Central Bank Essays (Examples)

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Bank Insure That the Level

Words: 1883 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44435249

In 2003, new procedures were created and they state that "companies accredited with receiving money relating to public subscription in securities must take all necessary measures to ensure the legality of the sources of the money used in the payment of such securities, in compliance with the provisions laid down in the Prevention and Prohibition of Money Laundering and its Implementing egulations" (Terterov and euvid, 2005).

Banking institutions are also focused on reducing money laundering and the principal actions they implement in this endeavor are those of fully complying with the regulations imposed by the central banks and the legislations in their home countries. More recently, the banks can access technological innovations to fight money laundering, such as LexisNexis's Bridger Insight XGTM (Tech 4 Law). But since the access to technologies is different at each bank, a conclusion is drawn that the internal reactions to money laundering are different. The…… [Read More]

References:

Minaeva, T., Aksenova, M., Anti-money laundering in Russia, White & Case, http://www.whitecase.ru/articles/moneylaundry.pdf last accessed on July 14, 2010

Terterov, M., Reuvid, J., 2005, Doing business with Estonia, GMB Publishing Ltd.

Walker, J., 1998, Modeling global money laundering flows -- some findings,  http://www.johnwalkercrimetrendsanalysis.com.au/ML%20method.htm  last accessed on July 13, 2010

1999, Ten years of combating money laundering, OECD Observer, http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php?aid=63 last accessed on July 13, 2010
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Bank for International Settlements Bis

Words: 3026 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75432570

From its creation to 1988 it undertook banking functions and opined generally on the international banking system.

2. Starting in 1988 it began to assume the role of an unofficial international bank regulator. Although it had no official international status, its members -- central banks of the major banking countries -- were obligated by the nature of their membership to abide by its edicts and the rest of the world took them seriously.

3. Starting in the late 1990s, it began to consider itself the equivalent of an international bank regulator. Every subject of significance was within its jurisdiction and, although its legal powers were no greater, it assumed that it had a right to make rules for local banks to observe in the conduct of their businesses.

4. Sometime in the future there is a widespread anticipation that it will be given, through some treaty mechanism, the power to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, James Calvin. The Bank for International Settlements: Evolution and Evaluation. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002.

Birdsall, Nancy. "Whither the IMF in the Current Crisis? Invite the Big Emerging Economies to the Table." 2 October 2008. Center for Global Development. 26 February 2009 http://blogs.cgdev.org/globaldevelopment/2008/10/whither_the_imf_in_the_current.php.

BIS. Bank for International Settlements (BIS). n.d. 25 February 2009  http://www.bis.org/about/index.htm .

Carl Felsenfeld, Genci Bilali. "The Role of the Bank for International Settlements in Shaping the World Financial System." January 2004. Social Science Research Network Electronic Library. 26 February 2009 http://ssrn.com/abstract=496022.
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Bank for International Settlement

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78947668

Bank for International Settlements

The inception of the Bank for International Settlements

The Bank for International Settlements was created in 1930 pursuant to the Young Plan, also known as the Dawes Plan under the Hague Agreement (Baker 2). At its inception, the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) was to assume the responsibilities of the Agent General for Reparations in Berlin which consisted of collecting, administrating and distributing the annuities that were payable as reparations (BIS History -- Overview 1). These original responsibilities were the source of the BIS' name (BIS History- Overview 1). According to the BIS eb site, "The BIS was also created to act as a trustee for the Dawes and Young Loans (international loans issued to finance reparations) and to promote central bank cooperation in general" (BIS History -- Overview 2). As these original responsibilities were satisfied, the purpose of the BIS has also changed as discussed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About BIS. (2014). The Bank for International Settlements. [online] available: http://www.bis.

org/about/index.htm.

Baker, James C. The Bank for International Settlements: Evolution and Evaluation. Westport,

CT: Quorum Books, 2002.
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Bank for International Settlements 2010

Words: 2522 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37657704

The increase in profits (at certain points) highlights the overall risks vs. rewards, as they can see substantial growth of 5% each year. Moreover, the performance of various strategies used in management of hedge funds experienced a greater feat, despite having less asset classes to choose from.

Over the years, the hedge fund industry has shown consistent growth and increase in its regulatory issues. This is because managers are using strategies that: increase the overall amounts of risk, while offering the possibility of greater financial rewards. As a result, the odds improve that investors could experience significant losses in these areas (which increases the overall amounts of regulatory scrutiny).

Hedge funds will experience more changes that will lessen its variance in comparison with mutual funds. Where, it will determine its investors and techniques of management without being greatly influenced by: institutionalization or regulation of the finance industry. In 2005, Ibbotson…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hedge and Pension Funds, 2011.

Ackermann, C, McEnally R. & Ravenscraft, D 1999, "The performance of hedge funds: Risk, return and incentives." Journal of Finance, 54 (June), pp. 833-874.

Adrian, T 2007, "Measuring risk in the hedge fund sector," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, 13, Federal

Reserve Bank of New York, pp. 1 -- 7.
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Banks Improper Foreclosure and Mortgage Practices in

Words: 2595 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65893364

Banks

Improper Foreclosure and Mortgage Practices in the Banking Industry

Efficient Market Hypothesis

Real Estate Bubble

Sub-Prime Mortgages

Overview on the Value of Banks

Arguments against Financial Intermediaries

Ethical Violations

This research paper aims to shed light into what led to the global financial collapse that, for the most part, began in the U.S. housing market and the ethical implications that followed. Many researchers agree that the primary drivers that led to the real estate crisis was the lifting of the Glass Steagall Act, the fostering of sub-prime lending, and the creation of derivatives and credit default swaps which were used as complex financial instruments. This offered the big five banks an entire new range of operating opportunities. All of these financial tools were justified by the efficient market hypothesis and as a consequence provide evidence for the lack of a truly efficient market. As a result of the financial…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ball, R. "The Global Financial Crisis and the Efficient Market Hypothesis." CFA Digest (2010): 44-45. Web.

Bauman, S., M. Conover and R. Miller. "Growth vs. value and large-cap vs. small-cap stocks in international markets." Financial Analysis Journal 54.2 (1998): 75-89.

Beers, B. "End the Fed, Save the Dollar: Ron Paul." 7 September 2009. CNBC. Web. 19 March 2012.

Chen, B. And F. Kaboub. The Repeal of the Glass-Steagall Act and the Subprime Mortgage Crisis. 8 February 2012. Web. 19 March 2012.
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World Bank-Role in Avoiding Economic Crisis World

Words: 1913 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27361898

World Bank-ole in Avoiding Economic Crisis

World Bank and Economic Crisis

World Bank: How necessary is World Bank in avoiding an economic crisis?

Increased capital flows and economic crisis

Leveraging the liquidity of developed countries

Global Financial Development eport 2013 (GFD)

World Bank: How necessary is World Bank in avoiding an economic crisis?

As a result of Bretton Woods's conference, the World Bank (WB) was created in 1944. The most influential role in the establishment of WB was played by the U.S. And United Kingdom. This transnational institution comprises of two main institutions named as International Development Association (IDA) and International Bank for econstruction and Development (IBD). The main objective of this establishment is to provide loans to the under-developed and developing countries. Poverty alleviation and promotion of equitable economic growth are also amongst main objectives of this bank. The outcome of WB loans and funding is aimed to be…… [Read More]

References

Bretton Woods Project. (2013). Avoiding crashes on the financial 'Highway'? Retrieved from: http://www.brettonwoodsproject.org/art-571190

GFDR. (2013). Global Financial Development Report. The World Bank. Retrieved from:  http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTGLOBALFINREPORT/0,,contentMDK:23267383~pagePK:64168182~piPK:64168060~theSitePK:8816097,00.html 

Ibrelji?, I., & Kozari?, A. (2009). The role of the international monetary fund and world bank in solving global financial crisis. Facta universitatis-series: Economics and Organization, 6(2), 161-176.

Lane, P.R. (2012). The European sovereign debt crisis. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 26(3), 49-67.
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Securitization and Bank Liquidity the

Words: 4798 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13613783

.." The Federal Reserve continues to keep a watch on both "current and potential exposures..." And are in the process of a review of the collateral valuation methods of the banking industry." (Kohn, 2008)

Kohn states that disruptions in liquidity in some financial markets have resulted in banking organizations facing challenges and specifically at present "significant liquidity demands can emanate from both the asset and liability of the bank's balance sheet." (Kohn, 2008) Kohn relates that when liquidity is reduced in the markets specifically for "certain structured credit products the creation of challenges and concerns relating to valuating spreads into other sectors and "illiquidity in some credit markets may make it difficult for some market participants, including banking organizations, to hedge positions effectively." (Kohn, 2008) Kohn states that the banking industry in the U.S. is up against some very serious challenges however, the Federal Reserve in cooperation with banking agencies…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berger, Allen N.; and Bouwman, Christa H.S. (2007) Bank Liquidity Creation. 15 Jan 2007

Brown, Ellen (2008) April Fools: The Fox to Guard the Banking Henhouse 30 Mar 2008. Online 'The Web of Debt' available online at  http://www.webofdebt.com/articles/banking-henhouse.php 

Buiter, Willem (2008) Lessons from Northern Rock: Banking and Shadow Banking. VOX. 4 March 2008. Online available at http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/960

Estrella, Arturo (2002) Securitization and the Efficacy of Monetary Policy. Economic Policy Review. Vol. 8 No.1 Federal Reserve Board Bank of New York. Online available at http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/epr/02v08n1/0205estr/0205estr.html#chart1
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Federal Reserve Bank

Words: 3511 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20291336

Federal eserve Bank

Financial services as an industry has progressed to become one of the widely transforming sectors of the global economy, having significant changes in information transference and processing, innovation in terms of commodities and processes, and rapid competition among the financial institutions -- among themselves and also among their several customers. The industry and its part in the transformations in the economy show that the supervising and regulatory structure also needs to be reevaluated periodically. The aim of bank regulation is mostly the same -- to attain maximum static and dynamic efficiency levels in the midst of a politically and economically permissible framework which is stable and equal. However the profits are always associated with a cost by means of stability and equity. A more stable and equal financial system usually need sacrifices with regard to efficiency. (Saunders, p. 3)

A properly functioning, effective banking system is necessary…… [Read More]

References

Federal Reserve System. Encyclopedia Article. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761574452/Federal_Reserve_System.html Accessed on 7 May, 2005

FR 2644- Weekly Report of Selected Assets. http://www.chicagofed.org/banking_information/financial_institute_reports_fr2644_instructions_and_worksheets.cfm Accessed on 7 May, 2005

FR 2900 Commercial Banks -- the Federal Reserve Board. http://www.federalreserve.gov/boarddocs/reportforms/ReportDetail.cfm?WhichFormId=FR_2900cb& WhichCategory=4 Accessed on 7 May, 2005

Garbade, Kenneth D. Recent Innovations in Treasury Cash Management. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Current Issues in Economics and Finance. Vol: 10; No; 11; pp: 2-11.
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Foreign Banks in China

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64184634

Foreign Investments

The banking industry in China is essentially run by the state. All of the major banks are state-owned enterprises, and all are heavily regulated by the central government There is a central bank, the People's Bank of China, and a regulator for merchant and retail banks. There are13 national-level banks along with over one hundred city-level banks. Most banks today compete with each other, even if they had niches when they were founded -- for example, the names Construction Bank, Agricultural Bank, etc. reflect the roots of those banks, but they have long since expanded out of those niches. But because they are all state-owned banks that are ultimately overseen by the central government, they do not compete intensely with each other.

The biggest factor that attracts foreign banks to China is the size of the market. Even though there are many restrictions for foreign banks in China,…… [Read More]

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Mashreq Bank Evaluation

Words: 1758 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70472637

Mashreq Bank UAE

Introduction of the company (write about the company and its activities)

Mashreq Bank is the oldest bank in the United Arab Emirates. It has provided banking services and financial solutions to its valued customers and enterprises since its inception in 1967. The Mashreq Bank, formerly known as Bank of Oman, was established in Dubai under decree of the uler of Dubai, Shaikh ashid Bin Saeed Al Maktoum; this occurred before the UAE was formed.

The bank renamed itself as Mashreq Bank in 1993 and became one of the biggest banks in the UAE. It is a household name in the corporate banking sector and retail segment of the Middle East, having branches in Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and Egypt. Mashreq Bank is the most inventive of banks in the Middle East having robust customer-centric business policies. The Mashreq Bank network is spread all over UAE with as many…… [Read More]

References

Mashreq Bank UAE. (2013). Annual Report 2013. Retrieved from: http://vpr.hkma.gov.hk/pdf/100319/ar_13/ar_13.pdf

Mashreq Bank UAE Website. (2015). Corporate Finance & Syndication. Retrieved from: http://www.mashreqbank.com/uae/en/corporate/investment-banking/corporate-finance-syndication.aspx

Microsoft Case Studies. (2006). Mashreq Bank: Bank Upgrades Core Application After Microsoft Technology Center Engagement. Retrieved from: http://www.microsoft.com/canada/casestudies/Case_Study_Detail.aspx?casestudyid=200220

World Finance. (2013). Mashreq Bank: Leading the way for economic growth in UAE. Retrieved from: http://www.worldfinance.com/banking/mashreq-bank-uae-economic-growth
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Random Walk Down the Streets of Central

Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50187893

random walk down the streets of central oscow will lead one to adopt a false perspective of the convertibility of the ruble. There are scores of small stores quoting rates for "pokupka" and "prodaja," bid and ask, prices for the U.S. Dollar and the Euro. These spreads generally amount to about.3 rubles; less than a penny. This reflects the relatively stable system of exchange that has predominated since the 1998 Russian bank defaults, steadily depreciating from 28 to the dollar to the current approximate exchange rate of 31.5. The Putin administration, until 2003, had favored a steady fall against the dollar and Central Bank officials had expressed confidence that the exchange rate would reflect only a slight weakening of the Ruble over the course of the next year; the exchange rate was expected to reach 33.7:1. According to the oscow Times, The bank has also had to reverse direction on…… [Read More]

Moscow Times, 20 February, 2003. Russia's New Secret Weapon

Moscow Times, Feb. 26, 2003. Ruble Looses Steam Against Greenback.

Moscow Times, Friday, Feb. 21, 2000. Reserves Swell to 51.4 Bil.
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Forming a Bank Holding Company

Words: 14343 Length: 52 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8100572

Forming a ank Holding Company - Structure, Governance, and Regulations

Understanding anks

Forming and Expanding a ank Holding Company

Financial Holding Company Requirements

HC Regulations

Capital uilding Options for ank Holding Companies

Pros and Cons of Forming a ank Holding Company

Stocks and Governance

Corporate Governance and anking Law

The Role of ank and Holding Company Audit Committees

Data Gathering Method

Database of Study

Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

Forming a ank Holding Company - Structure, Governance, and Regulations

This research paper describes the process of forming a bank holding company in the United States. The behavior of a bank holding company is strongly linked to the success of the banks it holds. Therefore, if business leaders can pinpoint how to set up a successful holding structure, they may have a better chance of successfully progressing their business.

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Statement of the Problem

Over the past few decades,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, Renee. Mehran, Hamid. (April 2003). Is Corporate Governance Different for Bank Holding Companies? Economic Policy Review, Volume 9, Number 1.

Bankers Online. (2003). Regulation Y. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.bankersonline.com/regs/225/225-82.html.

Baxter, Thomas. (March, 2003). Governing the Financial or Bank Holding Company: How Legal Infrastructure Can Facilitate Consolidated Risk Management. Federal Reserve Bank of New York: March 2003, Volume 9, Number 3.

Clodfelter, Mark. (February 27, 2003). U.S. Department of State.
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Why the Banks Issue Credit

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41190638

Predicting the Future Interest ate

It is likely not possible to forecast the interest rate accurately, as the Federal eserve has been keeping it new zero for several years now and more recently has been promising rate hikes yet holding press conferences in which the tone is far more dovish than hawkish. Thus, from expectations of four rate hikes a year totaling a 100 basis point rise, expectations are reduced to one, perhaps two, rate hikes, as the "data-dependent" Fed sees bad jobs reports, a stagnating global economy, and other factors putting pressure on the decision to normalize rates (Durden, 2016).

Once rates do hike, however, there is likely to be a sharp correction in the stock market as investors seek less risky investments (even a mere 25 basis point raise is enough to cause investors to flee the market for safer havens, as the previous rate hike showed) (Phoenix…… [Read More]

References

Durden, T. (2015). This is what happens after three years of negative interest rates.

ZeroHedge. Retrieved from http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2015-10-22/what-happens-after-three-years-negative-interest-rates

Durden, T. (2016). "Data Dependent" Fed Chickens Out Again: Blames "Global" Risks

For Unchanged Rates, Cuts Rate Hike Forecast. ZeroHedge. Retrieved from http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2016-03-16/data-dependent-fed-chickens-out-again-blames-global-uncertainty-us-rate-hold
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Second Harvest Food Bank What Does Hunger

Words: 796 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24081610

Second Harvest Food Bank

What does hunger look like? The image many people hold of what hunger is and who it afflicts does not reflect reality. With changing economic conditions in Florida, as well as the entire country, the face of hunger now reflects the images of our friends and neighbors. It is the mission of Second Harvest Food Bank of Central Florida to battle hunger in Central Florida in order to achieve freedom from hunger in the region.

There are several objectives and activities established by Second Harvest in order to work toward achieving a hunger-free Central Florida. One of the most primary activities conducted by the Food Bank is the provision access to grocery items and food to individuals and families in need. ecipients of this service are diverse and do not fit into one mold, whether it be, race, age-group, or perceived social class.

Another main activity…… [Read More]

References

Krepcho (2011). Top 10 Reasons for Central Florida's Need. Retrieved 12 February 2012 from http://blogfeedhopenow.org/tag/statistics/

Living Hungry: Hunger in Central Florida (2010). http://www.foodbankcentralflorida.org/site/DocServer/SHF_048_Hunger_Brochure_FINAL.pdf?docID=961

Second Harvest Foodbank of Central Florida (2012). http://www.foodbankcentralflorida.org.
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Furniture Bank Over the Past Few Years

Words: 2073 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82903923

Furniture Bank

Over the past few years Furniture Bank has differentiated itself from other charity organization through its commitment to industry innovation which has made it one of Canadian most famous organization (Peter & Donnelly, 2006). The marketing abilities of the Organization have enabled it to compensate for its initial otherwise tight financial circumstances to establish an excess cash record over few years of operation whose main sources were; donations from the government and other corporate entities (Slack et al., 2010). The main vision of the Furniture Bank Organization includes constant achievement of operational excellence, conducting business in a safe environmentally sustainable and economically optimum way and manufacturing and supplying furniture and other households as well as services that ensure customer satisfaction in as far as their needs are concerned (Ahlstrom & Bruton, 2009). The Organization also has a few objectives that include realization of potential of their staff, maximum…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Adeniyi, M.A. (2007). Effective Leadership Management: An Integration of Styles, Skills & Character for Today's CEO. AuthorHouse.

Ahlstrom, D., and Bruton, G.D. (2009). International Management: Strategy and Culture in the Emerging World. Boston, M.A.: Cengage Learning.

Peter, P.J., and Donnelly, J.H. (2006). Marketing Management: Knowledge and Skills. 8th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Slack N., Chambers S., Johnston R. (2010). Operations management. New York: Prentice
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Sociology Debate A Central Debate in Sociology

Words: 1938 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53731869

Sociology Debate: A central debate in sociology revolves around whether the power elite or pluralist view is correct. Which do you believe and why? Explain your answer.

The Power Elite view seeks to look at the way the elites rule and influence the running of the American society as a whole in the day-to-day basis. One scholar in sociology, Smith Mark (2009) in his analysis of C. Wrights work, tries to explain the rule of the elite in terms of institution that are formed to ensure the elite has a firm hand on the power controls. He identifies three main institutions that occupy the key positions in the society; major business corporations, the federal government and the military. He says that those in command of the three institutions do and will always have the same values and interest. They coalesce and interconnect to form a single ruling minority.

Among these…… [Read More]

References

Don Albrecht et.al (2005). Minority Concentration, Disadvantage, and Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan United States. Midwest Sociological Quarterly, 46:503

Impact Lab (2009). The 10 people most responsible for the Recession. Retrieved April 7, 2011

from  http://www.impactlab.net/2009/02/17/the-10-people-most-responsible-for-the-recession/ 

Justin Lahart, (2010). Job Losses Continue, ADP Surveys Suggest. Retrieved April 7, 2011 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126278421347117805.html
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Herding in Bank Panics

Words: 3113 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33463129

Herding in Bank Panics

The work of Devenow and Welch (1996) states that the most basic of human instincts is likely to be that of "…imitation and mimicry" which are the primary characteristics in what is known as 'herding' which often specifically occurs related to such as "fashion and fads…" (Devenow and Welch, 1996, p.603) Devenow and Welch go on to state that among financial economists there is a belief that "investors are influenced by the decisions of other investors and that this influence is a first-order effect." (p.603)

It is reported in the work of Donaldson (1992) entitled "Sources of Panics: Evidence from the Weekly Data" that panic is defined by Jevons (1884) as "a rapid rise in the rate of discount, a sudden flood of bankruptcy and a fall in consols, followed by a rise" (p.8). It is additionally reported that Calomiris and Gorton (1991) "define a panic…… [Read More]

References

Avgouleas, E. (20008) Reforming Investor Protection Regulation: The Impact of Cognitive Biases. Retrieved from: http://www.law.man.ac.uk/aboutus/staff/emilios_avgouleas/documents/AvgouleasCognitiveBiasesOgusfinal.pdf .

Bulow, Jeremy and Paul Klemperer, 1994, Rational frenzies and crashes, Journal of Political Economy 102, no. 1, 1-23. Chari, V.V. And Ravi Jagannathan, 1988, Banking panics, information, and rational expectations equilibrium, Journal of Finance 43, no. 3, 749-761.

Chen, Yehning, 1995a, Bank runs: Panic of efficient monitoring, Working paper (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA).

Chen, Yehning, 1995b, Banking panics: The role of the first-come, first-served rule and informational externalities, Working paper (UCLA, Los Angeles, CA). Donaldson, R. Glen, 1992, Sources of panics: Evidence from the weekly data, Journal of Monetary Economics 30, 277-305.
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World Bank Also Sometimes Known

Words: 2431 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6017945

One way to reform the Bank would be to make it more accountable to an outside body of independent examiners, so that information it generates is not so self-serving and internally generated. In addition, since there have been so many charges of corruption and mismanagement, it is clear divisions such as the "anti-corruption" division are not working, and these areas need to undergo major reform. Perhaps a total reorganization of the Bank is in order, with a goal of replacing long-term Bank staff with new members, and undergoing serious organizational training and goals. If the Bank cannot remain corruption free, how can they possibly expect member nations and projects to maintain anti-corruption in their own areas? The Bank needs to take a hard look at itself and its goals, assess where it is meeting them, and where it is not, and make those changes, accordingly. They have enacted at least…… [Read More]

References

Defending the World Bank. (2006, June 20). The Washington Times, p. A18.

Editors. (2008.) About us. Retrieved 6 June 2008 from the World Bank Web site: http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTABOUTUS/0,pagePK:50004410~piPK:36602~theSitePK:29708,00.html.

Editors. (2008). Accountability at the World Bank. Retrieved 6 June 2008 from the BICUSA Web site: http://www.bicusa.org/en/Issue.25.aspx.

Editors. (2007). World Bank: Resigned Wolfowitz cites accomplishments. Retrieved 6 June 2008 from the Global Security Web site:  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/2007/05/mil-070519-rferl01.htm .
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Desk Staffing Trends Banks J And Pracht

Words: 1566 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73832228

Desk Staffing Trends

Banks, J. And Pracht, C. (2008). eference Desk Staffing Trends: A Survey. eference & User Services Quarterly 48(1), 54-59.

Banks and Pracht (2008) carried out a quantitative research to investigate the current staffing trends at reference desks of academic libraries. The research is conducted from a theoretical framework perspective asserting that there have been changes in libraries, as services are merged and eliminated, users are taught on information literacy, provision of web-based and online reference databases threatening the traditional reference desk. The researchers' main question is whether these changes are causing a change in staffing patterns for reference desk employees. To investigate this problem, survey questions were administered via the internet to respondents comprising of librarians from 191 academic libraries across the U.S. The study results indicate that of those interviewed, 44% show that there was a decrease in questions asked at the reference desks, which linked…… [Read More]

References

Banks, J. And Pracht, C. (2008). Reference Desk Staffing Trends: A Survey. Reference & User Services Quarterly 48(1), 54-59.

Boynton, P.M. (2004). Selecting, Designing, and Developing your Questionnaire, BMJ publications, 328-396.
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National Bank v Bellotti Case

Words: 960 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69326547

" In short, when it comes to the First Amendment, greater issues are at stake beyond the immediate interests of the corporations in question. There must be a compelling state interest to limit freedom of expression.

Why doesn't it make a difference whether the corporate speech is about matters that materially affect its business interests?

It is not the state's place to regulate when and if First Amendment rights apply in certain areas. Rather: "Freedom of discussion, if it would fulfill its historic function in this nation, must embrace all issues about which information is needed or appropriate to enable the members of society to cope with the exigencies of their period.... The inherent worth of the speech in terms of its capacity for informing the public does not depend upon the identity of its source, whether corporation, association, union, or individual." The right to express one's political views was…… [Read More]

Massachusetts cited the state's interest in maintaining the confidence of the people in the democratic populace, and stated that the interests of natural persons under the law were "endangered by corporate participation in discussion of a referendum issue," assuming that corporations could "exert an undue influence on the outcome of a referendum vote" because they are so wealthy and powerful. However, the court noted that "there has been no showing that the relative voice of corporations has been overwhelming or even significant in influencing referenda in Massachusetts or that there has been any threat to the confidence of the citizenry in government"

What is Rehnquist's fundamental argument?

Although for certain purposes, corporations are treated like persons, they are in no way natural persons, and in 1906 the court decided the liberty protected by that Amendment "is the liberty of natural, not artificial persons." Rehnquist believed that the original decision was correct, that "when a State creates a corporation with the power to acquire and utilize property, it necessarily and implicitly guarantees that the corporation will not be deprived of that property absent due process" but these property rights did not mean that corporations had First Amendment rights to express political views about issues that had nothing to do with profitability.
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Tyra Banks Is Fat One

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1194521

Far beyond the "ideal" female form in the minds of many, modelling creates a paradigm not only of impossible perfectionism in terms of face and posture, but also in terms of size. As such, modelling is not about being "sexy," but rather about the common misconception that thin is also necessarily beautiful. This tends to be a female-focused paradigm rather than a sexist one, where one might define sexism as a male-imposed paradigm upon the female body.

In this light, I do not believe that the "Tyra Banks is Fat" scandal is so much racially or even sexism-informed as it is informed by the generally human paradigm of enjoying the flaws in a person who was previously assumed to be "perfect." Models are envied, mostly by women, for their lack of body fat. This is an ideal that women tend to strive for, generally encouraged by media images of the…… [Read More]

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J E Rischard the World-Bank's Vice

Words: 2838 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2840285

The growing need for interdisciplinary education in the sciences has been recognized, as well, since students have often limited themselves to a specialized field without gaining the required skill sets to undertake broader issues.

As the world becomes more complex, technology faster and business increasingly competitive, organizations are going to need "enaissance people" who have a broad background in different areas, so they can clearly see the gestalt of a situation. When they are too pigeonholed, they will have more difficulty recognizing other avenues, making changes on a regular basis, or assume other roles when needed.

Within North America, traditional corporate structure used to be tightly hierarchal and segregated. Decisions were made by a very few individuals on top of the organizational pyramid. Today, organizations that are made up of narrow functional middle managers working within vertical and functional aligned departments are changing their structure or dying out. These layered…… [Read More]

References

Ethics in Practice (Hardcover)

Andrews, Kenneth. Ethics in Practice. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press, 1989.

Folson, Burton Entrepreneurs vs. The State: A New Look at the Rise of Big Business in America, 1840 -- 1920. Herndon, VA: Young America's Foundation, (1987).

Glatthorn, a. Developing a quality curriculum. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1994.
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Probability & Measures of Central Tendency Solve

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73342215

Probability & Measures of Central endency

Solve the following problems showing your work:

In a poll, respondents were asked whether they had ever been in a car accident. 157 respondents indicated that they had been in a car accident and 117 respondents said that they had not been in a car accident. If one of these respondents is randomly selected, what is the probability of getting someone who has been in a car accident?

he data set represents the income levels of the members of a country club. Find the probability that a randomly selected member earns at least $88,000

total, 14 of them at or above $88,000 means the probability is:

In a certain class of students, there are 15 boys from Wilmette, 5 girls from Kenilworth, 9 girls from Wilmette, 6 boys from Glencoe, 2 boys from Kenilworth and 8 girls from Glencoe. If the teacher calls upon…… [Read More]

Tutorial on Measures of Dispersion, Retrieved February 12, 2011, from http://www.childrens-mercy.org/stats/definitions/stdev.htm

Overview of Measures of Dispersion, Retrieved November 12, 2008, from http://www.unc.edu/~knhighto/econ70/lec2/lec2.htm

Standard Deviation in the Stock Market, Retrieved August 27, 2008, from http://www.trade10.com/standard_deviati.htm
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Politics the Central Theme of

Words: 3679 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65228615

They are only trying to justify their actions; they are handing excuses, telling the events as they happened. And in the end maybe these characters do find an excuse, the one that they are both human, bound to fail and to be influenced, sharing the same planet and dealing with the same kind of people. The two personages enjoyed having power and realized in the end that having power doesn't necessary make them omniscient.

oth Robert McNamara and Yuri Orlov had the lives of numerous people in their hands. Maybe these characters felt the need to retell all their stories, in order to let all the demons trapped inside their conscious out.

The characters presented in the two movies were able to depict the laws and needs of man and rose above law; they become a sort of demigod. In Yuri's case this was shown during his tramping across west…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. The Fog of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_fog_of_war

2. Lord of War. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_of_war

3. Dwight D. Eisenhower. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eisenhower

4. Military-industrial complex. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Last modified on Mar 8, 2007, retrieved Mar 16, 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/military_industrial_complex
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Staff Development Plan Staff Development Is Central

Words: 2691 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82430207

Staff Development Plan

Staff development is central to the quality performance of activities in any organization. In order for an institution to achieve its goals and objectives, a clear staff development plan is necessary in order to set priorities and initiate a common spirit of all the staff members. This study examines the necessity of a key staff development plan in an envision higher learning institution. The study explores the importance of staff development to the quality of higher education. Currently, many higher learning institutions do not consider the necessity of proper staffing and development as a key to quality performance. Instead, these institutions fail to achieve their goals or objectives, and consequently low quality of higher education.

Higher education institutions highly depend on people to deliver their missions and objectives. In this regard, the quality of staff and the motivation they receive from the institution's management highly influences their…… [Read More]

References

World Bank. (1994). Higher Education: The Lessons of Experience. Washington DC

Blackwell, R. (2003). Towards Strategic Staff Development in Higher Education. Berkshire:

Mukherjee, H. & Jasbir, S. (1993). Staff Development Approaches in Higher Education:

Learning from Experience. London: Common Wealth Secretariat.
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Macroeconomic Implications of China's Fiscal

Words: 1190 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55515331

However, aggregate supply always responds, eventually, to demand so aggregate supply will fall as well, until there is a state of equilibrium again.

3.

Increasing the amount of deposits that commercial banks must hold with the central bank will diminish the money multiplier, which is the amount of money a bank can create with each dollar of reserves. The money multiplier is determined by the reserve ratio. The higher the reserve ratio, the less money the bank will have to lend out, diminishing the money multiplier. Requiring the commercial banks to increase deposits will increase the reserve ratio by.5%, thereby diminishing the money multiplier by .5.

The spending multiplier, which is the measure of additional spending in the economy generated as a result of the initial spending, will be reduced because of the reduction in consumption caused by less wages, rent, and profits paid by firms. The investment multiplier, the…… [Read More]

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Law of International Banking

Words: 6320 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44268359

Regulation of anks

anks are an important aspect of any modern economy. They provide financing for commercial businesses, access to payment systems and a variety of financial services for the economy as a whole. The integral role that banks play in the national economy is demonstrated by the need for and practice of banking regulation and as part of the lessons learnt from the recent global financial crisis, provides a government safety net to compensate depositors when banks fail thus providing depositor protection.[footnoteRef:1] One of the main reasons why banking regulation is vital is because of systemic risks; the risk that financial difficulties at one or more banks spill over to a large number of other banks or the financial system as a whole. Systemic risks were traditionally bank -- based. ank regulators traditionally focused on systemic risk in the banking sector while securities regulators traditionally focused on investor protection…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allen, F. And Douglas, G. 2000. Comparing Financial Systems. MIT Press: Cambridge. MA.

Barth, J.R.., Caprio, G. And Levine, R. 2001. "Banking Systems Around the Globe:

Do Regulations and Ownership Affect Performance and Stability?" In Prudential Supervision: What Works and What Doesn't, ed. Frederic S. Mishkin. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL.

Boyd, J.H., Chun, C. And Smith, B.D. 1998. Moral Hazard Under Commercial and Universal Banking. Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking. 30: 426-468.
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ECB Can Be Successful at Emulating the

Words: 16733 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36972206

ECB can be successful at emulating the stategic model set foth by the Geman Bundesbank. The discussion will focus on the fact that the ECB is facing diffeent poblems as it is still in the developmental phases. The investigation will seek to detemine whethe the tools of the Bundesbank can povide suppot fo the ECB in achieving economic stability in the Euopean Monetay Union.

Reseach about this paticula topic is impotant because the Euopean Union is expected to expand in the yeas to come. In addition, many membes of the Euopean Union have opted to have a single cuency. This means that economic stability is even moe essential in ensue that the Euopean Monetay System is economically efficient.

The methodology fo this eseach will encompass seveal foms. Fistly, the eseach will contain backgound infomation about the ECB and the Bundesbank. In addition, the eseach will contain a liteatue eview to…… [Read More]

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Existence of an Individual Which

Words: 782 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11659629

There were certain moments in my life which did not allow me to pursue my study programs as desired; yet it was precisely this set of obstacles which consisted a challenge for me and determined me ever more strongly to pursue my goal. Therefore, I am due to graduate in May 2008 with a presentation entitled "Have Central Banks and Private Agents Become Wiser?" conducted under the supervision of Dr. Dennis Novy who has also offered me considerable support in trying to address issues such as inflation, the role of central banks, and their relation with private agents. His precious advice has led me to follow lines of thought different from the ones already addressed by the literature and has opened new research directions I intend to analyze in my future studies.

Aside from the traditional academic environment created by the universities I attended, another important input represented the experience…… [Read More]

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Financial and Monetary Economics Since

Words: 3006 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31835742

During times of extreme pressure from the supply or demand side, the central bank is prepared to go in and support the currency, to help provide stability. This is significant because traders around the world; will use the major currencies as a way to hedge themselves against different risks. Where, they will view the weakness of one country's currency as a sign that they could be facing a number of different economic challenges. (Fixed vs. Floating Exchange Rate, 2007) a good example of this can be seen with the ritish pound, where the ank of England decided to keep interest rates at .5%. This is important, because the increase in rates could be seen as a sign that economic stability could be returning to the country, which would help to reverse the downward pressure on the pound. However, the fact that they decided to keep interest rates unchanged, means that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

12 Myths of International Trade, 1999, Meti, viewed 3 May 2010,

Bank of England's Decision Affects Pounds Performance, 2010, to Forex News, view 3 May 2010,

Bretton Woods Agreement, 2010, Investopedia, viewed 2 May 2010, .

Fixed vs. Floating Exchange Rate, 2007, Article Base, view 3 May 2010,
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Effect of the Eurozone Today on the Global Financial Markets

Words: 4067 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20965127

Finance

The Effect of the Eurozone Today on Global Financial Markets

Global markets are so intertwined today that what affects one is definitely going to have an impact on another. Case in point, the recent issues in Greece and other European Union (EU) countries have had a global effect and have wrought havoc on the Eurozone. Because if this global connectedness, large banks and organizations like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) are even more important today than they were in the past.

The EU's finances are powered by the countries that have become member nations, but those finances are guarded by the European Central Bank (ECB) and the IMF. The ECB is the institution that is responsible for the Euro, the currency of the EU, and it is also the organization responsible for negotiations regarding the economic difficulties of EU member nations. Since Greece, Spain, Italy and others have had…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dam, Kenneth W. "The Subprime Crisis and Financial Regulation: International and Comparative Perspectives*." Chicago Journal of International Law 10.2 (2010): 581-594.

European Central Bank (ECB). "Recently Published." Monthly Bulletin, 2012. Web.

International Monetary Fund (IMF). "About the IMF." International Monetary Fund, 2012. Web.

Halmai, Peter, and Viktoria Vasary. "Real Convergence in the New Member States of the European Union (Shorter and Longer Term Prospects)." The European Journal of Comparative Economics 7.1 (2010): 229-237.
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Value of U S Dollar

Words: 3662 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74095660

Down? The Value of the Dollar

International Currency Exchanges

Current Trends and Initiatives

Impact of the Euro on Dollar Valuation

Analysis of Current Trends and Initiatives on Dollar Valuation in the Future

Up or Down? The Value of the Dollar: A Historical Analysis of the Valuation of the U.S. Dollar

According to Michael Artis, Elizabeth Hennessy, and Axel eber (2000), capital losses can be caused by differential changes in the value of assets and liabilities, primarily exchange rate changes; these changes affect the value of a central bank's foreign exchange reserves. To date, exchange rate changes have only been a major problem for national central banks with very large foreign exchange reserves (i.e., Portugal); however, it might also become a problem for the European Central Bank in the future, whose balance sheet on the asset side will be dominated by the approximately 40 billion euro in foreign exchange reserves it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arthurs, Harry. (1996). "Globalization and Its Discontents." Journal of Business

Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 132.

Artis, Michael, Elizabeth Hennessy and Axel Weber (Eds.). The Euro: A Challenge and Opportunity for Financial Markets. London: Routledge, 2000.

Charrette, Susan and Juann Hung. (1997). "The Looming U.S. External Debt. How Serious is
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John Pierpont Morgan 1837 -- 1931 Is

Words: 2647 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77414068

John Pierpont Morgan (1837 -- 1931) is one of the more controversial figures in the history of America and the world of finance. Described as a sui generis, a colossus (McCallum, p. 2), "the organizer" (Miller, 2003), "banker of last resort" (Andrews, 1999), and "the man of the hour" (Corey, p. 348), John Pierpont Morgan has also been called a "robber baron" (Andrews, 1999). Thus, it is evident that J.P. Morgan was a man who was as much praised for his actions in saving the American economy during the 1895 and 1907 crises, as he was criticized and derided for what was seen as his calculated control of the financial world and American business. Viewed from the lens of financial history, however, there can be little doubt that no person, either before or since, has left "upon the great art of money getting so important an influence." (Flynn, p. 452)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1000 Management Giants. "John Pierpont Morgan." Treasury of Investment Wisdom.

1999. Accessed April 30, 2005: http://www.ultimatebusinessresource.com/downloads/uk/giantscigar.pdf.

Andrews, J. "American Financier." Insight on the News. June 28, 1999. Vol. 15: 24

42.
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Economics A I View the

Words: 835 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42367461

A negative consequence, however, would be increased volatility in the value of the dollar. Imports would become more expensive as well, increasing inflation and potentially compelling the restructuring of the economy. Increased currency risk -- transaction and translation -- would also create difficulties for U.S. companies operating abroad. I do not support such a proposal. Attempts to jury-rig a global currency are as impractical as enforcing Esperanto as a global language. Such a currency would be inherently unstable, as the Euro example has shown us. The constituent communities would be committed to enforcing controls on each other in order to maintain the integrity of the currency. If at some point the currency of another economy overtakes that of the U.S., it will be because that economy is stronger, larger and more stable -- fundamental market forces -- rather than as the result of a political decision.

3. a) The Fed…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Google.com. (2010). Unemployment rate. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved April 23, 2010 from http://www.google.com/publicdata?ds=usunemployment&met=unemployment_rate&tdim=true&dl=en&hl=en&q=U.S.+unemployment+rate
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EU as a Lender of

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34911684



Question 2: Exports

One of the few 'good' things about an economic downturn is that it tends to increase the desirability of a country's exports and thus reduces the balance of payments to nations abroad in international trade. When a nation is spending at a deficit to stimulate its economy, this tends to decrease the value of that nation's currency. The cheapened value of the dollar, for example, means that the dollar is much less valuable in relation to other currencies in a flexible exchange rate system. Interest rates also tend to be lowered during a period of economic contraction, as they are now, to act as an incentive for individuals to borrow and spend more. This makes it more attractive for foreign companies to invest money in a nation, and to borrow money from the nation's central bank.

During an economic expansion, as citizens have more money, the balance…… [Read More]

References

ECB: Objectives and tasks. (2008, March 28). Deutsch Bank. Retrieved February 28, 2010 at  http://www.dbresearch.com/PROD/DBR_INTERNET_EN-PROD/PROD0000000000222630.pdf
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State-Led Economic Policies in South

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42635261

Oicials
in the newly ormed Ministry o Finance drew rom a talented pool o
economists rom the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Privileged positions
were illed rom within the bureaucracy and were obtained through
exceptional perormance instead o cronyism or nepotism. O great
importance to their autonomy, oicials were able to disconnect themselves
rom total reliance on local unding thanks to inancial assistance rom
the international community and reparations rom Germany. Two igureheads
within the government guaranteed a decisive and coherent economic policy:
Levi Eshkol o the Ministry o Finance, and Pinhas Sapir o the Ministry o
Commerce and Industry. They worked hand-in-hand to ormulate a uniying
agenda that bureaucrats rom both departments could pursue towards a single
common goal.
The end-product o this labor in both nations was a inancial
structure in which banks, and by extension the government at large,
controlled the low o capital. On one hand, banks…… [Read More]

formulated and guided a successful investment endeavor was in the case of
textiles. Israeli officials, in particular MOCI chief Pinhas Sapir,
envisioned in the Textile Industry Development Plan that by 1966, twelve
major textile manufacturing plants would be operational and ultimately
produce 26% of Israel's
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Government of Chile Reduces One

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2541705

Similar to what happened in Chile happened between the 1930s and the late 1970s in most countries in Latin America that used the import substitution industrialization model (ISI) to build their industry and therefore reduce their dependency upon imports from foreign countries. The result of the ISI in these countries has included the rapid urbanization of one or two major cities and a growing urban population of the working class and a membership in the world economic system via globalization through the vehicles of the IMF and the World Bank. Much of this was done in response to the economic crisis of 1997 when the leaders of these countries very quickly adopted and the implemented new neoliberal policies. In countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Peru, the United States and Uruguay, capitalism and central private banking are now the norm with firms and economies being one intact whole (Taylor,…… [Read More]

References

Neoliberalism: origins, theory, definition. (2005, December 2). Retrieved from  http://web.inter.nl.net/users/Paul.Treanor/neoliberalism.html .

Taylor, L. (1997). Editorial: the revival of the global creed. Wolrd Development, 25(2), 145-152.
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Turkey Economy Turkey -- Fiscal and Monetary

Words: 634 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76854214

Turkey Economy

Turkey -- Fiscal and Monetary Policy

Fiscal policy refers to how a government adjusts its level of spending on various goods and services it provides to a population. Governments can spend money in a number of different ways that ultimately serve the public good. They can employee people to work on various projects. For example, the government can invest in things like health care, infrastructure, or education. Investments in such project can have a significant impact the country's economy. hen the government spends money there is a multiplier effect that injects money into the economy. For example, when the government pays an employee then that employee has money to spend on housing, food, entertainment, and other items which helps to stimulate the economy on an aggregate level.

Monetary policy is an entirely different type of policy tool than fiscal policy. This policy is determined by a federal bank…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bureau, P. (2012, November 3). PESTLE Analysis of Turkey. Retrieved from Market Analysis: http://market-analyis.blogspot.com/2012/11/pestle-analysis-of-turkey.html

Business Insider. (2011, March 9). Turkey: A Model of Middle East Stability. Retrieved from Business Insider:  http://www.businessinsider.com/turkey-a-model-of-middle-east-stability-2011-3 

Cademir, Y., & Peker, E. (2013, January 22). Turkey's Central Bank Keeps Easing Monetary Policy. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324624404578257711555813602.html

Reuters. (2013, July 8). Turkey's Central Bank kicks off monetary tightening, dollar down from all-time high. Retrieved from Hurriyet Daily News.
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Financial Management and Analysis

Words: 4130 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20964033

stock market and the Banks promote economic growth and it provides a critique of their functions in transitional economies. Every country depends on its economy for its growth. For a country to be stable it has to be stable in terms of its economy. Bank and stock market contribute to a great extent to the economy growth of every country where it provides firms with opportunity to get funds thus encouraging more investment from the firms. At the same time they give information on the ways resources should be allocated. The development of a financially sound, market-oriented banking system is always considered to be fundamental to a flourishing transition. Arguably, it is important to macroeconomic stability and to positive long-term growth prospects. As documented, bank intermediation in transition economies continues to be stunted after a decade or addition of reform, mainly where advancement in banking reforms is inadequate. The banking…… [Read More]

WORK CITED

Atje, Raymond and Jovanovic, Boyan, (April 1993), "Stock Markets and Development," European Economic Review, 37 (2/3), pp. 632-40.

Bagehot, Walter. (1873) Lombard Street. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin, (1962

Edition).

Bresharan, T., Milgrom, P., and Paul, J., (1992),"The Real Output of the Stock
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Reserve Currencies With Specific Reference to How

Words: 531 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18140540

reserve currencies, with specific reference to how an asset manager should approach the issue of diversifying into multiple reserve currencies in order to achieve better stability in asset value.

hile the U.S. dollar and the euro are the world's two leading reserve currencies, two new currencies have been added by the IMF to the list of reserve currencies. These are the Canadian dollar and the Australian dollar, both being commodity-driven currencies whose stock has risen significantly in the past decade, in part because of the commodity market and in part because those two countries have robust banking sectors and therefore avoided the worst of the 2008 global recession (RT, 2013). This paper will examine the issue of reserve currencies. For a company doing business internationally, is there any merit to using secondary reserve currencies like the aforementioned CAD and AUD, or the Swiss franc, British pound or yen for that…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

RT. (2013). IMF to add CAD and AUD as reserve currencies; which one's next? RT.com. Retrieved April 13, 2013 from http://rt.com/business/imf-reserve-currencies-909/

Frolova, M. (2013). Will the world get new reserve currency? The Voice of Russia. Retrieved April 13, 2013 from http://english.ruvr.ru/2013_01_18/Will-the-world-get-new-reserve-currency/

Chovanec, P. (2013). Is the Chinese renminbi the next global reserve currency? The Atlantic. Retrieved April 13, 2013 from  http://www.theatlantic.com/china/archive/2013/03/is-the-chinese-renminbi-the-next-global-reserve-currency/274454/
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Argantina Country Case Report Argentina

Words: 1083 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2421052

The working conditions gradually improved and the labor market eventually came to a situation in which the income inequalities became less obvious.

Today, the Argentinean labor force is composed of 16.38 million individuals (only considering the population in the urban areas) -- the 37th largest market place in the world. In terms of distribution, most of the people are employed within the services sector (76% to be precise), 23% are employed in the industry sector and only the remaining 1% are employed in the agricultural sector. In 2009, the unemployment rate was of 9.6%, having registered an estimated 2.5% increase since its values at the end of the 1980s decade.

While the income per capita remains low in comparison to that in the United States or in other developed nations, it does still sustain itself above the global average of $10,500. The income per capita in the twenty-first century has…… [Read More]

References:

The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2010, last accessed on February 25, 2010

Argentina -- Foreign Trade, Encyclopedia of Nations, 2010,  http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Americas/Argentina-FOREIGN-TRADE.html  last accessed on February 25, 2010

Argentina's Monetary and Exchange Rate Policies after the Convertibility Regime Collapse, Center for Economic and Policy Research, 2007, http://www.cepr.net/documents/publications/argentina_2007_04.pdf last accessed on February 25, 2010
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Global Credit Crisis on UK Northern Rock

Words: 2482 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44313415

Global Credit Crisis on UK Northern ock Bank

The lingering effects of the Great ecession of 2008 still remain, but most authorities appear to agree that the corner has been turned and global economic recovery is well underway. The cause of the Great ecession of '08 was primarily the sub-prime mortgage meltdown that occurred in the United States, and its effects were already being experienced as early as September 2007, when the United Kingdom experienced a mass market run on Northern ock Bank, the first in the nation's history. The global credit crisis that resulted from these events has been felt in differing degrees by the nations of the world, but few countries in the increasingly globalized international community have been entirely immune from its effects. To gain new insights into this fiasco, this paper provides a corporate profile for Northern ock Bank, followed by a review of the relevant…… [Read More]

References

'Corporate Profile.' (2011). Northern Rock Bank. [online] available: http://companyinfo.

northernrock.co.uk/investorRelations/corporateProfile/.

'Directors' report and financial statements for the period 3 July 2009 to 31 December 2009.'

(2010). Northern Rock Bank. [online] available: http://companyinfo.northernrock.co.uk / downloads/2009_NR_plc_Financial_Report_and_Accounts.pdf.
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Argentina Crisis the Argentine Crisis

Words: 2673 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56315423

S. dollars.

Although the plan had its share of supporters, it failed to be implemented because of the lack of political support. As a consequence, odriguez Saa resigned, and was followed by Eduardo Duhalde.

Factors Contributing to the Crisis

The crisis that affected Argentina was due to a combination of factors. Also, some of the factors that determined the crisis have their roots in the previous decades, increasing their effects and combining them with the effects of newer events that were not efficiently managed.

One of the most important causes that determined the crisis is represented by the political factor. The military dictatorship that ruled the country decades before the crisis has had its significant negative impact on Argentina's economic, social, and political evolution. The public management system developed and implemented by the dictatorship has taken the country off track of a country's normal evolution towards economic development in accordance…… [Read More]

Reference list:

1. Argentina (2009). Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. Retrieved November 17, 2009 from  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ar.html .

2. Lischinsky, B. (2003). The Puzzle of Argentina's Debt Problem: Virtual Dollar Creation? FONDAD. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from  http://www.fondad.org/uploaded/Argentina/Fondad-Argentina-Chapter6.pdf .

3. Alonso, V. (2004). Ten Years of Privatization Made Argentina's Crisis Worse. Albion Monitor. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from  http://www.albionmonitor.com/0401a/copyright/argentinaprivatization.html .

4. Evans, L. (2003). The Crisis in Argentina. UCLA International Institute. Retrieved November 18, 2009 from http://www.international.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=3566.
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Function of Money Money Has Four Purposes

Words: 1130 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68128964

function of money.

Money has four purposes. It serves as:

Medium of exchange -- i.e. The currency used for bartering one good for another

it serves as the standard numerical unit of measurement of the market value of goods, the value of the program, or transaction

A store of value -- it can be reliably saved, stored, and retrieved and used whenever it is retrieved. Its value remains unchanged.

A standard of deferred payment. - It is an accepted way to settle a debt ( Mishkin .2007)

• Explain how the central bank manages a nation's monetary system.

The Federal Bank manages the nation's monetary system by virtue of three strategies:

It can change the interest rate on money that it lends to banks. A higher interest rate makes money more expensive. Banks may be, therefore, more reluctant to sign loans to applicants. On the other hand, the Bank by…… [Read More]

References

Board of Govs. Of the FRS. How does monetary policy influence inflation and employment?  http://www.federalreserve.gov/faqs/money_12856.htm 

Chairman Ben S. Bernanke Semiannual Monetary Policy Report to the Congress Before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C. July 17, 2012  http://www.federalreserve.gov/newsevents/testimony/bernanke20120717a.htm 

Mishkin, Frederic S. (2007). The Economics of Money, Banking, and Financial Markets (Alternate Edition). Boston: Addison Wesley.

NY Times. (November 16, 2012) Federal Reserve (The Fed) http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/organizations/f/federal_reserve_system/index.html
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Finance it Is With Great

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9678386

Stories detailing the rise and fall of the Egyptians, the Roman Empire and other great nations proved mesmerizing and intriguing.

My interests in other areas have also been diversified; I have pursued many adventures, participated as president of many clubs, and won many competitions in music, sports, dance and more. My strength has always been academics however. During high school I was presented the unique opportunity to come to the United States and continue my education. It was here that I decided to study history initially. Though my parents pressured me to study finance or business, I found such work tedious at least initially. I did however entertain my parents and begin taking more classes in finance. This was probably the best decision I have ever made and helped create the professional I am today.

The more I learned the more I came to understand that finance was more than…… [Read More]

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Equations for a Macroeconomic Model Including Private

Words: 2136 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32512404

equations for a macroeconomic model including private, public, and international sectors. Derive the aggregate demand function. List the forces (i.e., factors) which are held constant for each behavioral equation. Select four of these and, for each, explain how a change in the exogenous factor will affect the aggregate demand function. Explain the effect of each change on real income and output, employment, the price level, the interest rate, the foreign exchange rate, and the government budget balance.

While this question asks us to derive the aggregate demand function, it should be noted that aggregate demand models do not exist sui generis but rather as a part of the paired set of aggregate supply and aggregate demand. These paired ideas together form a model of an aggregate economy, which is simply one in which the price level of any good is set by a balance that exists (or is sought) between…… [Read More]

High levels of inflation are most often found during times of war (certainly one rather dramatic constraint on typical marketplace activities) along with other serious forms of political upheaval as well as such key problems in the structure of productivity as poor harvests due to drought or sudden and unexpected shortfalls of key component parts of industrial processes. The Fed has every reason therefore to be cautious right now about inflation: There are few enemies more daunting to sustainable growth than inflation.

Much of contemporary economic growth theory can in fact be boiled down to various attempts to develop (and, one assumes, to have implemented) a theoretical model that is capable of bringing the rate of the growth of aggregate demand and the rate of the growth of aggregate supply into line with one another on the personal, national and international level.

All such economic models of growth may be loosely classified into two types: Those that emphasize tinkerings in demand (and which are called supply-determined models) and those that emphasize adjustments in supply (which are called demand-determined models). None of the many models in either of these two modes have proven to be entirely successful and it is perhaps because neither has taken into sufficient account the importance of the concept of sustainability. After all, we are in this for the long run - or at least we hope that we are. http://www.digitaleconomist.com
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John Maynard Keynes's Contributions to

Words: 2494 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17898336



A b) Consider the articles on behavioral economics at http://myweb.liu.edu/~uroy/eco54/histlist/behav-econ/index.html. Summarizethe main thrust of some of these articles. Based on these articles, what's your opinion of behavioral economics? Do you think behavioral economics represents a return to Veblen's ideas?

In many respects it can be agreed that behavioral economics has much in common with Veblen's theories. Behavioral economists agree with Veblen that in most cases humans act illogically, because they are driven by instincts rather than by pure reason.

Thorstein Veblen stated that economic processes are mainly affected by evolution, social relations, political situation and other factors which are more global than circulation of money and accumulation of wealth. His ideas of social relations domination in economics have much in common with ideas of behavioral economists, who state that economy is much affected by psychological factor, or behavior of social groups.

It's proved by a number of applied researches held…… [Read More]

References

Backhouse, Roger the ordinary business of life

Krugman, Paul Two cheers for Formalism available at  http://web.mit.edu/krugman/www/ formal.html

Whalen, Charles J. Putting a Human Face on Economics Business week online 2001 available at  http://myweb.liu.edu/~uroy/eco54/histlist/behav-econ/behav-finance.htm 

Diop, Julie Explaining the Irrational Technology Review, November 2002
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Ed Gold Scholarship as Might Be Expected

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Ed Gold Scholarship

As might be expected of the eldest child of two Nigerian immigrants, I possess an abiding entrepreneurial spirit and drive to succeed. I joined the New York Investment Banking Consulting team at FactSet Research Systems in September 2001 and was quickly promoted to Senior Consultant and Account Executive. I simultaneously enrolled in an evening statistics classes at NYU and joined Weichert Realtors as a real estate agent. These varied commitments forced me to learn how to multitask and set priorities. I fell in love with real estate and enrolled in the graduate program at Cornell.

The real estate program brought opportunities to travel to and study emerging real estate markets in Nigeria and China. During this time, I earned the title of second runner-up in the Miss Nigeria in America Beauty Pageant. I used my platform to raise awareness about Nigerian issues in America. In 2008, I…… [Read More]

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Keynesian Aggregate Expenditure Model Two Quotations Company

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Keynesian Aggregate Expenditure Model

Two Quotations:

Company profits grew strongly in the June quarter putting another question mark over the extent of the predicted economic slowdown..."

However the central bank acknowledged that the weaker data for capital spending intentions are at this point the only clear evidence of an impending slowdown"

These two quotations regarding the same economic scenario seem to pose the question to consumers and economists alike -- why a predicted economic slowdown, if company profits are growing strongly? hy place so much fear in the data regarding capital spending intentions on the part of consumers? hy turn to the tools macroeconomics has long focused on, that of monetary policy, which the central bank controls, and fiscal policy, which the federal government controls, to shift the current state of economic equilibrium, as described above? (Schenk, 1997, "Synthesis")

The answer lies in the Keynesian aggregate expenditure model. This model…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Keynesian Aggregate Expenditure Model." (2004) Amos Web. Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.amosweb.com/cgi-bin/gls.pl?fcd=dsp&key=Keynesian+aggregate+expenditure+model

Macroeconomic Equilibrium. (2004). Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://nova.umuc.edu/~black/meq00.html

Scheck, Robert. (1997) "Activism." Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://ingrimayne.saintjoe.edu/econ/Keynes/Activism.html

Scheck, Robert. (1997) "Synthesis." Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://ingrimayne.saintjoe.edu/econ/optional/ISLM/Overview14ma.html
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EMV Standard Implementation in Iranian

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They need to estimate the cost of poduction, pesonalization as well as the milling of the new chip cads.

Teminals

The budget should include the cost associated with the updating of teminals, Point of Sale (POS) devices and ATMs, in all types of envionments. These must howeve be consideed as new ongoing expenses and should include installation and maintenance of compliant teminals. Howeve, the costs of infastuctues elements ae not as they used to be in the past and have been continually educing. These consideations must be clealy noted in the budget

Systems

The budget should include the cost equied by the banks in upgading the system so as to be able to deal with elements of the new standads and its coesponding featues that could entail many changes in almost all potals that ae in communication with the system. The budget must also include the cost associated with staff…… [Read More]

references in Malaysia:

An empirical investigation