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Analgesic Systems Roles of Stress
Words: 1726 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99036369
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Gonadectomy alters the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia and alters the relationship between the gender-specific effects observed in sham-treated rats. Castration significantly decreased the magnitude of CCS analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests, and the magnitude of ICS analgesia on the jump test. Indeed castration reduced the magnitude of CCS and ICS analgesia in males to that observed for sham-treated female rats.

Conclusion

Given the multitude of CNS substrates and systems underlying both opioid and stress analgesia, and the likelihood that only a little differ amid sexes, we could rationally expect to come across sex differences in opioid analgesic efficacy in some occasions, depending solely on the nature of the ache incentive and opioid involved, as outlined earlier. It is important to also note that sex differences are no defined to opioid drugs in analgesia. Furthermore, commencement of endogenous pain inhibitory mechanisms in reaction to stress also produces…

Works Cited

Islam, Anita K., Madeline L. Cooper, and Richard J. Bodnar. "Interactions among Aging, Gender, and Gonadectomy Effects Upon Morphine Antinociception in Rats." Physiology and Behavior 54 (1993): 45-53. Print.

Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Gender-Specific and Gonadectomy-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia: Role of Steroid Replacement Therapy." Physiology and Behavior 44 (1988): 257-65. Print.

Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Modulation of Gender-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia in Gonadectomized Rats." Physiology and Behavior 40 (1987): 39-45. Print.

Main Systems of Human Body
Words: 3828 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37436002
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The circulatory or cardiovascular system is responsible for moving nutrients, wastes and gases between body cells, transporting blood across the whole body and battling disease (Circulatory System). Its principal elements are the heart, numerous blood vessels, and blood.

The heart forms the circulatory system's core. This 2-sided, 4-chambered pump which distributes blood to various arteries comprises of the right and left ventricles, and right and left atria. The ventricles, situated within the heart's lower half, are responsible for pumping blood to the whole body (away from our heart), whilst the atria, situated within the heart's upper half are in charge of receiving blood from different parts of the human body. The right and left ventricles pump de-oxygenated and oxygenated blood, respectively; de-oxygenated blood is pumped to lungs while oxygenated blood is pumped to the remainder of the human body (smith, 2013). These 4 chambers are connected to one another by…

Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems Static and
Words: 1064 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88782789
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Vestibular and Olfactory Sensory Systems

Static and Dynamic Equilibrium

Mechanisms of Vestibular-Mediated Equilibrium

There are two types of equilibrium that the vestibular system helps to maintain: static and dynamic (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31). Static equilibrium provides feedback concerning head position or head movement when the body is stationary. In contrast, dynamic equilibrium involves sensing motion or acceleration/deceleration of the head. Acceleration can be further divided into sensing a change in linear velocity, either horizontally or vertically, and angular velocity associated with rotation of the head.

The vestibular system's contribution to maintaining equilibrium critically depends on inner ear structures. The saccule and utricle together provide sensory information concerning static equilibrium and linear acceleration, while the semicircular canals contribute information about angular acceleration (Virtual Medical Centre, 2010, para. 31-32). Both the saccule and utricle contain a small patch of hair cells and supporting cells, which are known as maculae. The…

References

Hain, T. And Helminski, J. (2001). Anatomy and physiology of the normal vestibular system. In S. Herdman (Ed.) Vestibular Rehabilitation, 3rd Edition (pp. 2-18). Philadelphia F.A. Davis Company.

Lledo, Peirre-Marie, Gheusi, Gilles, and Vincent, Jean-Didier. (2005). Information processing in the mammalian olfactory system. Physiological Reviews, 85, 281-317.

Virtual Medical Centre. (2010). Ear. VirtualMedicalCentre.com. Retrieved 12 Dec. 2011 from  http://www.virtualmedicalcentre.com/anatomy/ear/29

Immune Biopsychology Interactions of the
Words: 4188 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47766172
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An interesting view of the immune system with particular implications for the current review and collation of information is provided by the field of computer science. The immune system makes many series of continual trade-offs, distributing resources in a way that necessarily leaves certain vulnerabilities in the system as a whole while providing greater comprehensiveness in coverage and protection when necessary (Hofmeyr 1997). This makes the immune system an adaptive and continually evolving and self-improving system; with little outside direction it is capable of assessing changing needs, and altering itself not only in particular instances but even in some of its general responses in order to provide greater long-term efficacy for the task of protecting the human organism from disease (Hofmeyr 1997). This view of the immune system as a contained and self-informing system is not entirely accurate, but it is a very useful perspective for our purposes herein.

The…

References

Buske-Kirschbaum, a. (2009). "Cortisol Responses to Stress in Allergic Children: Interaction with the Immune Response." Neuroimmunomodulation 16, pp. 325-32.

Coe, C. & Laudenslager, M. (2007). "Psychosocial influences on immunity, including effects on immune maturation and senescence." Brain, behavior, and immunity 21(8), pp. 1000-8.

Dugdale, D. (2008). "Immune response -- overview." University of Maryland medical center. Accessed 22 May 2010.  http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/000821.htm 

Dunigan, J.; Carr, B. & Steel, J. (2007). "Posttraumatic Growth, Immunity and Survival in Patients with Hepatoma." Digestive diseases and sciences 52(9), pp. 2452-9.

Psychology Applied
Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50942775
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Psychology

The nervous system is a part of an animal's body which is responsible for the coordination of voluntary and involuntary actions as well as the transmission of signals between different parts of the body. It is responsible for sending, receiving and the processing of nerve impulses all over the body. All the organs and muscles within the body rely upon the nerve impulses in order for them to function. The nervous system receives information from sense organs regarding the environment by means such as hearing, sight, smell, pressure, taste and pain. The nervous system consists of tow main parts; the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system comprises of the brain and the spinal cord. It is surrounded by the bone-skull and the vertebrae. The peripheral nervous system comprises of numerous neurons which are its functional units. The central nervous system is responsible for…

References

Farr, G. (2002). The Nervous System - Advanced Version / What is the Nervous System?. Become healthy now. Retrieved 6, September 2014 from http://www.becomehealthynow.com/article/bodynervousadvanced/826

Powell, K. (2014). Nature vs. Nurture . about parenting. Retrieved 6, September 2014 from  http://genealogy.about.com/cs/geneticgenealogy/a/nature_nurture.htm

FAS Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Was
Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70009229
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1968).

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is clearly a debilitating, serious, and devastating disease that affects not only prenatal fetuses, but developing children, teenagers, and adults, as well as their families, and society in general. While more research is needed to discover possible medications, surgery, or other choices for those already born with FAS, the only solution to the problem is education for pregnant women on the dangers of alcohol consumption on the life of their unborn child. Women addicted to alcohol should seek immediate assistance during pregnancy to avoid causing lifelong damage to their child, and those not addicted should abstain from alcohol consumption during pregnancy. It is only through abstinence that FAS can be extinguished.

eferences

Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, .J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is…

References

Aase, J.M., 1981, "The fetal alcohol syndrome in American Indians: A high risk group," Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 153-156.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1986, "Fetal alcohol syndrome is now leading cause of mental retardation," Lancet, vol. 2, p. 1222.

Abel, E.L. & Sokol, R.J., 1987, "Incidence of fetal alcohol syndrome and economic impact of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-related anomalies," Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 19, p. 51-70.

CDC, 2005, "CDC issues guidelines for identification of fetal alcohol syndrome," MMWR Morbid Mortal Weekly Report, vol. 54, no. 11, p. 1-15.

Reshaping the Sensory Environment Sensory Accuracy Survival
Words: 1297 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91865122
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eshaping the Sensory Environment

Sensory Accuracy

Survival of all animals depends on the accuracy with which sensory information is processed by the nervous system. Integrating this information in an efficient and effective manner depends on dynamic strategies that the nervous system relies on to determine the reliability and accuracy of the sensory inputs (reviewed by Zaidel, Turner, and Angelaki, 2011). This essay examines contemporary theories that attempt to explain how these strategies function.

eliability-Based Cue Combination (BCC) Theory

The reliability of a sensory cue is believed to determine the weight an organism assigns to a given cue, such that a more reliable cue may have a greater influence on behavioral outcomes (reviewed by Zaidel, Turner, and Angelaki, 2011). Empirical support for this theory has come from studies examining the integration of multisensory information. This theory has been called reliability-based cue combination (BCC).

eliability, as defined by BCC, is used interchangeably…

References

Bestmann, S., Oliviero, A., Voss, M., Dechent, P., Lopez-Dolado, E., Driver, J. et al. (2006). Cortical correlates of TMS-induced phantom hand movements revealed with concurrent TMS-fMRI. Neuropsychologia, 44, 2959-2971.

Burge, Johannes, Girshick, Ahna R., and Banks, Martin S. (2010). Visual-haptic adaptation is determined by relative reliability. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 7714-7721.

Scarfe, Peter and Hibbard, Paul B. (2011). Statistically optimal integration of biased sensory estimates. Journal of Vision, 11, 1-17. Retrieved 13 Apr. 2012 from www.journalofvision.org/content/11/7/12.

Winter, J.A., Allen, T.J., and Proske, U. (2005). Muscle spindle signals combine with the sense of effort to indicate limb position. Journal of Physiology, 568, 1035-1046.

Von Hippel-Lindau Von Hippel Lindau Disease Von
Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45262901
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Von Hippel-Lindau

Von Hippel Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

The von Hippel-Lindau, also known by its synonyms, familial angiomatosis cerebeloretinal, hemangioblastomatosis or retinal and cerebellar angiofacomatosis, is the abnormal growth of retinal- cerebellar vessels, and is classified as a rare disease of autosomal dominant hereditary character, within the group of phacomatosis. The disease was described by two independent groups, led by Eugen von Hippel (1904) and Arvid Lindau (1927). The cause of the disease is the mutation of both alleles of the VHL group, the one caused by genetic factors, and the second after a de novo mutation. The von Hippel-Lindau syndrome is considered by increased tendency to kidney tumors, central nervous system, including the cerebellum, and by affecting the retina. At the moment, no medical treatment is present for curing this disease, but knowledge of their symptoms and possible genetic research currently makes…

References

He's FJ, Hoppener JW, Lips CJ (2003). Clinical review 155: pheochromocytoma in Von Hippel-Lindau disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 88: 969 -- 974.

Johnston LB, Chew SL, Trainer PJ, Reznek R, Grossman AB, Besser GM, Monson JP, Savage MO (2000). Screening children at risk of developing inherited endocrine neoplasia syndromes. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 52: 127 -- 136.

Lindau A (1927). On the question of angiomatosis retinae and your brain complicatio. Acta Ophthalmol; 4: 193 -- 226.

Lonser R, Glenn G, Walther M, Chew EY, Libutti SK, Linehan WM, et al. (2003). Von Hippel-Lindau disease. Lancet;361:2059-67.

Market Driven Management
Words: 25695 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32150042
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Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.

It is the intention of this…

Bibliography

Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.

Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web:  http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm 

Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.

Neurobiology Resting Potential if the
Words: 1384 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 33236257
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When watching a scary movie alone at night, this system is likely to become engaged due to the perception of a threat; sudden noises are likely to cause an involuntary flight reaction that, of course, subsides after a moment.

8)

Temporal summation in a nerve cell occurs when the length of time over which successive activation potentials occur is sufficiently long enough to allow for the potentials to continue to the point where they begin to overlap. When this occurs, a new activation starts to begin before the climax of the preceding action potential has been reached. This action potential essentially ends prematurely, or summates, as it begins the rise into the next action potential, which ends up being larger in magnitude than the constituent action potentials. Summation of active potential in muscle fibers allows for similarly larger action potentials, which can increase the strength of the fiber contractions.

9)…

Teenager's Brain
Words: 2246 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4404191
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Teenager's Brain

A Teenagers Brain

The teenage brain is different from the normal adult's brain in which "…various parts of the brain work together to evaluate choices, make decisions and act accordingly in each situation." (Edmonds, 2010) The teenage brain can be compared to an entertainment center, according to Edmonds "that hasn't been fully hooked up. There are loose wires, so that the speaker system isn't working with the DVD players, which in turn hasn't been formatted to work with the television yet. And to top it all off, the remote control hasn't even arrived." (2010)

Brain Development

Edmonds (2010) explains that the remote control for the brain is the 'prefrontal cortex' described as "a section of the brain that weighs outcomes, forms judgments, and controls impulses and emotions. This section of the brain also helps people understand one another." (Edmonds, 2010) Synapses are used by the prefrontal cortex in…

References

Edmonds, M. (2010) Are Teenage Brains Really Different From Adult Brains? Discovery Health. Brain and Central Nervous System. Retrieved from:  http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/nervous-system/teenage-brain2.htm 

Adolescent Brain Development (2002) ACT for Youth -- Upstate Center of Excellence. Cornell University, University of Rochester and the NYS Center for School Safety. May 2002. Research Facts and Findings. Retrieved from:  http://www.actforyouth.net/documents/may02factsheetadolbraindev.pdf 

Sohn, Emily (2005) Teen Brains, Under Construction. Science News. 28 Sept 2005. Retrieved from:  http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20050928/Feature1.asp 

Winters, KC and McLellan, AT (2008) Adolescent Brain Development and Drug Abuse. Jan 2008. TRI Science Addiction (Treatment Research Institute) Philadelphia PA Retrieved from:  http://www.tresearch.org/archives/2008Jan_TeenBrain.pdf

Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse a Psychoactive
Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66395000
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Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse

A psychoactive substance refers to any chemical which both impacts the central nervous system and the way the brain functions. Psychoactive substances refer to stimulants (cocaine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine), sedatives and analgesics (alcohol, heroin), hallucinogens (PCP, psychoactive mushrooms). As stated in the DSM-III "psychoactive substance abuse is given the definition of being "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous" (Nordegren, 2002, p.11).

Social Effects

The social impact of psychoactive substance use and abuse on widespread scale is enormously detrimental to society. "In a 2005 report issued by the Department of Health and Human Services indicated that alcohol was associated with 100,000 preventable deaths each year and that it cost taxpayers nearly $185…

References

Aspen. (2011). The Impact of Trauma On Teenage Addiction. Retrieved from Crchealth.com: http://aspeneducation.crchealth.com/articles/article-trauma/

Becvar, D. (2013). Handbook of Family Resilience. New York: Springer Science Publishing.

Dennison, S. (2011). Handbook of the Dually Diagnosed Patient: Psychiatric and Substance Use. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Dick, D., & Agrawai, A. (2008). The Genetics of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence. Alcohol Research and Health, 111-118.

Neuromuscular Issues and Parkinson's Disease
Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94261949
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Anatomy: Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is a central nervous system disease that is degenerative. It disrupts normal functioning at the cellular level by reducing the activity of cells that secret dopamine (Davie, 109). That happens through the death of cells, as well, in a couple of different regions of the brain. The two regions most affected are both related to movement and learning. They also affect how a person reacts to something, and whether he or she feels like a particular behavior was rewarding. The pathways that connect the basal ganglia of the brain to other areas are all affected in people who have Parkinson's disease (Shulman, De Jager, & Feany, 196). The symptoms are based on the ways in which those pathways are disrupted by the disease process and the death of the cells. As these cells die, they are not able to stop the body's systems from activating…

Works Cited

Davie, C.A. "A review of Parkinson's disease." British Medical Bulletin, 86(1): 109 -- 127. 2008. Print.

Shulman, J.M., De Jager, P.L., & Feany, M.B. "Parkinson's disease: Genetics and pathogenesis." Annual review of pathology, 6: 193 -- 222. 2011. Print.

Rsd Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy AKA CRPS or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome CRPS
Words: 4914 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18797249
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History of RSD

The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for "burning pain." He wrote that, "Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl." Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms…

Bibliography

Allen, G., Galer, B.S., & Schwartz, L. (1999). Epidemiology of complex regional pain syndrome: a retrospective chart review of 134 patients. Pain, 80(3), 539-544.

Aronoff, G.M., Harden, N., Stanton-Hicks, M., Dorto, A.J., Ensalada, L.H., Klimek, E.H., Mandel, S., & Williams, J.M. (2002). American Academy of Disability Evaluating Physicians (AADEP) Position Paper: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (RSD): Impairment and Disability Issues. Pain Med, 3(3), 274-288.

Bakewell, S. (1995). The Autonomic Nervous System. Update in Anesthesia, 6(5), 1.

Barolat, G., Schwartzman, R., & Woo, R. (1989). Epidural spinal cord stimulation in the management of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 53(1), 29-39.

Neurotransmitters Are Chemicals Endogenously Produced in the
Words: 664 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94018370
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Neurotransmitters are chemicals endogenously produced in the body for the purpose of sending stimulus across from one neuron to the other through the synapse. Neurotransmitters, packaged in synaptic vessels, are clustered beneath the inner membrane of the axon terminal of the presynaptic membrane. The neurotransmitters upon stimulus are released into the synaptic cleft where they diffuse and attach to their particular receptors on the post synaptic membrane. The flow of action potential is the main stimulus to the release of the neurotransmitters. The main function of the neurotransmitters is to excite or inhibit certain kinds of receptors. Thereby the behavioral effect of the neurotransmitters depends on the kinds of receptors on the post synapse. Noradrenaline, an important neurotransmitter is involved in arousal and dopamine controls motor movements and cognition (Webster, 2001, p. 55).

Synapse consists of dendrites of one neuron and terminus of the other neuron. No physical connection is…

References

Jankovic, J. (2008). Parkinson's disease: clinical features and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 79:368 -- 376.

Neve, A.K. (2009). The Dopamine Receptors, The Receptors. Edition 2. Springer.

Webster, R. (2001). Neurotransmitters, Drugs and Brain Function. John Wiley and Sons.

Neuroborreliosis Borrelia Burgdorferi or Bb
Words: 2247 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 57244825
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Treatment

The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.

A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.

Greater Recovery Among Children

Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.

The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23

(April).Available from  http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm 

-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available

from  http://www.mentalhealthandillness.com/tnaold.html

Multiple Sclerosis
Words: 761 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62790396
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Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis or MS refers to an autoimmune, chronic condition which impacts physical movement, function and sensation. The problem sets in following neuron insulation destruction (i.e., myelin sheath destruction) within an individual’s central nervous system (CNS) (Cengage Learning, 2013). Symptoms of the disorder start showing up at early adulthood, greatly impacting patients’ domestic, social, and professional lives. As the absence of myelin retards action potential conduct, the disorder is manifested as performance impairment, having a potential destructive influence on patient behavior. MS often entails a relatively progressive onset of behavioral deficiencies and neurological symptoms (Hoang & Shepherd, 2010).
Multiple Sclerosis and Nervous System
Chronic, advancing cognitive deterioration within multiple sclerosis has been ascribed to a neuro-pathological, neurodegenerative disease process (in other words, diffused brain atrophy and axonal destruction). Additionally, atrophy and white matter lesions are known to play a significant part in cognitive dysfunction among individuals diagnosed with…

Galectin-1 in the Regulation of
Words: 4060 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Introduction Paper #: 10094274
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The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)

Muscle atrophy

Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)

All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…

Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana
Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27822679
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" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…

Bibliography

Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.

McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)

Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.

Endocrinology Amazing Hormones Counterbalance of Sugar and
Words: 2340 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87661716
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Endocrinology

AMAZING HORMONES

Counterbalance of Sugar and Fat Content between Insulin and Glucagon

Physical survival depends on the sustained availability and use of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP from sufficient levels of a substance, called glucose (owen, 2001). The use of energy depends on the varying levels of activity. Hence, the amount of glucose needed for activity likewise varies each day. Too much or too little glucose is damaging to the body, hence the need for some system to regulate the availability of glucose. It must be present at the precise time and amount that it is needed in order to maintain what is called glucose homeostasis. Homeostasis is the tendency of the body to maintain internal stability and balance through the coordinated responses of body parts to stimuli or conditions (owen).

Insulin and Glucagon

The regulation of glucose availability begins with the pancreas, primarily by…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Biomed (2002). Insulin/glucagons. Brown University. Retrieved on November 25, 2013

from http://biomed.brown.edu/Courses/B1108/B1108_2002_Groups/pancstems/stemcell/insulin_glucagon.htm

Bowen, R.A. (2001). Hormones, receptors and control systems. University of Colorado.

Retrieved on November 25, 2013 from http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/basics/index.html

Paxil Boon or Bane History
Words: 1510 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62478297
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Depression and other serious mental disorders are the most frequent causes of suicidal thoughts or actions. Certain groups of people are at a higher risk of this tendency than others. These can be prevented by watching out for symptoms like changes in mood and behavior. These symptoms include thoughts about suicide or dying; attempts to commit suicide; new or greater depression; new or greater anxiety; strong agitation or restlessness; panic attacks; insomnia; extreme irritability; aggressiveness or violent behavior; impulsiveness; manias; and other unusual behavioral or mood changes. It reminds patients never to stop a Paxil regimen without first notifying a healthcare provider. Antidepressants are medicines intended to treat depression and other serious mental illnesses. They have side effects. They can interact with other medicines. And not all medicines prescribed for children are not approved for children by the FDA (GlaxoSmithKline).

ibliography

Carey, . And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise…

Bibliography

Carey, B. And Harris, G. (2006). Antidepressant may raise young adult suicide risk. 2 pages. The New York Times: The New York Times Company

GlaxoSmithKline (2007). How Paxil Works. Your Life is Waiting. 1 web page. Retrieved on November 27, 2007 at  http://www.paxilcr.com/how_paxilcr_works/how_paxilcr_works.html 

Paxil Prescribing Information. 42 pages.

Healthfacts (2002). Paxil risky for kids - warning issued. 2 pages. Center for Medical Consumer, Inc.: Gale Group

Houdini Was Able to Modulate His Normal
Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 33544989
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Houdini Was Able to Modulate His Normal Physiology During His Stunts

The objective of this study is to examine how Houdini was able to modulate his normal physiology during his stunts.

Harry Houdini caused the world to marvel at his skill in escaping the bondage of handcuffs and was referred to as the 'handcuff king' and as well Houdini performed many other magic tricks that required more than merely illusion but instead required that he be able to alter his own body's physiology. The modulation of physiology enabled Houdini to accomplish great feats and to capture the imagination and attention of a large base of fans across many years. Houdini is well-known for having spent a great deal of time and effort to invalidate individuals who were so-called mediums communicating with the dead because he detested this type of trickery.

Modulation of Physiology

The modulation of physiology is similar to…

Bibliography

Randi, James (2001) My Heroes, The Pale Blue Dot, Houdini's Last Stunt. SWIFT. Online Newsletter of the JREP. 28 Dec 2001. Retrieved from:  http://www.randi.org/jr/122801.html 

Shermer, Michael (2001) Houdini's Skeptical Advice: Just Because Something's Unexplained Doesn't Mean It's Supernatural. Scientific American. 4 Feb 2011. Retrieved from:  http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=houdinis-skeptical-advice 

Seabourne, Tom Dr. (nd) Breathing and Heart Rate Control. Universal Nutrition. Retrieved from:  http://www.universalnutrition.com/features/breathingheartrate.html

Alcohol the Search for Pleasure
Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7643887
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Alcohol is classified as a depressant because it slows down the release of neurochemicals that inhibit certain behaviors. The subjective feelings associated with alcohol intoxication are due to its effects on the brain and central nervous system but that system also controls our behaviors. The depression of certain neurotransmitters often reduces reflex time and reduces general inhibitions.

The digestive system is also strongly affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol is absorbed almost entirely by the small intestine, from where the alcohol seeps into the blood. The liver is strongly affected by the absorption of alcohol and is in fact the main organ responsible for metabolizing alcohol. hen too much alcohol is consumed, the liver becomes overtaxed and cannot filter the toxins from the body as fast as it normally can. Over the long-term, the liver can become permanently damaged from too much alcohol consumption.

The heart and circulatory system are also…

Works Cited

Alcohol Absorption, Distribution, and Elimination." California DUI Help. Retrieved Feb 23, 2008 at http://www.californiaduihelp.com/dui_investigation/alcohol.asp

Boggan, Bill. "Alcohol Chemistry and You." Kennesaw State University, 2003.

Nursing and Issue of Falls Are Responsible
Words: 1482 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97600896
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Nursing and Issue of Falls

Falls are responsible for considerable morbidity, immobility, and mortality among older persons, especially those living in nursing homes. Falls can occur in a home, community, long-term rehabilitation, or acute care Setting (Laurence Z.. et.al, 1994). The risk of falls can be related mostly to mobility status, exposure to hazardous environments and risk-taking behaviors such as climbing ladders for seniors living in the community setting. Factors for a fall in hospitalized adults are greatly influenced by acute illness that often has a marked, albeit temporary, impact on physical and cognitive function compounded by care provided in unfamiliar surroundings in the long-term care setting, the risk factors for falls are influenced by impaired cognition, wandering or impulsive behavior, use of psychotropic medications, incontinence and urgency, lack of Exercise, unsafe environments, and low staffing levels. Patient falls are serious problems

In acute care hospitals and are used as…

References

Anuradha Thirumalai, (1998). Nursing Compliance with Standard Fall Prevention

Protocol Among Acute Care Hospital Nurses. Retrieved September 26, 2012 from  http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1191&context=thesesdissertations&sei-redir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.co.ke%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3Dnursing%2520compliance%2520with%2520standard%2520fall%2520preventionprotocol%2520among%2520acute%2520care%2520hospital%2520nurses%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D1%26ved%3D0CCAQFjAA%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Fdigitalscholarship.unlv.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1191%2526context%253Dthesesdissertations%26ei%3Dg-NiUPW8CuLB0QW_r4DgAw%26usg%3DAFQjCNE6__5zNu8vjRxc-jIFBXbBfKVIng#search=%22nursing%20compliance%20standard%20fall%20preventionprotocol%20among%20acute%20care%20hospital%20nurses%22 

Dykes, P.C., Carroll, D.L., Hurley, A.C., Benoit, A., & Middleton, B. (2009). Why do patients in acute care hospitals fall? Can falls be prevented? Journal of Nursing Administration, 39(6), 299-304. doi:10.1097/NNA.0b013e3181a7788a

Laurence Z. Rubenstein, Karen R. Josephson & Alan S. Robbins, (1994). Falls in the Nursing

Anatomical Position the Person Will Access Information
Words: 566 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3032335
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anatomical position, the person will access information stored in the hippocampus regarding the object's position, height, etc. The brains motor system in areas such as the motor cortex, primary visual cortex and the motor homunculus then activate to control the motor functions via the muscle movements. Electrical impulses via neurons connected to each other via axons and dendrites travel from the brain along the spinal cord and nerve fibers to the muscles with the spinal cord which make up the central nervous system. The impulses are then transferred to the peripheral nervous system under our control to the nerves in the hands, hips, shoulders, knees, feet, etc. To perform the step up motion.

Part 2:

The chemical activities in synaptic vesicles in the hippocampus activate synaptic terminals in the dendrites. The dendrites then activate neurotransmitters that impulse rapidly toward the neuron's cell body. Each nerve impulse begins in the dendrites…

Effects of Aging on Functional Ability
Words: 1410 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58532833
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ockstein and Sussman (1979) defined senescence as the period of life where the human body weakens and declines in function rather than grows, a period which is of course associated with physical aging. There is much individual and cultural variation in this process, this is a gradual process, and it occurs across all cultures and in all individuals. Cultural perceptions of aging were also noted by ockstein and Sussman to affect functional abilities as individuals grow older. An acceleration of senescence that occurs due to external factors such as disease, tobacco use, alcohol and drug abuse, poor diet, or physical trauma is known as secondary aging, and for the sake of brevity these factors will not be considered here. As people age there are numerous physical changes that take place that affect functional abilities, some obvious and some not so obvious. There are also cognitive changes that occur as a…

References

Al-Abdulwahab, S.S. (1999). The Effects of Aging on Muscle Strength and Functional Ability of Healthy Saudi Arabian Males. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 19 (3), 211-215.

Birren, J.E., Butler, R.N., Greenhouse, S.W., Sokoloff, L. & Yarrow, M.R. (Eds.) (1963). Human Aging: A Biological and Behavioral Study. (HSM Publication Number 71-9051). Washington DC: U.S. Publishing Office.

Paterson, DH, Jones, D.R., & Rice, C.L. (2007). Ageing and physical activity: evidence to develop exercise recommendations for older adults. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 98 (Supplement 2), S69 -- S108.

Rockstein, M. & Sussman, M. (1979). Biology of aging. CA: Wadsworth.

Human Factors Machinery Must Be
Words: 549 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89261597
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The first stage of assessment involves the assessment of the risks through measurement of physical and chemical parameters in the workplace, such as solvents, metals, dust, noise, lighting, heat stress, ergonomic and safety hazards. Once this is completed the following actions can take place: Promoting awareness of risks and following better practices such as substitution of solvents with less dangerous ones, improvement in ergonomic conditions and decreasing noise levels.

First, it is necessary to assess volatile organic solvents, metals, dangerous dust, noise, lighting, climate, ergonomic hazards and work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

This is done by studying the printing press site during printing; the printing press site during cleaning; at the binding site; at the packaging site; and in storage areas.

To determine heavy metals, a literature review needs to be conducted to obtain information on the type of inks and their use. The noise decibels must be measured, so they are…

Financial Managers it Is Important
Words: 1099 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69848545
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The demand pulls the manufacturing processes, rather than the supply.

JIT has required a new approach to accounting, as "traditional and standard costing systems track costs as products pass from raw materials, to work in progress, to finished goods, and finally to sales" (Johnson 2004). JIT has resulted in the creation of so-called "backflush accounting' which focuses on the output of an organization and then works "backwards" when allocating costs between cost of goods sold and the cost of available inventories (Johnson 2004).

Product vs. period classification

Product costs are the relatively stable material costs that are involved in making the product, such as input materials, labor, and overhead (Product cost vs. period cost. (2010). Accounting for Management). Period costs include the more variable and less predicable costs of manufacturing such as administrative costs and marketing and sales costs.

Value chain

Value chain analysis, first popularized by Michael Porter, strives…

References

Activity-Based Management: An overview. (2001, April). The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA). Retrieved March 13, 2010 at  http://www.cimaglobal.com/Documents/ImportedDocuments/ABM_techrpt_0401.pdf 

Conversion cost definition. (2010). Accounting for Management. Retrieved March 14, 2010 at  http://www.accountingformanagement.com/conversion_cost_definition.htm 

Direct and indirect costs. (2010). Sallie Mae. Retrieved March 14, 2010 at  http://www.collegeanswer.com/paying/content/pay_cost.jsp 

Gibson, Scott. (2001). LIFO vs. FIFO: a return to the basics. RMA Journal.

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa
Words: 1496 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97332427
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Psuedomonas Aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Epidemiology

The Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic killer that takes advantage of people suffering from medical problems (Van Delden and Iglewski, 1998).For this reason, P. aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial infection that occurs in hospitals. P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing 16% of pneumonia cases, 12% of urinary tract infections, 10% of bloodstream infections, and 8% of surgical infections due to hospital care. Patients who are immune-compromised are also susceptible to P. aeruginosa infections, such as patients undergoing chemotherapy, suffering from HIV / AIDS, recovering in burn units, and suffering from cystic fibrosis. With death rates ranging from 30 to 60% for these patients, P. aeruginosa is considered to be a significant threat to patient health.

Ecology

P. aeruginosa can switch between a free-swimming planktonic form and colonies enclosed within slime-protected biofilms attached to surfaces (Baltch and Smith, 1994,…

References

Baltch, A.L. And Smith, R.P. (Eds.). (1994). Pseudomonoas aeruginosa Infections and Treatment. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Botzenhart, Konrad and Doring, Gerd. (1993). Ecology and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In M. Campa, M. Bendinelli, H. Friedman (Eds.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an Opportunistic Pathogen (pp. 1-18). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Hawkey, Peter M. And Kerr, Kevin G. (2004). Laboratory investigation of health care-associated infection. In P. Hawkey and D. Lewis (Eds.), Medical Bacteriology: A Practical Approach (pp. 331-354). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Hurley, Matthew N., Camara, Miguel, and Smyth, Alan R. (2012). Novel approaches to the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, published online ahead of print, 1-19. Retrieved 23 July 2012 from  http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2012/06/27/09031936.00042012.long .

Recommendations for Improvement
Words: 1165 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 41467593
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Long-Term Care Facility Safety: Prevention and Reduction of Injuries Due to Falls

One out of every three adults ages 65 and older experiences a fall annually however, only about 50% of health care providers discuss falls with these individuals. Falls are the leading cause of injury death in adults 65 years of age and older. More than 19,700 adults died in 2008 form accidental fall injuries and in 2009 out of the 2.2 million nonfatal fall injuries in older adults in excess of 581,000 individuals had to be hospitalized. The direct medical costs were over $19 billion in 2000. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012) According to the National Council of Certified Dementia Practitioners, "One of the most challenging, life-threatening issues related to care of the person with cognitive loss is the occurrence of wandering, wherein the person strays into unsafe territories and may be harmed." (2012) It is…

Bibliography

Comprehensive Prevention Program (2012) Premier Inc. Retrieved from: https://www.premierinc.com/quality-safety/tools-services/safety/topics/falls/prevention_program.jsp

Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview (2012) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from:  http://www.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/Falls/adultfalls.html 

Koski, K., Luukinen, H., Laippala, P., & Liisa-Kivela, S. (1996). Physiological factors and medications as predictors of injurious falls by elderly people: A prospective population-based study. Age and Ageing, 25: 29-38.

McCarthy, R. Adedekun, C and Fairchild, R. (nd ) Preventing Falls in the Elderly Long-Term Care Facilities. RN Journal. Retrieved from: http://www.rnjournal.com/journal_of_nursing/preventing_falls_in_the_elderly_long_term_care_facilities.htm

Veterinary Nursing Anesthesia and Analgesia Case Journal
Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 88864222
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Veterinary Nursing Anesthesia and Analgesia Case Journal

The objective of this study is to address anesthesia needs in two specific cases with the first being a 12-week-old Jack Russell puppy and the second being a 12-year-old geriatric cat.

12-Week-old Jack Russell Puppy

This 12-week-old Jack Russell Puppy has eaten a babies dummy. This case study will highlight the anesthesia requirements and protocol and highlight the relevance of effect on renal function, speed of recovery, analgesia, emphasis on knowledge and understanding. Even at 12-weeks of age, this puppy is considered a pediatric patient according to the work of Gleed and Seymour (1991). This means that the patient has a higher oxygen requirement that the adult. The tongue of this patient due to his age is large and the airway is small in diameter. As well, there is a lower functional renal capacity in this age patient all of which make the…

Bibliography

Bennett, RC, et al. (2008) Comparison of sevoflurane and isoflurane in dogs anaesthetized for clinical surgical or diagnostic procedures. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 49, 392-397.

Gleed, R and Seymour C (Eds) (1991) Manual of Small Animal Anesthesia and Hall, LW Clarke KW Trim CM 2001 Veterinary Anesthesia 10th edition Myerscough College 2011 Drugs used for Premedication

HEDip CVN VN 2020 Veterinary Anesthesia: Anesthesia for Specific Scenarios. Session Introduction Myerscough College 2011.

Hollingshead KW & Mckelvey D (2000) Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia 3rd Edn Mosby Missouri

The Role of Art in the Development of Children
Words: 4304 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60696362
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Psychology and Teaching- The Importance of Art

How Childhood Events develop a lifetime in Art

One of the crucial times in an individual's life is early childhood. Early childhood acts as the basis for all later undertakings in one's life. It is not only the kids who suffer in case we, as a community, fall short in meeting their needs. We, the community, also suffer as a result. It is essential to note that their achievements are also our achievements. According to a recent report, the cost of every high school dropout is approximately at $292,000 (Sum, Khatiwada, McLaughlin, & Palma, 2009). Dropping out from high school is not a singular incident, but also a conclusion of several factors, commencing in early childhood. Encouraging parents and kids in the childhood years would possess some influence into elementary school, high school, early years of adulthood, and far beyond. The executives of…

References

Adolf Hitler: Biography and Character. (2015, September 20). Retrieved from www.suu.edu/faculty/ping/pdf/hitlerbiography.pdf

Brown, J. (2008). Educating the whole child Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and.

Clark, E. (2012). A Psychological Analysis of Adolf Hitler. Washington DC: University of Mary.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Ectopic Heterotopic Brain Tissue Extracranial Brain Tissue Without
Words: 4119 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48161127
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ectopic/heterotopic brain tissue. Extracranial brain tissue without direct connection to the brain itself may be an isolated cutaneous embryonic defect that is usually located on the occipital or parietal area of the scalp. Most of the time these are harmless and can be removed. These often are called heterotopic brain tissue or cutaneous ectopic brain tissue or (CEB).

ECTOPIC OR HETEROTOPIC BRAIN TISSUE

Extracranial brain tissue that is directly connected to the brain itself may be an isolated cutaneious embryonic defect. These are usually located on the occipital or parietal areas of the scalp. They are often called heteropic brain tissue or cutaneous ectopic brain (CEB) (Janniger 1). Most of the time these are simple defective tissue that can easily be removed from the scalp. However, there are several different types of ectopic brain tissues and some of these can be signs of underlying central nervous system problems. Each of…

Works Cited

Aplasia Cutis Congenita" Available Online at  http://www.keratin.com/af/af006.shtml 

Drolet, Beth Ann & Clowry, Lawrence. "The Hair Collar Sign: Marker for Cranial Dysraphism" Pediatrics Aug 1995 Part 1 of 2 Vol. 96 Issue 2 p. 309

Drolet BA, Clowry L. Jr., McTigue MK, Esterly NB. "The Hair Collar sign: Marker for Cranial Dysraphism" Pediatrics 1995 Aug 1996 (2 pt 1): 309-13

Fuloria, Mamta M.D. & Kreiter, Shelly M.D. "The Newborn Examination: Part I" American Family Physician Jan 1, 2002 Vol. 65 No. 1 www.aafp.org/afp

Neurofibroma Genetic Traits and Impact
Words: 5537 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52789543
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However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.

Respiratory System

Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…

Psychoneuroimmunology
Words: 1860 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73957139
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Therefore, this explains why stress would have such an effect on the immune functions of the body, at least from the perspective of someone who is doing an evolutionary investigation into the issue of the reasons why we see these phenomena occur.

Thus, psychoneuroimmunology is one of the most important and fastest growing areas of medicine to bridge the gap between neurological theory and medicinal practice. The literature is quickly evolving and changing. Indeed, there is an increasing hope that this field may be the one to deliver on the promise of the discovery of "the scientific foundations for a new type of treatment whose essence is to combat disease by strengthening the body's own defenses against stress" ("Association for the Advancement of Applied Psychoneuroimmunology"):

What is of importance is not whether we have our emotional ups and downs, but rather that lingering unresolved emotions and inflexible ways of coping,…

Bibliography

Association for the Advancement of Applied Psychoneuroimmunology." Retrieved November 26, 2003 at  http://hometown.aol.com/AAAPNI/ .

De Kooker, Margo. "Psychoneuroimmunology: An Overview." Retrieved November 26, 2003 at http://www.wellness.org.za/html/pni.html.

PNI Adaptiveness." Retrieved November 26, 2003, at http://www.lgu.ac.uk / psychology/staff/elander/health/PNIAdaptiveness.html.

Psychoneuroimmunology." Retrieved November 26, 2003, at http://www.datacomm.ch/kmatter/psychone.htm#_Toc442256827.

Brain to Body Impulse Impact
Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21628894
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" This allows the palm of the hand to go either up or down when in motion. The radius and the ulna connect with the bones which that are attached to the wrist and hand.

The thumbs of the human hand make it possible for the hand to lift and carry objects. The movement of the human hand is due to evolutionary development of bipedalism. The human hand consists of twenty seven bones. The wrist has cube shaped bones placed in rows of two or four each. The palm of the hand consists of bones called the carpals. hen lifting a glass of water the striated muscle pulls the radius and ulna allowing the arm to reach for the glass. The flexor muscles in the hand and fingers are used to flex the fingers around the glass making it possible to grip. The flexors which are located near the elbow…

Work Cited

"sliding filament theory." A Dictionary of Biology. 2004. Feb 13, 2010.

Sotos Syndrome Is a Disorder
Words: 2205 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 6935295
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For instance a patient suffering from hypotonia may receive physical therapy to assist them in gain more control over bodily movements. Likewise an individual with Sotos syndrome that has been diagnosed with ADD may be treated with behavioral counseling and medications. Behavioral therapies may also be needed to combat aggressiveness, develop social skills, combat tantrums and some personality disorders that may be present. The mental retardation that can occur as a result of Sotos may be treated with learning therapies and through special education. Also language delay may be treated with speech therapy.

Individuals that develop tumors and cancer as a result of the disorder may be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. Likewise those with heart defects or kidney problems may need surgery or dialysis. Medical treatments may also be necessary as it relates to any skeletal malformations that may persist into adulthood as some researchers have reported that…

References

Finegan, J.K.,Cole, Trevor R.P.;Kingwell, E.,Smith, M. Lou;Smith, M.,;Sitarenios, G. (November 1994) Language and behavior in children with Sotos syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

Hglund, P., Kurotaki N., Kytl S., Miyake N., Somer M., Matsumoto N. (2003)

Familial Sotos syndrome is caused by a novel 1 bp deletion of the NSD1 gene. J Med Genet 2003; 40:51-54

NINDS Cephalic Disorders Information Page. Retrieved August 11, 2007 from;

Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cell Recent Studies
Words: 3683 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55971983
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Intrinsically Photosensitive etinal Ganglion Cell

ecent studies on biological anatomy of the eye discovered an additional photoreceptor within the mammalian eye. The cells discovered mediate the primary non-image visual activities with the vision system. The functioning of these cells aids in various significant processes including the regulation of the papillary reflex activity in response to light, as well as, the circadian photo entrainment. These cells, called the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells respond to more than the absolute light. The ipGCs have a unique feature of activity, as they differ from the usual photoreceptor cells of cones and rods. The rods and cones mediate on the vision of images by signaling the contrasts in light after adaptation. Interestingly, the ipGCs also do adapt to light contrast. The cells show sensitivity to flash of light, as is the case with other photoreceptors. The factor of action of the intrinsically photosensitive ganglion…

References

1. Bellintani-guardia, B., & Ott, M. (2002). Displaced retinal ganglion cells project to the accessory optic system in the chameleon (chamaeleo calyptratus). Experimental Brain Research, 145(1), 56-63. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-002-1091-z 

2. Ben Simon, G.,J., Hovda, D.A., Harris, N.G., Gomez-Pinilla, F., & Goldberg, R.A. (2006). Traumatic brain injury induced neuroprotection of retinal ganglion cells to optic nerve crush. Journal of Neurotrauma, 23(7), 1072-82. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2006.23.1072 

3. Engelund, A., Fahrenkrug, J., Harrison, A., & Hannibal, J. (2010). Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is co-stored with PACAP in projections from the rat melanopsin-containing retinal ganglion cells. Cell and Tissue Research, 340(2), 243-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00441-010-0950-3 

4. Henderson, D., & Miller, R.F. (2003). Evidence for low-voltage-activated (LVA) calcium currents in the dendrites of tiger salamander retinal ganglion cells. Visual Neuroscience, 20(2), 141-52. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/198275379?accountid=458

Neurofibromatosis
Words: 1513 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21567499
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Introduction
According to Gutmann et al. (2017) neurofibromatosis is a group of three conditions whereby tumors grow in the nervous system. These conditions are neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), neurofibromatosis type II (NF2), and schwannomatosis. It is considered to be a genetic disorder of the nervous system. Neurofibromatosis mainly affects the development and growth of nerve cell tissue. The tumors can develop anywhere in the nervous systems including spinal cord, brain, and nerves. These tumors are mostly noncancerous, however, there have been instances when they do become cancerous. The most common condition is NF1. Schwannomatosis is the most recent and it is a rare type of neurofibromatosis. Little is known about schwannomatosis.
NF1 manifests at birth or in early childhood. It is characterized by multiple café-au-lait (light brown) spots that are concentrated in the groin and underarms (Gutmann et al., 2017). It is also manifested by benign tumors under the skin.…

Schistosomiasis 200 Million People Afflicted
Words: 1210 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14665432
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The symptoms and signs of chronic schistosomiasis are mostly the body's reaction to the eggs retained in the tissues. S. mansoni or S. japonicum can cause mucosal ulcerations, bloody diarrhea, focal fibrosis, strictures, fistulas and papillomatuous growths. Ulcerations in the bladder by S. haematobium may bring on dysuria, hematuria, frequent urination, and chronic cystitis. Secondary bacterial infections in the genitor-urinary tract may also develop. S. mansoni can induce persistent Salmonella septicemia. S. haematorium may cause genital disease or infertility. Their eggs can cause fibrosis and cirrhosis, portal or pulmonary hypertension in the liver or transverse myelitis and seizure in the central nervous system (Pearson).

Diagnosis and Treatment

Schistosomiasis is diagnosed through a urine or stool test for parasites (DHPE, 2010;

DPDx, 2010). The Centers for Disease and Control uses a blood test on a sample taken 6-

8 weeks after exposure. It can be cured with praziquantel taken for 1…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

DHPE (2010). Schistosomiasis fact sheet. Infectious Facts: Directors of Health Promotion

and Education. Retrieved on November 5, 2010 from  http://www.dhpe.org/infect/schisto.html 

DPDx (2010). Schistosomiasis. Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria: Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved November 5, 2010 from  http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/dpdx/html/schistosomiasis.htm 

Kogulan, P. And Lucey, D.R. (2010). Schistosomiasis. eMedicine Specialties: Infections.

Adults With Learning Disabilities it Has Been
Words: 14280 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 855258
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Adults ith Learning Disabilities

It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.

One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National

Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.

Background

In 1963, the term "learning…

Works Cited

Author Unkown. Adult with Learning Disabilities

http://www.niwl.org/nalldc/ALLDissues.html

Corley, Mary Ann & Taymans, Juliana M. Adults with Learning Disabilities:A Review of Literature

 http://www.josseybass.com/cda/cover/0,0787960624%7Cexcerpt,00.pdf

Effects of Teratogenic Agents on Fetal Development
Words: 2018 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33963352
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Teratogens and Fetal Development

Teratogens can be described as agents that contribute to fetal injury and birth defects or an abnormality because of fetal exposure during pregnancy. Some of these agents that lead to fetal injury or birth defects include chemicals, environmental contaminants, infections, and drugs. These agents tend to result in such abnormality in fetal development when a woman is exposed to them during the term of the pregnancy. The agents are always discovered following an increased prevalence of a specific birth defect or abnormality. Pregnant women are increasingly susceptible to teratogens since these agents can be found in various settings at home in the working environment. Notably, the effect of the agents on fetal development is dependent on the kind of agent, duration, and extent of the exposure. Generally, teratogens and fetal development can be about legal and/or illegal drugs and the effects on the fetus while in…

References

Aboubakr et. al. (2014). Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Norfloxacin in Pregnant

Female Albino Rats. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2014, 1-6.

Bercovici, E. (2010). Prenatal and Perinatal Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Neuro-cognitive

Development in the Fetus. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 11(2), 1-20.

Lashley Sought to Find the
Words: 1803 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9034772
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Even a person not living near the poles can suffer from this condition because in many areas of the world, winter time means a decrease in sunlight. Thus, someone with SAD might blame the end of the hustle and bustle of the holiday season as the reason for their depression, but it might actually be a manifestation of the lack of sunlight. The holiday season might have simply been an ample distraction from the lack of sunlight.

3. On average, people who use much marijuana are more likely than others to develop schizophrenia. However, over the last several decades, the use of marijuana has increased substantially while the prevalence of schizophrenia has remained steady or decreased. What would be a reasonable conclusion about the relationship between marijuana use and schizophrenia?

One could conclude that people suffering from schizophrenia are using marijuana as a means of self-medicating. Marijuana can have a…

References

Kalat, J.W. (2012). Biological psychology. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage.

Krabbe Disease
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Krabbe Disease

Genetic Components of the Disease

Metabolic Components of the Disease

Causes of the disease

Symptoms of the disease

Diagnosis of the disease

Treatment of the disease

Cord lood Transfusion

Treatment for Late on-set Form

Gene Therapy

Incidence and Longevity of the disease

Socioeconomic Factors

Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)

Genetic Components of the Disease

GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…

Bibliography

(2011). The Case of Krabbe Disease. In J. Lantos, Dangerous and Expensive Screening and Treatment for Rare Childhood Diseases. Kansas City, Missouri.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, June). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 2013, from Krabbe Disease:  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/krabbe-disease/DS00937/DSECTION=risk-factors 

Orchard, P. (2013). National Marrow Donor Program. Krabbe Disease.

Rosenberg, R.N. (2008). The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Meat Packing Industry
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Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry

In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…

References

American Meat Industry Fact Sheet: 'Worker Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry', (2002) Available at www.meatami.com/content/presscentre/factsheets_infobits/FactSheetWorkerSafety.pdf. Accessed 11/28/2003

Brodeur, C. (n.d) Agriculture and Agri-food Canada - 'Meat Safety: The war on bacteria', Available at http://www.res2.agr.gc.ca/orda/pubs/art8_e.htm. Accessed 11/28/2003

Cannon, J.E et. al (1996) 'Pork Chain Quality Audit Survey: Quantification of Port Quality Characteristics', Journal of Muscle Foods (7), 56-62

Chesworth, N (1997) 'Food Hygiene Auditing', Blackie Academic & Professional, London

Cognitive Counseling This Is a
Words: 5805 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 29574321
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Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).

Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).

Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…

Bibliography

American Heritage Dictionary. "Medical Dictionary: "mind." 2009. TheFreeDictionary.com. 15

May 2009 .

Beck, J.S. "Questions About Cognitive Therapy." n.d. Beckinstitute.org. 15 May 2009 .

Biggs, D. And G. Porter. Dictionary of Counseling. Charlotte, N.C.: IAP, 2000.

Charcot-Marie Tooth Syndrome Definition and
Words: 2666 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66269973
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In the third trimester of pregnancy, caution must be taken concerning congestive heart failure, hypertension and decreased renal and hepatic function, interstitial nephritis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia and renal papillary necrosis, anticoagulation abnormalities, leucopenia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. The use of Celecoxib is aimed primarily at suppressing pain and inflammatory stimuli, but it may contribute to NSAID gastrointestinal toxicity. The lowest possible dose of celecoxib should be prescribed and taken. On the whole, NSAIDs can mask the usual signs of infection, therefore, caution must be taken in the presence of existing controlled infection. The physician should investigate symptoms and signs, which suggest liver dysfunction or abnormal liver lab results.

On September 30, 2004, Merck and Company voluntarily withdrew rofecoxib from the American and world markets because of its association with an increase in cardiovascular incidence (Keldaya 2005). A major Food and Drug Administration study linked the medication to a three-fold rise in the…

Bibliography

Avicena. (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Disease Targets. Avicena Group. http://www.avidenagroup.com/disease_targets/neuromuscular/cmt_php?print=on

Kedlaya, D. (2005). Charcot-Marie=Tooth Syndrome. eMedicine.com, Inc. http://www.emedicine.com/arthoped/topic43.ht

National Center for Biotechnology Information (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Genes and Diseases. U.S. National Library of Medicine.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv_fcgi?call=bv.view.ShowSection&rid=gnd.section.197 

National Human Genome Researc Institute. (2004). Learning About Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. National Institutes of Health.  http://www.genome.gov/11009201

Afro Cubans the Bulk of the Cuban
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Afro Cubans

The bulk of the Cuban community in exile in Miami focuses on its white contingency. Afro-Cubans have a second-class status there, and their patterns of migration have been much different than they have for white Cuban refugees and immigrants. As Newby & Dowling (2007) note, recent Afro-Cuban immigrants have settled in various other places in the United States including the Southwest, where there are already entrenched Chicano communities and African-American communities. Afro-Cubans do not fit into the Chicano communities, the communities with other white Latinos, or the African-American communities. Language presents one of the most significant cultural barriers and identity markers distinguishing the AfroCubans from the African-Americans. Although they share some common ethnic heritage and ancestral experiences of racism, slavery, and political oppression, centuries have passed since their cultures demonstrated divergent trajectories. With regards to white Latinos in the Southwest such as Austin and Albuquerque, race raises serious…

References

"Effects of Heroin Use." (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.heroinabuse.us/effects.html 

National Institutes of Health's National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA 2010). InfoFacts: Heroin. Retrieved online:  http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/infofacts/heroin

Nutritional Ergogenic Aids
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Nutritional Ergogenics

The word "ergogenic" means having a tendency to increase work. In the perspective or setting of sports, this term encompasses processes employed to enhance the production as well as the performance of physiological energy. Nutritional ergogenic aids can be defined as dietary and nutritive supplements that purportedly increase the level of performance beyond the expected levels under normal circumstances and conditions (Coleman). A supplement can be defined to be a substance that is added to the everyday diet of an individual in order to redress the balance of a nutritional deficiency. More often than not athletes anticipate that ergogenic aids will offer them an added or competitive advantage in their events as they uniformly do not aspire to lose. Taking into the consideration the fact that sporting races and competing events are won by small differences and disparity of as little as one hundredth of a second, it…

References

Applegate, L. (2005). Nutritional Ergogenic Aids. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82 no. 3 710-711.

Coleman, E. (2000). Ergogenic Aids. Retrieved 13 June from:  http://health.csusb.edu/dchen/sports%20nutrition/ergogenic_aids%20chapter.htm 

Dmitry V Zaretsky, Mary Beth Brown, Maria V Zaretskaia, Pamela J. Durant & Daniel E. Rusyniak (2014). The ergogenic effect of amphetamine, Temperature, 1:3, 242-247, DOI: 10.4161/23328940.2014.987564

Harnish, C. (2015). Caffeine, the Ergogenic Aid. Retrieved 13 June from:  http://www.active.com/nutrition/articles/caffeine-the-ergogenic-aid

States of Consciousness
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Consciousness

The term consciousness has been defined as "mental awareness of sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings" (Brown, et al. 2003, p. 166). Most human beings live in three states of consciousness: waking, sleeping, and dreaming. Two other states of consciousness, meditation and drug-altered consciousness, can be induced. This essay will explore these five states further and will conclude with a discussion on their psychological relevance.

Waking

Most of our lives are spent in waking consciousness, that is, a state of clear and organized alertness (Brown, et al., 2003). When we are awake, our perception of time, places, and events are real and often accurate. An electroencephalograph (EEG), a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain, reveals that a person in the waking state has low-amplitude brain wave patterns that are fast and irregular.

Sleeping

Contrary to popular beliefs, sleep does involve some awareness (Lindsay et al., 2004). The…

References

Brannon, L. & Feist, J. (2007). Health psychology: an introduction to behaviour and health.

Belton, CA: Wadsworth.

Brown, P., Coon, D., Malik, R., & McKenzie, S. (2003). Psychology: a journey. Scarborough,

ON: Thompson Nelson.

Psychology Impact of Neurotransmitters on
Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57281081
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d.).

Norepinephrine

Norepinephrine, one of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, has been reported to be connected to several functions such as memory, cognition, consciousness, and emotion. It plays significant roles in the path physiology of depression. Norepinephrine transporter (NET) is responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine into presynaptic nerves and is one of the main targets of antidepressants (Sekine, Arakawa, Ito, Okumura, Sasaki, Takahashi & Suhara, 2010). The norepinephrine system is important in: attention like alerting, focusing and orienting, appetitive behaviors, hedonic or pleasurable properties of natural and drug-related reinforcement and mood, arousal, and regulation of blood pressure (Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS, n.d.).

Serotonin

Serotonin is a hormone, also called 5-hydroxytryptamine, in the pineal gland, blood platelets, the digestive tract, and the brain. Serotonin acts both as a chemical messenger that transmits nerve signals between nerve cells and that which causes blood vessels to narrow.…

References

Acetylcholine. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.chemistryexplained.com/A-

Ar/Acetylcholine.html

Biogenic Amine Neurotransmitters in the CNS. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://axon.psyc.memphis.edu/~charlesblaha/3507/Biogenic%20Amines/Lecture%20-

%20Biogenic%20Amines%20-%20Summer%203507.pdf

Armstrong Arguing Mind Brain Disticntion a
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rmstrong arguing mind . brain disticntion a distinction a difference (akin a distinction a kleenex a tissue)? Does adequately explain human conduct?

rmstrong - mind theories

There is much controversy regarding the difference between mind and brain, as while some support the belief that the mind has nothing to do with the brain because there is nothing physical about the former's functioning, others consider that the mind and the brain are basically the same thing. ccording to ustralian philosopher David Malet rmstrong, it is safe to say that the mind and the body are one and the same, particularly when considering each of them to be "that in which mental processes occur' or 'that which has mental states'" (rmstrong, 1993, p. 1). People are typically inclined to believe that the mind is not physical because it is seen (through history) as an entity that has no physical shape, being the…

All across the twentieth century, a number of philosophers shifted their attention from the belief that the mind had actually been immaterial and came to think of it as being material and actually being physically connected to the body, given that it is part of it. Armstrong in particular lobbies for people to accept that mental processes should be associated to psychico-chemical statuses present in the nervous system. Exemplifying this through the connection between DNA molecules and living cells, Armstrong demonstrates that mental processes can be likened to DNA molecules, physically influencing the body (Armstrong, 1993, p. 358).

If mental processes are equivalent to physico-chemical processes in the central nervous system, it means that they are also responsible for human behavior. People are generally inclined to believe that there is no connection between the mind and the brain because they cannot understand how a process that is purely physical is capable to determine complex thinking (Armstrong, p. 358).

In general, people who are reluctant to accept materialist theories do so because they have not yet been acquainted with a machine that is capable to produce processes like the ones generated by the mind. However, once they are aware that such mechanisms exist, they are likely to abandon their mentalist convictions and embrace materialist theories, certain that there is nothing more to the mind than purely physical processes (Armstrong, p. 358).

Anesthesia Inhalation Agents Effects on
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Gurkan, Y., Canatay, H., Agacdiken, a., Ural, E., & Toker, K. (2003). Effects of halothane and sevoflurane on QT dispersion in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth, 13(3), 223-227.

Kerssens, C., Ouchi, T., & Sebel, P.S. (2005). No evidence of memory function during anesthesia with propofol or isoflurane with close control of hypnotic state. Anesthesiology, 102(1), 57-62.

Macario, a., Dexter, F., & Lubarsky, D. (2005). Meta-analysis of trials comparing postoperative recovery after anesthesia with sevoflurane or desflurane. Am J. Health Syst Pharm, 62(1), 63-68.

Marczin, N. (2004). Editorial I: Tiny wonders of tiny impurities of nitrous oxide during anaesthesia. Br J. Anaesth, 93(5), 619-623.

Ng, a. (2005). Sevoflurane sedation in infants - a fine line between sedation and general anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth, 15(1), 1-2.

Preckel, B., Mullenheim, J., Hoff, J., Obal, D., Heiderhoff, M., Thamer, V., et al. (2004). Haemodynamic changes during halothane, sevoflurane and desflurane anaesthesia in dogs before and after…

References

Desalu, I., Kushimo, O.T., & Odelola, M.A. (2004). Cardiovascular changes during halothane induction in children. Niger Postgrad Med J, 11(3), 173-178.

Gungor, I., Bozkirli, F., Celebi, H., & Gunaydin, B. (2003). Comparison of the effects of neuroleptanesthesia and enflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia on neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium. J Anesth, 17(2), 129-132.

Gurkan, Y., Canatay, H., Agacdiken, a., Ural, E., & Toker, K. (2003). Effects of halothane and sevoflurane on QT dispersion in paediatric patients. Paediatr Anaesth, 13(3), 223-227.

Kerssens, C., Ouchi, T., & Sebel, P.S. (2005). No evidence of memory function during anesthesia with propofol or isoflurane with close control of hypnotic state. Anesthesiology, 102(1), 57-62.

Vicodin and Its Addictive Nature
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Addictive Nature of Vicodin

According to statistics provided by the Department of Health and Human Services, an estimated one and one-half million people in the United States started taking prescription painkillers for "non-medical" purposes in 1998, three times as many as in 1990. One of the most heavily abused painkillers is Vicodin.

Properly used, Vicodin is one of the most commonly prescribed pain medications, especially for those suffering from lower back pain, arthritis, post-operative distress, malignant cancer or sports injuries. It is not time-released, and therefore provides almost instant relief. Vicodin is a compound of two drugs: acetaminophen (found in Tylenol) and hydrocodone bitartrate. Both are painkillers, but together they are far more effective than either one individually.

Twenty tons of Vicodin are produced annually, and it is marketed under a plethora of brand names including Anexsia, Bancap-HC, Ceta-Plus, Co-Gesic, Dolacet, Hydrocet, Hydrogesic, Hy-Phen, Lorcet, Lortab, Margesic-H, Maxidone, Norco and…

Works Cited

Addicted to Vicodin." Extra, The Waismann Institute in the News #08. March 15, 2001. http://www.methadone-detox.com/vicodin_addiction_extra.html[November 10, 2002].

Associated Press article, Naples News, Wednesday, Nov. 21, 2001. "Deaths from abuse of OxyContin, hydrocodone skyrocketing. http://www.naplesnews.come/01/11/florida/d713145a.htm[November 10, 2002].

Costello, Daniel. "Clean and Sober in 48 Hours?." LA Times, October 28, 2002.

Indiana Prevention Resource Center at Indiana University, findings reported in Time article, March 19, 2001.  http://www.jointogether.org/plugin.jtml?siteID=iprc&p=1&Tab=News&Object_ID=266437 .[November 10, 2002].

Behavioral Biology
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ehavioral iology

iopsychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes through a biological approach (Cooper 2000). Practitioners in this field believe that biological processes may explain certain psychological phenomena, such as learning, memory, perception, attention, motivation, emotion, and cognition, particularly problems and issues connected with these phenomena. iopsychology is also called biological psychology, psychobiology, behavioral biology or behavioral neuroscience (Cooper).

Practitioners in this new field use varied and overlapping fields of study: cognitive neuroscience, which primarily examines the brain to understand the neural workings of mental processes; psychopharmacology, which deals with the effects of drugs on psychological functions; neuro-psychology, which is concerned with the psychological effects of brain damage in humans; behavioral genetics, which deals with behavior and psychological traits; evolutionary psychology, which is involved with how psychological processes have evolved; and comparative psychology, which compares findings among different species (Cooper). The last science centers on ethology, which…

Bibliography

Chudler, E. (2001). Biopsychology.  http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/introb.html 

2003). The Mystery of the Human Brain. The Quest Team. http://library.thnkques.org/TQ0312238/cgi-bin/view.cgi

Cooper, Cat. (2000). Biopsychology. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Online Encyclopedia. http://www.angelfire.com/az2/MystiCat/biopsychology.htm

Cummings, Benjamin. Behavioral Biology. Pearson Education, Inc. http://biosci.usc.edu/documents/bisc121-fuhrman_11/403.pdf

Fibromyalgia One Might Consider Fibromyalgia to Be
Words: 6457 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37868620
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Fibromyalgia

One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.

Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…

Bibliography

Adiguzel, O., Kaptanoglu, E., Turgut, B., & Nacitarhan, V. (2004). The possible effect of clinical recovery on regional cerebral blood flow deficits in fibromyalgia: a prospective study with semiquantitative SPECT. South Med J, 97, 7, 651-655

Baldry, P. (1993). Complementary medicine. The practice of acupuncture needs tighter safeguards. Bmj, 307, 6899, 326

Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cedraschi, C., & Vischer, T.L. (2002). A six-year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis, 61, 7, 644-645

Bennet, Robert. (2000). The Scientific Basis for Understanding Pain in Fibromyalgia. Myalgia.com. Retrieved August 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web:  http://www.myalgia.com/Scientific%20basis.htm

Krabbe Disease Also Known as
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Though there are state laws and federal laws that militate against discrimination at any levels, the application of this law is a challenge and the patients end up being discriminated against anyway. The victims will most likely end up in nursing homes where they will receive treatment but this separates them from the family life.

The other factor is the cost that weighs down the concerned people in terms of medical bills. It is a disease that is expensive to manage since there are numerous scans that one must get and the cost of specialized care doesn't make it any better. The good news however is that there are several organizations that have volunteered to help the victims of this disease like Hunters Hope (2009) which was purposefully formed to cater for patients of the disease in terms of support and information among many other organizations.

Reference

Alexander C. Guo,…

U.S National Library of Medicine (2011). Krabbe Disease. Retrieved April, 11, 2011 from  http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/krabbe-disease 

University of Maryland Medical Center (2009). Krabbe disease - Overview . Retrieved April, 11,

2011 from  http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/001198.htm

Spina Bifida
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Spina Bifida is one of the many birth defects neonates are at risk of. However, this particular defect is unique because it is characterized by problems in the central nervous system (CNS) and it has a low death rate. The causes of this medical condition are quite difficult to determine as they are subject to hereditary and environmental elements. Simply put, Spina Bifida refers to a situation where the spinal cord is not fully developed. In extreme cases, the spinal vertebrae could be so badly formed that the delicate spinal cord is left unprotected. In most cases, the spinal cord suffers damage due to this. The baby could suffer from reduced brain function and poor transmission of commands to affected organs. This slightly damaged link from the brain to the body tissues and organs leads to poorly developed body systems. There are other associated problems with this spinal defect even…

Brilliant Blue G On Spinal
Words: 1446 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 60749023
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This was finding of a research conducted on rats at the University of Rochester Medical Center in 2004. The research team, led by Dr. Maiken Nedergaard, worked on the premise that inflammation causes more irreversible and inevitable damage than the initial trauma (Henrich, Kelly, Reinhardt et al.).

The team injected the blue food dye into some of the experimental rats with spinal cord injuries (Reuters 2009, Takahiro 2009, Michaud 2009, Ehrenberg 2009). The rats at first began to move, hobbled about and turned blue. Rats, which did not receive the injection, did not walk or move at all. A substance, called ATP, is the source that keeps cells alive. The research showed that ATP runs out of control in spinal cord injury, activates an inflammation-causing molecule and kills spinal neuron cells. Treatment must be administered immediately after the injury. The experiment showed that rilliant lue G. blocks the action of…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ehrenberg, Rachel. Brilliant Blue for the Spine. Vol 176 # 5. Science News: Society

for Science and the Public, 2009. Retrieved on January 16, 2010 from http://www.siencenews.org/view/generic/id/4593/title/Brilliant_blue_for_the_spine

Hendrich, Bill. Blue Dye in M & M. Helps Spinal Cord Injuries? Web MD Health News:

WebMD LLC, 2009. Retrieved on January 16, 2010 from  http://www.webmd.com/brain/news/20090729/blue-dye-mms-helps-spinal-cord-injuries

Stem Cell Stems Cells Are
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eferences

Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of eligion and Public Life 25+.

Patel, K., & ushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.

Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982

Shapiro, .S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell esearch Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.

Stem Cell Basics." (2006). Stem Cell Information from the National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/

Wagner, C.G. (2007, January/February). Values Conflicts in Stem-Cell esearch: Governments Struggle with Bioethical Issues. The Futurist, 41, 8+.

Precursor cells are also known as pluripotent cells, i.e., having the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make…

References

Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 25+.

Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.

Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. Retrieved on March 4, 2007 at  http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982 

Shapiro, R.S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.