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Charles Darwin is one of the founding fathers of psychology. Charles obert Darwin was born in Shrewsbury, England on February 12th, 1809 and died on April 19th 1882 ("Wikipedia"). Darwin's was the grandson of Erasmus Darwin who was an intellectual figure in the history of science. His father was a well respected, successful physician. Charles Darwin comes from a line of intellectual men and was expected to do great things. Darwin attended Shrewsbury school, then continued his studies at Edinburgh University where he studied medicine and then later studied theology at Cambridge University. Charles Darwin did not excel in school, the way his family expected him to, however at Cambridge University he became an advocate for natural history ("Encyclopedia of Psychology"). Darwin has made much significant contribution in the field of Psychology. In this paper I will provide information about Darwin's life and his contributions to the field of psychology.…
Bjorklund, D.F. & Pellegrini, A.D. "American Psychological Association." Evolutionary developmental psychology. APA, 2002. Web. 19 Feb 2011.
"Charles Darwin." Wikipedia. The Free Encyclopedia, 2011. Web. 19 Feb 2011. .
"Darwin, Charles Robert (1809-1882)." Encyclopedia of Psychology 04.06 (2001): n. pag. Web. 19 Feb 2011. .
Martin, X, Swaminathan, A, & Mitchell, W. Organizational evolution in the interorganizational environment. Administrative Science. 43.
The article also discusses the scientist John Tyndall, who with others in the British Advancement for the Society of Scientists, strongly supported Darwin. If it is admitted that matter has power attributed to it, where did it get that power? There can only be one answer, or the existence of a Devine Being. Similarly, if it is assumed that matter has developed into form and life, it regulates its procedure through by following certain determined laws. Where did these laws come from, if not from the Devine Being? In fact, doesn't the theory of natural selection actually give God greater credence and power, since he purposely arranged the atoms to develop one life form into another? The theory of evolution is just about how one form of life evolves into another over time. It does not address how life came about in the first place or what led to…
Butt, Riazat. 1, February 2009. Half of Britons do not believe in evolution, survey finds. U.K. Guardian.Science section. 7, March, 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/2009/feb/01/evolution-darwin-survey-creationism
English Church Quarterly, July 1882 "Charles Darwin and Evolution" and "The Province of Skepticism and the Limits of Free Thought."
New York Times September 5, 1874. Front Page. Origin of Man: Nature of the Discussion Creation or Evolution. Questions Suggested-Distinction.
Bowler, Charles Darwin
Peter Bowler's study Charles Darwin: The Man and His Influence intends to give an accurate portrait of the ideas of the nineteenth-century naturalist within their historical context, while also correcting certain misconceptions and myths. To a certain extent, Bowler is writing a recognizable type of work -- a history of science that emphasizes twentieth century notions about the history of science, namely that new ideas do not emerge from nowhere and are immediately accepted neither by the scientific community nor by the general public. If Bowler's title sounds like this is a straightforward biography of Darwin, it is worth noting that his real purpose is to place Darwin in a greater context, whereby his ideas seem less radical -- and more related to pre-existing schools of thought -- than they have frequently been portrayed. The only radicalism, perhaps, is the way in which Darwin's theory ultimately undercuts…
Bowler, Peter. Charles Darwin: The Man and His Influence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print.
I was working well as an application tester, but my wish was to be advanced and work as a business analyst. As such, some of my activity was dedicated to proving to my boss that I would be performing better and more efficiently as a business analyst rather than as a software tester. This did not mean that I would be able to perform less well on my current job, but rather that I had to be involved in activities that supported my claim for the new job as well. Eventually, such an approach provided the correct premises for me to assume the new position.
At the same time, besides showing your own qualities, one also needs to show why those qualities are better than those of other colleagues. The show of qualities always needs to be presented relative to the others rather than just in an absolute manner. I…
Mary Shelley, Frankenstein, Charles Darwin, Origin of Species
There are many themes which readers can discern in Mary Shelley's inestimable work of literature, Frankenstein. They include the virtues of humanity vs. The vices of monstrosity, the power and effect of family and "community" (Bentley 325), as well as the considerable ramifications of ambition and work. However, the prudent reader will perceive that the principle motif unifying all of these themes, and that which is the most poignant and which sets the foundation for this manuscript is that of intimacy. It is intimacy that Victor himself had and spurned in favor of his labor, intimacy that the his creation forever was distanced from and therefore inevitably craved, and a prevalent intimacy htat fostered between Victor and alton, which was also evident in the relationship between the former and his sister Margaret. There is little doubt that the dearth of intimacy that…
Bentley, Colene. "Family, humanity, polity: theorizing the basis and boundaries of political community in Frankenstein." Criticism. 47 (3): 325-351. 2005. Web. http://muse.jhu.edu.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/journals/criticism/v047/47.3bentley.html
Levy, Michelle. "Discovery and the Domestic Affections in Coleridge and Shelley." SEL Studies in English Literature 1500-1900. 44 (4): 693-713. 2004. Web. http://muse.jhu.edu.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/journals/studies_in_english_literature/v044/44.4levy.html
Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. New York: Penguin Classics. 1985. Print.
This understanding could be tested and verified, as well as communicated to others. In addition to biology, other disciplines adopted this process, including philosophy, and now are consumed by its principles; and one of its overriding principles is the idea of constant criticism. Dewey stated that criticism's value lay in the fact that "it continuously provides the instruments for the criticism of those values - whether of beliefs, institutions, actions, or products - that are found in all aspects of experience." (Dewey, Experience and Nature, ix) Criticism provides the tools for an individual to remain honest about what they know and understand, and not to fall into the trap of systemic dogma, or improvable beliefs.
Ultimately Charles Darwin broke humanity free of its self-imposed restrictions of thought and opened it up to the endless possibilities of a random universe. Darwin's idea that changes in species could be caused by chance…
Dewey, John. The Influence of Darwinism on Philosophy and Other Essays in Contemporary Thought. New York: H. Holt, 1910. www http://www.googlebooks.com/
Dewey, John. Experience and Nature. Chicago, Il: Open Court, 1929.
Charles Darwin believed that all organisms, including human beings, evolved from a single life form (Darwin 1982) and that each organism's traits varied and passed on from parent to offspring in an accidental, environmental and non-determined way called natural selection. He believed that such traits depended more on environmental than sexual factors and that these traits passed on if they were better suited for survival and successful reproduction. Through this process, he viewed that original or "maladaptive" traits progressively disappeared as descendants replaced those unfit to survive, thus the selective advantage of traits that could suit environment change. Darwin's theory of evolution was and has been the most widely accepted explanation among many.
ut German Fuhrer Adolph Hitler believed that nature should not be allowed to proceed aimlessly (1996) but that a particular human stock, called the Aryan race, should be protected from infiltration by inferior strains (Mein Kampf…
Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species. Paperback. Viking Press, 1982
Dixon, Patrick. The Genetic Revolution. Global Change, 1995. http://www.globalchange.com/books/Genes3.htm
Hitler, Adolph. Mein Kampf, 1933. Houghton Mifflin, New York: Hutchinson Publications, Ltd., 1969
Institute for Philosophy and Public Policy. Genetic Encores: the Ethics of Human Cloning. Maryland School of Public Affairs, 1999. http://www.puaf.umd.edu/IPPP/Fall97Report/cloning.htm
" It is just as true today. There are still many things that cannot be explained by science.
The appearance of design is as powerful today as it was over two thousand years ago. That is especially true of the living world. The more that geneticists and biologists study, the more it is seen that the living world exists with amazing complexity and sophistication.
The cell is a perfect example. In Darwin's time, scientists thought cells were quite simple -- only blobs of protoplasm. In fact, it has only been a few decades since biologists have recognized just how complex these small entities are. Bruce Alberts of the National Academy of Sciences, has said: "We have always underestimated cells. Undoubtedly we still do today. But at least we are no longer as naive as we were when I was a graduate student in the 1960s.... The entire cell can be…
Dembski, William. The Design Inference. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge
University Press, 1998.
Edis, Taner. "Intelligent Design Meets Artificial Intelligence." Skeptical Inquirer. 25.2 (March/April 2001). 56.
Mayr, Ernst. What Evolution Is. New York: Basic Books, 2001.
The Galapagos rats were able to survive by floating on large pieces of vegetation or debris to reach the islands. In fact, the rats "hold the world record for ocean crossings by land mammals," (Galapagos Conservation Trust 2008).
About 1600 species of insects inhabit the Galapagos including large ones like locusts, butterflies and moths. The Galapagos also has unique species of land snails. Hundreds of fish species live in the warm waters surrounding the Galapagos. The plant diversity on the Galapagos has changed dramatically since the introduction of fruit-bearing trees especially in highland areas. However, indigenous species of orchid and cacti still grace the Galapagos landscape.
The Galapagos Islands have a varied terrain and ecosystem. Elevation levels and locations of the islands determine the local flora and fauna. Some parts of the Galapagos are dry and rocky, whereas others are more heavily forested. The Galapagos does not look like a…
Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galapagos Islands (2006). "Challenges to Galapagos." Retrieved Dec 20, 2008 at http://www.darwinfoundation.org/en/galapagos/challenges
Galapagos Conservation Trust (2008). Land animals of the Galapagos Islands. Retrieved Dec 20, 2008 at http://www.gct.org/landfact.html
Galapagos Island Species." (2008). Retrieved Dec 20, 2008 at http://www.galapagosdiscover.com/info/galapagosflorafauna.htm
Charles Peirce maintained that unconditional love gives rise to courage that helps in the generation of new ideas. This love known as agapism generates in a person a desire to break free of old habits and take risks which reflects the unfolding of God's mighty plan of evolution.
Charles Peirce developed an interesting theory of love and evolution that combined biology with philosophy to give us a scientific version of his philosophical musings. In these theories he combined Darwin's theory of evolution with ethical teachings and his own philosophies to explain how mind worked and the significance of love in our lives. He believed that concepts of evolution and philosophy were intricately connected and were part of the same process. This idea was expressed in his "The Law of the Mind" and is largely based on such concepts as Synechism, Tychism, and Agapism. These terms literally mean continuity, chance, and…
Charles Sanders Peirce, Collected Papers, Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Charles Sanders Peirce (author) Philip P. Wiener (editor). Values in a Universe of Chance: Selected Writings of Charles S. Peirce. Doubleday. Garden City, NY. 1958
Darwin's Finches And Natural Selection
Polymorphism pertains to the existence of two distinctly different groups of a species that still belong to the same species. Alleles for these organisms over time are governed by the theory of natural selection, and over this time the genetic differences between groups in different environments soon become apparent, as in the case of industrial melanism." (Biology Online, 2000) Darwin's finches are an excellent examples of such polymorphism, "of the way in which species' gene pools have adapted in order for long-term survival via their offspring." (Biology Online, 2000)
The finches Darwin studied were a species of small Galapagos finches and were only found on the Galapagos Islands. They were geographically isolated and without competition from similar species but these finches developed distinctive anatomy. Darwin noted how finches in some areas had completely different shaped beaks than other finches. Even though all were of the…
Darwin, Charles. The Galapagos Islands. London, England; New York, NY: Penguin Books, 1995.
Darwin's Finches and Natural Selection. (2000) Biology Online. http://www.biology-online.org/pfriendly.htm?tutorial=15
The first and most serious is that any type of modification will produce a certain type of outcome. While it is true in the most general sense that helpful modifications are more likely to be retained, it is imperative to keep in mind that significant mutations to an organism are typically fatal, and that most genetic mutations that yield living organisms either cannot produce viable offspring or have an insignificant or slightly negative effect. Hence, pure quantity of variance within a species is meaningless, and the big decisions fall to fate: is species X capable of adapting to cataclysmic event Y? While the ability to adapt to diverse conditions is helpful, no significant change will occur in a species without significant pressure.
The reason is that only mild, phenotypic variation can take place in a large, breeding population. Significant alterations, as previously noted, are typically fatal or incidental. Even if…
The purpose of this work is to explore the "Theory of Evolution" as set forth by Darwin and to further explore what is termed as "natural selection" as well as that of "artificial selection." This paper will further examine Darwin's Theory as to the workings of evolution as well as exploring exactly how natural selection works to produce evolution.
Finally, the role of individual genetic variations in relation to evolution and natural selection will be researched. The evolving of traits in species will also be examined as well as the applicable use of those theories.
Having first traveled throughout the world, on a ship, exploring both land and water, in the role of a "Naturalist," and having observed the wonders of the Andes and witnessed the result of Chilean earthquakes, crossed hundreds of miles, trekking through unknown regions, Charles Darwin, returned to England.
Darwin continued to study and…
Bennett, Albert F. et al. (nd) "Relevance of Evolutionary Biology to the National Research Agenda " Executive Summary [Online] available at: http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~ecolevol/fulldoc.html
Ballyntyne, Paul, Ph.D (nd) "Evolution and Psychology In Darwin, Romanes, Morgan, James, Dewey, and the Chicago Functionalists" [Online] available at: http://www.coment.ca/~pballan/section4(210).htm
Williams James and Functionalism (nd) available [Online] at: http://www.psych.utah.edu/gordon/Classes/Psy4905Docs/PsychHistory/Cards/James.html
Bennett, Albert F. et al. (nd) "Relevance of Evolutionary Biology to the National Research Agenda "
One of the most difficult challenges in applying evolutionary theory to the study of human behavior is determining the time frame in which to study human behavior as a form of adaptation. Evolution is a process that takes place over hundreds of thousands of years, and as such, evolutionary adaptations are often lagging far behind cultural and environmental changes. For example, the political climate of the United States might change every four years after an election, but babies born during a democratic presidency will not have adapted in an evolutionary sense such that their future offspring will be "more democratic" than republican. This time lag in evolution can create confusion when searching for evolutionary and adaptive explanations for human behavior and this problem arises mostly from the fact that our behavior we show today is likely a form of adaptation to an environment that existed hundreds or even thousands of…
Had the Enlightenment adequately prepared 19th century readers for Darwin's Origin of the Species? The Enlightenment view of the science of life was neatly summed up by Diderot in his Encyclopedia, in many ways a signature product of the Enlightenment's dedication to setting forth the foundations of human knowledge. As Diderot notes in his prefaratory comments, what we call biology falls under the heading of "Natural History":
The divisions of natural history derive from the existing diversity of the facts of nature, and the diversity of the facts of nature from the diversity of the states of nature. Either nature is uniform and follows a regular course, such as one notes generally in celestial bodies, animals, vegetables, etc.; or it seems forced and displaced from its ordinary course, as in monsters; or it is restrained and put to different uses, as in the arts. Nature does everything, either in…
Campbell, John Angus. Why Was Darwin Believed? Darwin's Origin and the Problem of Intellectual Revolution. Configurations 11.2 (2003) 203-237.
Cosans, Chris. Was Darwin a creationist? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 48.3 (2005) 362-371.
Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Sixth Edition. Project Gutenberg. Accessed 25 March 2012 at: http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2009/2009-h/2009-h.htm
Diderot, Denis. "Detailed Explanation of the System of Human Knowledge." The Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert Collaborative Translation Project. Translated by Richard N. Accessed 25 March 2012 at: http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.did2222.0001.084
Darwin's Theory Of Evolution
The construct of irreducible complexity is a pivotal aspect of genetic theory and of Darwinian theory. Irreducible complexity is a nexus of the older science of biology from which Darwin built his theory and modern genetic engineering. Darwin's words for irreducible complexity, most commonly associated with his argument about the construction of the eye, were "Organs of extreme perfection and complication," and Darwin further explicates,
"Reason tells me, that if numerous gradations from a simple and imperfect eye to one complex and perfect can be shown to exist, each grade being useful to its possessor, as is certainly the case; if further, the eye ever varies and the variations be inherited, as is likewise certainly the case and if such variations should be useful to any animal under changing conditions of life, then the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye could be formed…
Abalaka, M.E. & Abbey, F.K. (2011). Charles Darwin theory of evolution and modern genetic engineering. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion, 1(7):174-177. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://innovativejournal.in/index.php/jpro/article/viewFile/685/592
Bergman, G. Pangenesis as a source of new genetic information. The history of a now disproven theory. Rivista di Biologia, 99(3): 425-43. 2006, September-December. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17299698
Darwin, Charles. "Difficulties on theory." Chapter 6. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1st edition). 1859. Retrieved from http://friendsofdarwin.com/docs/origin-1/chapter-06/
Liu, Y. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics? Rivista di Biologia, 98(2); 305-322. 2005. 12 December 2014. Web. Retreived from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16180199
An objective glance at history tells us that the social contract was a real and actual covenant. The first people who banded into communities formed some overt and covert covenant with their neighbors, replete with trappings, that later became known as 'legal', in order to ensure their survival within this band of fellow strangers. The racial contract, though real, did not displace the social contract. Although the social contract, as per the French revolutionists terms of liberty, equality and fraternity never existed - even amongst Whites, it was always a myth and more symptomatic of Utopia - practical forms of the social contract, albeit with variations amongst gender and race, persisted. Integrated with the social contract, however, was a racial form of contract where male supremacism characterized by Christians of the white race gained sufficient power to dominate others who did not belong to their gender or race. acial category,…
Mills, C. (1997). The Racial Contract, Cornell University Press, Ithaca & London
Likewise the native' darker skin which shields them against the sun reveals them, in Darwin's eyes, as closer to nature. The fact that they speak a different language that is not of the Indo-European family like Darwin's English, or Romantic (presumably, he would not look down upon them if they spoke French rather than their native tongue) likewise is unscientifically judged upon the basis that Darwin finds it unpleasant to listen to. Strikingly, even though some of these natives have already picked up a few words of English and can mimic the body language of the crew, showing what might be called a quick linguistic intelligence, Darwin sniffs that all savages are good mimics, and complains about the difficulty of getting black and white answers from individuals who have shown remarkable efforts in rapid language acquisition!
In his account of the Beagle's voyage to the Straight of Magellan, he…
Darwin, Charles. The Voyage of the Beagle. E-text. 24 Sept 2007. http://www.literature.org/authors/darwin-charles/the-voyage-of-the-beagle/index.html
Although this theory totally impacted the world, Darwin's second book the Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871) began a major debate, especially between religion and science. As he stated in the conclusion of his book, "The main conclusion here arrived at, and now held by many naturalists who are well competent to form a sound judgment is that man is descended from some less highly organized form."
He even theorized that intelligence and emotion could develop through natural selection.
However, he also stressed the difference between humans and lower animals. Man has a conscience and moral sense. In Chapter 4 he states: "any animal whatever, endowed with well-marked social instincts, the parental and filial affections being here included, would inevitably acquire a moral sense or conscience, as soon as its intellectual powers had become as well, or nearly as well developed, as in man."
Darwin, C. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. (1859) Retrieved January 5, 2007 http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/origin.html
Darwin, C. Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871). Retrieved January 5, 2007. http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/charles_darwin/descent_of_man/
Desmond, a. And Moore, J. (1991) the Life of a Tormented Evolutionist: Darwin
New York: Warner.
For example, the species on a single continent are more likely to be similar to one another, even if they live in vastly different environmental conditions, than species from two different continents. Darwin drew heavily upon his experience on the Beagle to suggest that ability to engage in migration was an important component of natural selection. Darwin drew upon examples of islands to help explain his ideas, using examples from his time on the Beagle. For example, he theorized that animals develop to fit certain ecological niches, and that animals of different types might fill those niches in different areas.
After discussing how geography has impacted biology, Darwin moves on to a discussion of how species are classified. He acknowledges that the science behind these classifications is imperfect, as it is based on resemblance. He states his belief that animals with similar traits share a common ancestor. In this way,…
Darwin, Charles. The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. London. Odhams Press Limited, 1872.
Darwinists Must Be Crazy
Imagine the possibilities of learning about Charles Darwin, and studying many forms that exist, such as social, economic and political. However, does this apply to every situation based off his theory? Is survival of the fittest applicable in statistics? How about natural selection? One will investigate further the theory of evolution by discussing probability and many other factors involved.
Every person who believes in evolution thinks that the earth is four billion years old sometimes more or less depending on his or her viewpoint. In order for anything to appear true, species and the origin of everything has to go from simple to complex organisms. Charles Darwin mentions that all life came out of former existence (Darwin, 2003). Is this really true, though?
Instead of using five billion years, let us use 13 billion instead. One can assume that all of these days were good. Furthermore,…
Darwin, C. (2003). Origin of species: 150th anniversary. New York: Signet Classics.
Hoyle, S.F. (1997). The origin of the universe and the origin of religion. Kingston: Moyer Bell.
Nielsen, R. (2005). Statistica methods in molecular evolution. New York: Springer.
" (Dafler, 2005) Dafler relates that for more than thirty years children who were 'half-caste' "were forcibly removed from their families, often grabbed straight from their mother's arms, and transported directly to government and church missions." (Dafler, 2005) This process was termed to be one of assimilation' or 'absorption' towards the end of breeding out of Aboriginal blood in the population. At the time all of this was occurring Dafler relates that: "Many white Australians were convinced that any such hardship was better than the alternative of growing up as a member of an 'inferior' race and culture." (2005) it is plainly stated in a government document thus:
The destiny of the natives of Aboriginal origin, but not of the full blood, lies in their ultimate absorption by the people of the Commonwealth, and [the commission] therefore recommends that all efforts be directed towards this end." (eresford and Omaji, Our…
Dafler, Jeffrey (2005) Social Darwinism and the Language of Racial Oppression: Australia's Stolen Generations ETC.: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 62, 2005.
Erich Fromm Foreword to a.S. Neill SummerHill (New York, 1960).
Hawkins, Social Darwinism; Shibutani, Tamotsu and Kwan, Kian M. Ethnic Stratification: A Comparative Approach. New York: The Macmillan Company (1965).
Jacques Ellul, the Technological Society (New York, 1967), 436.
revolutionary thinkers held widely disparate viewpoints regarding war. Charles Darwin's viewpoint was based on the assumption that war was a manifestation of humans' "struggle for existence." In his book The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1882) Darwin explained that natural selection was behind the development of certain human social qualities, namely sympathy, courage, and fidelity. Thus in a fight between two primitive human tribes, the tribe that had the most sympathetic, courageous, and secure warriors was most likely to succeed. ar was thus seen as being essential towards the diffusion of such noble qualities throughout the world.
Karl Marx's view towards war was that it was an essential aspect of the Communist revolution. In the Communist Manifesto (1848) he laid out the steps that would lead towards this revolution. The first step was that an inevitable "class struggle" would occur between workers and capitalists. This would…
Darwin, Charles. The descent of man and selection in relation to sex. 1882. Retrieved April 16, 2005 from British Library Online at: http://pages.britishlibrary.net/charles.darwin2/texts.html
Grassie, William. "The fateful question in Freud's Civilization and its discontents." 2000. Retrieved April 16, 2005 from Temple University's Intellectual Heritage Website at:
Zelnick, Stephen. "An introduction to the Communist Manifesto." N.d. Retrieved April 16, 2005 from Temple University's Intellectual Heritage Website at:
East Asia, 1800-1912
Even with the fact that it would be absurd to claim that Charles Darwin is responsible for the spread of Imperialism, it would only be safe to say that he played an important role in making particular influential bodies in feeling justified as they were conquering other peoples and imposing their power in these areas. orld powers such as the British Empire and Spain were inspired to look at the world as an environment consisting out of communities who were superior and communities who were inferior. As a consequence, it seemed that only those who were superior were worthy to survive while others needed to make place for evolution.
The fact that the British Empire was one of the greatest powers in the world during the nineteenth century and that Darwin issued a series of theories during the period enabled the English to look at life from…
Hawkins, Mike, "Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as Model and Nature as Threat," (Cambridge University Press, 13.03.1997)
"The New Imperialism," Retrieved Southern Utah University Website: http://www.suu.edu/faculty/ping/pdf/TheNewImperialism.pdf
Evolution be Taught in Schools?
Introduction / Thesis (Part One)
The debate between those that believe in creationism -- or "intelligent design," a refined offshoot of the creationism theory -- and those who believe in the science of evolution, spilled over into the schools in the United States many years ago. Conservative Christians and others who are in denial vis-a-vis Charles Darwin's research and theory argue that at the very least their religious-based theories should be placed side-by-side in public school textbooks. Scientists, biologists, teachers, scholars and others who accept the empirical nature of scientific evolution have battled to keep creationism and intelligent design (ID) out of the science textbooks -- with some degree of success albeit in certain conservative communities and states politicians and school board members have overruled logic by those insisting that ID be part of science textbooks. Some objective scholarship sees this debate as another example…
Antolin, Michael F., and Herbers, Joan M. (2001). Perspective: Evolution's Struggle for Existence in America's Public Schools. International Journal of Organic Evolution, 55(12),
Armenta, Tony, and Lane, Kenneth E. (2010). Tennessee to Texas: Tracing the Evolution
Controversy in Public Education. The Clearing House, 86(3), 76-79.
He purported the theory that strength is the only acceptable or even desired quality in a human being and weakness in any form was a great failing, good will survive, and bad will fail. Ultimately, goodness will be replaced by strength; humility will be replaced by pride, the very basis of survival will be threatened by equality and the principle of democracy and power will replace justice in all aspects, and power will eventually be the judge of the destiny of humankind. The Church and religious heads of the time vehemently opposed these theories since they felt that this meant that human kind would be subjected to the theory of the 'survival of the fittest' wherein the weak become exterminated by the strong. (it's a Matter of life or Death)
Nietzsche's thoughts, though for the most part forgotten, do stay alive in 'Philosophical Investigations' by Wittgenstein, where Nietzsche's 'Theory of…
Aristotle: (384-322 B.C.E) Retrieved at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html . Accessed on 16 November, 2004
Aristotle's Taxonomy. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.unbf.ca/psychology/likely/greeks/aristotle2.htm . Accessed on 16 November, 2004
Boeree, C. George. Darwin and Evolution. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/evolution.html . Accessed on 16 November, 2004
Chain of Being. Retrieved at http://www.occultopedia.com/c/chain_of_being.htm . Accessed on 16 November, 2004
Invisible Century: Einstein, Freud and the Search for Hidden Universes," Richard Panek argues that both Einstein and Freud cut across the barriers of science in their time and, through scrupulous observation not only did they produce a revolution in their respective fields of research but, most importantly, they prompted a "revolution in thought" by using as instruments of research not so much mathematical formulas, but more, the tool of imagination which conjures a new, different world for the XX st century.
The notion of the "invisible century" expresses just that. It is not necessary an era of invisible technologies, but one in which questions are answered by triggering flows of speculations based on information or facts which cannot be physically proven yet there is no doubt about their validity. The term "invisible century" points to a historical environment in which one can answer questions such as "what are dreams," "what…
1. Richard Panek. 2005. The Invisible Century: Einstein, Freud and the Search for Hidden Universes. Penguin.
2. Eric Hobsbawm. 1988. The age of capital 1845-1875. Random House Inc.
3. Buchwald, Diana Kormos. 2004. Into the unknown: the invisible century: Einstein, Freud and the search for hidden universes. Nature, August 5, section Books and Arts.
4. Kohn, Marek. 2005. Chalk and cheese. The Invisible Century: Einstein, Freud and the search for hidden universes by Richard Panek. New Statesman, March 21.
Noncoding DNA, also known as "junk DNA" describes portions of the DNA sequence that do not appear to have any presentable use -- they do not encode for proteins, etc. In fact, in a most eukaryote cells, a rather large percentage of the total genome is noncoding DNA, but this varies between species. However, it is now a misnomer to call this material "junk," because the more sophisticated we become at biochemistry, we find that many do have subtle biological functions, including the transcriptional and translational regulation of certain protein-coding sequences. esearchers also belive that other noncoding sequences have a likely, but unconfirmed function, as an inference from high levels of inherited tratis and natural selection processes (Masters, 2005, 163-5).
esearchers know that the amount of genomic DNA varies widely between organisms, as does the proportion of coding and non-coding DNA within these genomes. For instance, 98% of the human…
Barrows, E. (2001). Animal Behavior Desk Reference. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Mueller, Guo and Ayala. (1991). Density Dependent natural Selction and Trade-Offs in Life History Traits. Science, 253(1), 433-35.
Ricklefs and Whiles. (2007). The Economy of Nature: Data Analysis Update. New York: Macmillan.
Such an ascription "both distorts the substance of his thought and grossly exaggerates his actual influence on the politics of his country."
He exerted "little influence" on American politics, Trask continues, though Sumner "praised modern capitalism," believed that the doctrine of "laissez faire is just as applicable to society as it is to the economy," for, "the social order," Trask explains, "like the economy, is government by its own laws and logic of development."
Trask spends a good deal of his article insisting that Sumner's views are more like today's Libertarian views ("society does not need any care of supervision...society [just needs to be] freed from these meddlers..." e.g., big government, Trask paraphrases) than they are in the genre of Social Darwinism.
There may be some degree of truth to what Trask (by the very fact that he is writing in the Journal of Libertarian Studies he becomes in effect…
Columbia Encyclopedia (2004). William Graham Sumner; Lester Frank Ward.
McClay, Wilfred M. (1995). The Socialization of Desire. Society. 32(4), 65-74.
Silberman, Richard. (2003). Herbert Spencer on Education - Prophet or False Prophet?
Journal of Education, 184(2), 85-123.
morning Here information seventh unit term. Once complete, left final paper. Unit 7: Scientific Revolution e've reached end journey. The Scientific Revolution represents development thinking world.
Attitudes during the Scientific Revolution
The scientific revolution and the age of classical science have had a severe impact on society and made it possible for it to experience great progress as a consequence of the fact that technology had advanced significantly. Humanity was especially ignorant up to this point and technology actually made it possible for the masses to look at the world from a different perspective. People learnt that a lot of things they previously believed to be impossible were actually possible and joined the rest of the world in a struggle to achieve progress. The Scientific Revolution basically represents the moment when the social order started to experience massive reform as a result of technological advancements.
One of the first steps…
McClellan, James E. III and Dorn, Harold, "Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction," (JHU Press, Apr 14, 2006)
"The Age of Classical Science," Retrieved August 25, 2012, from the infoplease Website: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0860978.html
"The Scientific Revolution," Retrieved August 25, 2012, from the infoplease Website: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0860977.html
and, through the scientific study of modern, cognitive science, the idea that 'I' am doing the thinking in a way that is separate from my body and that this can be rationally deducted, simply by thinking and without scientific experimentation would be confounded.
However, those using empiricism as their main philosophical view of the world have also been able to twist the empiricism to use science's supposed rationalism and objectivity to justify tyranny of 'the best,' as in the case of eugenics, and the notion of 'survival of the fittest,' which suggests that the 'best' (morally, racially, and ethically) thrive and should be allowed to triumph over the 'weak.' In reality, Darwin's actual theory merely supports the idea that those best suited to an environment survive, not that survivors are innately better or superior creatures (a mutated moth that can blend in with a coal-blackened environment is not 'better' than…
"On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species" is a paper written in 1855 by the pioneering evolutionary biologist Alfred Russel allace. The article outlines a theory of evolution that predates Darwin's Origin of Species. In fact, allace's paper predated a letter that he wrote to Charles Darwin and which was a source of inspiration for the latter's work. allace wrote "On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species" in Sarawak, Borneo, but inside the article mentions the Galapagos Islands, where Darwin developed his theories. Islands may evolve peculiar variations of species due to their geographic isolation from continental masses. allace was well travelled and mentions a number of different geographic zones that are relevant to his research on biological evolution including zones in the Americas, Europe, and also Asia.
"On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species" discusses the…
Wallace, Alfred Russel. "On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species" Retrieved online: http://www.esp.org/books/wallace/law.pdf
Wells, H.G. The Island of Dr. Moreau. 1986.
The Argument- The theory of evolution was developed out of the work of 19th century botanist and explorer, Charles Darwin and his book On the Origin of Species. Essentially, it is a scientific theory that postulates that organisms change over time based on pressures from the environment that cause genetic mutations within the organism. Over time, these changes are more adapted to a specific environment, more of that organism live longer and reproduce more, thus causing those traits to become even more entrenched in the population. Life then, is part of a gigantic tree in which primitive organisms, over millions and millions of years, evolved into higher beings due to the product of two opposing forces: variation in traits (common or rare) and natural selection (which traits aid survival) (Understanding Evolution).
Creation Science is a branch of creationism that has resurfaced in American education after several Supreme Court decisions defined…
In his theory of evolution, Darwin argued that evolution occurred because of natural selection, wherein the determining principle is, "survival of the fittest." That is, in a given population and a given environment, certain individuals have certain characteristics that would make survive and thrive. As thriving happens, adaptation occurs, wherein the individual ensures that s/he is able to cope with the changes, state, and dynamics of his/her environment. This theory of evolution enforced the idea of competition and the concept of survival, concepts that became more relevant to societies as they became immersed in the industrialized economy and the eventual dominance of the capitalist economy, which is motivated also by the spirit of competition and 'survival of the fittest.'
The Victorian ethos was created and developed in the context of the emerging industrialization of economies in the 19th century. The Victorian ethos held that society is in progress, and that…
Science and religion have historically possessed a tumultuous relationship based upon the fact that the latter claims to hold the ultimate answers to the most fundamental questions of existence, while the former claims to hold the means to discovering many of these answers. Consequently, for much of human history they have been viewed as being analogous avenues to gaining knowledge of the world, merely attacked from different directions; science must eventually prove with reason what is already accepted upon faith. However, a number of scientific observations and interpretations have come into direct conflict with established doctrines of the western, Christian Church. These scientific theories have caused many to question the validity of their faith, and many others to question the validity of science. Usually, the conflicts originate from formalized interpretations of Christianity rather than upon the fundamental basis of faith. In other words, science can neither prove nor disprove the…
1. Burke, James. The Day the Universe Changed. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1995.
2. Cahn, Steven M. Classics of Western Philosophy: Fifth Edition. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1999.
3. McClellan, James E., III and Harold Dorn. Science and Technology in World History: an Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
New Theory -- the Black Queen Hypothesis
In modern science, evolution is one of the basic templates to help understand the biology and ecology of an organism. The theory was put forth in the late 19th century by Charles Darwin and others. It describes the change in inherited traits of a population through a process called natural selection. This process allows only the strongest, most robust and useful traits to perpetuate because they are the most adapted to the organism's environment. Evolution, then, is the product of two opposing forces: variation in traits and mutation. Thus, most of evolutionary theory surrounds the notion that living organisms evolve by adding genes (adaptations to the environment) rather than discarding them (Futuyma, 2005).
Evolution was a dramatic, and controversial, theory. It convinces most of the scientific community that the world was continually evolving, not static, and most certainly not just a few thousand…
Radical New Theory of Evolution; Could Turn Current Thinking on Its Head. (April 4, 2012).
The Daily Galaxy. Retrieved from: http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2012/04 / radical-new-theory-could-turn-evolutionary-theory-on-its-head.html
Dennett, D. (2005). Darwin's Dangerous Idea: Evolution and Me. New York: Touchstone Press.
Futuyma, D. (2005). Evolution. Sunderland, MA: Sinnaure Associates.
Additionally, conservationists suggest increasing patrols to improve overall enforcement of existing laws, better boundary demarcation, and the development of stronger hunting quotas. All of these measures require significant and lasting funding.
This Park is in a state of crisis. ith most of its large mammals now extinct from the Park, and illegal users on the rise, Park Rangers are simply outmatched. Poachers can find a thriving market for illegal bushmeat and rare birds. Illegal loggers easily find buyers for rare trees. The Park is under-staffed and under-funded and soon to face new challenges if the upstream dam is built along the Gambia River as planned.
The Galapagos Islands and the Niokola-Koba National Park represent two of Planet Earth's most valuable treasures. They contain biodiversity that not only provides scientific opportunity but may support the health of the entire ecosystem in their respective regions. Both sites are listed…
Novy, Julia W. 2010. Incentive Measures for Conservation of Biodiversity and Sustainability: A Case Study of the Galapagos Islands. United Nations
Environment Program: WWF-USA.
UN Chronicle. 1999. Conservation of Endemic Biodiversity of the Galapagos World
Heritage Site. Available at: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1309/is_3_36/ai_58675442/
ut science is about stepping stones: the creation of theories and hypothesis, and the testing of these hypotheses with empiricism. If these theories fail, then additional hypotheses have to be proposed. During the process of the testing these hypothesis, experimentalists will find evidence based that will enable to fine tuning of the hypothesis, and the process carries on. Indeed, most of quantum theory is hinged on the Uncertainty principle put forward by Werner Heisenberg. What apt that it be named the Uncertainty principle.
Eventually, one hopes that some consensus will come between those that support graduated equilibrium vs. phyletic gradualism in terms of evolution of species. Or a new theory will develop and come to the fore, if new fossil evidence comes to light. ut that does not mean that we subscribe to the watchmaker theory. William Paley, an eighteenth century moral theorist, philosopher and religious conservative, was perhaps the…
Asimov, Isaac. The Roving Mind. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1983.
Behe, Michael J., and T.D. Singh. God, Intelligent Design & Fine-Tuning. Kolkata: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 2005.
Brennan, S. Edwards, Governor of Louisiana, Et Al. V. Aguillard Et Al. 1987. UMKC. Available:
http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/edwards.html. April19 2008.
FACIAL EXPESSION & EMOTION
From the perspective of many psychologists, there is no set formal definition for emotion. We know that emotion is universal insofar as all humans experience and express emotion. There have been many studies, specifically over the past several decades that demonstrate that some emotions are expressed universally across time and culture. Just because there is not a universal definition for emotion, does not mean that there are not working definitions of what is emotion is, as a means to do the job in the meantime, until the global psychological field comes to a more overall agreement. On a very basic level, emotion is an affective change from a person's previous emotional state as a result of a huge spectrum of stimuli. There are a number of physical representations of emotion in the human body. Emotion occurs on a neurological level. Emotions show up in parts…
Abelson, R.P., & Sermat, V. (1962). Multidimensional scaling of facial expressions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(6), 546-554.
Adolphs, R. (2002). Recognizing Emotion From Facial Expressions: Psychological and Neurological Mechanisms. Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Reviews, 1(1), 21 -- 62.
Browndyke, PhD, J.N. (2002). Neuropsychosocial Factors in Emotion Recognition: Facial Expressions. Telepsychology Solutions, Web, Available from: www.neuropsychologycentral.com. 2012 December 04.
Dimberg, U., Thuberg, M., Elmehed, K. (2000). Unconscious Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions. Psychological Science, 11(1), 86 -- 90.
Evolution Is True
What Is Evolution?
This chapter highlights the six elements that make up evolution: 1) growth/evolution; 2) gradualism; 3) speciation; 4) shared origins; 5) natural selection; and 6) nonselective evolutionary change mechanisms (Coyne, 2009). Of these, the foremost is the evolution concept itself, which implies genetic modification of any given species with time. To elaborate, over a number of generations, species of animals may transform into a rather different animal because of DNA modifications whose origins lie in the mutation process within the body. The gradualism concept constitutes the second element of the theory of evolution. Over several generations, a significant evolutionary transformation occurs in the species (e.g., reptiles' transformation into birds). The subsequent elements may be considered two halves of one coin. It is an incredible and unbelievable fact that although innumerable living species exist, each and every one has a few common basic characteristics, including the…
Coyne, J. A. (2009). Why evolution is true. Penguin
Neuner, K. (2012). Why Evolution Is True - Notes & Review. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from https://vialogue.wordpress.com/2012/05/06/why-evolution-is-true-notes-review/
Vecchi, D. (2009). Review - Why Evolution is True. Retrieved November 22, 2016, from http://metapsychology.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=book&id=4953
Nonetheless, an argument from common sense can be made based on our own observational context. For example, neurologically speaking, there is a wealth of evidence to illustrate that genes have an immense impact on the final structure of the brain, and thus on behavior. Schizophrenia is an obvious example of this.
Logically, though, there is also abundant support for Dawkins' thesis. oughly, an argument can be shown to be logically viable if its conclusions can be reasonably drawn from its suppositions based on the available evidence. This is abundantly the case in the Selfish Gene, wherein Dawkins (1976) draws on all the existing evidence on evolutionary theory and the development of life, including the mechanism of natural selection (p. 48) and DNA as the molecule of choice for genetic propagation (pp. 22-23). The evidence that Dawkins provides is, quite simply, sufficient to support his argument that the gene should be…
Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hergenhahn, B.R. (2005). An Introduction to the History of Psychology. 5th ed. Wadsworth-Thomson Learning.
The main theme used by Dawkins in "The Selfish Gene" is that of doubt. For example, as Dawkins speaks about how due to the results of teaching, people have come to assume that traits inherited genetically are fixed and cannot be modified (Dawkins, 3). Even though genes may program one to be selfish, one is not necessarily forced to comply with the traits he or she inherited, all the time. It would also be somewhat difficult for one to learn how to be unselfish, if he or she was not in the first place, genetically modified, to be unselfish (Dawkins, 3).
Unlike all animals, man is largely influenced by the environment or culture, and other influences that have been inherited from his ancestors. Some would argue that culture is such an important influence to man in that whether or not one has selfish genes, it does not matter…
Gray, John. "The Closed Mind of Richard Dawkins." 2014. Web. 8 Oct. 2015.
Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene. No. 199. Oxford university press, 2006.
Feynman, Richard. "The Uncertainty of Science"
Dobbs, David. "Why It's Time to Lay the Selfish Gene to Rest -- David Dobbs -- Aeon." Aeon Magazine. 2013. Web. 8 Oct. 2015.
Man has always asked questions about how the world began. All cultures in the ancient world had origin myths. People looked to higher powers, or deities, or life forces, to explain what they could not understand. esearchers do not know where humankind's need for spirituality comes from, but it is clear, looking at history, that faith and the need to believe in something greater than ourselves are part of what makes us human.
The late Stephen Jay Gould, professor of zoology and geology at Harvard University, believed that science and religion were not in conflict. Because they are entirely different, he argued, they could not be synthesized into any common theme (Mitchell & Blackard 2009, p. 146). His is a view that is shared by many scientists who draw a distinction between science and scripture. Science and scripture offer us two different things. One does not have to…
Carter, K.L. And Welsh, J. 2010, 'The pedagogy of the debate over evolution and intelligent design', Liberal Education, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 46-53.
Hlodan, O. 2011, 'Molecular insights into classic examples of evolution', BioScience, vol. 61,
no. 4, pp. 264-267.
Miller, K. Darwin and Christian Faith. . [Distinguished Lecture Series, Pepperdine
Finally, the sestet ends with a question about whether any moral lessons can be learned from this little scene in nature: "[w]hat but design of darkness to appall/if design govern in a thing so small." In other words, the speaker is asking whether he should even try to draw any conclusions from the spider's destruction of the beautiful moth.
The final lines of the poem not only call into question the beneficence of nature; they also call into question the ability of human beings to draw lessons from nature. (Bagby, pp. 73-74). Ultimately, the poem raises questions about the Darwinian metaphor more than it does about the Darwinian theory. (Hass, p. 62). Frost is trying to suggest that there is a limit to what human beings can learn from nature and to their ability to draw their own moral lessons from it.
In the final analysis, "Design" is a poem…
Bagby, George F. Frost and the Book of Nature. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1993.
Burt, Stephen & Mikics, David. The Art of the Sonnet. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 2010.
Cramer, Jeffrey S. Robert Frost Among His Poems: A Literary Companion to the Poet's Own Biographical Contexts and Associations. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., Inc., 1996.
Frost, Robert. "Design," Rpt. In the Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Allison Booth, et al. Shorter 9th ed. W.W. Norton & Company. New York, 2005. 810.
As Miller indicates, "the capacity for life is built into matter. In fact, the key molecules of life are largely constructed from just a few relatively few atoms, such as hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. In that sense, the chemical properties of these atoms are what makes life possible." (Miller, 119) Miller posits the argument that the building blocks of life are easily observable and demonstrate no deviation from that which makes up the rest of the universe.
Chapter 6: The orld That Knew e ere Coming
Miller's text is frequently refers to claims that man is crafted in God's image as one of the fundamental arguments against evolution. The religious right has long clung tightly to this idea as a cause for viewing the course of human progress as separate from that of other species. This chapter refutes this claim by examining the concept of evolution in…
Balaram, P. (2004). Creation, Evolution and Intelligent Design. Current Science, 86(9).
Miller, K. (2008). Only a Theory: Evolution and the Battle for America's Soul. Viking Adult.
Thomas Hardy's The Woodlanders was published in 1887, a few years after the death of Charles Darwin. However, the novel was set in the middle of the 19th century, in about the same year that Darwin published On the Origin of the Species. Hardy may not have selected his setting arbitrarily. The Woodlanders has often been read within the context of Darwinian influences in society and literature. However, literary critics tend to emphasize the fusion between Romantic and Darwinian depictions of nature in The Woodlanders to show how Hardy drew from Darwin to develop his characters and themes. Irvine, for example, claims Hardy was an "evolutionary pessimist," and this is certainly apparent in The Woodlanders, which provides an overtly pessimistic view of human nature but especially of patriarchy (625). In fact, Hardy's The Woodlanders shows that while Darwinian principles of evolution sometimes favor members of the species with no moral…
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
American writers from both the antebellum South and the North commented on the great differences between the white people in the two regions (Ibid; Samuda).
Note though, the table data below regarding the percentage of males who completed high school by race, 1940-1980, which will provide data for further discussion regarding utilization of testing to stratify recruits:
Table 1 -- Males 18-21 Who Completed High School By Percentile
(Source: Binkin, p.94)
How is it that tests designed to measure information that was given in school could be administered to populations who did not even attend school? And, when one takes population and demographic statistics into account, this historical bias deepens. At the outbreak of World War I, for instance, African-Americans were about 11% of the general population, and the Selective Service draft…
Benjamin, L. (2009). "The Birth of American Intelligence Testing." Monitor on Psychology. 40(1): Cited inL
Binkin, M., et.al. (1982). Blacks in the Military. Brookings Institution Press.
Black, E. (2004). War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create
Arguments For: In response to those allegations, Bill Mattos, the president of the California Poultry Federation, said that he had invited California Senate representatives to visit poultry farms -- and to see for themselves that allegations of inhumane treatment are not true -- but his offer was declined (Fitzenberger). "To me, it's propaganda disguised as research," Mattos said in response to the report the California state Senate Office of Research produced.
Essayist Bart Gruzalski (Ethics and Animals, p. 253) writes that "the use of animals for food can be justified on utilitarian grounds even if we take into account only the pleasures and pains of the animals involved." Gruzalski quotes pig farmer James Cargile, who buys "several pigs" every year "from a neighboring hog farm"; Cargile raises them "to slaughter for food" but sees no meanness because the pigs "are given lots of room and food, everything a pig…
East Bay Animals Advocates (EBAA). (2005). Foster Farm Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2009,
From http://www.fosterfacts.net .
Fitzenberger, Jennifer M. (2004). California report criticizes animal cruelty at large cattle
And poultry farms. Sacramento Bee, Retrieved June 22, 2009, from http://www.sacbee.com.
Despite this factor, while working in the remote Amazon region, Wallace wrote his first major scientific publication in 1855, which became known as the Sarawak Law (Alfred ussel Wallace: Essential Background Information). This work was in effect to establish the foundational scientific theory of the origins of the species, which was instrumental in development of the theory of evolution. However, due to his image of a Victorian adventure and pseudo-scientist in the eyes of the academic community he was referred to as a "...mere fly-catcher..." (Alfred ussel Wallace: Essential Background Information).
On the other hand one should also note that the term outsider cannot entirely and in all instances be applied to Wallace. While he certainly was outside accepted scientific circles to a great degree, he was also recognized during his time for many of his works and scientific contributions. As one commentator notes: "....during his lifetime (which lasted until…
Alfred Russel Wallace: A Capsule Biography. Retrieved January 14, 2009, at http://www.wku.edu/~smithch/index1.htm
Alfred Russel Wallace: Essential Background Information. Retrieved January 14, 2009 at http://darwin-conspiracy.co.uk/book/wallace_bg_info.html
Gribbin J. (2001) Alfred Russel Wallace: a life by Peter Raby. (review) Retrieved January 14, 2009, at http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/alfred-russel-wallace-a-life-by-peter-raby-672845.html
eligion or Science?
Since the enaissance, there has been a vocal debate between religion and science. Galileo was imprisoned and sanctioned because of his views of the universe, the sun, and the way planets moved. As science progressed, this debate became even more heated. However, in the late 20th century, there has also been a mitigating discussion about the way that religion and science can actual coexist as explanations of the universe. In fact, as physicists look into the wondrous world of smaller and smaller particles, they find that the laws we through governed the universe do not really fit in with the abstract dimensions of time, space, quarks, and the study of the basic attributes of matter and the universe (Schroeder, 2010, p.xi ). On some level, the debate between science and religion is based on the notion of reason (the scientific method) versus faith. eason implies what can…
Russell, C 2002, 'The Conflict of Science and Religion,' in G. Ferngren, ed., Science
And Religion: Some Historical Perspectives, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins
Schroeder, G. (2001). The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. New York: The Free Press.
History Of State Involvement in the Delivery of Health Care
Eugenics is the belief and practice that involves the improvement of genetic quality of the human population.it is a science that deals with influences that are able to bring an improvement in inborn qualities of race also with those that develop them to their utmost advantage. There is a considerable difference between goodness in various qualities and in the entire character as a whole. The character largely depends on the proportion that exists between these quantities whose balance can be greatly influenced by education. This is a social philosophy that advocates for the improvement of the human genetic traits by promoting higher reproduction of people that posses' desired traits also termed as positive eugenics and reducing the reproduction of people that posse's undesired ort less desired traits which is negative eugenics. Therefore Eugenics is a social movement that is…
Norrgard, K.(2008). Human Testing, the Eugenics Movement, and IRBs. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/human-testing-the-eugenics-movement-and-irbs-724
Galton, F.(2009).Eugenics: its definition, scope, and aims. Retrieved May 6,2014 from http://galton.org/essays/1900-1911/galton-1904-am-journ-soc-eugenics-scope-aims.htm
Bergman, J.(2000). A Brief History of the Eugenics Movement . Retrieved May 6, 2014 from http://users.adam.com.au/bstett/BEugenics72Bergman73Potter77.htm
The book Why Evolution is True by Jerry Coyne presents a cogent case for evolution, a concept that can be controversial for some but accepted fact for others. This paper will work through the book -- the case that Coyne makes -- and offer reflections on my own journey of understanding the concept of evolution and its manifestation in the natural world.
Evolution is not "fact," so much as a theory that is supported by a wealth of evidence. Just this alone lies at the heart of a lot of the misunderstanding about evolution. First proposed by Charles Darwin as a theory based on his observations of the natural world, evolution reflects the processes of adaptation that species go through, over time and successive generations. In adapting to their environments, species undergo changes that will, given enough time and dramatically different environments, result in the development of…
Coyne, J. (2010) Why Evolution is True. Penguin Books.
In his novels he focused on characters, motivations, and reactions to the forces around his characters. He realistically examined Spanish politics, economy, religion, and family through the eyes of the middle class, addressing the cruelty of human beings against each another in his novels Miau and Misericordia. Galdos was called the conscience of Spain for his realistic observations of society with all its ills. (Columbia 2005) His plays were less successful than his novels.
In 1907 he became deputy of the Republican Party in Madrid. He went blind in 1912, but overcoming this tragedy, he continued to dictate his books until his death. Other works translated into English are Tristana (tr. 1961) and Compassion (tr. 1962) Outside Spain his Novelas Espanolas Contemporaneas are the most popular. Perez Galdos was elected to the "Real Academia Espanola" Real Academia Espanola (Royal Spanish Academy) in 1897. A statue of him was raised in…
The Academy of American Poets" Poets.org. 1997-2007. http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/348 .
Cole, Toby, (ed.). "Garc'a Lorca" in Playwrights on Playwrighting, 1961.
Hills, Elijah Clarence and Morley, S. Griswold, Modern Spanish Lyrics, New York: H. Holt, 1913.
Jehle, Fred F. Anthology of Spanish Poetry: A Collection of Spanish Poems, 1999. http://users.ipfw.edu/jehle/poetry.htm.
e., their individuality and permanence, are the basic reason behind their having supplanted other previous methods of personal identification and explain the fact that fingerprints continue to hold their own against other more modern methods of identification such as DNA testing.
Individuality of Fingerprints
In more than 100 years since fingerprint records of individuals started to be collected and compared, no two fingerprints of two different persons, including those of identical twins, have ever been found to be exactly the same. This is not only true for the ridge patterns found on the fingerprints of individuals but also of the patterns on their palms and the soles of their feet. ("The History of..." 2006) ecent studies comparing the fingerprints of cloned monkeys showed that even they have completely different fingerprints. After the introduction of AFIS (Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems), it has become possible to compare the millions of fingerprints data…
Champkin, J. "Print Of True Genius." (2004). The Daily Mail (London, England), (November 6, 2004). p. 40.
Clegg, D. (2004). 9 Fingerprint Identification. In The Practice of Crime Scene Investigation (pp. 161-179). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Every Contact Leaves a Trace- A History of Fingerprinting." (2006). South Wales Police. Retrieved on November 11, 2006 at http://www.south-wales.police.uk/fe/master.asp?n1=8&n2=253&n3=1028
Frequently Asked Question about Fingerprints." (2005). Fingerprints for Dummies. Retrieved on November 11, 2006 at http://onin.com/fp/lpfaq.html
Rise of the Planet of the Apes
The interaction of human beings and the natural world has always been one of conflict because of the inhumane way that people can behave. Animal have been used by human beings as pets, as entertainment, and in the course of scientific research. Fictional depictions of this interaction have reflected the nature of this relationship between man and animal. Some people value animal research as a means of curing human ailments and others decry it as animal cruelty. This is not a clear cut issue, but rather one of many different viewpoints. This document will show various attitudes toward these interactions; the positive aspects of animal testing, the negative attitudes towards testing, and finally how both these attitudes are fitted into the context of the film Rise of the Planet of the Apes, a film which shows exactly how society feels about this complicated…
Cohn, M. (2010). Alternatives to animal testing gaining ground: researchers, regulators develop new systems for experiments. The Baltimore Sun.
Hajar, R. (2011). Animal testing and medicine. Heart Views. (12:1). 42.
Jeffries, DH (2011). Planet of the apes and the rise of the animal rights film. The Veganomaly.
The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin, Volume II (2012). Fullbooks.com
Miracles: When Faith Contradicts Reason
Theologians, and philosophers alike, have traditionally sought to bring out the relationship between reason and faith. This they have done in an attempt to clarify the link between the two terms or points-of-view -- an undertaking that involves the determination of how agents are supposed to respond to assertions drawn from either perspective, within the context of rationality. A number of scholars are of the belief that reason and faith cannot yield conflicting outcomes, if each one is understood, and used in the right circumstances. Others hold the contrary opinion; conflicts between the two will always arise. The issue, in this regard, has always been 'which one, between the two, should prevail when a conflict arises?' Some advocate for the prioritizing of reason, and others, faith. Others, however, in appreciation of the different contexts within which the two are applicable, hold the view that, reason…
Dougherty, Jude P. "Wretched Aristotle." On Wings of Faith and Reason: The Christian Difference in culture and Science. Ed. Craig Steven Titus. Washington: CUA Press, 2008. 56-67. Print.
Gilman, James. Faith, Reason and Compassion: A Philosophy of the Christian Faith. Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Print.
Guisepi, Robert. An Analysis of the Grounds of, and Concepts Expressing
Fundamental Beliefs. World History Center. Web.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1949)
Sigmund Freud is the undisputed father of psychoanalysis. Should this statement seem to contradict assertions regarding the age-old status of psychology, it must be clarified that Freud was the first theorist to formalize the process of analysis, a practice that is not used in all modalities of psychology today. Analysis, specifically the psychoanalysis so often parodied in the cartoon of the tormented patient lying on the couch before the bearded quasi-Freudian father figure of the therapist, presupposes in its theoretical structure the existence of an subconscious element to the human mind, in other words, that how humans think they immediately perceive the world is not all that there is to human consciousness.
Freud used techniques such as free association to elicit reasons for his patient's behaviors. Freud began his treatment upon hysterics. He grew to believe that unresolved childhood traumas rather than physiological causes were at…
Pavlov, Ivan. (2003) Lectures and translations. http://www.ivanpavlov.com last modified: April 14, 2003. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.ivanpavlov.com/
Ross, Kelly R. (2002) Karl Jung. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.friesian.com/jung.htm
Thorton, Steven P. (2001) "Sigmund Freud." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/f/freud.htm#Backdropto his Thought
Throughout its history, psychology has undergone a number of evolutions. As the study of mind, the discipline has necessarily been subject to change as new research revealed information about the functions of the mind and its effect upon behavior. elatively simple conclusions drawn by those who are currently considered the founding fathers of psychology have been challenged and modified to become the various subdisciplines in psychology that we know today. Along with what can be considered the "mental" trends in psychology such as the behaviorist, psychoanalytic, the cognitive, and the evolutionary approaches, it has also been recognized that psychology has a firm basis in physiology.
In about 1913, the focus of psychology up-to-date profoundly changed as a result of work by the American psychologist John B. Watson. In an effort to bring more scientific merit to psychology, Watson advocated that the study of behavior should be used to draw…
The Journal of Evolutionary Psychology (2006). Evolutionary Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.evolutionary-philosophy.net/psychology.html
Oracle ThinkQuest. (2011) History of Psychology. Retrieved from: http://library.thinkquest.org/C005870/history/index.php?id=historyp1
Rossman, J. (2007, Dec 3). Biological Psychology: Foundations of Biopsychology. Associated Content. Retrieved from: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/428842/biological_psychology_foundations_of.html
Probability -- Subjective, relative frequency, and probabilistic propensity
According to the academic definition of probability, the concept of probability involves a choice of some class of events (or statements) and an assignment of some meaning to probability claims about those events (or statements). For example, drawings from a deck of cards (with replacement) would be defined as PR (A/B) or as the number of possible drawings in which A occurs over the total number over which B. occurs. Such a definition of probability would be used when determining, for instance, if ESP existed -- the probability of randomly predicting cards held by the examiner would be determined, the relative frequency certain cards appeared during a particular session, as well as the subjective determinant of how likely it was such phenomena existed cognitively within the human brain. (Bartha, "Probability," 2004) If the subject could predict the unseen card more than would…
Bartha, R. (2004) "Probability." Retrieved 5 November 2004 at http://hps.elte.hu/seminar/2001/October/Szabo/angol011008/node5.html
"Fitness." (2003) Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 5 November 2004 at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/fitness / 'Propensity." (2001) Retrieved 5 November 2004 at