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The Congress eventually followed suit by enacting the Indian Removal Act which was greeted by the newly elected President Andrew Jackson. Americans should feel no regret for the disappearance of Indians from the face of the earth, Jackson argued. "Philanthropy could not wish to see this continent restored to the condition in which it was found by our forefathers," he said to Congress in his State of the Union Address. "hat good man would prefer a country covered with forests and ranged by a few thousand savages to our extensive Republic" (Perdue & Green 120).
Many Anglo-Americans opposed the Indian Removal Act. Missionaries especially were appalled at the plan to evict the Cherokee Indians by force. A Baptist Reverend, writing under the pseudonym of "illiam Penn," argued that the United States had no right to use force and evict the Cherokee of their ancestral lands. He cited Americans laws and…
Perdue, Theda & Michael D. Green. The Cherokee Removal: A Brief History with Documents. Boston: St. Martin's Press, 1995. Print.
It was on May 4, 1730 that Cumming and the seven Cherokee began their trip to England, where they arrived on June 5. They were all headquartered in the house of James Crowe. Cuming's correspondence during this period is quite rich and we will mention some of it further below.
The meeting with King George II occurred on July 18, 1730 and it is an excellent and somewhat amusing sample of the cultural differences between the two people. Of course, the Cherokees were not used to the European ceremonial in Court, although Cuming had previously imposed some of it onto them. However, they gracefully bowed before the King, a gesture that was clearly seen as their submission recognition, although it may have been a gesture of imitation, with no real significance for them (as previously).
As McRae suggests, "the Cherokees were disappointed not to have been offered any food during…
1. Newsome, Matthew Allan. Alexander Cuming. An examination of contemporary documents. 1998. On the Internet at http://albanach.org/cuming.html
2. Royal Society. On the Internet at http://www.fact-index.com/r/ro/royal_society.html
3. Williams, Samuel Cole. Early Travels in the Tennessee Country, 1540-1800. Johnson City, Tennessee; Watauga Press, 1928, 122-129, 138-141.
4. Articles on Friendship and Commerce proposed by the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, to the Deputies of the Cherokee Nation in South Carolina, by his Majesty's Order, on Monday, Sept. 7, 1730
For examples, "In Oklahoma the Cherokee live both on and off the reservation scattered in urban centers and in isolated rural regions." (Cherokee)
This also refers to the influence of contemporary industrial society, which has often been referred to as a central cause for the cultural breakdown of religious traditions in the culture. One also has to bear in mind political events and factors in the 1800s, such as the principle of "discovery," according to which "...the Cherokee Nation (and, by implication, all Indian nations) was not fully sovereign, but "may, perhaps," be deemed a "domestic dependent nation." (Newcomb) These factors resulted in a decline of religious culture with many ceremonies and practices becoming."..no more than artistic conventions" (Cherokee Religion). This also affected the culture in various ways - for example in the loss of the prevalence of their native language.
Acculturation led to a division in the societal and…
Cherokee. May 11, 2008. http://www.nativeamericans.com/Cherokee.htm
Cherokee Religion. May 11, 2008. http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/nam/cherok.html www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=804330
Filler, Louis, and Allen Guttmann, eds. The Removal of the Cherokee Nation: Manifest Destiny or National Dishonor?. Lexington, MA D.C. Heath, 1962. Questia. 13 May 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=804330 .
Dieri, Bevenda, Cherokee structures of religious belief and touch upon tribal beliefs about god and gods, key myths and rituals
The Dieri, an aboriginal tribe of Australia, the Oklahoma tribe of the Cherokee, and the Bevenda may all be subsumed under the common category of 'native people,' when comparing such indigenous faiths with the common faith of those who colonized these individuals, namely white Christians. However, upon closer examination of the religions practices of these groups, there emerge equally striking differences between one another that belay such easy elision under the term 'native.'
The Cherokee, first and foremost, were shamanistic in their ways of religious belief and practice. Although, to some outside observers, the Cherokee religion and medicine seemed primarily reliant upon herbs for medicinal treatment and as an efficacious way of accessing the spiritual realm, in fact these herbs were not viewed as inherently sacred in and of themselves.…
Cherokee Religion." Citied Mooney, 1995, pp.239-240. Accessed on January 14, 2003 at http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/nam/cherok.html.
Dreamtime.' Accessed on January 14, 2003 at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Dreamtime
Noss, David S. A History Of World's Religions. 10th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill, 1999
Cherokee Religion," citing Mooney: 1995 p.420, http://philtar.ucsm.ac.uk/encyclopedia/nam/cherok.html.
The Trail of Tears, a U.S. Army-guided forcible removal of the native Americans from the southeast to west of the Mississippi, began in 1838, and thousands of Cherokee were displaced; thousands died along the way.
The realities of these actions was a much different thing than the ideals of the United States. A nation that was built with tolerance and freedom as its precepts was not only forcibly expelling inhabitants from land they had settled, but was attempting to fundamentally change the culture of the Cherokee nation. Instead of protecting a vulnerable minority, as the original settlers of the U.S. had been in England, the government exploited the minority of Cherokee, taking their land, mining its gold, and removing the Cherokee culture from their landscape. This behavior was and is incompatible with the U.S. ideals of morality and justice; the manner in which the Cherokee were treated goes against the…
Zinn, 138. Quoting Senator Theodore Frelinghuysen of New Jersey.
Zinn, Howard. The People Speak: American Voices, New York: Harper Collins, 2004, p. 10
What Stuart is really trying to illustrate in this text, then, is the complete impossibility of the situation he was confronted with. In a way, this reflects the total underestimation of many different facets of the situation by the British government. They sent only a mid- or even low-ranking official to talk to the Native Americans, but the situation demanded a much larger (though likely still useless) delegation. The opening of this piece of text describes not only the large number of tribes and individual Native Americans present, but also carries the Native American's descriptions of the vast quantities of settlers and forts that are encroaching on their land (Stuart, 202). The problem is a very large one, yet for some reason the British seem too feel that the Native Americans should be easy to diplomatically contain -- all Stuart has to do is make a suggestion or two.
The Cherokee Tribe in North Carolina is part of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, a federally-recognized independent Native American Cherokee tribe whose home base is in Cherokee, North Carolina, south of the Smoky Mountains. The Eastern Band is comprised of the descendants of the approximately 800 Cherokee who did not join the Trail of Tears—the forced migration of the Native American nations from the Southern U.S. region to the western U.S. region designated by the U.S. government as Indian Territory following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. This relatively small number of Cherokee (compared to the 16,000 Cherokee who were relocated) avoided relocation by living on privately owned land, as opposed to communal land. For example, some 400 Cherokee lived on acreage owned by William Holland Thomas in the Smoky Mountains. Thomas had been taken in by the Cherokee in his youth and now returned the favor in…
I do not use a pattern to design these sacred baskets. My grandmother and my mother taught me the skills to construct them, how to doubleweave a flexible basket-within-a-basket with a single common rim, for example, but the actual design comes from listening to the cane itself. It speaks to me as it moves through my hands. It tells me what it wants to be, how it wants to be shaped, what is will be used for.
It is not the first time this has happened. Stands of cane all around us have been destroyed. The white settlers do not understand Cherokee ways, and they think women's work is unimportant. I overheard one say not long ago to another white man that Cherokee "squaws" are "beasts of burden" because we do the farming work. I could tell by his tone of voice he was ridiculing us. The white settlers don't…
This dance was very powerful as it did scare the European people. They did not fully understand the reason behind the dance and the religion, but they were very clear as to what the apocalypse was and they wondered if the Indians were somehow summoning the end of the world. Not soon after this Ghost dance caused such a commotion, an Indian by the name of Handsome Lake who was a leader for the Seneca tribe brought a new message to the Iroquois people. His message was to end the drinking. The Iroquois people had began to drink a lot of alcohol that was often offered to them from the European people during the fur trade. Handsome Lake believed that many of the problems that the Iroquois people faced was related to the alcohol. Many of the Indian people were drunk when they were trying to handle problems of poverty…
Kehoe, Alice Beck. North American Indian Tribes, Chapter 5. 1992 Prentice Hall.
Biolsi, Thomas and Zimmerman, Larry. Indians and Anthropologists, Chapter 9. 1997 Prentice Hall.
Iroquois Website. Retrieved December 19, 2009 from http://www.iroquois.net/.
This would result in a proliferation of German success and influence throughout the continent and an effective solidarity amongst German immigrants.
5) hat was the "wolf by the ears" quandary that Takai suggests late century American slaveholders found themselves to be in? hat were they afraid of? hat solutions to the problems created by slavery were possible considering the existing conditions and mentalities in American societies at the time?
The problem of slavery had become pressing, not just insofar as it represented a serious humanitarian crisis for the U.S. But even further, as it presented the U.S. And many of its citizens a serious threat to stability. Jefferson's comments, which sound derisive enough, were actually couched in the understanding that the slave class of the United States was justifiably angry, restless and therefore, dangerous to its master. Accordingly, Takaki reports that "As it is,' Jefferson cried out, 'we have the…
Diner, H.R. (1983). Erin's Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the Nineteenth Century. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America. Back Bay Books.
There were a lot of white people around, and many of them were angry that the blacks had been freed. Some of them were actually hostile toward the blacks and their newfound freedom, so the blacks learned quickly that they had to be careful. They needed to settle a little bit away from the hostile whites and do their best not to make waves or cause trouble, in the hopes that they might one day be accepted (Reconstruction, 2002).
During the first few years after the Emancipation Proclamation and the subsequent freedom of all blacks in the United States, many blacks began working very hard to educate themselves. In there minds, education meant the ability to negotiate with whites over land, earn a fair wage to pay for it, and take care of their families. lack families were often large, so many of the members could work to help support…
Black Farming and History. 2002. Homecoming. http://www.itvs.org/homecoming/history1.html .
Carroll J. 1998. Organizational learning activities in high-hazard industries. Journal of Management Studies, 35: 699-717
Reconstruction and its aftermath. 2002. African-American Odyssey. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart5.html .
VandeCreek, Drew E., Ph.D. 2000. Frontier Settlement. Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project. http://Lincoln.lib.niu.edu/frontier.html .
Louis presented an exhibition of different races as artifacts or curiosities, to demonstrate where civilization had 'come from' in the past, versus the images of civilized 'future.' he designers of the exhibit saw the supposed progress of science and civilization as a series of examples of how whites had successfully born 'the white man's burden.' he exhibit showed the benefits of slavery in educating the African races as well as the eradication of Native Americans as a necessary part of American history. he exhibit also implicitly justified American colonial and imperial ventures in 20th century as examples of the natural progress of superior races, educating and presumably eventually reforming or eradicating inferior races.
he impact of scientific publications on U.S. legal and social policy was largely regressive rather than progressive in terms of eradicating racial tension. Rather than generating enlightenment, science was often to confirm racial prejudices. Scientists classified…
The 1904 Worlds Fair in St. Louis presented an exhibition of different races as artifacts or curiosities, to demonstrate where civilization had 'come from' in the past, versus the images of civilized 'future.' The designers of the exhibit saw the supposed progress of science and civilization as a series of examples of how whites had successfully born 'the white man's burden.' The exhibit showed the benefits of slavery in educating the African races as well as the eradication of Native Americans as a necessary part of American history. The exhibit also implicitly justified American colonial and imperial ventures in 20th century as examples of the natural progress of superior races, educating and presumably eventually reforming or eradicating inferior races.
The impact of scientific publications on U.S. legal and social policy was largely regressive rather than progressive in terms of eradicating racial tension. Rather than generating enlightenment, science was often to confirm racial prejudices. Scientists classified races as possessing certain intrinsic natures or characteristics that were intrinsic to their inborn or genetically inherited temperaments. Darwinism was used to justify racism, as some populations were classified as more primitive than others, based upon arbitrary measures of their skulls, or their skin tone -- certain races were said to be less 'evolved' than other races in terms of their practices and physical development. Defeat at the hands of whites was seen as justified because it exemplified a particular race's inferiority, like the Mexican 'race' at the hands of white Americans. Temperaments were assigned to certain races as well, much like some species of animals supposedly have certain innate temperaments. The overall result was to animalize certain races, and to create divides between entire classes of people.
Sociologists explain their condition through a culture-of-poverty theory or the theory of internal colonialism. Under the first theory, Appalachia families, for better or worse, simply cope with poverty. The second theory, on the other hand, ascribes poverty in Appalachia to structural causes. The theories offer insights but are both found to be quite deficient (Billings and Blee).
The first theory on culture-on-poverty became popular in the 60s and drew its premise from Appalachia's ethnic geography in the late 19th century. It was then perceived as a distinct region and race that entered the American consciousness only after the Civil War (Billings and Blee 2002). Imaginative fictionists only conjured images of the mountain and upland cultures, which were vastly out of step with the lowland's, culturally ad economically. At the turn of the century, Willim Goddell Frost, president of Berea College of Kentucky, discoursed on the people of the southern amounts…
Billings, Dwight and Blee, Kathleen M. Rural Poverty in Appalachia. Fathom Knowledge Network, 2002. http://www.fathom.com/features/122206
Coats, Lauren. Crafting Appalachian Identity: Regional Handicrafts and the Politics of Culture. University of Pennsylvania, 1997. http://www.history.upenn.edu/phr/archives/97/coats.html
Hagedorn, Jake. The Music of Appalachia. http://webpages.charter.net/jakehagedorn.appalachia.html
Lewis, Ronald and Billings, Dwight B. Appalachian Culture and Economic Development. http://www.wvu.edu/pdfiles/lewisarc.pdf
Antebellum Period: Different Perspectives
Woman in a White Slaveholding Family in Virginia
My name is Matilda Baldwin originally of the Richmond Portmans that being my maiden name. I was born and raised outside of Richmond on my poppy's tobacco plantation. My husband's land is not very far away. I spend most of my summer afternoons with Mama. We sit fanning ourselves sipping mint-iced teas wondering if my baby sister will have a successful introduction into Richmond Society. Three years prior, my own debutante ball was glorious. It was where I met Robert Baldwin and many other suitors. He was clearly smitten with me from the start for the next day he asked Poppy for my hand in marriage. My father appreciates fine things in life; a good hand rolled cigar, two fingers of French Brandy and a man who knows what he wants but is not afraid of getting it.…
Unlike the culture of my interviewee, African-American isn't really broken into subgroups. I was born and raised in Buffalo, New York, which is very close to the Canadian Border and the "U.S. Peace Bridge." I grew up speaking English, and it is the only language I speak.
My religion is not typical of most African-Americans, who tend to be Baptist, Methodist, or Lutheran. I was raised as a Catholic and still practice that religion today. I'm not the only African-American I know who is Catholic, but it's not common in my subculture.
Like my interviewee, I think the media is generally doing a good job of representing African-Americans in the media. However, I still see instances when African-Americans seem to be portrayed as being ruthless and slovenly, which in my opinion makes all African-Americans appear to be the same way (association assimilation).
I believe that all cultures have something that…
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…
Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.
Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
This opposition occurred mainly from 1784 to 1790, when Indian raids took place in Pennsylvania, Georgia and Kentucky. Many frontiersmen and settlers were killed during these raids. The violence culminated in the battle of the Fallen Timbers during 1794, when the Indians were defeated by U.S. soldiers. They were obliged to surrender and accept the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. The treaty provided the colonialists with the right to settle I the state of Ohio, and the Indians only with the right to maintain their territory in the north-western corner of the state.
Under the North-Western Ordinances, settlers were guaranteed certain rights, which would become constitutionally guaranteed later. They received the right of freedom to religion, the right to a jury trial, and the permanent abolition of slavery in these territories.
As a result of the expansion effort, slavery was abolished either directly or progressively in some states. In Pennsylvania,…
He was viewing them as little children who required guidance. He tended to believe that the policy of removal had great benefits to the Indians. Majority of the white Americans were thinking that United States was not capable of extending past Mississippi. The removal was capable of saving the Indian nationals from the white's depredations Foreman 1932).
The removal could make them to govern themselves peacefully
It was assumed that the removal was to resettle the Indians in a region where they were capable of governing themselves peacefully. However, a number of Americans viewed this as being a mere excuse for a cruel and appalling course of action, and complained against the removal of the Indian nationals. Their complaints however could not prevent the southeastern populations from being removal. The first lot of people to sign the removal treaty was the Choctaws. They did this in September 1830. A number…
(415 pp., 14 ill., 6 maps, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1932.)
Gibson, Arrell M. Oklahoma: A History of Five Centuries. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1981
Lindberg, Kip and Matthews, Matt. "To Play a Bold Game: The Battle of Honey Springs" North and South Magazine December 2002: pgs. 56- 61.
Indian tribes in the Eastern United States. At the time, the nation was expanding westward and there were concerns that the Indians could begin attacking civilized areas. After the end of the Black Hawk War, is when these worries increased exponentially. As a result, different states began to pass laws that restricted and limited the power of Indian tribes. (emini, n.d., pp. 107 -- 119)
Once this occurred, is when the Cherokee became worried about being forced westward. This was problematic, as they had adopted civilized practices including: establishing a functioning democracy, they had their own language, newspaper and Constitution. These areas led many to believe that the Cherokee would remain in the region. As they were not: a threat to society and believed they had the support of the American people. (emini, n.d., pp. 107 -- 119)
Moreover, the Cherokee were able to win two favorable Supreme Court decisions…
Remini, R. (n.d.). Andrew Jackson vs. The Cherokee Nation.
prologue of Piker's Four Deaths sets the stage of a violent colonial world in which a handful of Cherokee are murdered in a sneak attack by a group of Creeks within a half mile of the Government offices in Charleston, just one day after the Creeks led by the warrior Acorn Whistler had made assurances to the Town that it would not harm the Cherokee or persist in its war with that tribe. The murder on April 1, Fool's Day, is one that is meant to provoke -- both the reader and the citizens of the town at the time when it happened. Piker gives special attention to the way in which a head of one Cherokee was found in the road, the body some ways off, all the victims scalped: the scene is gruesome and appalling and sets the bloody tone of the book with its graphic emphasis on…
Fifty Miles Tomorrow, terms
After one becomes familiar with all of the relevant primary source autobiographies that exist for Wilma Mankiller, William Hensley, and Geronimo, it greatly appears that in terms of culture shock, Hensley had more in common with Mankiller than with Geronimo. There are a number of salient reasons as to why this assertion is true. The first of these pertains to the time period in which these individuals lived. Hensley and Mankiller were both born at the midway point of the 20th century. Geronimo, however, was born in the early part of the 19th century. Although Hensley was born in Alaska and Mankiller was born in the continental U.S., the two both lived through and experienced the same zeitgeist. The thoughts, actions and sentiments of the time period in which Geronimo was born, however, was much different than those factors as they applied to the other pair…
Hensley, W. (2008). 50 Miles from Tomorrow. 2008. New York: Sarah Crichton Books.
13166 require that public entities receiving federal funds must have all vital documents available in every language that their clients speak" (Schultz, 2011). Of course, it is worth noting that state laws and federal laws approach the idea of an official language differently. There are state laws that have made English the official language in just over half of the states in the United States. This may be appropriate because states are more likely to have homogenous groups than the nation as a whole. However it is critical to realize that Title VI applies even to those states that have declared English as an official language. In other words, states cannot overrule the federal government's protection for non-English speakers.
If the majority of the United States speaks English, one may wonder why anyone would worry about protecting the right to speak a different language. Having a single language would certainly…
Brunner, B. (2011). Urdu spoken here: the U.S. is more multilingual than you might think.
Retrieved October 1, 2011 from Infoplease website: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/multilingual1.html
Crawford, J. (1990). Language freedom and restriction: a historical approach to the official language controversy. Retrieved October 1, 2011 from Effective Language Education Practices website: http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/NALI2.html
English First. (2011). About English first. Retrieved from http://www.englishfirst.org/about
run out of planet," is an interesting piece which explores the idea that the Sports Utility Vehicle or SUV is something more than what the name implies. David Goewey's in-depth outlook takes into account the history and possible prejudice that the manufacturers and major distributors of these SUV's may have against our exponentially diverse culture. Goeway's purpose in his essay is to present to his reader's attention the propaganda that vehicle manufactures are "forcing" onto society. Obviously, all vehicles have their purpose; the SUV has qualities that will meet any terrain requirements, whether off road or the highway. Goeway's position on American Vehicles is thus that they are too large and bulky, and this paper will discuss this idea further. (You need a thesis at the end of this paragraph, especially a few words telling the reader what you will be focusing on in the paper.)
Goeway first focuses on…
Western Experience: Native American Displaced to Oklahoma
The rumors were true, and I feel like a fool that I had not believed them when I first heard them. They had been talking for years about the possibility that the government would come and take our land, but, like many others, I felt that would not occur if we cultivated the land the same way as the white men. The main objection to our people being in the East had been that were barbaric and uncivilized, so that living like white people would spare us from being treated as subhuman. My family and I settled down to farm our land and we were very successful at it, which made us think that there would be no further efforts to rob us from our land. We had heard so many arguments that the government would want to take land from us because…
Edmunds, R.D. (2006, March 14). "Native American displacement amid U.S. expansion."
Prelude to War: Manifest Destiny. Retrieved March 15, 2012 from PBS Website
Sherfly, M. (2003). "Indian removal." Dictionary of American History. Retrieved March 15,
Education of Little Tree" directed by Richard Friedenberg and "Thunderheart" directed by Michael Apted. Specifically it will compare and contrast the main characters search for their native roots in the two films. Each of these films shows Native Americans struggling to understand their roots and their heritage. They learn in different ways, but they both come to an understanding of who they are and what their heritage means to them.
Both Little Tree and Ray Levoi are part white and part Native American. Levoi is a Sioux and Little Tree is a Cherokee. Little Tree does not know he has a Native American background, while Levoi has tried to bury his in his subconscious. Their quests for their roots are similar because they learn from the elders of their tribes (Little Tree learns from his grandparents, too), and they learn about the history and culture of their people. They also…
Globalization and Technological Influences
On International Mergers: DaimlerChrysler as a Case Study
One of the most interesting international manufacturing mergers of the 20th century was the 1998 negotiation between the Daimler auto company headquartered in Germany and the struggling Chrysler corporation, headquartered in the U.S. Daimler's buyout of Chrysler resulted in a merger that ultimately failed to benefit either party, and may have seriously damaged both organizations' capacity for future growth. Below, I will discuss how the merger proceeded -- as it was covered in U.S. And international business media -- and how the negotiations for the merger and the 2007 spinoff of Chrysler were facilitated by technological developments and global business practices. I will also discuss motivations for international mergers in general and how they applied specifically in the case of the DaimlerChrysler merger.
As a horizontal merger, DaimlerChrysler followed a popular movement towards consolidation in the international auto…
Qiu, L., & Zhou, W. (2003). International Mergers: Incentive and Welfare. Journal of International Economics, 68(1): 38-58.
Landler, M., & Maynard, M. (2007). "DaimlerChrysler stock gets a lift from talk of Chrysler spinoff." International Herald Tribune, Tuesday February 20, 2007.
Finkelstein, S. (2001). The DaimlerChrysler Merger. Tuck School of Business White Paper # 1-0071.
Vlasic, B., & Stertz, B. (2001). Taken for a Ride: How Daimler-Benz Drove Off with Chrysler. New York: Harper Perennial.
Shawnee Chief Tecumseh [...] how the two main authorities on Tecumseh, John Sugden and David Edmunds, compare with each other? Sugden and Edmunds exhibit extremely divergent writing styles and approaches to their topics, yet, through their research and understanding of their topic, they both manage to convey the man Tecumseh, as well as his accomplishments.
My poor Indians! My poor Indians! Oh, what will become of my Indians?'"
Tecumseh (Tecumtha in the Native language) was born in an Indian village near Dayton, Ohio, in March 1768. His name in Shawnee means "panther lying in wait." Because he was such a successful leader, many historians have recounted his life. "Of all the Indians in American history, he has always seemed the most admirable. His white contemporaries, both British and American, described him in glowing terms, and since his death historians have echoed their praises." John Sugden and David . Edmunds have…
Edmunds, R. David. Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership. Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 1984.
The Shawnee Prophet. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1983.
Langer, Howard J. American Indian Quotations. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Pesanmbbee, Michelene E. "When the Earth Shakes: the Cherokee Prophecies of 1811-12." American Indian Quarterly 17, no. 3 (1993): 301-317.
Politics makes strange bedfellows, we are told, with the implication that those brought together by the vagaries of politics would be best kept apart. But sometimes this is not true at all. In the case of the Black Seminoles, politics brought slaves and Seminole Indians politics brought together two groups of people who would - had the history of the South been written just a little bit differently - would never have had much in common. But slaves fleeing their masters and Seminoles trying to lay claim to what was left of their traditional lands and ways found each other to be natural allies in Florida and in time in other places as well. This paper examines the origin of this particular American population, describing how the Black Seminoles changed over time and how their culture reflected both African and Seminole elements.
The Black Seminoles began in the early 1800s…
Amos, Alcione M., and Thomas Senter (eds). The Black Seminoles. History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 1996.
Hancock, I. The Texas Seminoles and Their Language. Austin: African and Afro-American Studies and Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 1980. http://members.aol.com/angelaw859/movement.html http://www.nps.gov/foda/Fort_Davis_WEB_PAGE/About_the_Fort/Seminole.htm
Jahoda, G. The Trail of Tears. Kansas City: Wings Press, 1995.
Vine Deloria Jr.'s Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto
An Analysis of Vine Deloria, Jr.'s Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto
One of the more profound developments of the current Native American movement has been an effort on the part of Indians themselves to record their own history in order to help them gain control of their future. When Deloria promulgated his "Indian Manifesto" in 1969 with the title of Custer Died for Your Sins, it became apparent that he was at the forefront of this movement and the issues he identifies continue to be at the forefront of Native American concerns today. This paper will provide an overview of Deloria's book, followed by a discussion of six of the main points made by the author. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
According to his editors, Vine Deloria,…
Deloria, Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto, New York: Macmillan, 1969.
Still, many prospered -- visitors such as Alexis de Tocqueville from France marveled at American's drive to acquire wealth, American faith and sociability, as well as the profound racial divisions that characterized American society. American society was poised in continual paradoxes -- religious yet money-hungry, disdainful of social hierarchies yet dependant upon oppressing or disenfranchising races to secure advancement of poorer whites. America was also land-hungry in a way that put it into conflict with its neighbor Mexico, despite its insistence upon being against colonialism, having been born of resistance to colonial Britain. This resulted in the Mexican-American ar and the eventual incorporation of Texas into the Union.
Texas and the est itself is still another paradox of the American experiment. For those unable to become wealthy through capitalism, striking out on one's own in the west seemed a better alternative to the increasingly civilized and also socially entrenched east.…
Wilentz, Sean; Jonathan Earle; Thomas G. Paterson. Major Problems in the Early Republic,
1787-1848, 2nd Edition. Wadsworth, 2008.
In this narrative, the story teller tells of both his informal education in his tribe and the formal education he received through the Indian boarding school run by whites which attempts to assimilate him to the Anglo world, one that differs greatly from the Cherokee way. What the educator can take away from this book is that the best educational approaches are those that are culturally sensitive. One of the main reason our schools are failing in low-income and high minority areas is because it was originally created to teach middle class white children. When this same curriculum is used in a low-income classroom, what is essentially happening is a modern-day form of assimilation. Instead, a more culturally sensitive approach needs to be developed, as was done by Ms. Guell.
Finally, like the educational memoir of Ms. Guell, Jesse Stuart's the Thread that Runs so True, provides a personal account…
Carter, Forrest. (2001): Education of Little Tree. Santa Fe: University of New Mexico Press.
Gruwell, Erin. (2007): Teach with Your Heart: Lessons I Learned from the Freedom Writers. New York: Broadway Books.
Stuart, Jesse. (1950): The Thread that Runs so True. New York: Simon and Schuster Adult Publishing Group.
This intervention by U.S. In a foreign country, in literal words, changed the course of history for the whole world and still its outcomes are yet, to be decided.
The attack on U.S. By Al-Qaeda, on 11th September, 1998, changed the course of American paradigm of Muslims and gave a strong cause for George Bush's "ar against Terrorism." here thousands of American citizens died in Twin Towers, so did the global efforts of maintaining peace between estern and Muslim countries.
Right after, this attack, U.S. invaded Afghanistan initially through Missile attacks and then landed its troops into this land of rocks, physically. Thousands of American soldiers were deputed there and made to fight the mujahids of Al-Qaeda who were rather well-versed with the seasonal feasibility of their land.
Therefore, initially, U.S. army did faced a lot of difficulties, mainly because of weather and foreignness of the war field. However with…
Bean, Lowell John. "Mukat's People: The Cahuilla Indians of Southern California." Berkeley, California: University of California Press.1972
Bean, Lowell John. "Cahuilla," in California" pp. 575 -- 587. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, vol. 8. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 1978
Bean, Lowell John, Sylvia Brakke Vane, and Jackson Young. " the Cahuilla Landscape:
Brown, Glenn . "Chapter XX Sculpture." History of the United States Capitol. Government Printing Office. 2007
As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued.
The Missouri Compromise
In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own…
Brulatour, Meg. Transcendental Ideas: Reform: Social and Political Changes in the Time of Emerson and Thoreau: The 19th Century at a Glance. Ed. Meg Brulatour. VCU. Retrieved on 21 Nov. 2004, from http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/ideas/reformback.html .
Lorence, James J. Enduring Voices: To 1877 the Enduring Voices, a History of the American People. 4th ed., vol. 1. ADD CITY: Houghton Mifflin Company, ADD YEAR.
Pessen, Edward. The Many-Faceted Jacksonian Era: New Interpretations. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1977.
Welter, Rush. The Mind of America, 1820-1860. New York: Columbia UP, 1975.
A person's development includes the changes that continue throughout one's life. Development is usually described in periods of time, so there is consistency among different theories that describe the stages that people go through in their learning process. The most widely used way of classifying developmental periods consists of the following order: the prenatal period, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, and adolescence.
Healthy brain development during the pre-birth period is best when the mother has a nutritionally balanced diet, takes needed vitamins and does not abuse substances. When this is not followed, there is the possibility of brain development and behavior/learning problems such as learning disabilities. My mother is a Cherokee Indian who, like many Native Americans, was raised in a terrible physical and emotional situation. She was only 15 years old when she became pregnant with me. Because she was young, poor and basically alone…
noble savage..." etc.
The Noble, Savage Age of Revolution
When Europeans first came to America, they discovered that their providentially discovered "New World" was already inhabited by millions of native peoples they casually labeled the "savages." In time, Europeans would decimate this population, killing between 95-99% of the 12 million plus inhabitants of the Northern Continent, and as many in the south. efore this genocide was complete, however, the culture of the natives would significantly influence the philosophy and politics of the nations that conquered them. The native societies, with their egalitarian social structures, natural absence of disease, communal sharing of resources, and their lifestyles in which work was easily balanced with art and play, seemed like something Europeans had lost when Adam and Eve left Eden. "Native societies, especially in America, reminded Europeans of imagined golden worlds known to them only in folk history. . . Created of European…
Grinder, Donald & Johansen, Bruce. Exemplar of Liberty: Native America and the Evolution of Democracy, 7th draft. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1990. [nonpaginated ebook available from: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/EoL/index.html#ToC ]
Johansen, Bruce. Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution. Boston: Harvard Common Press, 1982. [nonpaginated ebook format from: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/FF.txt ]
(Famous Cattle Trails)
The Trail in fact aided in the collection of herds of cattle from San Antonio, Helena and Texana in the south and Uvalde, and also from Comanche and Fort Worth, from further north. From Fort Worth, the Chisolm Trail goes straight northwards, and crosses the ed iver at ed iver Station, and when it reaches the Indian Nation Territory, it passes through ush Springs, Kingfisher and Hennessy on through to Kansas. In fact, what made this particular trail very important was the fact that along the route, there were present, three important cattle terminals, which were Wichita, Abilene, and Newton. Abilene was in fact one of the largest cow towns in Kansas, and it was a mere hamlet of twelve red roofed cabins in the year 1867, which was the year when Joseph Mc Coy, a cattle dealer from Chicago, happened to arrive at Kansas.
Abilene, History" Retrieved at http://www.kansascattletowns.com/abilene/abilene.html. Accessed 7 August, 2005
Beef Farming" Retrieved at http://www.face-online.org.uk/resources/factsheets/pdf_doc/beef.pdf. Accessed 7 August, 2005
Biodiversity and Conservation: a Hypertext Book by Peter J. Byrant" Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/\?\?Z[??[?K?X????[X??H?[Y\?X?[?L??Y??[?X??\??Y
This instructor has learned to proactively educate his Navajo students about the need to reveal certain information they normally keep among themselves, such as burial grounds, because federal law now protects them from violation -- but only if their location is known. What this suggests to me is that I may simply have to accept that some cultural distinctions may be important to my Native American students and that it may not be part of their culture to explain it to me. If an issue is important then it may be up to me to explain why something is important in the school's culture so the child can be more successful, but without suggesting that the school culture is better or superior.
Finally, I think it will be important to incorporate literature from the cultures of minority students, recognizing that it isn't enough that the story be "Hispanic." A story…
Allison, Sherry R., and Vining, Christine Begay. 1999. "Native American Culture and Language." Bilingual Review, p. 193.
Amselle, Jorge. 1997. "Adios, Bilingual Ed." Policy Review Vol. 86, pp. 52+.
Araoe, Lisa, and Nelson, J. Ron. 2000. "A Comparative Analysis of Teachers', Caucasian Parents' and Hispanic Parents' Views of Problematic School Survival Behaviors." Education & Treatment of Children 23:3.
Bardwell, Tracey; McMahon, Rebecca, and Saunders, DeLaura. 1996. "Increasing Young Children's Cultural Awareness with American Indian Literature." Childhood Education 73:2, pp. 105+.
And farther west on the Great Plains were the Teton Sioux, among them the Oglalas, whose chief was Red Cloud, and among the Hunkpapas, was Sitting ull, who together with Crazy Horse of the Oglalas, would make history in 1876 at Little ig Horn (rown 10).
After years of broken promises, conflicts and massacres, came the Treaty of Fort Laramie, said to be the most important document in the history of Indian-white relations on the Great Plains (Marrin 94). The treaty basically set aside a Great Sioux Reservation on all of present-day South Dakota west of the Missouri River up to and including the lack Hills, and barred all whites except government officials from the reservation and from a vast "unceded" territory lying between the lack Hills and ighorn Mountains (Marrin 94). Under the treaty, these lands belonged to the Lakota "forever" unless three-quarters of the tribes' men agreed to…
American History since 1865: Wounded Knee
1988. The Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Amerman, Stephen Kent.
2003. Let's get in and fight!" American Indian political activism in an urban public school system, 1973. The American Indian Quarterly. June 22. Retrieved October 14, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web sit.
Of "Identity" to Diversity
Self-reflect on how your family affected your beliefs and values. Describe at least two specific examples from your memory. Also include reflections on how your family shaped your views, and how that affects your feelings about diversity-related issues.
Self-Reflections on Childhood, Family, and Family Attitudes about Diversity
In self-reflecting on how my family affected my present beliefs and values, and my current attitudes about diversity, my main recollections are of being from a relatively well-off family, but of also of being surrounded as a child by other families that were less well-off, and sometimes of diverse ethnic backgrounds. I am a Caucasian male, and was raised in a series of small Midwestern areas where there were many families with lower-than- average incomes, although my own family was fortunate enough to not be one of them. Still, I feel that based on…
Child Development Institute. "Stages of Social-Emotional Development in Children and Teenagers." Child Development Institute. Retrieved October 15, 2005, from: .
Habke, Audrey, and Ron Sept. "Distinguishing Group and Cultural Influences in Inter-Ethnic Conflict: A Diagnostic Model." Canadian Journal of Communication (CJC). Vol. 18, No. 4 (1993). Retrieved October 15, 2005,
American Ethnic Culture
What is an American?
It is clear that Progressive era Americans from different backgrounds differentially defined precisely what being an American actually meant. Stephen Meyer wrote in the work entitled "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace 1914-1921 that Americanization
"…involved the social and cultural assimilation of immigrants into the mainstream of American life…" but that the process was of the nature that was comprised of "a unique and distinctly American method for the resolution of a key industrial problem -- the problem of work-discipline and of the adjustment of new workers to the factory environment." (p.323)
The Americanization campaign is stated by Meyer to have been one that was "voluntary, benevolent and educational." (p.323) However, the programs emerged from within the factories and had negative connotations as well. It was not so much an issue of the diversity represented by the national or ethnic cultures but…
Gjerde, J. (1998) Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History, 1998.
Takaki, R. (2008) A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, 2008
Meyer, Stephen (nd) "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace, 1914-1921"
Gerstle, Gary (2000) American Freedom, American Coercion: Immigrant Journeys in the Promised Land. Social Compass 47(1), 2000, 63-76. Online available at: http://www.pineforge.com/healeystudy5/articles/Ch2/Americanfreedom , Americancoercion.pdf
cell phone use while driving. Specifically it will discuss the increased use of cell phones in the United States, and the dangers of driving while talking on a cell phone. Talking on a cell phone while driving is dangerous. Studies show it is just as dangerous as drunk driving, and talking on a cell phone while driving should be banned nationally, not simply on a state-by-state basis.
CELL PHONES SHOULD E ANNED
Driving while talking on a cell phone has become quite controversial as more Americans use cell phones every day. Using cell phones in public can be annoying and downright rude, but driving while talking on a cell phone can be deadly. One analyst noted, "Driving and talking on a cell phone is like drinking and driving. In both cases, the driver's reaction time is slowed, especially in the event of a roadway mishap requiring urgent response. In addition,…
Author not Available. "Cell Phone Users Drive 'Blind'; Study Explains Why Hands-Free Phones Just as Bad As Hand-Held." U.S. Newswire, 01-27-2003.
Egan, Bob. "Commentary: Common Sense and Cell Phones." CNET.com. 23 May 2001. http://news.com.com/2100-1033-258172.html?legacy=cnet&tag=owv
Ferzan, Kimberly Kessler. "Opaque Recklessness." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 91.3 (2001): 597+.
Kanallakan, Jamie. "Cellular Phones: Policymakers Consider the Effects of Highway Usage." Spectrum: the Journal of State Government 74.1 (2001): 17.
TV and Magazine Ads. There are five references used for this paper.
Americans see numerous advertisements on TV and in magazines, all aim at getting them to spend their money. It is interesting to look at five such ads and who their target audience is.
The Libmen Company offers a wide array of products for cleaning the home. Their newest product is the Nitty Gritty Roller Mop which is targeted for the middle-class, homemaker.
The ad promises the product will "get to the nitty, gritty of cleaning a floor (Libmen)."
The company demonstrates this benefit by showing the consumer bristles on the mop, as well as the roller portion.
The consumer is shown the mop being used, further successfully illustrating the virtues of the product.
Odor Eaters has a product called Odor Eaters Plus. The product is aimed mainly at middle-class athletes or workers who may…
AT&T Text Messaging Ad. (observed 02 September, 2002 at 1:20 P.M.).
Jeep Grand Cherokee Ad. Time. (2003): 10 February.
Liberman Nitty Gritty Mop Ad. (observed 02 September, 2003 at Noon).
Odor Eaters Plus Ad. (observed 02 September, 2003 at 12:45 P.M.).
. . The most sustained on record" whilst the American Indian: The First Victim (1972) maintained that American civilization had originated in "theft and murder" and "efforts toward . . . genocide."
In the Conquest of Paradise (1990), Sale condemned the British and American people for pursuing a genocidal program for more than four centuries (Lewy, 2004).
It was not only masssacre; epidemics were introduced by the White people too, one of which was smallpox that destroyed entire tribes at one go. Measles, influenza, syphilis, bubomic plague, typhus, and cholera were only a few of the other plagues that the "visitors" bequeathed to the inhabitants already living on this soil. Approximately 75 to 890% of the deaths of American Indians resulted from these pathogens.
There was forced relocation of Indian tribes. The removal of the Cherokee from their homeland in 1838 -- an experience that was later called the Trail…
Lewy, G. Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? History News Network, 2004. Web. http://www.hnn.us/articles/7302.html
Stannard, D. American Holocaust USA: Oxford University Press, 1993
King asks his readers to consider the authority of the author. For minority groups, especially those who have suffered the degree of persecution that native groups have, there are complex questions about who has the right to speak for others in the community. Especially for authors like King, whose ancestry is so mixed (as is the case for so many American Indian and First Nations writers, artists, and activists), there is always the question of whose story precisely he is telling.
Mistry, an Indian writer from Asia, takes up many of the same themes as does King, for both are the inheritors of fractured heritages, the scions of peoples who have been displaced and damaged by history. Mistry, a member of a religious minority that has been threatened by Islam, also addresses the question of what it means to belong.
"Squatter" presents a story within a story as the narrator…
From Supply Chain Efficiency to Customer Segmentation Focus
Because of this focus on supply chain forecasting accuracy and efficiency, the need for capturing very specific customer data becomes critical. The case study portrays the capturing of segmentation data as focused on growing each of the brands mentioned that VF relies on this data to base marketing, location development and store introductions, and pricing strategies on. In reality, the data delivered for these marketing programs and location-based analyses is also providing an agile and scalable platform for VF to more effectively manage and mitigate its supply chain risk as well.
elying on Alteryx for data analysis as it has superior capability to Microsoft Access and Excel in conjunction with the use of SC Software for geo-demographic analysis, VF has created a workflow for translating data warehouses into the basis of marketing and supply chain strategies. The strategic goal of getting the…
Adnan, M., Longley, P., Singleton, a., & Brunsdon, C. (2010). Towards Real-Time Geodemographics: Clustering Algorithm Performance for Large Multidimensional Spatial Databases. Transactions in GIS, 14(3), 283-297.
Paul Sheldon Foote, & Malini Krishnamurthi. (2001). Forecasting using data warehousing model: Wal-Mart's experience. The Journal of Business Forecasting Methods & Systems, 20(3), 13-17.
Yang-Im Lee, & Peter R.J. Trim. (2006). Retail marketing strategy: The role of marketing intelligence, relationship marketing and trust. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 24(7), 730-745.
Lewis, M., Hornyak, R., Patnayakuni, R., & Rai, a.. (2008). Business Network Agility for Global Demand-Supply Synchronization: A Comparative Case Study in the Apparel Industry. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 11(2), 5-29.
This, in combination with his slick use of language, and ability to use up-to-date sland and invented words to fit his needs, linked him not only with the cowboy tradition, but speech and mannerism of the American South. Because of this easy going style -- and ability to cut through the extraneous and find the base truth in the matter at hand, allowed him to move through social classes in all countries, standing for the virtues of a self-made-man, with the obvious respect for capitalism, utilitarianism, and faith in the progression of humans (Brown, 1979)
The standard definition of an intellectual is a person who uses intelligence (thought and reason) in a critical way to analyze issues and give not just a summation of rote memorization of facts, but of analysis and synthesis. Was Will ogers an intellectual? How could he not be -- he meets every standard, and then…
Give a Trougth to Will. (1922, November 13). Retrieved December 2010, from the New York Times: http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9D00E5D61F39EF3ABC4B52DFB7678389639EDE
Will Rogers. (2009, April). Retrieved December 2010, from Will Rogers Website: http://www.cmgww.com/historic/rogers/index.html
Brown, W. (1979). Will Rogers and His Magic Mirror. Chronicles of Oklahoma, 57(3), 300-25.
Roach, F. (1980). Will Rogers' Youthful Relationship With His Father. Chronicles of Oklahoma, 58(3), 325-42.
In the absence of his cowboy abilities or his personality traits which were obviously the result of a certain life style, he would not have achieved success to the same extent.
A third important step in the life of Rogers was represented by the film in which he starred in 1918, called "Laughing ill Hyde" and done after the homonym novel of Rex each. The film was an outstanding hit and its popularity made the producer house, Goldwyn Pictures offer him a contract. As a consequence he ended up making twelve movies in just two years. This contributed to immensely increasing his popularity. In the 20s and 30s he was basically everywhere. "Newspaper columns, books, motion pictures, radio appearances, recordings, ull Durham advertisements -- in what seemed every way imaginable, the image, voice, and words of Will Rogers were being disseminated all over the country."(Yagoda, 216)
Writings such as "Never…
Rogers, W., Carter, J.C. (1991) Never met a man I didn't like. Harper Paperbacks
"Rogers, the cowboy entertainer" in virginia.edu, Retrieved November 3, 2010 from http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG00/3on1/cowboy/will.html
At this time, African-Americans were not allowed to enroll in this institution Autherine only stayed for three days not because she could not cope with the education, but because her life was in danger. Majority of the white students protested because of her presence. There is also the George allace incident that has also been mentioned bringing the University of Alabama into the limelight.
The university is also well-known for its prowess in football which was initiated in 1892 in the institution. Football in the University of Alabama is on a professional level ranked next to clubs in the league (Brad, 3). Many students receive football scholarships thus providing career opportunities to the students not only through education.
Alabama has been at the centre stage of civil rights activities involving fight against segregation, and providing inspirational individuals who will forever be celebrated like Reverend Martin Luther King and Rosa…
Alabama . Infoplease. 2005. 18 Oct. 2010.
Brad, Jason. Alabama Is No. 1 in Preseason Poll. New York Times
Oct. 18, 2010: 3
African-Americans, as members of a group who were forcibly migrated to America are not immigrants, and Native Americans are the original inhabitants of this land. But Chinese-Americans such as Amy Tan, although she is a daughter of willing immigrants to America, also experience identity conflicts. In "Half and Half" Amy Tan explicitly identifies her protagonist Rose as feeling half American, half Chinese in a manner that often makes her feel adrift in the world. Part of this passivity, Tan suggests, is Rose's guilt and self-loathing from accidentally letting her brother drown when she was supposed to be watching him. In the midst of a bitter divorce, Rose eventually reconnects emotionally with her mother and resolves to fight for the house she loves. Asserting her right to a physical homeland in America becomes a source of pride for Rose -- her home becomes her homeland in America, and establishes her right…
It also allowed unions to deny non-whites access to benefits of health care, job security and pensions. Housing was also affected. The revolutionary programs of the Federal Housing dministration were set up so that non-whites could not own homes. The system deemed integrated communities ineligible for home loans. Between 1934 and 1962 it was estimated that ninety eight percent of money for home loans went t whites. The government programs and policy caused the creation of segregated white suburbs around the country. To this day Black and Latinos have a smaller chance of successful mortgage applications.
s a result of this preferential treatment for whites over the generations, New York University economist Edward Wolf describes whites as having assets and net worth of eight times that of a typical frican-merican family. Even with equal incomes whites have double the wealth of blacks because of home ownership and inheritance from parents.…
As a result of this preferential treatment for whites over the generations, New York University economist Edward Wolf describes whites as having assets and net worth of eight times that of a typical African-American family. Even with equal incomes whites have double the wealth of blacks because of home ownership and inheritance from parents. The advantage is also passed on to the next generation. The whites are in a better position to put their children through college, assist them with their own home purchase and to help through hard times. This wealth can be passed down through generations and so this racial wealth gap seems to have increased since the civil rights days. This is demonstrated by the fact that in 1865 after Emancipation African-Americans owned 0.5% of the total worth of the U.S. One hundred and thirty five years later in 1990 they still only owned 1% of the national wealth.
Despite all this whites still believe that race does not affect their lives. Some attribute differences in achievement to differences in ability and motivation. But sociologist Dalton Conley showed that the difference in performance between whites and other racial groups had nothing to do with nature but was due to unequal circumstances.
The author concludes that attempts to treat everyone the same does not reverse the unfair advantages that allowed white Americans to accumulate so much in the past years.
It also illustrated the solidification of the definition of a true American as a white male. Andrew Jackson was a populist, and spoke out against the landed aristocracy, of which Jefferson was a member. Jackson wanted votes for all men, regardless of property-holding status, but he also wanted to expand property ownership to a larger proportion of the population. his would be accomplished by expansion westward.
he Indian Removal Act of 1830 confirmed the Jacksonian idea that America was not a race-neutral civilization, and depended upon the subjugation and eradication of some races, while it strove to build up its own status: "hey have neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement which are essential to any change in their condition. Established in the midst of another and superior race, they must necessarily yield to the force of circumstances and ere long disappear," said Jackson,…
The war with Mexico, which resulted in the establishment of Texas as one of the states of the union, was also characterized as a battle of civilizations, with Mexicans being characterized as 'inferior' and undeserving of a state that had been their territory, into which they had invited American settlers. Because the American settlers in Texas were white, ergo Texas was seen as a 'white' and 'American' nation in a way that transcended most legal conceptions of what constituted national ownership of a territory.
As expansion westward continued, so did the divisions in the nation over slavery. A variety of compromises were instated to balance the U.S. between slave and free, but a crisis was clearly building in terms of how the U.S. would finally identify itself -- could an American citizen be anything other than a white man? But not only southerners subscribed to the doctrine of racial inferiority: In a perfect ideological storm, a misinterpretation of Darwinian notions of the evolution of the races and anthropological study of 'primitive' societies and skull sizes were used to justify the inequitable status of black people and the right of Europeans to dominate all other races in the name of progress. Racism and domination of native peoples was cast in a moral light.
Finally, he inferiority of certain races became codified into law: the 1857 Dred Scott U.S. Supreme Court case declared that people of African ancestry, enslaved or free, could never become citizens of the United States. The Court's opinion stated that black people "had no rights which the white man was bound to respect," and in effect, one a slave, always a slave. Hopes that slavery would die out of its own accord were extinguished.
God created the dispensations and guides humanity differently during each period. C.I Scofield outlines the dispensations including Innocence, Conscience, Human Government, Promise, Law, Church, and Kingdom ("End Times" 4). Dispensationalism is based on a literal and unequivocal interpretation of the Bible ("End Times" 4). Efird, for instance, describes dispenstionalism a historically accurate and nearly scientific method of discerning Biblical prophecy based on a close reading of the sacred text. Efird claims that dispensationalism prevents the "disappointment and embarrassment" that has plagued believers in the apocalypse (7). Dispensationalism is a relatively new type of Christian eschatology and has the unique hallmarks of American Protestantism. The Catholic Church does not embrace a strict interpretation of millennialism. On the contrary, Catholics prefer a more symbolic interpretation of the Book of Revelations ("End Times" 4).
Regardless of the denomination of Christianity, the end times is central to the religion's teachings, its cosmology, its theology,…
Efird, J.M. Left Behind? What the Bible Really Says about the End Times. Macon: Smyth & Helwys 2005.
"End Times." BBC.com. Retrieved 5 Oct 2009 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/beliefs/endtimes_1.shtml
Endtime Ministries. Web site retrieved 5 Oct 2009 from http://www.endtime.com/
"Eschatology." Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 Oct 2009 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/192308/eschatology
Chrysler, unlike Ford with its Focus, had no popular, fuel-efficient cars. In fact, even after the first government bailout, "Chrysler's big reveal at the International Auto Show was a new Jeep Grand Cherokee. Not what the government wants the company to be spending time and bailout money on" (Gap, 2009, Key Splash Creative). As GM was planning a new line of cars, and formulating a prospective electric car, the Volt. Chrysler remained out of touch.
Chrysler was the first company of the 'big three' Detroit automakers to go into bankruptcy. It was forced to respond to direct pressures from the Obama administration to do so, despite protests that Americans would never buy cars from such a financially-tainted company. Chrysler's current CEO, obert Nardelli said that he had been pulling the flagging company back together, and that "the privately held Chrysler was flush with cash and leaner than at any time…
The Gap between Chrysler, GM and Toyota. (2008). Key Splash Creative. Retrieved October 30,
2009 at http://keysplashcreative.com/category/marketing-mistakes/
Flint, Jerry. (2003). Chrysler's marketing mistakes. Forbes.com. Retrieved October 30, 2009 at http://www.forbes.com/2003/08/05/cz_jf_0805flint.html
Halliday, Jean. (2007). Chrysler sale succeeding where Dr. Z, Celine failed. Advertising Age.
It will be recorded as the time the auto industry ducked its responsibility and missed a unique opportunity." (2002)
The AC Primetime report entitled: "Technology to Prevent SUV Rollovers" reports that is a new device that is purported to have the capacity to prevent SUV rollovers. This report states specifically that in a rollover "there are so many ways to die. Ejections, getting runover by the vehicle when it's rolling, hitting the pavement, inside the car people hitting each other, people being on the roof when the roof hits...'" (AC Primetime News, 2009) The new device is an electronic stability system which works through controlling circumstances when the vehicle is traveling too fast in a curve and implements according to O'Neill of the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety at the time the rear of the vehicle begins to slide out. (AC News Primetime, 2009) These electronic stability systems are stated…
Casey, Gerry, Schenk, Francavilla, Blatt & Penfield, Attorneys (2009) SUV Rollover and Collision Overview. SUV Rollover Accidents. Online available at: http://www.cglaw.com/apg_pg18_SUV_Rollover_Accidents.html
Ford Explorer Rollover Lawsuits & Safety Recall Information (2009) Willis Law Firm. Ford Explorer Rollover Website. Online available at: http://www.fordexplorerrollover.com/
Gole: Daniel (2009) Ecological Intelligence How Knowing the Hidden Impacts of What We Buy Can Change Everything (2009) Goleman, Daniel. Random House, Inc. 2009.
Grundin, Erica (2009) SUV Rollover Accidents. Go Articles. 2009 Jayde Online available at: http://www.goarticles.com/cgi-bin/showa.cgi?C=1706049
Carlisle Indian School: founded 1879; Indian boarding school; Pennsylvania; forced assimilation of native children; abuse of children
11. Cheyenne Tribe: Plains Indians; a Sioux name for the tribe; currently comprises two tribes; ties with Arapaho; hunters; ghost dance
12. ed Cloud: leader of Ogala Lakota; fierce warrior opposed U.S.; ed Cloud's War 1866-1868; Wyoming, Montana; became leader on reservation
13. Comanche Tribe: Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma; Plains Indians; hunter-gatherers; about 14,000 remain; speak Uto-Aztecan language related to Shoshone
14. Joseph Brant: Thayendanegea; Mohawk; American evolution fought with British to help Indians; became Mason; active political leader for Six Nations
15. Trail of Tears: massive relocation of Native Americans; affected Choctaw, Cherokee and other southern Indians; move to Oklahoma Indian Territory; 1830s; related to Indian emoval Act; represented treaty violations
16. Pontiac's War: 1763; Great Lakes region; Pontiac was Odawa leader; war against British after Seven Years War; British…
"Red Cloud." PBS. Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/i_r/redcloud.htm
Saunders, R. (2007). "Chief Pontiac's War -- 1763." Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://colonial-america.suite101.com/article.cfm/chief_pontiacs_war_1763
247). Further, Jones began preaching about "revolutionary suicide" which was a kind of "collective suicide" as an "outcome of being attacked by forces" against Jonestown.
These facts that are generally supported by other sources can easily lead an alert reader to assume that Jones started with an idealistic spiritual movement and gradually he apparently became obsessed with power - and paranoid that some group would try to wipe him out - and turned his church into a cult. The PBS research claims that prior to the mass deaths Jones "confiscated medicines from every resident" and kept himself "medicated" on barbiturates and amphetamines. It doesn't take a doctor or psychiatrist to project that being on amphetamines (speed) and barbiturates (downers) could induce wild highs and lows, radical mood shifts which could certainly lead to paranoia, fear, hostility, and violence. "Hard physical labor" was forced on members six days a week -…
Metcalf, Bill. "David Chidester. Salvation and Suicide: Jim Jones, The People's Temple,
And Jonestown." Utopian Studies 16.2 (2005): 335-338.
Public Broadcasting Service. "Race and the Peoples Temple." Retrieved March 2, 2009, at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/jonestown/peopleevents/e_guyana.html .
Richardson, James T. "People's Temple and Jonestown: A Corrective Comparison and Critique." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 19.3 (2001): 239-255.
Sam Houston ended up being the Cherokee spokesman in Washington, and went on to lead Texas to independence. Santa Anna rose through the ranks of the Spanish army due to his heroism -- or at least his ability to draw attention to himself -- and managed to retain and even increase his power in an independent Mexico. It was the specific, individual personalities of these two men that allowed them to shape history in the way they did, and this concept is clear in the earliest details of their lives as told by Michener.
This is not to say that Michener describes the two men as the same. Though both were involved heavily in the political and military actions of their countries, they did so in different ways. Santa Anna is portrayed as power-hungry and very politically driven, changing sides when necessary and playing the game of politics to get…
In 1779 the Creeks and Cherokees in 1779 suffered tremendous population losses and were unable to resist the new U.S. federal government's political and military advances upon their land (Richter 2001). The Indians lost economic power as well, as the Crees and Assiniboines saw their control over the northern fur trade ebb away to the Hudson's Bay Company. Through New Spain, the Great Plains, Hudson's Bay, and the Pacific Coast between 1779 and 1782, the pox cut a swathe through the nation, but had a particularly devastating impact upon Native Americans (Richter 2001). The Native Americans lost their political and economic clout, their land, as well as their lives, and, in the very long-term, they also lost their culture to the epidemic brought by whites.
Richter, Donald. Review of Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82. By Elizabeth Fenn. New York, N.Y., Hill & ang Publishers, 2001.…
Richter, Donald. Review of Pox Americana: The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82. By Elizabeth Fenn. New York, N.Y., Hill & Wang Publishers, 2001. Common Place.
2.3. 2001. February 17, 2009. http://www.common-place.org/vol-02/no-03/reviews/richter.shtml
On February 26, Travis began to order fire power conservation in anticipation of further battle. The Texians burned more huts and were also engaged by Colonel Juan Bringas. One Texian was killed on this occasion.
On March 3, 1000 further Mexican troops reinforced Santa Anna's army, which now amounted to almost 2,400. Santa Anna began to plan a direct assault on the fort on March 4. A visit from a local woman to negotiate a Texian surrender, according to historians, is likely to have increased Santa Anna's impatience for battle. It was decided that the fort would be attacked on March 6. On the evening of March 5, the Mexicans strategically ceased their bombardment of the fort, and as planned, the Texian army fell into exhausted slumber.
Planning for the final assault began just after midnight on March 6, and Santa Anna gave the order to advance at 5:30 AM.…
Edmondson, J.R..The Alamo Story: From Early History to Current Conflicts Republic of Texas Press, Plano, Texas, 2000
Hopewell, Clifford James Bowie Texas Fighting Man: A Biography, Eakin Press, Austin, Texas, 1994.
Lindley, Thomas Ricks Alamo Traces: New Evidence and New Conclusions, Republic of Texas Press, Lanham, MD, 2003
Petite, Mary Deborah. 1836 Facts about the Alamo and the Texas War for Independence, Savas Publishing Company, Mason City, IA, 1998.
Flax was a major industry because of the ease of production. The prosaic nature of the homespun ideal led it to be the symbol of the revolution. It also induced progress. enjamin Franklin referred to it as the "first Ages of the world." ut this was linked to European finery, historically made from the animal skins of the Indians, who did not have a cloth-making industry. In his 1787 Notes on the State of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson declared all forms of manufacturing, including household, as a mortal threat to American virtue. As the American president in 1806, he drew the attention of Cherokee chiefs on the civilizing effect of spinning and weaving their own cotton cloths. In 1812, Jefferson and John Adams agreed to a common homespun vision of commercial progress (Zakim).
The overall view is that capitalism threatens or hinders democracy (Muller 2007). Capitalism involves an inequality of reward,…
Anderson, Kim. Liberal Capitalism: the Will to Happiness. Policy: the Centre for Independent Studies, Summer 2007
Lowell National Historical Park. Early American Manufacturing. National Park Services:
US Department of the Interior, 2002. Retrieved on October 8, 2008 at http://www.nps.gov/archive/lowe/loweweb/Lowell_History/earlyam.htm
Muller, Jerry Z. The Democratic Threat to Capitalism. Daedalus: MIT Press Summer,