Child Observation Essays (Examples)

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Child Safety the Safety of

Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34645883

Both of the children were a bit older, so he was not constantly monitoring their every move. Instead, his attention shifted from watching the girl, who was playing with another set of children, and watching his son, who was also playing in a separate area with another group of children. Periodically however, he was texting on his phone. This texting interrupted his watching the children. The girl would go to him for a couple of minutes at a time, but then she would run off with her friends again. The son did not approach his father again once he was playing with the other kids. The father was however, sitting less than ten feet away from the areas where both of his children were playing.

The father in this case was careful in terms of periodically observing what his children were doing and where they were, but he could have…… [Read More]

References:

Associated Press. (2009). Long-lost children rarely turn up. FoxNews. Retrieved 29 April 2013 from www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,528038,00.html
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Child Care Developmental Observation of Five-Year-Old Statement

Words: 2762 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63516728

Child Care

Developmental Observation of Five-Year-old

Statement of esearch/Observation: To observe a five-year-old female child in her natural setting to determine age appropriate developmental stages.

Description of Child Being Observed: The subject is a five-year-old female: Maribel.

Planning Stages:

My friend has a five-year-old niece. The subject's mother was contacted and agreed to allow the observations to take place in her home and on the playground. The project was discussed and plans were made to accommodate all involved parties.

Introductory Visit:

The introductory visit was conducted at my friend's house, also the child's grandmother's home. Maribel often visits her grandmother and is very comfortable within this home setting.

Upon this visit, Maribel was introduced to me as her aunt's visitor. She said, "hi" to me, and asked me if I was visiting her aunt. I replied yes, and asked Maribel if she would like to sit with me and wait…… [Read More]

References

Alliance for Childhood. "Importance of play." 2 May, 2003 http://www.allianceforchildhood.net/projects/play/index.htm

Bergen, D. Pretend Play and Young Children's Development. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood, 2001. ERIC,ED458045.

Fisch, S.M., & Truglio, R.T. (2001). "G" is for growing: Thirty years of research on children and Sesame Street. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Kagan, J. "Child." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 25 Mar. 2004. http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar110700.
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Child Play Different Play Behaviors

Words: 1871 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85068616



In the second phase of the research, testing of the children in various areas related to their attitude towards outdoor play will take place. Appreciation and awareness of the natural world, signs of emerging independence or continuing dependence, and a variety of other variables associated by previous research with outdoor play will be examined. This will also provide some direct insight as to the factors that motivate outdoor play, allowing for further extrapolation. Specifically, plans and procedures for motivating increased outdoor play and more positive attitudes towards/greater appreciations of outdoor play will be recommended based on the findings of the two research phases. From this, the beginnings of a comprehensive view of early childhood attitudes towards outdoor play and the benefits of increasing positive attitudes towards outdoor play will hopefully be established.

Conclusion

The observations made in this research will not provide enough evidence to lead to any entirely conclusive…… [Read More]

References

Chan, L. & Louie, L. (2003). "The Use of Pedometry to Evaluate the Physical Activity Levels among Preschool Children in Hong Kong." Early childhood development & care 173(1), pp. 97-107.

Kernan, M. & Devine, D. (2010). "Being Confined within? Constructions of the Good Childhood and Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings in Ireland." Children & society 24(5), pp. 371-85.

Maday, G, (2005). "Indoor play systems." Scholastic early childhood today 19(6), pp. 33-4.

Valentine, G. & McKendrick, J. (1997). "Children's outdoor play: Exploring parental concerns about children's safety and the changing nature of childhood." Geoforum 28(2), pp. 219-35.
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Child Guidance

Words: 864 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67474656

Child Guidance

The Watertown (MA) Family Network creates a community for mothers who may not have anyone to ask questions about their infants and toddlers. As the video's narrator stated, "There are no roadmaps to raising children." With the Network, which is free and provides resources such as a new mom support group, parents do not need to feel as if they are all alone with this rewarding, but challenging, job of raising a child.

Epstein (2009) suggests there are five types of family engagement: childrearing, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, and representing other families. A comprehensive family involvement plan can be developed by choosing several of these types.

In the church-based childcare center where I worked, as with the Watertown Network, staff helped parents who had questions about what they should do at home. This center was in a military community where many young mothers were away from their…… [Read More]

References

Grisham-Brown, J., Hallam, R., and Brookshire, R. (2006). Using authentic assessment to evidence children's progress toward early learning standards. Early Childhood Education Journal 34(1), pp. 45-51.

Kostelnik, M.J., Soderman, A.K., and Whiren, A.P. (2011). Developmentally appropriate curriculum: Best practices in early childhood education. Boston: Pearson.

Mueller, J. (2011). Authentic assessment toolbox. Retrieved from http://jfmueller.faculty

.noctrl.edu/toolbox/whatisit.htm
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Child Study Christopher Cole Is

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4479508



Interviews with his parents reveal a disturbing trend. His parents do not seem to want to challenge Christopher in any meaningful way and instead enable his lack of progress. Perhaps out of fear for his tantrums, Christopher's mother makes excuses for her son's behavior. The experiment of homeschooling Christopher has therefore been unproductive because he is not challenged, and therefore is not learning as much as he could be. His social skills have also been hampered by his homeschooling environment, and by the attitudes of his parents. Christopher does not understand certain social conventions. For instance, he will pass gas while talking to people or make a wolf whistle at a female.

Christopher has no real friends his own age. He seems to prefer being around adults due to the extra compassion and attention they show him. Christopher throws temper tantrums when he feels anxious or put on the spot,…… [Read More]

References

"Asperger's Syndrome." WebMD. Retrieved online:  http://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/tc/aspergers-syndrome-symptoms 

"Cleft Lip and Palate," (2011). Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002046/
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Child Called it Understanding Development

Words: 2894 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28438013

This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).

The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…… [Read More]

References

Fraser, C.; Burchell, B. & Hay, D. (2001). Introducing social psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Heffner. (2003). "Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html

Pelzer, D. (1995). A Child Called it. Omaha: Omaha Press.

Springhouse. (1990). "Piaget's Cognitive Stages.' http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/piaget.htm
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Child Case Study The Story

Words: 1816 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44209188

In relationship of his reading comprehension -- Manuel knows how to read at grade level. He really does get the plain indication and can figure out the connotation of a lot of words in the course of context clues. He can effortlessly recapitulate what he has just read and grabbed some of the main ideas as well as extrapolations. His writing needs a lot of work. A lot of the time he leaves out things like prepositions and over uses the imperative regarding creating the words so that they could be plural. For instance -- take the word "children." Manuel will normally just adds an "s" on it so that it can be plural. During other times he does not make certain terms plural. Homonyms are a big issue for Manuel. His language appears to emphasis needs to be on structuring a basis of appropriate sentence structure and sentence syntax.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Belland, B.G. (2008). A scaffolding framework to support the construction of evidence-based arguments among middle school students. Education Tech Research Dev., 21(9), 79-89.

Bodrova, E. & . (1998). Scaffolding emergent writing in the zone of proximal development. Literacy Teaching and Learning, 21(8), 1-18.

Clay, M.M. (2005, June 6). Literacy lessons designed for individuals: Teaching procedures. NH: Heinemann. Atlanta, Georgia.

Rodgers, E.M. (2004). Interactions that scaffold reading performance. Journal of Literacy Research, 12(7), 23-67.
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Children's Literature

Words: 2790 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44250974

Children's Literature

"All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy." This adage takes on various meanings according to context -- in the early twenty-first century, it will most likely be used to imply too much seriousness about schoolwork. But in the consideration of children's literature in the nineteenth century, we face the prospect of a society where child labor was actually a fact of life. e are familiar with the stereotypes that still linger on in the collective imagination, of young boys forced to work as chimney-sweeps or girls forced to labor in textile factories. But the simple fact is that between the present day and the emergence of children's literature as a category of its own, largely during the nineteenth century, there has been a widespread reform in labor practices and social mores which has altered the meaning of what "work" might mean for young Jack, or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alcott, Louisa May. Little Women. Edited with an introduction by Elaine Showalter. New York: Penguin Books, 1989. Print.

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Edited with an introduction by John Seelye. New York: Penguin Books, 1986. Print.
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Child Abuse and Sexuality

Words: 2773 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32393386

Child Abuse and Sexuality

There has been increasing awareness about stopping sexual child abuse, which has now become an important public health concern (Hammond, 2003; hitaker, Lutzker, & Shelley, 2005). In 2005 more than 83000 cases related to child sexual abuse have been listen in the state-based reports, that have been accumulated by the office of Child Abuse and Neglect (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [U.S. DHHS], 2007). Majority of these cases related to sexual abuse never get registered or reported. Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, and Hamby's (2005) conducted a survey a while back in which the sample constituted of parents along with children. The results of the survey were that, in the year before the survey, out of every 1000 children 82 have been a victim of sexual abuse (hitaker, 2008).

The abused child undergoes various problems socially, behaviorally, psychologically and physically. Depression, PTSD, somatization, and personality disorder…… [Read More]

Whitaker, D.J. et al. (2008). Risk factors for the perpetration of child sexual abuse: A review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect 32, 529 -- 548.

Yoshihama, M. And Horrocks, J. (2010). Risk of intimate partner violence: Role of childhood sexual abuse and sexual initiation in women in Japan. Children and Youth Services Review 32: 28 -- 37

Ziersch, A., Gaffney, J., & Tomlinson, D.R. (2000). STI prevention and the male sex industry in London: Evaluating a pilot peer education program. Sexually Transmit ted Infections, 76, 447-453.
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Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders

Words: 547 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39286981

Thus, the participants with ASD were as able to attend to the images as the control group and imitate the perceived emotional state. However, only the typically-developing children showed activity in the pars opercularis during the imitation task. The pars opercularis is associated with some mirroring functions.

As expected, the scans revealed that the participants with ASD had far less activity throughout the MNS. Also as predicted, results indicated an inverse relationship between MNS activity and autism symptom severity. Symptom severity was assessed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Interview.

Results therefore supported the hypothesis that ASD is correlated with a dysfunctional MNS. Children with autism often cannot understand, anticipate, or read the emotional expressions of others and the current study points to a possible underlying cause for this dysfunction. Typically developing children not only imitated the observed emotion but likely felt it as well;…… [Read More]

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Child's Drawing Ability Drawing Complexity as the

Words: 1853 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8364168

CHILD'S DAWING ABILITY

Drawing complexity as the complexity or the level of difficulty involved in children's drawing. Drawings from younger children can be less simple with fewer features but as the age of the child progresses the complexity of the drawings increases due to the complex cognitive development.

Drawings are mirror representation of the child's development. Children's drawings have significant roles in the cognitive development of the child. Other roles include training the brain of the child to pay attention and to sustain attention, stimulating individual cells and clusters of cells in the visual cortex for line and shape, practicing and to organizing the shapes and patterns of thought and, through an increasing affinity for marks, to prepare the mind of the child for its determining behavior

Understanding children's cognitive development has implications for many fields, and in particular for education. There exists many possible approaches to the study of…… [Read More]

References

Bensur, B.J., Eliot, J., and Hegde, L. (1997). Cognitive correlates of complexity of children's drawings. Perceptual and motor skills, 85, 1079 to 1089.

Callaghan, T.C. (2000). Factors affecting children's graphic symbol use in the third year.

Language, similarity, and iconicity. Cognitive Development, 15, 185 -- 214.

Cherney, I. D & Seiwert, C. S & Dickey, T.M. & Flichtbail, J.D. (2006). Children's drawings: a mirror to their minds. Educational psychology, 26(1), 127-142.
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Children With Conduct Disorder it Has Been

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18260805

Children With Conduct Disorder

It has been suggested that the following three treatments are the most conducive for helping children who have behavior related problems:

Family Therapy?

This treatment is focused towards the changes that have to be made in the family system, such as improving family interaction with the child. Peer group therapy?

In this therapy we will work to develop the social and interpersonal skills of the child. Cognitive therapy?

This therapy will help the child in improving his communication skills, and problem solving skills. Along with that it provides anger management training to the child, along with impulsive control training. I would like o conduct an experimental study that will evaluate differences in each of these groups and see whether one intervention is preferable to the other.

Methodology?

I would randomly select children and randomly divide them amongst three groups. The children would all come from the…… [Read More]

Lahey, B.B., Moffitt, T.E., & Caspi, A. (2003). Causes of conduct disorder and juvenile delinquency. New York: Guilford Press. Pro.ed CDS: Conduct Disorder Scale (10355)?

http://www.proedinc.com/customer/productView.aspx?ID=2277?

What statistical analysis should I use?  http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/whatstat/whatstat.htm ?
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Children at 'Play' in a Local Playground

Words: 480 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38013752

Children at 'Play' in a local playground

Observing young children in a playground offers a rich array of different stages of children, at varying levels of personal and developmental maturity. For instance, children at very young stages of development still cling to their mothers, while older children may resist overly attentive parental involvement, and seek to play upon age-inappropriate equipment, like high monkey bars or more grown up swings, in mimicry of other children, rather than merely modeling or observing parental behavior.

This behavior may seem, upon reviewing different stages of childhood development to confirm the maturationist theory of childhood development, as advocated by the work of Arnold Gessell, whereby "development is a biological process that occurs automatically in predictable, sequential stages over time." In other words, children will instinctively model parents at young ages, and model other children at older ages, and then individually split off into age appropriate…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Academy of Pediatrics. (Mar1995). "Inappropriate use of school readiness tests (AAP policy statement)." Pediatrics, 95(3), 437-438. Available online 31 Jan 2005 http://www.aap.org/policy/00694.html.

Central Regional Educational Laboratory: CREL. (2004) "Learning Theory." North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. Available online 31 Jan 2005

http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/earlycld/ea7lk18.htm
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Children Cannot Help but Notice About Certain

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96966509

children cannot help but notice about certain unusual behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physical traits and wonder if they are "normal." The puzzle of human development has been a popular area of study and, as a result, there is a wealth of theories striving to understand the many twists and turns of maturation. rik rikson, a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst; Jean Piaget, a Swiss biologist and Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, put forth three of the most well-known theories on aspects of human development.

rikson believed humans went through eight distinct physical and emotional developmental periods called "psychosocial stages." In each stage rikson proposed that humans confront a task or dilemma and that their ability to address each challenge would further define their personality and abilities. The stages correspond to specific physical stages and are as follows: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy), Autonomy vs. Shame (toddler), Initiative vs. Guilt (preschool), Industry vs.…… [Read More]

Erickson, E.H. (1972). Eight ages of man. In C.S. Lavatelli & F. Stendler (Eds.), Readings to child behavior and child development. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Piaget, J. (1929). The child's concept of the world. New York: Harcourt, Brace.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1997). Educational psychology. Boca Raton, FL: St. Lucie Press
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Children a Boy in a Grey T-Shirt

Words: 1345 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77487761

children, a boy in a grey t-shirt, sat on the blue couch staring intently at the objects on a coffee table before him. He made no motion to play with any of them of even touch them. Every once in a while he would look into the camera. When the time came for the quiz, the instructor simply asked the boy to name as many of the objects as he could. The boy remembered six of them: car, key, flower, duck, sunglasses, block, and either key or monkey (it was difficult for me to hear the last response clearly). Judging by this boy's behavior, I concluded that he was one of the children asked to memorize the objects and not to play with them.

The second of the four children, a girl in a green shirt, first played with one of the objects, a yoyo. Later she rolled up the…… [Read More]

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Children's Hospital for My Alternate

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56411096

The RN really became a part of the educational team, tailoring her assistance to the child to the classroom environment. In fact, because much of the education seemed tailored towards teaching the students basic life-skills information, such as the weather, the nurse was able to really interact with the child's education.

The best part of the experience was observing the inherent joy in children. From an outsider's perspective, the children in this school had very few reasons to express joy or feel happiness. Almost all of them had significant physical challenges in addition to mental retardation. None of these children has a childhood even approximating normalcy. However, many of the children seemed happy. In fact, it was seeing the joy that a small action could bring to these children was very uplifting. In fact, one particular child seemed especially joyful. Because of privacy concerns, I was not able to access…… [Read More]

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Children Fatherless Homes Parenting The Effects

Words: 2533 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39424929

0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).

Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.

Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.

The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.

Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.

According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Effects of Fatherlessness (U.S. Data) [Online]

http://www.massey.ac.nz/~kbirks/gend er/econ/nodad.htm

ANCPR Alliance for Non-Custodial Parents

http://www.ancpr.org/statistics.htm
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Children in the Family

Words: 1013 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33092664

America is known as the melting pot of the world. Each year millions of immigrants travel from other cultures to begin new lives and try and attain the American Dream. Over the past two hundred years hundreds of different cultures have tried to meld together in a way that would allow cohesive living for all, yet there have been societal problems along the way. Societal changes as well as personal challenges face children who grow up in current society. Their parents are charged with nurturing them even in the face of societal prejudice or other obstacles. Growing up as an Italian-American, I was provided with a dual cultured childhood. The things I was taught and experienced helped me become a strong and able adult.

In, Taking Parenting Public the authors work to illustrate the changes that children today have to face on their journey to becoming adults.

According to the…… [Read More]

References

Taking Parenting Public: The Case for a New Social Movement. Sylvia Ann Hewlett (Editor), Nancy Rankin (Editor), Cornel West (Editor)
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Children Learn the Rules of

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11436528

Language problems may be due to other problems, including mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorder or autism, physical handicaps, hearing loss, environmental deprivations, neurological problems, or a combination of these factors.

A study in 2005 by Rivera et. al. decided to analyze how children of different ages listen and respond to questions of varying difficulty. The research examined three areas: 1) Whether there were differences between educators of toddlers and preschoolers in terms of the frequency and type of questions used. It was predicted that early childhood educators working with preschool-age children would ask more questions, more open-ended questions, and more topic-continuing questions than those working with toddlers. This hypothesis was based on the expectation that the more advanced linguistic and conversational abilities of preschoolers would motivate educators to use more of these question types. 2) Whether preschoolers responded more frequently to these different types of questions than toddlers. It was…… [Read More]

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Children TV and American Values

Words: 2583 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94368463

children, television and American values. The writer collects and reviews empirical evidence about the way television affects American values in the children of the nation. The writer uses a survey approach and conducts a study of children age 5- to 10-year-old and combines the results in this paper.

American values are as American as apple pie. When one has children one of the things they hope for is that they can raise those children to have strong American values, which might include respect for others, hard work and the ability to accept diversity. Often times the lack of American values is blamed on the things that children watch on television. Experts claim that the television shows that are popular today with children send a message to the children that they do not have to have values to be well liked and successful in life. Research is firmly divided on the…… [Read More]

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Child Obesity Which Has Become an Epidemic

Words: 1755 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4711973

child obesity, which has become an epidemic in the current epoch of technological advancements and innovations. Since obesity is escalating at an unprecedented rate specifically amongst the teenagers and children; thus, thus research proposal intends to carry out a comprehensive research to identify its causes. This paper highlights the plan of the research process in detail that include the aims and objectives of the study, methodology, data collection techniques, risks involved in carrying out the research, ethical and legal considerations, and strategies that can ensure the validity and effectiveness of the research.

esearch Design and Data Collection Techniques

esearch Timeline

Strategies to Ensure Validity and Efficacy of the Study

Ethical and Legal Considerations

Barriers to carry out the esearch Study

Conclusion

eferences

Introduction

By looking at the historical context, once can simply claim that being fat was considered a symbol of being healthy. However, this perception over time has changed…… [Read More]

References

Balnaves, M. & Caputi, P. 2001. Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods: An Investigative Approach. SAGE Publications: USA.

Cameron, N., Hastings, G., & Ellison, G. 2005. Childhood Obesity: Contemporary Issues. CRC Press: USA.

Merriam, S.B. 2009. Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation. John Wiley & Sons: USA.

Smith, J.C. 1999. Understanding Childhood Obesity. Univ. Press of Mississippi: USA.
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Children Within the Context of

Words: 2456 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72236950



The next most important component of developing a successful coaching method includes addressing overcoming children's natural and plaguing negative reactions and behaviors towards developed exercises and coaching methods. Each individual should be thoroughly introduced to each type of standardized negative reaction which that individual may face in a real life application of the skills learned in this designed course. The first and worst negative behavior would be that of a child monopolizing the practice and/or game and one-upping fellow team mates in order to suit his or her own selfish needs to be better than the rest of the team. This should be the ultimate negative behavior each future coach should focus on based on the negative impact it has on the rest of the team. When an individual child exhibits this type of negative behavior, the coach should immediately address it in front of the other players as to…… [Read More]

References

Silberman, Mel. (1998). Active Training: A Hanbook of Techniques, Designs, Case Examples, and Tips. 2nd ed. Pfeiffer Publishing.
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Observation Journal

Words: 2920 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54207530

It provides a marker for conducting and easily recording observations of complex learning. This is in a paperless format, highly efficient and engaging strategy." (Wren, 2011) (Ivers, 2003)

This is illustrating how technology is critical to reaching out to students and offering them with further explanations about what is occurring. When this happens, they will be able to more effectively relate to key ideas and have a grasp of the way they can be utilized in the future. It is this point, when everyone will have a more hands on feel for these ideas and can easily remember them. (Wren, 2011) (Ivers, 2003)

Moreover, Johnson (1994) found that having individuals work with each other in small groups is more effective than requiring them to sit and listen to someone presenting the material. Evidence of this can be seen with Johnson saying, "The ability of all students to learn to work…… [Read More]

References

Haberman, M. (1995). Star Teachers for Children and Youth in Urban Poverty. The Phi Delta Kappan, 76 (10),

pp. 777 -- 781.

Howard, G. (2007). As Diversity Grows So Must We. Responding to Changing Demographics, 6 (62),

pp. 16 -- 22.
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Child Obesity and Its Affects on Their Self-Esteem Learning and Development

Words: 7029 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71624181

Childhood Obesity and Its Affects on Self-Esteem, Learning and Development

Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in developed nations of the world and its prevalence is continuously rising from 1971. In the Scandinavian countries, childhood obesity is less than compared to the Mediterranean countries; yet, the amount of obese children is increasing in both cases. Even though the highest rates of childhood obesity have been seen in developed countries, and at the same time, obesity is increasing in developing countries as well. Childhood obesity is at increased levels in the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe as well. As an example, in 1998, The World Health Organization project assessing of cardiovascular diseases had showed that Iran was one among the seven countries, which had the highest rates of childhood obesity. (Dehghan; Akhtar-Danesh; Merchant, 2005, p. 1485)

In UK, observations state that there has been a noticeable enhancement in obesity…… [Read More]

References

Abell, Steven C; Richards, Maryse H. 1996. The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: an investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol: 25; No: 1; pp: 61-64

Boyles, Salynn; Smith, Michael. 2003. Mental Illness Common in Childhood Obesity; Defiance, Depression Cited in Study. April, 7. WebMD Medical News. Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web:

http://my.webmd.com/content/article/63/71937.htm?z=1728_00000_1000_ln_03

Bullying and Overweight and Obese Children. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://kidshealth.org/research/bullying_overweight.html
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Children Putting to a Test

Words: 2877 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92746564

Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).

The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).

Vaccination Efficacy not…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:

Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302

Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed

Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
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Children With Disabilities

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26181354

classroom instruction and are these ideas/strategies feasible for a particular classroom, can they be adapted, alter, or incorporated to benefit students with disabilities?

A Critique of the Journal Article 'Cultural Models of Transition: Latina Mothers of Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities' and Implications for Classroom Instruction

The journal article Cultural models of transition: Latina mothers of young adults with developmental disabilities was a qualitative examination of attitudes of Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities, toward approaches to the transitions of those young adults from school-age activities to more independent living. According to the authors: "Sixteen Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities participated in the study, recruited from an agency

serving low-income, predominantly Spanish-speaking communities" (Rueda,

Monzo, Shapiro, Gomez, & Blacher, Summer 2005). The qualitative study emphasized five themes: life skills and social adaptation; importance of family and home vs. individualism and independence; mothers' roles and decision-making expertise; information…… [Read More]

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Child and Young Adult Hull

Words: 2887 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81947379



In retrospect it is incredible how much time and energy went into this endeavor and how little came out of it.. Hull perhaps added somewhat more to our knowledge of the behavior of the rat than Titchener did to our understanding

Clark Hull 7 of human consciousness, but not much. His basic approach turned out to be, to use a precisely appropriate metaphor in his world of rats and mazes, a blind alley.

One of Hull's starting points was in noting that conditioning theory failed to deal convincingly with motivation. He was astute enough to recognize that motivation may be viewed as either a learned aspect of behavior (as Guthrie viewed it) or as a behavioral determinant independent of learning (as Tolman viewed it). Either way, it needed to be given greater importance. Hull drew on Freud's "instincts" as motivating forces, but changed the word to "drives" in his own…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hull, C.L.. (1933) Hypnosis and Suggestibility: An Experimental Approach. Whales: Crown House Publishing.

Hull, C.L. (1943) Principals of Behavior: An Introduction to Behavior Theory. Appleton.

Schultz, D.P. & Schultz, S.E. (1987). A History of Modern Psychology. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publications.

Hothersall, D. 1995. History of Psychology, 3rd ed., Mcgraw-Hill:NY
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Why Would Someone Abuse a Child

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4307032

Child Abuse Bibliography

I am researching child abuse, and more specifically asking the question of what motivates abusers. For many people child abuse seems to us quite literally unthinkable: the sexual abuse of children seems impossible to anyone who is not a paedophile, and the physical abuse of a child by an adult seems contrary to human nature. I would like to know if the medical and social sciences have done any research into the motivations of abusers, to help provide an answer to something that so many people find impossible to understand.

Barth, Richard and Blythe, Betty J. "The Contribution of tress to Child Abuse." The ocial ervice Review 57.3 (1983): 477-489. Print.

The authors note that it is almost universal to agree that stress contributes in some way to child abuse, no-one has done sufficient research into the precise connection. They do basic research on issues relating to…… [Read More]

Surveying parents at risk of child abuse, the authors discover that factors which increase the propensity to abuse (which they describe in terms of loss of control over their ability not to do so) are isolation and also lack of feedback about the quality of their parenting. However, the authors find that personality traits of at-risk parents are more useful in predicting abuse than situational factors. Authors warn that potential child abusers are "an immensely heterogeneous population" and "as a group they cannot all be characterized in terms of psychiatric disorder or personality type."

6. Milner, Joel S. And Murphy, William D. "Assessment of Child Physical and Sexual Abuse Offenders." Family Relations 44.4 (1995): 478- 488. Print.

Authors look at different methods currently in place for evaluation of child physical and sexual abuse offenders within the justice system. They offer a critique of current methods, and otherwise assess the use of "interviews, observations, general personality measure, and offender-specific measures" which are required for various purposes including "screening, report confirmation, treatment planning, treatment evaluation, and recidivism prediction." They note that there is a scarcity of data, though, on the effectiveness of these various methods, or the appropriateness of specific methods for specific circumstances.
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Working With Children it Is

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40788810

Indeed, the children were far more interested in finishing their meal in order to play than in the games that were included as part of their lunch.

None of the children introduced themselves by name, instead, there seemed to be an innate and unspoken level of communication, which allowed the introduction and departure of group members on a rather random basis without interrupting the play cycles. For example, one young boy, about 5 years old, was the ostensible "ruler" of the slide tower. When a new person came into the area, this youngster immediately asserted his role by directing them how to climb the stairs, how to sit, and interestingly enough, how to be safe when sliding down the ramp. In general, the female children were more verbal in their naming of the characters present -- Ronald McDonald, Mayor McCheese and the Hamburgler especially. The verbal naming of characters was…… [Read More]

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Video Assessment Project Child Development

Words: 815 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69936980

Video Assessment

The 18-month-old child depicted in the video is seen first playing with blocks and then identifying pictures of various objects and animals, with prompting from an adult female (presumably the child's mother, though she is not identified in the video). There are not significant hesitations on the part of the child before identifying pictures, with approximately a three-second interval typically occurring between the time the prompt is given and the time the child responds. No anxiety or other stress is exhibited by either the child or the adult at any point in the video, and the relationship the child has with the adult and with his environment -- the blocks and the pictures especially -- appears to be secure. Motor skills from grasping to standing/walking are strong and in keeping with expectations for the child's age. A further analysis of the child's behavior as depicted in the video…… [Read More]

References

Colorado Department of Education. (n.d.) Finley's Parent Teacher Conference. [Video file]. Retrieved from  http://www.cde.state.co.us/resultsmatter/RMVideoSeries.htm 

Colorado Department of Education. (n.d.) Sharing Documentation with Families. [Video file]. Retrieved from
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Black's Law Dictionary 1991 Child

Words: 5968 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76815004



Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…… [Read More]

References

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School

Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.

Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
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Comparing Behavior Responses for Two Children

Words: 2244 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97884262

Human Behavior Social Environment

Child

This paper begins with an observation of a 4-year-old boy at the train station setting. The surrounding company is the family that consists of father, mother, a son, and three-daughters. The goal of the observation is to establish the boy's entire behavior together with his reaction to punishment and reinforcement. The method used was the Systematic Observation consisting of event sampling and specimen record that lasted for 53 minutes.

The report gathered information through "Systematic Observation." I formulated the design through the simple form of recording data through event sampling and specimen record. In most cases, researchers can record descriptions of the entire scope of behavior using this method (Hutchison, 2008). Further, the particular behavior instances of the specified period were recorded.

The Piaget Cognitive Development Theory was used in analyzing the behavior of the child. The child is at proportional stages of between two…… [Read More]

References

Freeman, K.A. (Spring 2000). Positive behavior support: Expanding the application of applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst 23 (1): 85 -- 94.

Germaine, C.B and Bloom, M. (1999). Human Behavior in the Social environment: an ecological view. New York: Columbia University Press.

Gilligan, C. (1993). In a different voice: psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Greene, R.R. (2008). Human behavior theory and social work practice. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Publishers
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Naturalistic Observations the Advantages of

Words: 903 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49203286

This chapter points out how early environmental influences, however, are also part of the nurture equation, something that is often forgotten. A baby who is picked up when he or she cries, is given stimulation in the nursery, and is given good nutrition will have a better start in life than a baby who is given none of these advantages, even if the deprived and enriched infants in this hypothetical scenario may have relatively the same genetic material. Nurture, in other words, begins very early on, and nurture can affect the later biology of the brain just as much as genetics.

Chapter 6

From birth, it seems as though humans are predisposed to communicate, and to make meaning out of sounds and gestures. Yet despite this apparent hard-wiring to create language, culture also has a profound influence on individual's communication styles, from the words that are used to nonverbal cues.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berger, Kathleen Stassen. The Developing Person through Childhood and Adolescence. 6th Ed.

Worth Publishers, 2004.
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Development of 18-Month-Old Child

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20300054

Developmental Checklist

Intelligence in Infancy

Cognitive:

The child shows many signs of normal cognitive behavior. He seems to understand that when he bangs the blocks together that they will make sound and also seems proud of this activity. He also understood that when the blocks fell that something was wrong and said "uh oh." This is a sign of cognitive understanding of what the blocks are supposed to do.

Social/emotional:

The social and emotional skills are primarily illustrated by the connection and interactions with the child's mother. The child looks completely comfortable around the mother and interacts naturally. The child is able to understand the mothers questions like "where is the banana" and responds appropriately.

Physical:

The child shows advanced ability to sit and stand as he wishes with minimal balance issues. The child also shows advanced visual and spatial skills that can be illustrated by his ability to work…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AllPsych. (N.d.). Psychology 101. Retrieved from AllPsych: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/development.html

CA Dept. Of Educatoin. (N.d.). Cognitive Development Domain. Retrieved from CA Dept. Of Educatoin:  http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/cd/re/itf09cogdev.asp 

Cherry, K. (N.d.). Communication Milestones. Retrieved from Psychology: http://psychology.about.com/od/early-child-development/a/communication-milestones.htm

Feranld, A., Marchman, V., & Weisleder, A. (2012). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 234-248.
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How Children Cope With Friendship and Death After Reading Charlotte's Web

Words: 3091 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96332978

children cope with friendship and death after reading Charlottes' Web?

Academic esearch:

The book, Charlotte's Web is probably the best selling paperback and is really a story about a farm, and how friendships develop between different animals and how they help each other. In this book, the most important development is the friendship that develops between Wilbur and Charlotte. Wilbur is a pig and Charlotte is a spider which turns out to be the leader of all animals. The book developed as a natural consequence to the author having resided on a farm and seen all the animals in action. In this book, Charlotte ends up saving the pig from slaughter and in practice; the author himself had tried to save a pig and not succeeded. The author has written about many such animals, but this became the most popular.

Animals were dear to the author and though the animals…… [Read More]

References

Children and Grief. American Academy of Child. July, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/grief.htm Accessed on 8 June, 2005

Hartman, Holly. Charlotte's Web. Retrieved from http://www.factmonster.com/spot/charlotte1.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005

Helping Children Cope with Loss, Death and Grief: Response to a National Tragedy. National Association of School Psychologists. 22 October, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/NEAT/grief.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005

Information for the Media on Childhood Traumatic Grief. The National Child Traumatic Stress. Retrieved from www.nctsnet.org/nccts/asset.do?id=361 Accessed on 8 June, 2005
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Childhood Is a Fascinating Time for Children

Words: 3834 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93846867

childhood is a fascinating time for children, and the adults around them who watch them grow. It is a time of exploration, self construction, and improved understanding. Middle childhood is between the ages of 6 and 8, with some reports extending that age range to as much as 11 years old (CDC 2012). This is the period of the child who is featured in this observation and empirical analysis. She and her two parents live in a suburban neighborhood that can be seen as middle class. She is about six and a half, and has just entered elementary schooling in the context of first grade. As she closes in on her first year of real school, it is clear how the social environment of that school has impacted her overall development.

The observation was carried out in three stages. First, I met her and her mother at a local park,…… [Read More]

References

Bunce, Guy. (2011). Educational implications of Vygotsky's zone of proximal development on collaborative work in the classroom. Academics. Web. http://www.guybunce.co.uk/writings/academic/vygotsky-and-the-classroom.pdf

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Middle childhood. Child Development. Web.  http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/middle.html 

Harmon, Deborah A. & Jones, Toni Stokes. (2005). Elementary Education: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO.

Karpowitz, Dennis. (2012). Emotional and Social Development in Middle Childhood. University of Kansas. Web. http://psych.ku.edu/dennisk/CP333/Emotional_Mid_Child.pdf
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Methodology on Child Obesity Fast Food

Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10744300

Childhood Obesity and Fast Food

Inductive Reasoning

Empirical Research

Applied Research

Quantitative Research

Qualitative Research

Exploratory Research

Focus Groups

Participants

The paper is a research based on the topic of "The influence of fast food on child obesity." The study aims to evaluate and identify the root cause of child obesity. The study is based on a scientific approach by developing a hypothesis and then proving it through data collected.

Inductive Reasoning:

The hypothesis of this research has been developed after a number of general observations. These observations came from generally observing the school friends, cafes and restaurants, and family members. It was observed that children who were eating fast food regularly were fat. Another observation was that when we talk to obese people they often mention that they blame fast food restaurants for their obesity. Since we have developed specific conclusions from general observations, it is an inductive approach.…… [Read More]

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Effects of Divorce and Poor Parenting on an only Child

Words: 2556 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60903313

As a result, the child's threshold for withstanding teen relationship challenges is reduced in future.

These personality traits are especially developed during adolescence because this is the period to which the boy would be defining ideologies behind relationships. It is also during this time that the boy's mental faculties would best comprehend attributes that define the relationship between a man and a woman. When the child is in the age group of 10-12/13, the impact might not be so domineering on the child's development as compared to later stages (14-18) in the life of the child (Livaditis, 2002).

Self-Esteem

Children brought up by narcissistic mothers are more likely to have a low self-esteem than those brought up by caring mothers. Narcissistic mothers make their children feel bad about themselves, thereby making the boy less confident, especially in his young adult life (between the ages of 13-18) (Chen, 2005). It is…… [Read More]

References

Chen, J. (2005). Cultivating Resilience in Children from Divorced Families. The Family

Journal, 13(4), 452-455.

Fine, M.A. (2003). Divorce, Childhood. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum

Publishers.
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Growth of a Child From Infancy to

Words: 2514 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99703764

Growth of a Child from Infancy to Adolescence

When a child is born, it is virtually helpless and unable to complete any form of operational tasks. Though a superior being above many creatures, the infant will be able to grow from infancy to adulthood in areas of physical, intellectual, language, emotional, and social development. Every stage of the child's life provides milestones in which will display their growth to full development. Tools may be used to assist them to reach their full potential. Among these tools, the most significant is the knowledge and nurturing of a parent and influential adults. Within this instructional guide, babysitting staff and parents will be able to better understand which milestones will happen at what ages, examples of what they may observe in the child to prove growth, and how to assist their child to thrive.

Physical Development

An adult will see a great amount…… [Read More]

References

American Medical Association. (2001). For parents -- teenage growth and development: 11-14

years. Retrieved February 16, 2011 from http://www.pamf.org/teen/parents/health/growth-11-14.html

Cleveland Clinic. (2006, December 5). Social development during the teen years. Retrieved February 16, 2011 from http://www.revolutionhealth.com/healthy-living/parenting/teens-preteens/school-friends/social-development

Colson, E.R. (2006, May). Intellectual development: Preschool and school-aged children: Merck manual home edition. Retrieved February 16, 2011 from http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/sec23/ch268/ch268c.html
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Servicing Children in Need and

Words: 1266 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17052970

I expect to find a pattern where as Lee (1992) might suggest, a hierarchical ethical theory exists, where the concept of "serving the needs of others" in need correlates directly to one's status, race, ethnicity and other factors.

This suggests some level of discrimination may exist especially amongst young children and adolescents who grow up in communities where they lack encouragement, support and family to shower them with love and affection. Indeed my initial responses included a feeling that I was obliged to provide each neglected child something to help fill the emotional void that must exist in the absence of proper parenting or family support.

A also feel it urgent that educators and community members consider their ethical and moral obligations to service those who might not otherwise be able to help themselves. In the face of such tragedy, such young children are more likely to grow into adults…… [Read More]

References

Lee, Donald C. Toward a sound world order: A multidimensional hierarchical ethical theory. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1992.
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Social Needs of Children and

Words: 921 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93930305

Two qualities of the classroom environment that can contribute to the development of skills in the social arena include communication and teamwork. If a student is in a classroom setting in which open communication and sharing are a regular part of the day the student will begin to develop social skills that are positive in nature. If a student is asked to be part of a team and work on projects with others the student will begin to develop the ability to communicate with others and to accept the ideas, opinions and differences of others. Both are positive steps in the development of social skills.

One classroom quality that will inhibit the development of social skills is a classroom in which communication is discouraged. In a classroom setting where the teacher stands at the front of the class and lectures without ever giving the students an opportunity to respond or…… [Read More]

References

Learning Autonomy vs. Shame (Will) (accessed 8-8-06) http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/erickson.shtml
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Function of a Child's Environment

Words: 892 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32318262

If the child's needs are not met at home or at school -- for example, if he or she is a traumatized recent immigrant from Haiti or lives in a food insecure household in the inner city -- the child may not be able exhibit the maximum extent of his or her ability.

Even children who are accustomed to testing can experience environmentally-related problems. In fact, children who are already classified as special needs or learning-disabled may be all too familiar with assessment, and bring an assumption that they are 'stupid' or incompetent to the process, even before the assessment begins. "Facet-based instruction centers around the idea that students, faced with a problem situation, apply preformed ideas from previous experiences or construct ideas and reasoning to make sense of the situation," including ideas about themselves (Facet-based instruction, 2010, the Hunt Lab). The assumptions that students bring to the testing environment…… [Read More]

References

Lewejohann, L., C. Reinhard, a. Schreww, J. Bandewiede, a. Haemisch, N. Gortz, M.

Schachner, N. Sachser. (2006, February). Environmental bias? Effects of housing conditions, laboratory environment and experimenter on behavioral tests.

Genes Brains Behavior. 5(1):64-72.

Facet-based instruction. (2010). The Hunt Lab. The University of Washington.
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Divorce Outcomes on Children Outcomes

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33699851



Anti-Social Behavior

A good number of studies over the years have linked deviant behaviors such as juvenile delinquency and anti-social behavior to children living in broken homes (Bandura & Walters in Demo & Acock, 1988, p.636). Dornbusch et al.'s (in ibid.) nationwide study among 12-17 male and female children of divorced families found that adolescents living in household with only their mothers performing the sole parent role are more likely to engage in deviant acts while the presence of an additional adult lessens the likelihood of committing deviant acts.

Positive Effects

Long have we known about the negative effects of divorce, I believe it is high time to look at the under-acknowledged domain of the divorce literature, i.e. The positive effects of divorce. According to Hetherington & Kelly in Lyons (2002, p.1), three-fourths of the children from divorced families have actually grown to be resilient and lead lives with healthy…… [Read More]

References

Cooney, T.M. et al. (1995). Surviving the Break-Up? Predictors of Parent-Adult Child Relations After Parental Divorce. Family Relations, 44, 153-161.

Demo, DH & Acock, a.C. (1988). The Impact of Divorce on Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 619-648.

Henning, J.S. & Oldham, J.T. (1977). Children of Divorce: Legal and Psychological Crises. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 1, 55-58.

Lyons, L. (2002). Gallup Tuesday Briefing. Kids and Divorce 1, 1-3.
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Protect at Risk Children From

Words: 1273 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89852719

In order to formulate effective early childhood development interventions, though, it is important to determine what risk factors are involved and what coping skills young children possess. In this regard, Pati and her associates add that, "Identifying critical risk and resilience factors is the first step in developing interventions to promote early school success" (p. 5). These recommendations, though, will not magically produce the resources needed to eradicate poverty, but they do emphasize the need to determine what specific factors must be addressed in order to develop effective interventions to address them. These recommendations also make it clear that all children and their families are unique and some may require more assistance than others in certain areas. This recommendation is congruent with Pati et al.'s observations that, "From a treatment perspective, separating patients into different service intensity levels is also commonplace in clinical practice" (p. 13).

No matter what other…… [Read More]

References

Aber, L. (2007, December). Changing the climate on early childhood: The science of early childhood development is as persuasive as the science of global climate change. The American Prospect, 18(12), 4-5.

Barnett, W.S. & Belfield, C.R. (2006). Early childhood development and social mobility. The Future of Children, 16(2), 73-74.

Bornstein, M.H., Davidson, L., Keyes, C.L. & Moore, K.A. (2003). Well-being: Positive development across the life course. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Brooks-Gunn, J. & Duncan, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. The Future of Children, 7(2), 55-71. [Online]. Available: http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.memphis.edu / stable/1602387?cookieSet=1.
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Family-Centered Approach in Child Development Family Centered

Words: 2739 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59304760

Family-Centered Approach in Child Development

Family centered

Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement

Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are countless of other senses that are fed by the family. Ideally a person must be able to utilize every resource he has in him but this does not happen. Einstein being the world's genius person utilized his potential up to 11% approximately which means 89%of his brain was left unexplored. Similarly a lot of other people can do better if their family helps them to explore their personalities while growing up. This research will investigate a family's…… [Read More]

References

Britto, P.R. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (2001). The Role of Family Literacy Environments in Promoting Young Children's Emerging Literacy Skills. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Davies, D. (2010). Child Development. NY: Guilford.

Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M., & Magee, M. (2002). Physician empathy: Definition, components, measurement, and relationship to gender and specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry.

Meggitt, C. (2006). Child Development: An Illustrated Guide. UK: Hienemann.
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Different Parenting Styles and Their Effect on Children's Behavior

Words: 3034 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71442817

Parenting Styles and their Effect on Children Behavior

Different Parenting Styles

This research paper is based on Baumrind's theory of parenting and covers the impact and consequences of different parenting styles on children's development extensively. Four parenting styles named authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved are discussed in detail. This paper also discusses parenting style of Canada, Japan and China in contrast with Baumrind's theory of parenting. All the impacts and influences on parenting style are deeply studied and discussed.

Early years of learning in a child's life is believed to make a significant difference in the way they develop and go on to learn throughout their lives (Kim, 1999). Developmental psychologists have been making research about the role played by parents and its impact on child development. However, developing a cause-and-effect link between parents behavior and brought up and its impact on child behavior and attitude is a relatively tough…… [Read More]

References

Golombok, S. (2000). Parenting: What Really Counts? new york: Routledge.

Kim, M. (1999). Parental Involvement, Family Processes, and Parenting Styles of First Generation Korean parents on early childhood education. New York: Umi.

Nevid, J.S. (2009). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. New York: wadsworth.

Pressley, M., & McCormick, C.B. (2007). Child And Adolescent Development for Educators. New York: Guilford Publications.
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Dynamics of Domestic Violence and the Resulting Effects on Children

Words: 3275 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35285789

Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, psychological, and even sexual abuse in the home that is often a method used by one adult to establish control and power over another person (Flitcraft et al., 1992). Exposure by children to marital aggression is now a recognized public health concern. The investigation of the effects of the exposure to this type of aggression on the functioning of a child is a significant societal concern. Marital conflict is generally defined as any difference of opinion between martial or domestic partners whether it is minor or major. Marital conflict can assume many different forms including displays of both negative and positive emotions and/or constructive and destructive tactics. Marital aggression is characterized by physical and/or psychological abuse and would fall at the negative extreme on a continuum of marital conflict (Cummings, 1998). Marital psychological/verbal aggression refers to things such as threats, insults, and…… [Read More]

References

Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E. & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers' treatment work? A meta-

analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review 23(8), 1023-1053.

Carlson, B.E. (1984). Children's observations of interparental violence. In A.R. Roberts (ed.),

Battered women and their families (pp. 147 -- 167). New York: Springer.
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Biracial Children Proposal for Study Is Society

Words: 1995 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4574500

Biracial Children

Proposal for Study: Is society causing biracial children to struggle with their identity?

hen forming their identity, children seek to look, act, feel, and mimic significant people in their social environment. "In his book Youth and Identity, Erickson relates ego identity and self-esteem to racial identity. He states that ambiguous messages about one's race may place a person at risk for developing what he referred to as a 'negative identity'" (Oka, 1994, p. 3). The possibility of negative identity is a controversial topic regarding biracial children. Opponents of interracial marriage argue that interracial couples are jeopardizing the futures of their children, as there is a possibility that biracial children will not be accepted by either culture and this rejection will lead to personal problems.

Some studies have found that it is more likely for interracial children to experience difficulties related to a poor self-identity, such as gender confusion,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beswick, Richard (1990) Racism in America's schools. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management: ED 320-196.

Cole, Michael & Cole, Sheila (1993) The development of children (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Scientific American Books, 339-369.

Hoskins, Nichele (1996). Mixed-race couples, children brave racism. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.startelegram.com/news/doc/1047/1:Metro73/1:Metro73101296.htm

Oka, Julie Mari (1994). Self-concept and parental values: Influences on the ethnic identity development of biracial children. Thesis, San Jose State University.
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Young Diverse Children Living in Big City

Words: 2600 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26026878

Young Diverse Children Living in ig Cities

This paper will focus on the lives and challenges minority and culturally diverse youths face growing up in major urban city environments, such as Newark, New York, altimore or Seattle. The advent of major metropolitan areas has stimulated a rapidly increasing population of disadvantaged and volatile youths. In today's America, it seems that more and more young people growing up in major cities are subjected to poor socio-economic conditions, which anymore lead to an increased likelihood for violence and life disruption.

Today's youths growing up in major urban cities are often disadvantaged; they lack the self-esteem, confidence and tools necessary to succeed in their later adulthood. I hope through my research to uncover facts related to urban distress among youths. I hope to also explore community organizations that have focused their efforts on improving the conditions prevalent among urban youths. I propose that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Achtyes, Eric. (1998). "Big Problem, Small Band Aid." The Daily. Available: http://archives.thedaily.washington.edu/1998/110298/O5.i-.html

Casey Foundation. (2004). Available:  http://www.aecf.org 

Casey Foundation. Child Trends.

Child Trends. (2004). "Raising Children in Big Cities." Right Start City Trends. Child Trends Kids Count Special Report. The Annie E. Casey Foundation. Available:
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Effects of Deployments on Children

Words: 2177 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37655377

Military Children and the Effects of Long Deployments on Them

Over the last several years, the children of parents who are serving in the military are facing increasing amounts of scrutiny. This is because one or both of their parents are being sent on long deployments to Afghanistan. These shifts are directly resulting in them and their caregivers having to make dramatic adjustments. (Wells, 2012)

According to a study conducted by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), they found that their ability to adjust will involve the family situation, age and their environment. These factors are leading to some adapting more effectively than others. Evidence of this can be seen with observations from the report which says, "Children's reactions to deployment-related parental absence vary by age, developmental stage, and other individual and family factors. While young children are likely to exhibit externalizing behavior such as anger and attention difficulties, school-age…… [Read More]

References

Report on the Impact of Deployment. (2010). Military One Source. Retrieved from:

http://www.militaryonesource.mil/12038/MOS/Reports/Report_to_Congress_on_Impact_

of_Deployment_on_Military_Children.pdf

Baker, L. (2009). Developmental Issues Impacting Military Families. Military Medicine, 174 (1),
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Effects and Challenges Facing Children and Adolescents With Depression

Words: 1686 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83676654

Children and Adolescents with Depression

Statistics show that up to 2.5% of children and 8.3% of adolescents suffer from depression in the United States. Depression is thought to affect school performance, social interactions and family relationships. However, diagnosis and treatment of depression in children and adolescents have been hampered by the confusion of the symptoms of depression with normal adolescent behaviors. In order to reduce the incidence of depression and its effects on young people, the researcher aims to provide information that will help to clear up some of the controversy. Most of the research on depression has been done with adults but depressed children and adolescents show some different symptoms. There is not enough research on the topic of depression in children and adolescents in general, and on how depression affects their lives.

The study will address the following research questions:

How does depression affect the academic performance, social…… [Read More]

References.

1.Hecht, Debra B., Inderbitzen, Heidi N., Bukowski, Anita L. (1998). The relationship between peer status and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. April 1998 www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0902/n2_v26/20824365/print.jhtml

2. Mesman, J. (2000). Child-reported depression and anxiety in preadolescence:1. Associations with parent- and teacher- reported problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 39(11), 1371-1378.

3. Mol Lous, A et al. (2000). Depression and play in early childhood. Play behaviors of depressed and non-depressed 3- to 6-year-olds in various play situations. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 8(4), 249-260.

4. Pavlidis, K. & McCauley, E. (2001). Autonomy and relatedness in family interactions with depressed adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 29(1), 11-21.
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Katrina Children Lost Forgotten and

Words: 4667 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68383934

For children, going to school, even a new school, provided a sense of order. It also gave parents time to plan for the future. Wealthier parents were able to enroll their children in private schools. Poorer families faced a greater struggle.

In Texas, officials reported enrolling19,000 children displaced by the storm (Katrowitz and reslau, 2005). They were able to waive normal rules, such as proving residency or providing immunization records. The opportunity to start over was critical for thousands of families, including Kathy Jemison and her daughter, Sarah McClelland, 17. The night before the storm hit, they gathered their clothes, keepsakes and important documents (such as birth certificates and Social Security cards). As the storm was destroying their home, they drove 15 hours to a friend's house in San Antonio. Sarah began her senior year at San Antonio's MacArthur High School, and Kathy, who worked for a bank in New…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abramson, David, and Richard Garfield. (April, 2006). On the Edge: Children and Families Displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Face a Looming Medical and Mental Health Crisis. New York: Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, National Center for Disaster Preparedness.

Brown, Donal. (November 16, 2005). 1,000 Katrina Children Still Missing. Mother Jones.

Callimachi, Rukmini. (April 23, 2006). Katrina's Children Struggle With Fears. The Associated Press.

Cass, Julia. (June 13, 2006). For Many of Katrina's Young Victims, the Scars Are More Than Skin Deep. The Washington Post; A01.
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Infant Birth-12 Months Old The Observation Is

Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71868106

infant (birth-12 months old).

The observation is of Julie, the child of a friend who is 6 months old. Her parents are Jewish, the father is a Rabbi in the local Temple, the mother works as a physical therapist. The parents combine American and Jewish values in raising the child, and in comparison to any particular American child of her age, I do not expect to see nor do not see any particular cultural differences emerge as yet.

The family may be described as lower to middle class; it is difficult to make distinctions. They do have a large family -- ten children, with both parents involved in parenting and maintenance of the household. It is a warm, cohesive family with both sets of grandparents living close by and with close family and communal ties.

The observation was conducted last week and occurred during the duration of one and a…… [Read More]

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Sexually Abused Children Cause for a Problems in Adulthood

Words: 2708 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56302172

Difficulty in Adulthood in Individuals that were Sexually-Abused as Children

Introduction to Sexual Abuse in Children

Sexually-abused children commonly develop problems that persist into adulthood. Child sexual abuse has come to be regarded as a cause of mental health problems in adult life. The influences of child sexual abuse on interpersonal, social and sexual functioning in adult life has only recently attracted attention. esearch into child sexual abuse was initiated by the self-disclosures of adults who publicly admitted to their abuse as children. These victims, predominantly women, often attributed personal difficulties to their sexual abuse as children.

Early research into the effects of child sexual abuse frequently employed groups of adult psychiatric patients (Jones, 1974), which further reinforced the emergence of an adult-focused psychiatric discourse about child sexual abuse. The manner in which child sexual abuse has been brought to the public's eye and the nature of the advocacy movement…… [Read More]

References

Arias, I. (2004). The legacy of child maltreatment: long-term health consequences for women. J Womens Health (Larchmt), 13(5), 468-473.

Brodsky, B.S., Oquendo, M., Ellis, S.P., Haas, G.L., Malone, K.M., & Mann, J.J. (2001). The relationship of childhood abuse to impulsivity and suicidal behavior in adults with major depression. Am J. Psychiatry, 158(11), 1871-1877.

Coffey, P., Leitenberg, H., Henning, K., Turner, T., & Bennett, R.T. (1996). The relation between methods of coping during adulthood with a history of childhood sexual abuse and current psychological adjustment. J Consult Clin Psychol, 64(5), 1090-1093.

Cole, P.M., & Putnam, F.W. (1992). Effect of incest on self and social functioning: a developmental psychopathology perspective. J Consult Clin Psychol, 60(2), 174-184.
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Autistic Children

Words: 1703 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47452496

Mirror Neuron Dysfunction in Autistic Disorder

Autistic disorder is characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction. Autistic children also often display restricted behaviors and repetitive behaviors. These signs of autism usually appear before the age of three. The inability to display empathy and imitate others in autism, a skill crucial to learning communication and social skills, has been hypothesized to result from defects in the mirror neuron system (Williams, Whiten, Suddendorf, & Perrett, 2001). The role of mirror neuron system and how dysfunctions in this system may relate to the deficits observed in autistic disorder are discussed.

Mirror neurons fire when animals or people act or observe the same action performed by another. In humans, brain activity consistent with that of mirror neurons is located the premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary somatosensory cortex, and the inferior parietal cortex (izzolatti & Craighereo, 2004). There are two chief…… [Read More]

References

Dawson, G., Toth, K., Abbott, R., Osterling, J., Munson, J., Estes, A., & Liaw, J. (2004). Early Social Attention Impairments in Autism: Social Orienting, Joint Attention, and Attention to Distress. Developmental Psychology, 40, (2), 271 -- 283.

Hadjikhani, N., Joseph, R.M., Snyder, J., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (2006). Anatomical Differences in the Mirror Neuron System and Social Cognition Network in Autism. Cerebral Cortex, 16, 1276-1282.

Receveur, C., Lenoir, P., Desombre, H., Roux, S., Barthelemy, C., & Malvy, J. (2005). Interaction and imitation deficits from infancy to 4 years of age in children with autism: a pilot study based on videotapes. Autism, 9, (1), 69-82.

Rizzolatti, G. & Craighereo, L. (2004). The mirror neuron system. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 27, 169 -- 192.