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Under the arrangement, moreover, a country with efficient production and a favored competitive position (including as enhanced by new capital goods) is rewarded with rising income and reduced unemployment. No grand scheme of state or international planning and direct control is required. Exchange rates are for the most part fixed under the classical gold-flows mechanisms (say, $/£ const. within fixed limits), as stated, and adjustments to trade imbalances take place through price-level changes (e.g., PU.S. versus P. UK ) or product prices (and the special part of product prices called wages) (ullard & Christopher 2004 101). Faced with unemployment, a country's position can be improved by enhancing productivity and having prices on its real goods and services and wages adjust downward relative to those of other countries.
Another way to achieve adjustments in trade positions (or more generally balance of international payments positions) is to have exchange rate changes rather…
Backus, David, and John Driffill (1985). Inflation and Reputation, American Economic Review 75, 530-538.
Barro, Robert, and David Gordon (1983). Rules, Discretion, and Reputation in a Model of Monetary Policy, Journal of Monetary Economics 12, 101-121.
Barro, Robert, and David Gordon (2003). A Positive Theory of Monetary Policy in a Natural Rate Model, Journal of Political Economy 91, 589-610.
Blinder, Alan S. (1997). What Central Bankers Could Learn from Academics and Vice Versa, Journal of Economic Perspectives 11, 3-20.
Instead of the "invisible hand" of the market creating an money supply/interest rate equilibrium, the Chinese government is doing so by requiring banks to hold more deposits on their balance sheets.
China's announcement will likely affect interest rates quite dramatically in that banks will have more cash on hand to help pad their balance sheets while the money supply stays relatively low. This helps to keep the potential for inflation low, where interest rates begin to rise. As long as there is less money to be lent, or in effect, more money tied up within the banking system that cannot be lent to borrowers, the interest rates will likely remain relatively low (McConnell, Brue, and Flynn, 2008). This helps to combat inflation, or the potential for inflation since other economies like the United States have been printing money to help boost their own economies. These actions by the U.S. will…
McConnell, Campbell; Brue, Stanley; and Sean Flynn. (2008). Economics: Principles,
Problems, and Policies. New York: McGraw-Hill.
central banks in developing countries can influence their position on the exchange market through exchange rate interventions. The current exchange rate mechanics are based on a floating exchange rate that is valued based on the market conditions. Any intervention by a central bank should be short lived because the market equilibrium will return to the value of the expectations for the currency that were set in the market. However, many argue that the exchange rate interventions can represent a powerful policy tool for emerging market economies (EMEs).
Since the financial crisis of 2008, there has been a substantial higher volatility in the flow of capital. As a result many of the central banks in EMEs have intervened on a regular basis for the purpose of trying to manage their exchange rate on the global market. The argument is that economic agents, rather than rational expectations, can serve as the primary…
Miyajima, K. (2013). Foreign exchange intervation and expectation in emerging economies. Monetary and Economic Department, 1-29.
esearch using a -regression analysis of nations shows that the legal measures of the Central Bank have no relationship with inflation in developed countries, while on the other hand there is a positive relationship between inflation in developing countries and with the regulation of the bank. (Klomp; de Haan, 2010, p. 445) Some examples like ussia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova show that the central bank incentive approach, or the roles played by the central banks in ussia, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova Seem to condone higher inflation rates based on fiscal pressures, and the process of their countries being globalized. Openness of the economy is a new aspect in these nations and the openness will itself reduce inflation and allow the central banks to pursue inflationary policies. And that proves that the Bank would have to play a crucial role in these countries regarding inflation policies. (Hammermann; Flanagan, 2009, p.…
Bernanke, Ben S; Laubach, Thomas; Mishkin, Frederic S. 2001., Inflation targeting: lessons from the international experience. Princeton University Press.
Hammermann, Felix; Flanagan, Mark. 2009., What explains persistent inflation differentials across transition economies? Economics of Transition, 17(2), p. 297 -- 328.
Heenan, Geoffrey; Peter, Marcel; Roger, Scott. 2006., Implementing inflation targeting: institutional arrangements, target design, and communications, Issues 2006-2278. IMF Working Paper. International Monetary Fund.
Jacome, Luis Ignacio; Vazquez, Francisco F. 2005., Any link between legal central bank independence and inflation?: Evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean. Issues 2005-2075. IMF Working Paper. International Monetary Fund.
The Canadian Bankers Association Chief Executive Officer Nancy Hughes Anthony stated on June 8, 2010 that the G-20 policy proposals are "too onerous" and "could potentially choke the banking industry (Deslongchamps & Quinn, 2010).
hat is very interesting about all of this rancor is that it appears that Canada's interests are getting sacrificed to benefit Europe. Exactly what is "Canadian" about the bank of Canada or "Federal" about the American Federal Reserve? The author one time heard a joke about the Federal Reserve. hen asked what was federal about it, the punch line was that it was about as federal as FedEx. hile this joke may seem funny, it does make clear a big fact about central banks: they are private institutions that reflect the agenda of larger, non-state actors such as the G-20 that have become bodies that make defacto decisions that affect their member nations (of which Canada…
Deslongchamps, Alexandre, & Quinn, Greg. (2010, June 10). Canada's carney says bank rules won't hurt recovery. Bloomberg Businessweek, Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-06-10/canada-s-carney-says-bank-rules-won-t-hurt-recovery-update2-.html
Fournier, Chris. (2010, July 5). Loonie weakens for second day on reduced rate-rise expectations. Bloomberg Businessweek, Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-07-05/loonie-weakens-for-second-day-on-reduced-rate-rise-expectations.html .
Rosenberg, David. (2010, May 30). Memo to mr. carney: hold your fire on rate hikes.
Globe and Mail, Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/globe-investor/investment-ideas/features/experts-podium/memo-to-mr-carney-hold-your-fire-on-rate-hikes/article1586386/ .
Studies along with archived information will help in terms of data collection methods. I expect to understand in detail the inner workings of certain central banks. I also will be able to determine if central banks are necessary. I also plan and finding what central banks have done to help or deter economic prosperity.
entral banks like the Federal Reserve play a crucial role in monitoring and regulating the economy of a country. For the central bank to exist within this role it must have several methods and strategies in place to carry out its purpose, which is to provide financial stability for the country. What is a central bank? What kinds of strategies should be adopted to generate regulation and effective monitoring?
Although the initial role of central banks was developed more than several centuries ago, it was not until the mid-nineteenth century that the power of monopoly…
Central banks like the Federal Reserve play a crucial role in monitoring and regulating the economy of a country. For the central bank to exist within this role it must have several methods and strategies in place to carry out its purpose, which is to provide financial stability for the country. What is a central bank? What kinds of strategies should be adopted to generate regulation and effective monitoring?
Although the initial role of central banks was developed more than several centuries ago, it was not until the mid-nineteenth century that the power of monopoly came into effect for central banks. Central banks could issue banknotes and act as lender of last resort. From that point on the role of central banks was that of liquidity provider and lender of last resort. The intention was to "allow a proper functioning of the payment system, so financial stability was implicitly a major concern for central banks." (Gregorio 2013)
Gradually central banks evolved and began having goals of price stability through controlling inflation. Financial stability took secondary importance. "Moreover, some scholars and practitioners argued that price stability should be the only objective of central banks, so that the goal would be more credible and monetary policy more effective in achieving stability. " (Gregorio 2013) Although there is merit in price stability, it decreases the power overall of the central bank
However, the role of the governments to put their finances in order have taken a new twist with the recent election results where the anti-austerity candidates have won with a sweeping majority. This has put the ECB in the spotlight again because the bank wants the governments to make tough choices to reduce its debt. ECB wants Greece to implement its agreed restructuring plan because it does not want to intervene again until the governments take steps. The ECB does not want the banks and governments to get addicted to the funding it receives and wants them to do their role in the debt crisis as well (Buell, 2012).
The ECB cannot mandate governments to act in a certain way because of the limitations that come with the European Union Treaty. The role of the ECB is highly limited because it does not have over-reaching powers like the Federal eserve…
Kulish, Nicholas. 2012. Central Bank becomes an unlikely hero in Euro crisis. The New York Times. [Online]. 20, January. Available at: [Accessed 9 May 2012].
Buell, Todd. 2012. Political Turmoil throws ECB back in the spotlight. The Wall Street Journal.[Online]. 9, May. Available at:
As a result of the draft, the unemployment rates which had been at record low levels, was able to right itself. Once again, the U.S.'s industry-based economy was able to flourish with new needs to produce and manufacture goods and products to be used globally. The secular tendencies in economic policy responsible for this revival would be continued for several years to come.
Predictably, the end of fascism which concluded with Adolph Hitler's defeat in World War II (in 1945) brought about the reign of a new international terror: communism. The "red scare" would be utilized both domestically and abroad to fuel United States economic interests that would prove influential to the country's history. The relation of the United States' capitalist attempts to combat communism can again be traced back to its central bank, the Federal eserve System, if not in actual case of point then at least symbolically, since…
Rockoff, Hugh. (2008) "U.S. Economy in World War I." In Robert Whaples (Ed.), EH.Net Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/Rockoff.WWI
Ceccheti, Stephen (1998) "Understanding the Great Depression: Lessons for Current Policy." In Mark Wheeler (Ed.), The Economics of the Great Depression.
Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
Ikenberry, John. (1992) "A World Economy Restored: Expert Consensus and the Anglo-American Postwar Settlement." International Organization 46 (1), 289.
The premise of Modigliani and Miller, that dividend policy is basically irrelevant in that if a firm is growing then an internal dividend is created and the investor may sell shares to capture this dividend, is based on the idea that in today's market fundamentals matter. They do not. Today's market is driven by central bank policy. Quantitative Easing (QE) has so altered the market and eradicated true price discovery that a simple comparison of charts -- one of a global economy that is collapsing and one of a U.S. stock market at all-time highs -- is enough to persuade any rational person that an examination of central bank balance sheets is warranted. Such an examination would uncover trillions in exposure. The Bank of Japan for instance was a top 10 holder of 90% of the Nikkei in April and has only increased its stake since then (Durden). The…
Durden, T. (2016). In shocking finding, the Bank of Japan is now a top 10 holder in
90% of Japanese Stocks. Zerohedge. Retrieved from http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2016-04-25/stunning-finding-bank-japan-now-top-10-holder-90-japanese-stocks
Ehrhardt, M., & Brigham, E. (2011). Financial management: Theory and practice (13th
ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
History Of Central Banking in the United States of America
History of Central Banking
This paper discusses the history of central banking system in the United States of America. It analyses the establishment, operations and functions of the central banks that existed in the history of the United States of America. The closing of these historic central banks is also being discussed in the preceding paper. It also puts light on the main functions of the central banks.
History of Central Banking in the United States of America
A central bank can be defined as an authority that is responsible for formulating strategies that directly affect the supply of money and credit in a country. In specific terms a central bank uses its monetary policy tools, including open market operations, discount window lending and changes in reserve requirements, in order to adjust the rates of interest and the monetary base…
Bordo, M.D. Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, (2007).A Brief History of Central Bank. Retrieved from Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland website: http://www.clevelandfed.org/research/commentary/2007/1207.pdf
Broz, J.L. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, (1998). The Origins of Central Banking: Solutions to the free-rider problem. Retrieved from The Massachusetts Institute of Technology website: http://dss.ucsd.edu/~jlbroz/origins_CBs_IO.pdf
Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, (2009). The First Bank of United States of America. Retrieved from Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia website: http://www.philadelphiafed.org/publications/economic-education/first-bank.pdf
Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, (2010). The Second Bank of United States of America. Retrieved from Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia website: http://www.philadelphiafed.org/publications/economic-education/second-bank.pdf
In 2003, new procedures were created and they state that "companies accredited with receiving money relating to public subscription in securities must take all necessary measures to ensure the legality of the sources of the money used in the payment of such securities, in compliance with the provisions laid down in the Prevention and Prohibition of Money Laundering and its Implementing egulations" (Terterov and euvid, 2005).
Banking institutions are also focused on reducing money laundering and the principal actions they implement in this endeavor are those of fully complying with the regulations imposed by the central banks and the legislations in their home countries. More recently, the banks can access technological innovations to fight money laundering, such as LexisNexis's Bridger Insight XGTM (Tech 4 Law). But since the access to technologies is different at each bank, a conclusion is drawn that the internal reactions to money laundering are different. The…
Minaeva, T., Aksenova, M., Anti-money laundering in Russia, White & Case, http://www.whitecase.ru/articles/moneylaundry.pdf last accessed on July 14, 2010
Terterov, M., Reuvid, J., 2005, Doing business with Estonia, GMB Publishing Ltd.
Walker, J., 1998, Modeling global money laundering flows -- some findings, http://www.johnwalkercrimetrendsanalysis.com.au/ML%20method.htm last accessed on July 13, 2010
1999, Ten years of combating money laundering, OECD Observer, http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php?aid=63 last accessed on July 13, 2010
From its creation to 1988 it undertook banking functions and opined generally on the international banking system.
2. Starting in 1988 it began to assume the role of an unofficial international bank regulator. Although it had no official international status, its members -- central banks of the major banking countries -- were obligated by the nature of their membership to abide by its edicts and the rest of the world took them seriously.
3. Starting in the late 1990s, it began to consider itself the equivalent of an international bank regulator. Every subject of significance was within its jurisdiction and, although its legal powers were no greater, it assumed that it had a right to make rules for local banks to observe in the conduct of their businesses.
4. Sometime in the future there is a widespread anticipation that it will be given, through some treaty mechanism, the power to…
Baker, James Calvin. The Bank for International Settlements: Evolution and Evaluation. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.
Birdsall, Nancy. "Whither the IMF in the Current Crisis? Invite the Big Emerging Economies to the Table." 2 October 2008. Center for Global Development. 26 February 2009 http://blogs.cgdev.org/globaldevelopment/2008/10/whither_the_imf_in_the_current.php.
BIS. Bank for International Settlements (BIS). n.d. 25 February 2009 http://www.bis.org/about/index.htm .
Carl Felsenfeld, Genci Bilali. "The Role of the Bank for International Settlements in Shaping the World Financial System." January 2004. Social Science Research Network Electronic Library. 26 February 2009 http://ssrn.com/abstract=496022 .
Bank for International Settlements
The inception of the Bank for International Settlements
The Bank for International Settlements was created in 1930 pursuant to the Young Plan, also known as the Dawes Plan under the Hague Agreement (Baker 2). At its inception, the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) was to assume the responsibilities of the Agent General for Reparations in Berlin which consisted of collecting, administrating and distributing the annuities that were payable as reparations (BIS History -- Overview 1). These original responsibilities were the source of the BIS' name (BIS History- Overview 1). According to the BIS eb site, "The BIS was also created to act as a trustee for the Dawes and Young Loans (international loans issued to finance reparations) and to promote central bank cooperation in general" (BIS History -- Overview 2). As these original responsibilities were satisfied, the purpose of the BIS has also changed as discussed…
About BIS. (2014). The Bank for International Settlements. [online] available: http://www.bis.
Baker, James C. The Bank for International Settlements: Evolution and Evaluation. Westport,
CT: Quorum Books, 2002.
The increase in profits (at certain points) highlights the overall risks vs. rewards, as they can see substantial growth of 5% each year. Moreover, the performance of various strategies used in management of hedge funds experienced a greater feat, despite having less asset classes to choose from.
Over the years, the hedge fund industry has shown consistent growth and increase in its regulatory issues. This is because managers are using strategies that: increase the overall amounts of risk, while offering the possibility of greater financial rewards. As a result, the odds improve that investors could experience significant losses in these areas (which increases the overall amounts of regulatory scrutiny).
Hedge funds will experience more changes that will lessen its variance in comparison with mutual funds. Where, it will determine its investors and techniques of management without being greatly influenced by: institutionalization or regulation of the finance industry. In 2005, Ibbotson…
Hedge and Pension Funds, 2011.
Ackermann, C, McEnally R. & Ravenscraft, D 1999, "The performance of hedge funds: Risk, return and incentives." Journal of Finance, 54 (June), pp. 833-874.
Adrian, T 2007, "Measuring risk in the hedge fund sector," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, 13, Federal
Reserve Bank of New York, pp. 1 -- 7.
Improper Foreclosure and Mortgage Practices in the Banking Industry
Efficient Market Hypothesis
Real Estate Bubble
Overview on the Value of Banks
Arguments against Financial Intermediaries
This research paper aims to shed light into what led to the global financial collapse that, for the most part, began in the U.S. housing market and the ethical implications that followed. Many researchers agree that the primary drivers that led to the real estate crisis was the lifting of the Glass Steagall Act, the fostering of sub-prime lending, and the creation of derivatives and credit default swaps which were used as complex financial instruments. This offered the big five banks an entire new range of operating opportunities. All of these financial tools were justified by the efficient market hypothesis and as a consequence provide evidence for the lack of a truly efficient market. As a result of the financial…
Ball, R. "The Global Financial Crisis and the Efficient Market Hypothesis." CFA Digest (2010): 44-45. Web.
Bauman, S., M. Conover and R. Miller. "Growth vs. value and large-cap vs. small-cap stocks in international markets." Financial Analysis Journal 54.2 (1998): 75-89.
Beers, B. "End the Fed, Save the Dollar: Ron Paul." 7 September 2009. CNBC. Web. 19 March 2012.
Chen, B. And F. Kaboub. The Repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act and the Subprime Mortgage Crisis. 8 February 2012. Web. 19 March 2012.
.." The Federal Reserve continues to keep a watch on both "current and potential exposures..." And are in the process of a review of the collateral valuation methods of the banking industry." (Kohn, 2008)
Kohn states that disruptions in liquidity in some financial markets have resulted in banking organizations facing challenges and specifically at present "significant liquidity demands can emanate from both the asset and liability of the bank's balance sheet." (Kohn, 2008) Kohn relates that when liquidity is reduced in the markets specifically for "certain structured credit products the creation of challenges and concerns relating to valuating spreads into other sectors and "illiquidity in some credit markets may make it difficult for some market participants, including banking organizations, to hedge positions effectively." (Kohn, 2008) Kohn states that the banking industry in the U.S. is up against some very serious challenges however, the Federal Reserve in cooperation with banking agencies…
Berger, Allen N.; and Bouwman, Christa H.S. (2007) Bank Liquidity Creation. 15 Jan 2007
Brown, Ellen (2008) April Fools: The Fox to Guard the Banking Henhouse 30 Mar 2008. Online 'The Web of Debt' available online at http://www.webofdebt.com/articles/banking-henhouse.php
Buiter, Willem (2008) Lessons from Northern Rock: Banking and Shadow Banking. VOX. 4 March 2008. Online available at http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/960
Estrella, Arturo (2002) Securitization and the Efficacy of Monetary Policy. Economic Policy Review. Vol. 8 No.1 Federal Reserve Board Bank of New York. Online available at http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/epr/02v08n1/0205estr/0205estr.html#chart1
Federal eserve Bank
Financial services as an industry has progressed to become one of the widely transforming sectors of the global economy, having significant changes in information transference and processing, innovation in terms of commodities and processes, and rapid competition among the financial institutions -- among themselves and also among their several customers. The industry and its part in the transformations in the economy show that the supervising and regulatory structure also needs to be reevaluated periodically. The aim of bank regulation is mostly the same -- to attain maximum static and dynamic efficiency levels in the midst of a politically and economically permissible framework which is stable and equal. However the profits are always associated with a cost by means of stability and equity. A more stable and equal financial system usually need sacrifices with regard to efficiency. (Saunders, p. 3)
A properly functioning, effective banking system is necessary…
Federal Reserve System. Encyclopedia Article. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761574452/Federal_Reserve_System.html Accessed on 7 May, 2005
FR 2644- Weekly Report of Selected Assets. http://www.chicagofed.org/banking_information/financial_institute_reports_fr2644_instructions_and_worksheets.cfm Accessed on 7 May, 2005
FR 2900 Commercial Banks -- the Federal Reserve Board. http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/reportforms/ReportDetail.cfm?WhichFormId=FR_2900cb& ; WhichCategory=4 Accessed on 7 May, 2005
Garbade, Kenneth D. Recent Innovations in Treasury Cash Management. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Current Issues in Economics and Finance. Vol: 10; No; 11; pp: 2-11.
The banking industry in China is essentially run by the state. All of the major banks are state-owned enterprises, and all are heavily regulated by the central government There is a central bank, the People's Bank of China, and a regulator for merchant and retail banks. There are13 national-level banks along with over one hundred city-level banks. Most banks today compete with each other, even if they had niches when they were founded -- for example, the names Construction Bank, Agricultural Bank, etc. reflect the roots of those banks, but they have long since expanded out of those niches. But because they are all state-owned banks that are ultimately overseen by the central government, they do not compete intensely with each other.
The biggest factor that attracts foreign banks to China is the size of the market. Even though there are many restrictions for foreign banks in China,…
Mashreq Bank UAE
Introduction of the company (write about the company and its activities)
Mashreq Bank is the oldest bank in the United Arab Emirates. It has provided banking services and financial solutions to its valued customers and enterprises since its inception in 1967. The Mashreq Bank, formerly known as Bank of Oman, was established in Dubai under decree of the uler of Dubai, Shaikh ashid Bin Saeed Al Maktoum; this occurred before the UAE was formed.
The bank renamed itself as Mashreq Bank in 1993 and became one of the biggest banks in the UAE. It is a household name in the corporate banking sector and retail segment of the Middle East, having branches in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and Egypt. Mashreq Bank is the most inventive of banks in the Middle East having robust customer-centric business policies. The Mashreq Bank network is spread all over UAE with as many…
Mashreq Bank UAE. (2013). Annual Report 2013. Retrieved from: http://vpr.hkma.gov.hk/pdf/100319/ar_13/ar_13.pdf
Mashreq Bank UAE Website. (2015). Corporate Finance & Syndication. Retrieved from: http://www.mashreqbank.com/uae/en/corporate/investment-banking/corporate-finance-syndication.aspx
Microsoft Case Studies. (2006). Mashreq Bank: Bank Upgrades Core Application After Microsoft Technology Center Engagement. Retrieved from: http://www.microsoft.com/canada/casestudies/Case_Study_Detail.aspx?casestudyid=200220
World Finance. (2013). Mashreq Bank: Leading the way for economic growth in UAE. Retrieved from: http://www.worldfinance.com/banking/mashreq-bank-uae-economic-growth
random walk down the streets of central oscow will lead one to adopt a false perspective of the convertibility of the ruble. There are scores of small stores quoting rates for "pokupka" and "prodaja," bid and ask, prices for the U.S. Dollar and the Euro. These spreads generally amount to about.3 rubles; less than a penny. This reflects the relatively stable system of exchange that has predominated since the 1998 Russian bank defaults, steadily depreciating from 28 to the dollar to the current approximate exchange rate of 31.5. The Putin administration, until 2003, had favored a steady fall against the dollar and Central Bank officials had expressed confidence that the exchange rate would reflect only a slight weakening of the Ruble over the course of the next year; the exchange rate was expected to reach 33.7:1. According to the oscow Times, The bank has also had to reverse direction on…
Moscow Times, 20 February, 2003. Russia's New Secret Weapon
Moscow Times, Feb. 26, 2003. Ruble Looses Steam Against Greenback.
Moscow Times, Friday, Feb. 21, 2000. Reserves Swell to 51.4 Bil.
Forming a ank Holding Company - Structure, Governance, and Regulations
Forming and Expanding a ank Holding Company
Financial Holding Company Requirements
Capital uilding Options for ank Holding Companies
Pros and Cons of Forming a ank Holding Company
Stocks and Governance
Corporate Governance and anking Law
The Role of ank and Holding Company Audit Committees
Data Gathering Method
Database of Study
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
Forming a ank Holding Company - Structure, Governance, and Regulations
This research paper describes the process of forming a bank holding company in the United States. The behavior of a bank holding company is strongly linked to the success of the banks it holds. Therefore, if business leaders can pinpoint how to set up a successful holding structure, they may have a better chance of successfully progressing their business.
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Statement of the Problem
Over the past few decades,…
Adams, Renee. Mehran, Hamid. (April 2003). Is Corporate Governance Different for Bank Holding Companies? Economic Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 1.
Bankers Online. (2003). Regulation Y. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.bankersonline.com/regs/225/225-82.html .
Baxter, Thomas. (March, 2003). Governing the Financial or Bank Holding Company: How Legal Infrastructure Can Facilitate Consolidated Risk Management. Federal Reserve Bank of New York: March 2003, Volume 9, Number 3.
Clodfelter, Mark. (February 27, 2003). U.S. Department of State.
Predicting the Future Interest ate
It is likely not possible to forecast the interest rate accurately, as the Federal eserve has been keeping it new zero for several years now and more recently has been promising rate hikes yet holding press conferences in which the tone is far more dovish than hawkish. Thus, from expectations of four rate hikes a year totaling a 100 basis point rise, expectations are reduced to one, perhaps two, rate hikes, as the "data-dependent" Fed sees bad jobs reports, a stagnating global economy, and other factors putting pressure on the decision to normalize rates (Durden, 2016).
Once rates do hike, however, there is likely to be a sharp correction in the stock market as investors seek less risky investments (even a mere 25 basis point raise is enough to cause investors to flee the market for safer havens, as the previous rate hike showed) (Phoenix…
Durden, T. (2015). This is what happens after three years of negative interest rates.
ZeroHedge. Retrieved from http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2015-10-22/what-happens-after-three-years-negative-interest-rates
Durden, T. (2016). "Data Dependent" Fed Chickens Out Again: Blames "Global" Risks
For Unchanged Rates, Cuts Rate Hike Forecast. ZeroHedge. Retrieved from http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2016-03-16/data-dependent-fed-chickens-out-again-blames-global-uncertainty-us-rate-hold
Second Harvest Food Bank
What does hunger look like? The image many people hold of what hunger is and who it afflicts does not reflect reality. With changing economic conditions in Florida, as well as the entire country, the face of hunger now reflects the images of our friends and neighbors. It is the mission of Second Harvest Food Bank of Central Florida to battle hunger in Central Florida in order to achieve freedom from hunger in the region.
There are several objectives and activities established by Second Harvest in order to work toward achieving a hunger-free Central Florida. One of the most primary activities conducted by the Food Bank is the provision access to grocery items and food to individuals and families in need. ecipients of this service are diverse and do not fit into one mold, whether it be, race, age-group, or perceived social class.
Another main activity…
Over the past few years Furniture Bank has differentiated itself from other charity organization through its commitment to industry innovation which has made it one of Canadian most famous organization (Peter & Donnelly, 2006). The marketing abilities of the Organization have enabled it to compensate for its initial otherwise tight financial circumstances to establish an excess cash record over few years of operation whose main sources were; donations from the government and other corporate entities (Slack et al., 2010). The main vision of the Furniture Bank Organization includes constant achievement of operational excellence, conducting business in a safe environmentally sustainable and economically optimum way and manufacturing and supplying furniture and other households as well as services that ensure customer satisfaction in as far as their needs are concerned (Ahlstrom & Bruton, 2009). The Organization also has a few objectives that include realization of potential of their staff, maximum…
Adeniyi, M.A. (2007). Effective Leadership Management: An Integration of Styles, Skills & Character for Today's CEO. AuthorHouse.
Ahlstrom, D., and Bruton, G.D. (2009). International Management: Strategy and Culture in the Emerging World. Boston, M.A.: Cengage Learning.
Peter, P.J., and Donnelly, J.H. (2006). Marketing Management: Knowledge and Skills. 8th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Slack N., Chambers S., Johnston R. (2010). Operations management. New York: Prentice
Sociology Debate: A central debate in sociology revolves around whether the power elite or pluralist view is correct. Which do you believe and why? Explain your answer.
The Power Elite view seeks to look at the way the elites rule and influence the running of the American society as a whole in the day-to-day basis. One scholar in sociology, Smith Mark (2009) in his analysis of C. Wrights work, tries to explain the rule of the elite in terms of institution that are formed to ensure the elite has a firm hand on the power controls. He identifies three main institutions that occupy the key positions in the society; major business corporations, the federal government and the military. He says that those in command of the three institutions do and will always have the same values and interest. They coalesce and interconnect to form a single ruling minority.
Don Albrecht et.al (2005). Minority Concentration, Disadvantage, and Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan United States. Midwest Sociological Quarterly, 46:503
Impact Lab (2009). The 10 people most responsible for the Recession. Retrieved April 7, 2011
Justin Lahart, (2010). Job Losses Continue, ADP Surveys Suggest. Retrieved April 7, 2011 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126278421347117805.html
Herding in Bank Panics
The work of Devenow and Welch (1996) states that the most basic of human instincts is likely to be that of "…imitation and mimicry" which are the primary characteristics in what is known as 'herding' which often specifically occurs related to such as "fashion and fads…" (Devenow and Welch, 1996, p.603) Devenow and Welch go on to state that among financial economists there is a belief that "investors are influenced by the decisions of other investors and that this influence is a first-order effect." (p.603)
It is reported in the work of Donaldson (1992) entitled "Sources of Panics: Evidence from the Weekly Data" that panic is defined by Jevons (1884) as "a rapid rise in the rate of discount, a sudden flood of bankruptcy and a fall in consols, followed by a rise" (p.8). It is additionally reported that Calomiris and Gorton (1991) "define a panic…
Avgouleas, E. (20008) Reforming Investor Protection Regulation: The Impact of Cognitive Biases. Retrieved from: http://www.law.man.ac.uk/aboutus/staff/emilios_avgouleas/documents/AvgouleasCognitiveBiasesOgusfinal.pdf .
Bulow, Jeremy and Paul Klemperer, 1994, Rational frenzies and crashes, Journal of Political Economy 102, no. 1, 1-23. Chari, V.V. And Ravi Jagannathan, 1988, Banking panics, information, and rational expectations equilibrium, Journal of Finance 43, no. 3, 749-761.
Chen, Yehning, 1995a, Bank runs: Panic of efficient monitoring, Working paper (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA).
Chen, Yehning, 1995b, Banking panics: The role of the first-come, first-served rule and informational externalities, Working paper (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA). Donaldson, R. Glen, 1992, Sources of panics: Evidence from the weekly data, Journal of Monetary Economics 30, 277-305.
Desk Staffing Trends
Banks, J. And Pracht, C. (2008). eference Desk Staffing Trends: A Survey. eference & User Services Quarterly 48(1), 54-59.
Banks and Pracht (2008) carried out a quantitative research to investigate the current staffing trends at reference desks of academic libraries. The research is conducted from a theoretical framework perspective asserting that there have been changes in libraries, as services are merged and eliminated, users are taught on information literacy, provision of web-based and online reference databases threatening the traditional reference desk. The researchers' main question is whether these changes are causing a change in staffing patterns for reference desk employees. To investigate this problem, survey questions were administered via the internet to respondents comprising of librarians from 191 academic libraries across the U.S. The study results indicate that of those interviewed, 44% show that there was a decrease in questions asked at the reference desks, which linked…
Banks, J. And Pracht, C. (2008). Reference Desk Staffing Trends: A Survey. Reference & User Services Quarterly 48(1), 54-59.
Boynton, P.M. (2004). Selecting, Designing, and Developing your Questionnaire, BMJ publications, 328-396.
1. Black/White binary been central to the discussion of race?
Black/White binary been has been central to the discussion of race because of Perceived racial discrimination (PRD). This is even more so with Black women. Precisely, there has been a decline in obvious racial discriminatory conduct (segregation, rights to vote) and quick rise in subtle racial discriminatory behavior. At the center of these issues for Black women is a struggle over nationality, power, and control that rotates around not just, but gender.
Black/White binary has been central to the discussion of race because indirect racial discrimination has likewise been theorized as racial microaggressions. Racial microaggressions are defined as an everyday exchange that sends demeaning messages to individuals of color for the reason that they belong to a racial minority class. All these conceptualizations highlight the secondary nature of this new racism that is entrenched in undecided attitudes in the direction…
Far beyond the "ideal" female form in the minds of many, modelling creates a paradigm not only of impossible perfectionism in terms of face and posture, but also in terms of size. As such, modelling is not about being "sexy," but rather about the common misconception that thin is also necessarily beautiful. This tends to be a female-focused paradigm rather than a sexist one, where one might define sexism as a male-imposed paradigm upon the female body.
In this light, I do not believe that the "Tyra Banks is Fat" scandal is so much racially or even sexism-informed as it is informed by the generally human paradigm of enjoying the flaws in a person who was previously assumed to be "perfect." Models are envied, mostly by women, for their lack of body fat. This is an ideal that women tend to strive for, generally encouraged by media images of the…
Probability & Measures of Central endency
Solve the following problems showing your work:
In a poll, respondents were asked whether they had ever been in a car accident. 157 respondents indicated that they had been in a car accident and 117 respondents said that they had not been in a car accident. If one of these respondents is randomly selected, what is the probability of getting someone who has been in a car accident?
he data set represents the income levels of the members of a country club. Find the probability that a randomly selected member earns at least $88,000
total, 14 of them at or above $88,000 means the probability is:
In a certain class of students, there are 15 boys from Wilmette, 5 girls from Kenilworth, 9 girls from Wilmette, 6 boys from Glencoe, 2 boys from Kenilworth and 8 girls from Glencoe. If the teacher calls upon…
Tutorial on Measures of Dispersion, Retrieved February 12, 2011, from http://www.childrens-mercy.org/stats/definitions/stdev.htm
Overview of Measures of Dispersion, Retrieved November 12, 2008, from http://www.unc.edu/~knhighto/econ70/lec2/lec2.htm
Standard Deviation in the Stock Market, Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://www.trade10.com/standard_deviati.htm
They are only trying to justify their actions; they are handing excuses, telling the events as they happened. And in the end maybe these characters do find an excuse, the one that they are both human, bound to fail and to be influenced, sharing the same planet and dealing with the same kind of people. The two personages enjoyed having power and realized in the end that having power doesn't necessary make them omniscient.
oth Robert McNamara and Yuri Orlov had the lives of numerous people in their hands. Maybe these characters felt the need to retell all their stories, in order to let all the demons trapped inside their conscious out.
The characters presented in the two movies were able to depict the laws and needs of man and rose above law; they become a sort of demigod. In Yuri's case this was shown during his tramping across west…
1. The Fog of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_fog_of_war
2. Lord of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_of_war
3. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eisenhower
4. Military-industrial complex. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/military_industrial_complex
Staff Development Plan
Staff development is central to the quality performance of activities in any organization. In order for an institution to achieve its goals and objectives, a clear staff development plan is necessary in order to set priorities and initiate a common spirit of all the staff members. This study examines the necessity of a key staff development plan in an envision higher learning institution. The study explores the importance of staff development to the quality of higher education. Currently, many higher learning institutions do not consider the necessity of proper staffing and development as a key to quality performance. Instead, these institutions fail to achieve their goals or objectives, and consequently low quality of higher education.
Higher education institutions highly depend on people to deliver their missions and objectives. In this regard, the quality of staff and the motivation they receive from the institution's management highly influences their…
World Bank. (1994). Higher Education: The Lessons of Experience. Washington DC
Blackwell, R. (2003). Towards Strategic Staff Development in Higher Education. Berkshire:
Mukherjee, H. & Jasbir, S. (1993). Staff Development Approaches in Higher Education:
Learning from Experience. London: Common Wealth Secretariat.
ECB can be successful at emulating the stategic model set foth by the Geman Bundesbank. The discussion will focus on the fact that the ECB is facing diffeent poblems as it is still in the developmental phases. The investigation will seek to detemine whethe the tools of the Bundesbank can povide suppot fo the ECB in achieving economic stability in the Euopean Monetay Union.
Reseach about this paticula topic is impotant because the Euopean Union is expected to expand in the yeas to come. In addition, many membes of the Euopean Union have opted to have a single cuency. This means that economic stability is even moe essential in ensue that the Euopean Monetay System is economically efficient.
The methodology fo this eseach will encompass seveal foms. Fistly, the eseach will contain backgound infomation about the ECB and the Bundesbank. In addition, the eseach will contain a liteatue eview to…
In the contemporary financial environment, individuals who deposit money in the banks earn interest from their deposits. Similarly, commercial banks also receive interests from lodging funds with central banks. In other words, banks compensate savers by adding some percentages of the amount saved in the banks. In a sense, savers are lending their money to banks in order to be used elsewhere. In return, banks compensate savers interest incomes. Meanwhile, the interest rates are quoted as APY (annual percentage of yield) and savings account earns 3% APY. However, negative interest rates reverse this arrangement where savers or depositors are obliged to pay banks for holding their money. Moreover, central banks penalize commercial banks for depositing their funds with them. For example, The ECB (European Central Bank), some smaller European banks, and Bank of Japan have introduced the negative interest rate policy where banks, as well as other financial institutions, will…
There were certain moments in my life which did not allow me to pursue my study programs as desired; yet it was precisely this set of obstacles which consisted a challenge for me and determined me ever more strongly to pursue my goal. Therefore, I am due to graduate in May 2008 with a presentation entitled "Have Central Banks and Private Agents Become Wiser?" conducted under the supervision of Dr. Dennis Novy who has also offered me considerable support in trying to address issues such as inflation, the role of central banks, and their relation with private agents. His precious advice has led me to follow lines of thought different from the ones already addressed by the literature and has opened new research directions I intend to analyze in my future studies.
Aside from the traditional academic environment created by the universities I attended, another important input represented the experience…
Global Economic Conditions
Apple operates in over 100 countries already, but there are still some markets available for the company. The one that has been chosen for the next international expansion in Myanmar. Apple already has a presence in most other Southeast Asian countries, but Myanmar has only recently become a democracy. It is a poor country, but relatively large, and is starting to see some strong economic growth. Foreign companies are starting to make their market entry. The trends for Myanmar are all quite recent. Five years ago there was little economic activity in the country, regular brownouts and a military junta. Today, there are signs of economic life. Moreover, where five years ago there was almost no broadband and it was prohibitively expensive, broadband in the country has been rolled out to most populated areas and is affordable.
Myanmar\'s economic story is mostly internal, but there is some…
During times of extreme pressure from the supply or demand side, the central bank is prepared to go in and support the currency, to help provide stability. This is significant because traders around the world; will use the major currencies as a way to hedge themselves against different risks. Where, they will view the weakness of one country's currency as a sign that they could be facing a number of different economic challenges. (Fixed vs. Floating Exchange Rate, 2007) a good example of this can be seen with the ritish pound, where the ank of England decided to keep interest rates at .5%. This is important, because the increase in rates could be seen as a sign that economic stability could be returning to the country, which would help to reverse the downward pressure on the pound. However, the fact that they decided to keep interest rates unchanged, means that…
12 Myths of International Trade, 1999, Meti, viewed 3 May 2010,
Bank of England's Decision Affects Pounds Performance, 2010, to Forex News, view 3 May 2010,
Bretton Woods Agreement, 2010, Investopedia, viewed 2 May 2010, .
Fixed vs. Floating Exchange Rate, 2007, Article Base, view 3 May 2010,
The Effect of the Eurozone Today on Global Financial Markets
Global markets are so intertwined today that what affects one is definitely going to have an impact on another. Case in point, the recent issues in Greece and other European Union (EU) countries have had a global effect and have wrought havoc on the Eurozone. Because if this global connectedness, large banks and organizations like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are even more important today than they were in the past.
The EU's finances are powered by the countries that have become member nations, but those finances are guarded by the European Central Bank (ECB) and the IMF. The ECB is the institution that is responsible for the Euro, the currency of the EU, and it is also the organization responsible for negotiations regarding the economic difficulties of EU member nations. Since Greece, Spain, Italy and others have had…
Dam, Kenneth W. "The Subprime Crisis and Financial Regulation: International and Comparative Perspectives*." Chicago Journal of International Law 10.2 (2010): 581-594.
European Central Bank (ECB). "Recently Published." Monthly Bulletin, 2012. Web.
International Monetary Fund (IMF). "About the IMF." International Monetary Fund, 2012. Web.
Halmai, Peter, and Viktoria Vasary. "Real Convergence in the New Member States of the European Union (Shorter and Longer Term Prospects)." The European Journal of Comparative Economics 7.1 (2010): 229-237.
Down? The Value of the Dollar
International Currency Exchanges
Current Trends and Initiatives
Impact of the Euro on Dollar Valuation
Analysis of Current Trends and Initiatives on Dollar Valuation in the Future
Up or Down? The Value of the Dollar: A Historical Analysis of the Valuation of the U.S. Dollar
According to Michael Artis, Elizabeth Hennessy, and Axel eber (2000), capital losses can be caused by differential changes in the value of assets and liabilities, primarily exchange rate changes; these changes affect the value of a central bank's foreign exchange reserves. To date, exchange rate changes have only been a major problem for national central banks with very large foreign exchange reserves (i.e., Portugal); however, it might also become a problem for the European Central Bank in the future, whose balance sheet on the asset side will be dominated by the approximately 40 billion euro in foreign exchange reserves it…
Arthurs, Harry. (1996). "Globalization and Its Discontents." Journal of Business
Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 132.
Artis, Michael, Elizabeth Hennessy and Axel Weber (Eds.). The Euro: A Challenge and Opportunity for Financial Markets. London: Routledge, 2000.
Charrette, Susan and Juann Hung. (1997). "The Looming U.S. External Debt. How Serious is
John Pierpont Morgan (1837 -- 1931) is one of the more controversial figures in the history of America and the world of finance. Described as a sui generis, a colossus (McCallum, p. 2), "the organizer" (Miller, 2003), "banker of last resort" (Andrews, 1999), and "the man of the hour" (Corey, p. 348), John Pierpont Morgan has also been called a "robber baron" (Andrews, 1999). Thus, it is evident that J.P. Morgan was a man who was as much praised for his actions in saving the American economy during the 1895 and 1907 crises, as he was criticized and derided for what was seen as his calculated control of the financial world and American business. Viewed from the lens of financial history, however, there can be little doubt that no person, either before or since, has left "upon the great art of money getting so important an influence." (Flynn, p. 452)…
1000 Management Giants. "John Pierpont Morgan." Treasury of Investment Wisdom.
1999. Accessed April 30, 2005: http://www.ultimatebusinessresource.com/downloads/uk/giantscigar.pdf.
Andrews, J. "American Financier." Insight on the News. June 28, 1999. Vol. 15: 24
A negative consequence, however, would be increased volatility in the value of the dollar. Imports would become more expensive as well, increasing inflation and potentially compelling the restructuring of the economy. Increased currency risk -- transaction and translation -- would also create difficulties for U.S. companies operating abroad. I do not support such a proposal. Attempts to jury-rig a global currency are as impractical as enforcing Esperanto as a global language. Such a currency would be inherently unstable, as the Euro example has shown us. The constituent communities would be committed to enforcing controls on each other in order to maintain the integrity of the currency. If at some point the currency of another economy overtakes that of the U.S., it will be because that economy is stronger, larger and more stable -- fundamental market forces -- rather than as the result of a political decision.
3. a) The Fed…
Google.com. (2010). Unemployment rate. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved April 23, 2010 from http://www.google.com/publicdata?ds=usunemployment&met=unemployment_rate&tdim=true&dl=en&hl=en&q=U.S.+unemployment+rate
Question 2: Exports
One of the few 'good' things about an economic downturn is that it tends to increase the desirability of a country's exports and thus reduces the balance of payments to nations abroad in international trade. When a nation is spending at a deficit to stimulate its economy, this tends to decrease the value of that nation's currency. The cheapened value of the dollar, for example, means that the dollar is much less valuable in relation to other currencies in a flexible exchange rate system. Interest rates also tend to be lowered during a period of economic contraction, as they are now, to act as an incentive for individuals to borrow and spend more. This makes it more attractive for foreign companies to invest money in a nation, and to borrow money from the nation's central bank.
During an economic expansion, as citizens have more money, the balance…
ECB: Objectives and tasks. (2008, March 28). Deutsch Bank. Retrieved February 28, 2010 at http://www.dbresearch.com/PROD/DBR_INTERNET_EN-PROD/PROD0000000000222630.pdf
in the newly ormed Ministry o Finance drew rom a talented pool o
economists rom the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Privileged positions
were illed rom within the bureaucracy and were obtained through
exceptional perormance instead o cronyism or nepotism. O great
importance to their autonomy, oicials were able to disconnect themselves
rom total reliance on local unding thanks to inancial assistance rom
the international community and reparations rom Germany. Two igureheads
within the government guaranteed a decisive and coherent economic policy:
Levi Eshkol o the Ministry o Finance, and Pinhas Sapir o the Ministry o
Commerce and Industry. They worked hand-in-hand to ormulate a uniying
agenda that bureaucrats rom both departments could pursue towards a single
The end-product o this labor in both nations was a inancial
structure in which banks, and by extension the government at large,
controlled the low o capital. On one hand, banks…
formulated and guided a successful investment endeavor was in the case of
textiles. Israeli officials, in particular MOCI chief Pinhas Sapir,
envisioned in the Textile Industry Development Plan that by 1966, twelve
major textile manufacturing plants would be operational and ultimately
produce 26% of Israel's
Similar to what happened in Chile happened between the 1930s and the late 1970s in most countries in Latin America that used the import substitution industrialization model (ISI) to build their industry and therefore reduce their dependency upon imports from foreign countries. The result of the ISI in these countries has included the rapid urbanization of one or two major cities and a growing urban population of the working class and a membership in the world economic system via globalization through the vehicles of the IMF and the World Bank. Much of this was done in response to the economic crisis of 1997 when the leaders of these countries very quickly adopted and the implemented new neoliberal policies. In countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, the United States and Uruguay, capitalism and central private banking are now the norm with firms and economies being one intact whole (Taylor,…
Neoliberalism: origins, theory, definition. (2005, December 2). Retrieved from http://web.inter.nl.net/users/Paul.Treanor/neoliberalism.html .
Taylor, L. (1997). Editorial: the revival of the global creed. Wolrd Development, 25(2), 145-152.
Turkey -- Fiscal and Monetary Policy
Fiscal policy refers to how a government adjusts its level of spending on various goods and services it provides to a population. Governments can spend money in a number of different ways that ultimately serve the public good. They can employee people to work on various projects. For example, the government can invest in things like health care, infrastructure, or education. Investments in such project can have a significant impact the country's economy. hen the government spends money there is a multiplier effect that injects money into the economy. For example, when the government pays an employee then that employee has money to spend on housing, food, entertainment, and other items which helps to stimulate the economy on an aggregate level.
Monetary policy is an entirely different type of policy tool than fiscal policy. This policy is determined by a federal bank…
Bureau, P. (2012, November 3). PESTLE Analysis of Turkey. Retrieved from Market Analysis: http://market-analyis.blogspot.com/2012/11/pestle-analysis-of-turkey.html
Business Insider. (2011, March 9). Turkey: A Model of Middle East Stability. Retrieved from Business Insider: http://www.businessinsider.com/turkey-a-model-of-middle-east-stability-2011-3
Cademir, Y., & Peker, E. (2013, January 22). Turkey's Central Bank Keeps Easing Monetary Policy. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324624404578257711555813602.html
Reuters. (2013, July 8). Turkey's Central Bank kicks off monetary tightening, dollar down from all-time high. Retrieved from Hurriyet Daily News.
stock market and the Banks promote economic growth and it provides a critique of their functions in transitional economies. Every country depends on its economy for its growth. For a country to be stable it has to be stable in terms of its economy. Bank and stock market contribute to a great extent to the economy growth of every country where it provides firms with opportunity to get funds thus encouraging more investment from the firms. At the same time they give information on the ways resources should be allocated. The development of a financially sound, market-oriented banking system is always considered to be fundamental to a flourishing transition. Arguably, it is important to macroeconomic stability and to positive long-term growth prospects. As documented, bank intermediation in transition economies continues to be stunted after a decade or addition of reform, mainly where advancement in banking reforms is inadequate. The banking…
Atje, Raymond and Jovanovic, Boyan, (April 1993), "Stock Markets and Development," European Economic Review, 37 (2/3), pp. 632-40.
Bagehot, Walter. (1873) Lombard Street. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, (1962
Bresharan, T., Milgrom, P., and Paul, J., (1992),"The Real Output of the Stock
Global Credit Crisis on UK Northern ock Bank
The lingering effects of the Great ecession of 2008 still remain, but most authorities appear to agree that the corner has been turned and global economic recovery is well underway. The cause of the Great ecession of '08 was primarily the sub-prime mortgage meltdown that occurred in the United States, and its effects were already being experienced as early as September 2007, when the United Kingdom experienced a mass market run on Northern ock Bank, the first in the nation's history. The global credit crisis that resulted from these events has been felt in differing degrees by the nations of the world, but few countries in the increasingly globalized international community have been entirely immune from its effects. To gain new insights into this fiasco, this paper provides a corporate profile for Northern ock Bank, followed by a review of the relevant…
'Corporate Profile.' (2011). Northern Rock Bank. [online] available: http://companyinfo.
'Directors' report and financial statements for the period 3 July 2009 to 31 December 2009.'
(2010). Northern Rock Bank. [online] available: http://companyinfo.northernrock.co.uk / downloads/2009_NR_plc_Financial_Report_and_Accounts.pdf.
reserve currencies, with specific reference to how an asset manager should approach the issue of diversifying into multiple reserve currencies in order to achieve better stability in asset value.
hile the U.S. dollar and the euro are the world's two leading reserve currencies, two new currencies have been added by the IMF to the list of reserve currencies. These are the Canadian dollar and the Australian dollar, both being commodity-driven currencies whose stock has risen significantly in the past decade, in part because of the commodity market and in part because those two countries have robust banking sectors and therefore avoided the worst of the 2008 global recession (RT, 2013). This paper will examine the issue of reserve currencies. For a company doing business internationally, is there any merit to using secondary reserve currencies like the aforementioned CAD and AUD, or the Swiss franc, British pound or yen for that…
RT. (2013). IMF to add CAD and AUD as reserve currencies; which one's next? RT.com. Retrieved April 13, 2013 from http://rt.com/business/imf-reserve-currencies-909/
Frolova, M. (2013). Will the world get new reserve currency? The Voice of Russia. Retrieved April 13, 2013 from http://english.ruvr.ru/2013_01_18/Will-the-world-get-new-reserve-currency/
Chovanec, P. (2013). Is the Chinese renminbi the next global reserve currency? The Atlantic. Retrieved April 13, 2013 from http://www.theatlantic.com/china/archive/2013/03/is-the-chinese-renminbi-the-next-global-reserve-currency/274454/
function of money.
Money has four purposes. It serves as:
Medium of exchange -- i.e. The currency used for bartering one good for another
it serves as the standard numerical unit of measurement of the market value of goods, the value of the program, or transaction
A store of value -- it can be reliably saved, stored, and retrieved and used whenever it is retrieved. Its value remains unchanged.
A standard of deferred payment. - It is an accepted way to settle a debt ( Mishkin .2007)
• Explain how the central bank manages a nation's monetary system.
The Federal Bank manages the nation's monetary system by virtue of three strategies:
It can change the interest rate on money that it lends to banks. A higher interest rate makes money more expensive. Banks may be, therefore, more reluctant to sign loans to applicants. On the other hand, the Bank by…
Board of Govs. Of the FRS. How does monetary policy influence inflation and employment? http://www.federalreserve.gov/faqs/money_12856.htm
Chairman Ben S. Bernanke Semiannual Monetary Policy Report to the Congress Before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. July 17, 2012 http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/testimony/bernanke20120717a.htm
Mishkin, Frederic S. (2007). The Economics of Money, Banking, and Financial Markets (Alternate Edition). Boston: Addison Wesley.
NY Times. (November 16, 2012) Federal Reserve (The Fed) http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/f/federal_reserve_system/index.html
Stories detailing the rise and fall of the Egyptians, the Roman Empire and other great nations proved mesmerizing and intriguing.
My interests in other areas have also been diversified; I have pursued many adventures, participated as president of many clubs, and won many competitions in music, sports, dance and more. My strength has always been academics however. During high school I was presented the unique opportunity to come to the United States and continue my education. It was here that I decided to study history initially. Though my parents pressured me to study finance or business, I found such work tedious at least initially. I did however entertain my parents and begin taking more classes in finance. This was probably the best decision I have ever made and helped create the professional I am today.
The more I learned the more I came to understand that finance was more than…
Ahli United Bank story started, we have been increasing together. We registered our own course, shaped our own story, and boarded upon a journey of achievement for the previous 15 years and plus. We cultivated home-grown capacity, concerned world class knowledge and protracted our reach across sectors and borders. We constructed monetary strength, reinforced by a well-defined plan and a great agreement of discipline, heavy labor and promise. But then again most prominently, we joined and linked with uncountable meticulous and inspirational men, women and industries, helping them prosper and grow and receiving their trust every phase of the way. In addition, in the progression, we turn out to be the strong, trusted and locally growing financial organization that we are these days.
This report is important particularly since the requirement from the Central Bank of Kuwait has mandated that it be done and noncompliance will result in high penalties.…
Ed Gold Scholarship
As might be expected of the eldest child of two Nigerian immigrants, I possess an abiding entrepreneurial spirit and drive to succeed. I joined the New York Investment Banking Consulting team at FactSet Research Systems in September 2001 and was quickly promoted to Senior Consultant and Account Executive. I simultaneously enrolled in an evening statistics classes at NYU and joined Weichert Realtors as a real estate agent. These varied commitments forced me to learn how to multitask and set priorities. I fell in love with real estate and enrolled in the graduate program at Cornell.
The real estate program brought opportunities to travel to and study emerging real estate markets in Nigeria and China. During this time, I earned the title of second runner-up in the Miss Nigeria in America Beauty Pageant. I used my platform to raise awareness about Nigerian issues in America. In 2008, I…
Keynesian Aggregate Expenditure Model
Company profits grew strongly in the June quarter putting another question mark over the extent of the predicted economic slowdown..."
However the central bank acknowledged that the weaker data for capital spending intentions are at this point the only clear evidence of an impending slowdown"
These two quotations regarding the same economic scenario seem to pose the question to consumers and economists alike -- why a predicted economic slowdown, if company profits are growing strongly? hy place so much fear in the data regarding capital spending intentions on the part of consumers? hy turn to the tools macroeconomics has long focused on, that of monetary policy, which the central bank controls, and fiscal policy, which the federal government controls, to shift the current state of economic equilibrium, as described above? (Schenk, 1997, "Synthesis")
The answer lies in the Keynesian aggregate expenditure model. This model…
Keynesian Aggregate Expenditure Model." (2004) Amos Web. Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.amosweb.com/cgi-bin/gls.pl?fcd=dsp&key=Keynesian+aggregate+expenditure+model
Macroeconomic Equilibrium. (2004). Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://nova.umuc.edu/~black/meq00.html
Scheck, Robert. (1997) "Activism." Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://ingrimayne.saintjoe.edu/econ/Keynes/Activism.html
Scheck, Robert. (1997) "Synthesis." Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://ingrimayne.saintjoe.edu/econ/optional/ISLM/Overview14ma.html
They need to estimate the cost of poduction, pesonalization as well as the milling of the new chip cads.
The budget should include the cost associated with the updating of teminals, Point of Sale (POS) devices and ATMs, in all types of envionments. These must howeve be consideed as new ongoing expenses and should include installation and maintenance of compliant teminals. Howeve, the costs of infastuctues elements ae not as they used to be in the past and have been continually educing. These consideations must be clealy noted in the budget
The budget should include the cost equied by the banks in upgading the system so as to be able to deal with elements of the new standads and its coesponding featues that could entail many changes in almost all potals that ae in communication with the system. The budget must also include the cost associated with staff…
references in Malaysia:
An empirical investigation
A b) Consider the articles on behavioral economics at http://myweb.liu.edu/~uroy/eco54/histlist/behav-econ/index.html. Summarizethe main thrust of some of these articles. Based on these articles, what's your opinion of behavioral economics? Do you think behavioral economics represents a return to Veblen's ideas?
In many respects it can be agreed that behavioral economics has much in common with Veblen's theories. Behavioral economists agree with Veblen that in most cases humans act illogically, because they are driven by instincts rather than by pure reason.
Thorstein Veblen stated that economic processes are mainly affected by evolution, social relations, political situation and other factors which are more global than circulation of money and accumulation of wealth. His ideas of social relations domination in economics have much in common with ideas of behavioral economists, who state that economy is much affected by psychological factor, or behavior of social groups.
It's proved by a number of applied researches held…
Backhouse, Roger the ordinary business of life
Krugman, Paul Two cheers for Formalism available at http://web.mit.edu/krugman/www/ formal.html
Whalen, Charles J. Putting a Human Face on Economics Business week online 2001 available at http://myweb.liu.edu/~uroy/eco54/histlist/behav-econ/behav-finance.htm
Diop, Julie Explaining the Irrational Technology Review, November 2002
......strengths include superior interpersonal skills as well as the ability to be diligent, honest and an enthusiastic worker. I am bi-lingual: I can speak, write and read fluently in two languages: English and Arabic. I also have extensive experience in applying information technology solutions to a wide array of banking operations. I have demonstrated excellence in my studies as an honor student for four straight years. I have received a Certified Corporate Governance Officer (CCGO) designation from the London School of Business and have successfully completed the Graduate Development Program for Banking and Financing Jobs Competencies at the Institute of Banking Studies in Kuwait. I also solidly maintain relationships with a number of key financial services personnel in Kuwait, including members of the Board of Directors at Ahli United Bank Kuwait (AUBK) along with high-level administrators at the Central Bank of Kuwait and Capital Market Authority. I contributed to the…
British Age of Austerity and the Debt Crisis
Currently, the United Kingdom is going through a period of intense economic turmoil where the fundamental questions of monetary and fiscal policy are major political issues. As Europe finds it's way through the ongoing sovereign debt crisis, Britons find themselves on the cusp of a recession and their government is enacting unprecedented budgetary cuts to weather the storm. This paper will analyze the macroeconomic policies of the Cameron government in response to the sovereign debt crisis and the associated recession here in the United Kingdom.
Before we can analyze the current situation it is important to define terms. According to the Office for National tatistics (2011), the British government is in the midst of a recession. This is defined as a period of general economic decline, defined usually as a contraction in the GDP for six months (two consecutive quarters) or longer.…
Bartlett, Bruce (2004). Brief Analysis No. 483. National Center for Policy Analysis.
Burnham, James B. (2003). Why Ireland Boomed. The Independent Review, Vol. 7, No. 4-537 -- 556
Gwartney, James, Stroup, Richard L. & Lee, Dwight R. (2005). Common Sense Economics. New York, St. Martin's Press
Hauptmeier, Sebastian, Heipertz, Martin & Schuknecht, Ludger (2006). Expenditure Reform in Industrialized Countries: A Case Study Approach. European Central Bank Working Paper No. 634.
But when the Fed declared a moratorium on its consistent hikes in 2006, not everyone cheered. Said one economist: "According to their statement, the main reason is that the Fed believes inflation is destined to fall even in the absence of further monetary tightening. I find both good news and bad news in that rationale. The good news is that the Fed is looking ahead, acting on a forecast, rather than just opening the window, taking the economy's temperature and deciding what to do. The bad news is that inflation forecasts are not very accurate. And the other bad news is that if the Fed expects a weak economy to drag inflation down appreciably, it must be pessimistic about the outlook for growth" ("Commentary: The pros & cons of unchanged interest rates," Nightly Business Report. PBS.com, 2006). Little had really changed in the economy, said some economists, the Fed was…
Commentary: The pros & cons of unchanged interest rates." Nightly Business Report.
PBS.com. 14 Aug 2006. [18 Jul 2007] http://www.pbs.org/nbr/site/onair/transcripts/060814d/
Fed lifts interest rate to 3.75%" BBC News: Business. 20 Sept 2005. [18 Jul 2007]
It is thought that the pace of the recovery will be slowed by people's desire to rebuild wealth, still-tight credit conditions facing some borrowers, and, despite some tentative signs of stabilization, continued weakness in labor markets. With considerable resource slack continuing to suppress cost pressures and with longer-term inflation expectations stable, it is thought that inflation subdued for some time (Monetary Policy eport to the Congress, 2010).
The Federal eserve has continued to support the functioning of financial markets and promote recovery in economic activity doing a wide array of things. The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) has maintained a target range of 0 to 1/4% for the federal funds rate throughout the second half of 2009 and early 2010. They have also continued to purchase Treasury securities, agency mortgage-backed securities (MBS), and agency debt in order to provide support to mortgage and housing markets and to improve overall conditions…
The Federal Reserve Board Its Purposes and Functions. (2005). Retrieved June 25, 2010, from Federal Reserve Web site: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pf/pf.htm
Monetary Policy Report to the Congress. (2010). Retreived June 25, 2010, from Federal Reserve
Web site: http://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/mpr_default.htm
Capital Requirement and Risk ehavior
Arab African International ank
Midan ElSaray El Koubra, Garden City Caoro
The research will mainly dwell on the capital requirements and risk behavior of banks, more in particular the credit risk. The purpose of this research is to identify and analyze the relationship between capital requirements and the risk behavior of banks in Egypt
more in particular the Arab African International ank, which is the case study for this research. Secondly, the research will seek to investigate the impact of capital regulation on the banking behaviors and particularly on the levels of credit risk of banks operating in Egypt
The findings of the research show that there is negative relationship between capital requirement and banks' risk behavior; the findings also show there is empirical evidence to prove that capital regulations have a negative impact on credit risk of banks levels of credit risk of banks…
Aggarwal, R. And K. Jacques, (1998), a Simultaneous Equation Estimation of the Impact of Prompt Corrective Action on Bank Capital and Risk, New York, 12-23
Avery, R.B. And A.B. Berger, (1991), Risk-based capital and deposit insurance reform, Journal of Banking and Finance pp 847-874
Berger, A.N., Herring R.J. And Szego, G.P. (1995), the Role of Capital in Financial
Institutions, Journal of Banking and Finance pp 19, 393-430.