pertussis was a frequent and severe illness among infants in the United States as well as the rest of the world. It is spread through exposure to the bacteria, by inhaling the B. pertussi from others who have coughed or sneezed (AMA, 2002).
Pertussis has an incubation period of one to three weeks (CHP, 2002). Once the infected person becomes ill, the disease presents in two stages. During the first stage, it resembles a milder respiratory illness, with…… [Read More]
Or pressure. Or temperature (hot and cold, separately). Or vibration (both high- and low-frequency)." (Hancock, 1995) All over the surface f the skin are receptors that report warmth and there are others that report cold. Several types of nerves exist that have the ability to sense "cold, warmth pressure, pain, and more. The nerves that sense and transmit pain are called nociceptors. Nociceptors transmit electrical signals to your spinal column. In the spinal cord, electrical pain signals causes a release of chemicals which are called neurotransmitters, which activate other nerve cells that process and transmit the information to the brain. Important decisions occur in the spinal column: Acute pain like that from touching a hot surface raises a red flag and is routed to the brain immediately.. "The larger fibers convey electrical impulses very rapidly to the brain, and are thought to cause sharp pricking pain, while the very fine…… [Read More]
The word biology means the study of life. It is a combination of "bio," which means "life," and "ology," which means "wisdom" or "science of." Thus, the term itself tells us what its meaning is: it is the science or study of life.
However, there are many fields in biology, which look at specific sectors or areas of "life." Because life on this planet is abounding and so complex, it is required that there be several fields of biological science. For instance, marine biology studies life in water (such as in oceans or lakes). Human biology studies the complexities of the human body. Cellular biology takes an even closer look at biological studies by closing in on the activities and structures of cells, which are just one part of life.
Advancements in biological knowledge have taken place over many centuries throughout the history of the world. In fact, all…… [Read More]
Health Care Law
Read: Compliance needs a shrewd strategic plan
Discuss the reasons why healthcare organizations should include a compliance program into their strategic planning?
In short, the Cerrato story linked above discusses and makes clear, more or less, that it is a non-optional part of doing business in the healthcare business and sphere. He noted that healthcare providers must comply with "a long list of healthcare-related laws and regulations" and that it remains "a major challenge for provider organizations around the country" (Cerrato, 2013). Just a short list of reasons why compliance should be a focal point within the broader strategic planning sphere for healthcare organizations is because doing otherwise can open a company to civil liability, can open up a company to agency sanction, can open up a company to criminal charges (in extreme cases), can lead to a degradation or failure to improve patient…… [Read More]
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…… [Read More]
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."
Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.
Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…… [Read More]
For instance when patients who have lost plenty of blood are brought in a hospital ER room, the clinical officers may actually administer the wrong solutions to patients as they attempt to save their lives Stoker ()
. The volume of the IV fluid to be administered should always be followed with precaution and be based on medical directions of the hospital's protocol as well as the patient's response to the fluid being administered. Another precaution is that all IV fluid bags should always be well labeled since the labels provide important information that is needed during administration of the fluids.
hen administered to the wrong and in appropriate IV fluid solutions, a patient's health may be put at severe risk and other fatalities. This may result to legal and disciplinary action to the medical practitioner. Thus, an IV fluid bag should always be read correctly as they also have…… [Read More]
Desiccation Tolerance in Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes or eukaryote is the organism that makes up the microbial world. Prokaryotes are deficient of internal unit membranes and are self-sufficient cells or organisms. The best-known prokaryotic organisms are the bacteria. The cell membrane in prokaryotes makes up the cell's primary osmotic barrier and consists of a phsopholipids unit membrane. The ribosome carries out translation and protein synthesis and is present in the cytoplasm. Normally, the nuclear regions consist of circular, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid.
Plasmids, the accessory self-replicating genetic structure is present in many prokaryotes with extra not necessary cell functions like encoding proteins to inactivate antibiotics. On the other hand, the eukaryotic cells have a nuclear membrane, well-defined chromosomes, mitochondria, a sector device, an endoplasmic reticulum and digestive system with many cell types. The prokaryotes are deficient of structural multiplicity and consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organism, which is well-known among eukaryotes…… [Read More]
Family Background Plant, Breeding History Plan
isconsin fast plants were developed in the mid-1980's by professor Paul illiams as a way of enabling individuals to study the life cycle of plants in a relatively short period of time. isconsin fast plants are of the brassica rapa species, and are ideal for short-term studies because they develop celeritously over a life cycle which is completed within a year's time. They typically bloom in the winter. Although there are many different varieties of brassica rapa (which includes strains such as brassica rapa ssp. campestris L., brassica rapa ssp. sarson and others) (Itis), they are all part of the family known as cruciferae. These plants look like many types of vegetables including mustards, turnips and cabbage. Virtually all of the plants in this family have four petals that cross one another similar to a crucifix, which is where the name of this family…… [Read More]
The inquiry cited above makes use of the functions of analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Analysis is the act of reviewing and comparing data. In the inquiry of the herbicides, the analysis occurs with the review of prior evaluations and inquires. This analysis of studies regarding the effect of atrazine allowed the inquiry to come up with its hypothesis and thus direct the actual experiment. Without an analysis of the original, existing data the concept of comparing use of atrazine, isoxaflutale and a mix of both would not have been thought of.
The concept of synthesis refers to the integration of two or more existing elements in order to create something new. In the inquiry, there are numerous levels of synthesis. First and foremost is the agricultural practice of combining atrazine with isoxaflutale as a method of creating a new, supposedly less toxic herbicide that would comply with the regulations issued…… [Read More]
Genetic diversity: Discuss the issues related to genetic diversity: mutations, sexual reproduction, migration, and population size.
Under most circumstances, when "an individual possesses a trait or traits that allow it to compete better for food, shelter, mates, and nesting sites, then that individual will produce more offspring because it is better nourished, is better protected, lives longer and has mate(s) with which to reproduce more offspring" (Furr n.d.). Thus, if a species produces a spontaneous mutation which is beneficial for the species' survival, the mutated organism will live, grow, and reproduce and pass on the mutation to successive generations. The mutation may survive as a heterogeneous allele, but if the mutation is common enough or the mutation produces enough offspring, eventually the useful mutation will manifest itself in greater and greater numbers in the population. "Sexual reproduction allows the genetic information of two parents to recombine to form a new…… [Read More]
My family can be considered to be a middle-class family. I experienced a normal family life growing up. After graduating from high school, I applied to a university that I really wanted to get into; however, I failed to get into the university. After that, I studied once again and succeeded to get into a university in Seoul. However, during 6 months of campus life, I was supposed to serve for the country in the Army. During that period, I switched gears and decided to study abroad. I wanted to gain a more broad and real world experience. Finally, I decided to come to the United States, which I thought of at the time and have come to learn is an ideal place to learn in the world over. I have studied for two and half years in this country up to the present time. For the first six months,…… [Read More]
These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).
Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.
Now, let us see how histone…… [Read More]
Nagel's Model of Inter-Theoretic Reduction
Nagel's Model of Inter-Theoretical Reduction
Reductionism has to do with the classification of knowledge, particularly the classification of scientific knowledge. Many philosophers, such as Nagel, believe that the all current scientific knowledge can be broken down into discrete theories. Accordingly, progress in science is measured by the development of new theories.
These theories are used to explore and control the phenomena in their domains and to systematise, organise and summarise our knowledge about them. In fact, mastering any field of science requires an understanding of its fundamental theories.
Examples of scientific theories are the quantum theory in physics, the evolutionary theory in biology, and the general equilibrium theory in economics.
Definition of a Theory
The first issue which all must face is defining a theory and its constituents. The second issue, often resolved in the definition of the theory, is the relation of a theory…… [Read More]
Micro-Organism: Syghella dysenteriae
Genus: Shigella (Castellani and Chalmers 1919)
Type species: Shigella dysenteriae (Shiga 1897) Castellani and Chalmers 1919 (Approved Lists 1980)
Gammaproteobacteria, from the family of enterobacteriaceae (GBIF.org)
Gram-negative, non-acid-fast bacilli; no spores, no capsules; non-motile; do not posses flagella, rod-shaped bacteria (Todar, 008-01)
Picture was obtained from Sciencephoto Library
According to the national Institute of Health, "Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (SD1) causes the most severe form of epidemic bacillary dysentery"
Shigella dysenteriae type 1 is rare in the U.S., but it causes epidemics in the developing countries (Todar, 008-01)
Shigella dysenteriae is one of the four species of Shigella, also known as group A (World Health Organization, 005).
The microorganism produces a toxin called Shiga toxin (Bhunia, 007). I causes shigellosis, characterized by bacillary dysentery (mucoid bloody stool).
Shigella micro-organisms are present in soil and water. They will become infective only in the presence of the "invasion plasmid…… [Read More]