Castration significantly decreased the magnitude of CCWS analgesia on the tail-flick and jump tests, and the magnitude of ICWS analgesia on the jump test. Indeed castration reduced the magnitude of CCWS and ICWS analgesia in males to that observed for sham-treated female rats.
Given the multitude of CNS substrates and systems underlying both opioid and stress analgesia, and the likelihood that only a little differ amid sexes, we could rationally expect to come across sex differences in opioid analgesic efficacy in some occasions, depending solely on the nature of the ache incentive and opioid involved, as outlined earlier. It is important to also note that sex differences are no defined to opioid drugs in analgesia. Furthermore,...
Cooper, and Richard J. Bodnar. "Interactions among Aging, Gender, and Gonadectomy Effects Upon Morphine Antinociception in Rats." Physiology and Behavior 54 (1993): 45-53. Print.
Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Gender-Specific and Gonadectomy-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia: Role of Steroid Replacement Therapy." Physiology and Behavior 44 (1988): 257-65. Print.
Romero, Maria-Teresa, et al. "Modulation of Gender-Specific Effects Upon Swim Analgesia in Gonadectomized Rats." Physiology and Behavior 40 (1987): 39-45. Print.
Cardiac Stress Response: The Use of Anesthetic Technique to Promote Positive Outcome; Analyzing the Pros and Cons of Technique Cardiac surgery by nature elicits a powerful stress response resulting from activation of stress hormones including epinephrine, norpinephine and cortisol hormones among others. Surgical trauma and blood loss may contribute to this stress response. Some surgeons have suggested that cardio pulmonary bypass surgery in and of itself activates an inflammatory response that
role of disease prevention through herbs and diet, and what constitutes a healthy lifestyle. Just about everyone knows that diet and exercise play a vital role in overall good health. Just about everyone knows that fresh fruits and vegetables should play an important role in a healthy diet. However, studies indicate that fresh herbs can also play a crucial role in a healthy diet, and may help prevent certain
Prescription, Nonprescription and Herbal Medicines Prescription, Non-prescription and Herbal Medications: Exploring Interactions in the Geriatric Population Geriatric medicine, generally referred to as just "geriatrics" is a branch of internal medicine and health care that focuses primarily on the diagnoses, prevention, care and treatment of disease and disability in elderly patients. Elderly patients involve those senior members of the population that develop a disability, or are suffering from a disease that is a
Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) Systems Complementary and alternative medicine systems are health care approaches that are characterized by a history of use or origins that are external to mainstream medicine or health care practices. These health care systems or approaches have lasted for centuries since different kinds of complementary and alternative medicines have been reported. According to the World Health Organization, different types of complementary and alternative medicines have acted
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a complex medical condition that affects about 5 million American people. The condition is characterized by "chronic widespread pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, stiffness, impaired memory and concentration, anxiety and depression." (Facts of Life, 2001). Sleep disturbance and an increased sensitivity to pain follow a cyclic pattern in individuals having FMS, the result of which is a positive feedback loop. (Etiology of Fibromyalgia, 2003). Typically, fibromyalgia affects women,
For some, there will be a denial and minimization of the substance habit as being inconsequential, purely recreational or extremely intermittent. This response is akin to the young adult asserting that there is no problem. For other homeless youths, their drug or alcohol habit maybe viewed as a form of survival: these drugs help these teenagers bear life on the street. In that sense the substance is attributed as