The state parent locator service lessens the delay of collection of child support. The child support enforcement agencies in most states have the authority to order genetic testing in order to establish the parentage in cases of paternity. Child support payments can be ordered once the parent is found. ithholding of wages and seizure and sales of properties may be used to enforce child support.
Cash Assistance Programs:
Under the Title IV-a, Assistance for Families with Dependant Children (AFDC), cash assistant or welfare of these families was managed at State level. President Gerald Ford signed into law the Title IV-D of the Social Security Act on January 4, 1975 which created a state-federal child support enforcement program (Morgan par, 2). Through the enforcement of child support, the program had two goals i.e. cost avoidance (helping families on welfare leave the assistance roll while those not on the assistance rolls avoid…… [Read More]
Child Support Distribution Act of 2000 (H.R. 4678) overwhelmingly passed the House of Representatives last September 7, 2000 by a vote of 405 to 18. A similar measure, now called the Child Support Distribution Act of 2001 (S. 918) was introduced in the Senate's 107th session but never came to debate.
The need for better enforcement of child support laws were evident in a recent survey that showed that fewer than one-fifth of inner-city children born to single teenage mothers receive child support from their fathers. In fact, half of these children never see their fathers at all. Many fathers are unable to provide support because they are unemployed and do not have any marketable skills. As a result, a great majority of these teen mothers depend on welfare to support their children (Moore).
The Child Support Distribution Act seeks to address these problems such as these, factors that hinder…… [Read More]
child support,' Beller (1996) highlights the issue of children being the intellectual capital of the future and suggests that any society, which wishes to safeguard the socioeconomic well being of its future generations needs to ensure that appropriate and adequate investments are made in the education and overall welfare of its children. Having, thus, tabled the enormous stake that society has in its children, Beller then discusses the unfortunately increasing trend in America today of single parent families, which has led to a sizeable number of children who suffer the outcomes from low income and smaller inputs of parental time. To emphasize the enormity of the issue, Beller cites studies that show that present trends, if unchanged, will lead to six out of every ten children who are born today spending part of their childhood in a single-parent family, usually headed by a mother.
Given the objective of insuring the…… [Read More]
Another important thing is that the biological basis of the relationship that exists between the child and the parent would also be a basis for child support obligations. In a situation where the biological father of the child who had sexual interactions with the mother of the child just once and never did have any relationship with the mother or the child, the father should have child support obligations on the basis of being the biological father of the child Kargman, 1983()
In a scenario where a same sex partner who has no biological relationship with the child nor legal relationship with the child or their mother but had a long-term emotional relationship with both, should the couple split up, the partner would have child support obligations as a result of the child relying on the partner for provision of his/her needs Meyer & Bartfeld, 1996.
This is based on…… [Read More]
Child Support Programs and their contribution in making United States a welfare state
The current essay is aimed at exploring the legislations and policies related to child support and welfare and how it helped United States to be a welfare state. The author has analyzed the child support programs and whether these programs have been helpful for the parents of children. The author has also discussed the problems related to these support programs as well as their benefits.
Welfare and Child Support Receipt
In 2005, there were 6.8 million custodial parents in need of child support through either legal awards or unofficial arrangements there were spend an annual average of $5,600 annually, or an average of $465 monthly. "Overall, custodial parents reported receiving $25.9 billion directly from the non-custodial parent for support of their children in 2005." According to the April 2006 Current Population Survey, "sixty-one percent of all custodial…… [Read More]
Such a solution, if successfully implemented, would decrease the immense gender gap that still exists in the traditional American family stereotype in which the mother has to take care of the children with a father that has a rather limited implication.
Another proposal to increase consistency of noncustodial fathers paying their child support relates to punitive measures (revocation of driver's license, etc.) and direct withholding from paychecks and income tax returns. Empirical data shows that these measure have had a mixed success. In many cases "paycheck withholding is effective" (3) but most of the times work for fathers who believe that the decision to pay child support is not fair, whilst in the case of those that agreed to this decision, such measures are not successful on the long run. Other punitive measure have proved successful over the years like immediate withholding, criminal penalties, tax intercepts, and the ability to…… [Read More]
payment of child support is universally recognized as a responsibility of parents engaged in the process of divorce. Ordinarily the obligation of paying child support terminates for parents on the eighteenth birthday or graduation from high school of the involved child but this is not the case for children who qualify, legally, as disabled children. Under Texas law, child support for disabled children is treated much differently. Not only is such support calculated differently, it is also terminated differently.
Child support in Texas is ordinarily calculated in accordance with guidelines that are based simply on the number of children and the combined incomes of the divorcing parents. In calculating child support for disabled children, however, consideration is given to the special needs that accompany the care of such children. Texas law has taken such factors into consideration and allows the Family Court to take such special needs into account when…… [Read More]
In the end, the epidemic of out of wedlock children by professional athletes is a serious concern. These athletes, whether they like it or not, are role models to the youth of today, and as such, they need to be especially concerned with the moral implications of their actions. By using Kantian morality, one easily begins to see that at no point is having an out of wedlock child a moral decision. From conception, when the mother-to-be is used as a means for the ends of sexual gratification, to the lack of consideration for the effects the stress of paternity suits will have on the team in general, to the complete disregard for the child who had no voice in the decision at all and relied on the two parents to make the best decision possible, each step was fraught with immorality.
Chan, S. "The Confucian Notion of…… [Read More]
Of course, besides child sponsorship programs, many other programs must be developed in a poor region, programs that address more fundamental issues of poverty. Child sponsorship only does its part in supporting the development of a region, country, and of the international community. It is not the most fundamental form of aid for development, but it does its part, which can be quite significant at the level of a community. Through this method, more and more communities can benefit from the child sponsorship program, in the same time participating in other international aid programs. "Sponsorship is not the only way to help poor people, but it is one important way" (Endersby, 2006).
What made child sponsorship very debated in the past decades is the involvement of specific religious organizations into such programs. This can put some pressure on the child in a specific religious or lifestyle sense, but such practices…… [Read More]
The author notes that little research is accorded to children's diminished psychosocial behavior following divorce. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort (n=10,061), he examines the associations between divorce and children's outcome and suggests that divorce is associated with diminished psychosocial well-being in children thereby explaining the connection between divorce and lower academic achievement.
The study is useful for my research since it mentions psychosocial factors. Nonetheless, I find author's conclusions shaky for at least three reasons: firstly, author limited his study to children of kindergarten age therefore conclusions cannot be generalized to children of all ages; secondly, many more variables must taken into consideration regarding resulting low academic achievement; thirdly, children's academic level prior to divorce must be considered too.
. Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650-666 .
I found this article helpful for my…… [Read More]
Family Law Midterm
Instructions: Please respond to each question in essay format. Each question highlights the week in which the subject matter was covered but please do not forget to include the subject matters (and themes) covered in week 2. Also, please include "practice points" wherever practical. Please read each question first before starting to answer. For each question, you should assume that you have told your client that he/she should consult a lawyer but you are giving advice learned from this class.
Each question is worth 25 pts.
We learned about the laws of child support in New York State. You have a client who is 21 years old who has been dating a woman who is also 21 years old. Your client tells you that his girlfriend is pregnant. The couple is not married and do not live together. Your client has mixed emotions…… [Read More]
Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development
Beyond problems of financial inequality that occur when countless young children reside in poor as well as persistently inadequate households, poor children can easily perpetuate the never-ending cycle when they achieve adulthood. Prior study implies that children who're born poor as well as are constantly poor are considerably much more most likely to remain poor as grownups, quit school, give teenage premarital births, and also have spotty employment details than all those not very poor at birth (atcliffe and McKernan 2010). This previous research focused on the earliest cohort of youngsters reviewed here-children born in between 1967 and 1974 as well as who turned Thirty amid 1997 and 2004. An important query is whether or not this link has endured with time. Even though information aren't accessible to see outcomes via age 30 for children born within the subsequent two cohort…… [Read More]
Gradually, there are lesser desired adoptive kids as society have come to accept single mother who parent their children compared to earlier. The disgrace of giving birth to a child outside marriage has lowered and hence, the bulk of single moms prefer to have their kids with them in place of "relinquishing them" for being adopted. Besides, thanks to advanced technology, "birth control" pills are instantly accessible to the fertile populace, and, as abortion has been legalized, a pregnancy which is unplanned could be stopped. A new dimension to the problem has emerged because of the decrease in the supply of desirable adoptable infants and the rising infertility among Americans. (Infant Adoption is Big Business in America)
It is anticipated that out of every six couples, one couple has problems in conceiving and total infertile couples may number 5.3 million. A lot of adopters who are presently desirous of adoption…… [Read More]
Define child and labor separately.
Child labor in the United States has long been a subject of concern. The U.S. enacted strict child labor statutes in 1938 (Labor, 2009), and has continued to enforce that law. However, there remain problems at home in the U.S. And abroad. The United States seeks to enforce the law, but there are times when it is difficult to catch perpetrators of violations. However, the U.S. has trade restrictions against countries that do not have strict enforcement of international standards. This research examines statutes in the United States (including their historic antecedents), what is being done to violators, and how trade is affected by citizen outcry against human rights violators and compliance with international law.
Current thinking on human rights dictates that children reach a certain age before they are to be put into the workforce. However, different cultures have different…… [Read More]
Child Abuse in England
The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.
esides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.
The bruises on Clara's…… [Read More]
ut the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment. In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur.
The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children. If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to…… [Read More]
On the other hand, others may require a few weeks to get adjusted (Thompson; Connell; Bridges, 1988).
Threshold of esponsiveness:
This refers to how strong a stimulus requires to be reminded of a response from a child. For instance, one child may find a light touch irritating while another may need a deep hug to continue a response. This intensity of reaction refers to the vigor level of the response that is the characteristic of that child.
Another example is a child who has little threshold of responsiveness but at the same time his intensity of reaction is quite high may react to a bad taste medicine with a very loud, "Yuck!" along with lots of frowning and spitting. In contrast, another child may have the same threshold of responsiveness but a low intensity of reaction may just crumple his nose in dislike.
Persistence - Attention Span
This describes of…… [Read More]
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.
Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…… [Read More]
Pastor's Responsibilities with Child Abuse
Comment by abina:
Pastor's Responsibilities with Child Abuse
It is important for pastors and youth pastors to become familiarized with the child abuse laws in the state in which they serve. Many youth pastors encounter child abuse in their service to their church, and there are specific guidelines that should be followed for reporting child abuse. Failure to report child abuse can result in criminal prosecution for the youth pastor (Hammar, 2010). If a youth pastor gains information about a child being abused in their home environment, he/she must follow the proper protocols for reporting child abuse. The youth pastor should also inform the senior pastor about the abuse.
The senior pastor should ensure that the youth pastor contact the local child protective services and report the abuse. The senior pastor should also ensure the church has procedures for handling child abuse that…… [Read More]
Children: Exposure to Violence Through the Media
The extent to which exposure to violence creates violent children and/or aggressive behavior is a subject which has been debated in a comprehensive manner. However, the fundamental research findings are consistent. The research continues to demonstrate that exposure to violence creates negative manifestations in the behavior of children. "While violence is not new to the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern society. With greater access to firearms and explosives, the scope and efficiency of violent behavior has had serious consequences. We need only look at the recent school shootings and the escalating rate of youth homicides among urban adolescents to appreciate the extent of this ominous trend" (Beresin, 2010). Given the fact that children are manifesting violent behavior in more and more disturbing ways, making places like schools -- previously dens of safety -- into places where children feel unsafe…… [Read More]
The Watertown (MA) Family Network creates a community for mothers who may not have anyone to ask questions about their infants and toddlers. As the video's narrator stated, "There are no roadmaps to raising children." With the Network, which is free and provides resources such as a new mom support group, parents do not need to feel as if they are all alone with this rewarding, but challenging, job of raising a child.
Epstein (2009) suggests there are five types of family engagement: childrearing, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, and representing other families. A comprehensive family involvement plan can be developed by choosing several of these types.
In the church-based childcare center where I worked, as with the Watertown Network, staff helped parents who had questions about what they should do at home. This center was in a military community where many young mothers were away from their…… [Read More]
Child abuse is one of the most dangerous and serious problems confronting society, perhaps because of the helplessness and innocence of the victims. What is particularly bothersome about child abuse is that it occurs in all income, racial, religious, and ethnic groups and in urban and rural communities. Likewise, there is no uniform definition of what constitutes child abuse, making it difficult to ascertain what prevention and treatment methods are most effective. For example, in Sweden, the law prohibits any physical punishment of children, including spanking. By contrast, in some countries of Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, parents are expected to punish their children by hitting them.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to child abuse. Part II defines child abuse. In Part III, a history of child abuse is offered. Part IV evaluates why child abuse exists according to control theory and anomy theory. In…… [Read More]
Writing allows for a child's full self-expression, especially when the activity offers the opportunity for the child to explore beyond the written word itself. For example, younger students in classrooms stocked with colorful writing implements can use color, shape, and size of lettering to convey emotion and intent. Whereas older children are training themselves to apply strictly cognitive processes to the writing exercise, a young student in the second grade still explores writing from a holistic perspective. It is therefore possible to evaluate and analyze one young child's writing sample from a holistic standpoint. Arianna is in the second grade, and she wrote a letter to a classmate as part of this assignment. Clarity, support, organization, and mechanics are the four criteria used to evaluate Arianna's material, albeit from an age-appropriate foundation.
Arianna's sample reveals a strong sense of clarity for someone her age, as she writes a…… [Read More]
Secondly, the kid should be assisted in augmenting their reasoning and by making them know deaths with realistic information. Thirdly, the kid should attain consent to allow him/her do away with old lifestyle and come up with new lifestyle. An example of a long-term effect includes troubles with the internalization of conscience.
Loss at Teenage Years
At this age, for the teenager to finish the duties of psychological loss the adolescent requires to resist parent figures that nevertheless are constantly available. Parent loss will interrupt these duties. Secondly, control matters will continually affect the teenager's behaviors, more so if he/she feels a great part of the resolutions about his life are out of his/her control.
In order to reduce the short-term effects, teenagers are required to feel that they do have rising control over their very own lives. Also, adults should offer them many chances as much as possible in…… [Read More]
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…… [Read More]
It took them a while to get used to it but eventually, they were able to communicate with softer words and softer tone.
According to systems theory (Titelman, 1998), it was my duty to work on both Dave and his family so that their communication problem is uprooted from its origins. When his parents began to realize the impact of their meaningless arguments on Dave, they set quite a few rules for themselves. These rules included no harsh words or arguments in front of Dave and increased participation in his social & academic life. They realized the importance of their emotional support and gravity of the condition of Dave.
It was important to make Dave feel that he was needed and appreciated for being wonderful just the way he was. His parents also felt the need for a stable atmosphere at home where Dave could share his thoughts, fears and…… [Read More]
Interviews with his parents reveal a disturbing trend. His parents do not seem to want to challenge Christopher in any meaningful way and instead enable his lack of progress. Perhaps out of fear for his tantrums, Christopher's mother makes excuses for her son's behavior. The experiment of homeschooling Christopher has therefore been unproductive because he is not challenged, and therefore is not learning as much as he could be. His social skills have also been hampered by his homeschooling environment, and by the attitudes of his parents. Christopher does not understand certain social conventions. For instance, he will pass gas while talking to people or make a wolf whistle at a female.
Christopher has no real friends his own age. He seems to prefer being around adults due to the extra compassion and attention they show him. Christopher throws temper tantrums when he feels anxious or put on the spot,…… [Read More]
Children of Alcoholic Parents
It is generally accepted that alcoholism tends to run in families and that compared with children of non-alcoholics, children of alcoholic parents have approximately four time greater risk of becoming alcoholics themselves (Reich Pp). However, the causal factors that determine the development of alcohol abuse and dependence have not yet been conclusively determined (Reich Pp).
Studies from the 1950's and 1960's generally emphasized psychosocial explanation, such as "poor parenting, lack of good role models. And impoverished home life" (Reich Pp). Beginning in the 1970's, research has investigated heritable components in the familial transmission of alcoholism" (Reich Pp). Adoption studies analyses of half-siblings and studies comparing identical and fraternal twins have all provided evidence that genetic factors play a crucial role in the etiology of alcoholism (Reich Pp). Although there is strong evidence for a genetic contribution, few researchers would deny the influence of environmental factors in…… [Read More]
Developmental Observation of Five-Year-old
Statement of esearch/Observation: To observe a five-year-old female child in her natural setting to determine age appropriate developmental stages.
Description of Child Being Observed: The subject is a five-year-old female: Maribel.
My friend has a five-year-old niece. The subject's mother was contacted and agreed to allow the observations to take place in her home and on the playground. The project was discussed and plans were made to accommodate all involved parties.
The introductory visit was conducted at my friend's house, also the child's grandmother's home. Maribel often visits her grandmother and is very comfortable within this home setting.
Upon this visit, Maribel was introduced to me as her aunt's visitor. She said, "hi" to me, and asked me if I was visiting her aunt. I replied yes, and asked Maribel if she would like to sit with me and wait…… [Read More]
As some journalists have brought up, this scandal is evocative of the scandal with the Catholic Church and demonstrates how a marked upheaval in the way universities and institutions are conducted (Hamilton, 2012).
The media, while impartial, can often be a moral compass for the rest of the world. Few people can forget the horrors of the reactions of Penn State's college students when the scandal just broke, upon the firing of Joe Paterno: the media captured how the students rioted the streets, acting out, even turning over a news van. The rest of the world watched in revulsion: these college students, by sympathizing with Paterno, someone who had essentially protected and sheltered a pedophile, these young college students were sympathizing with Sandusky, the pedophile in question. "It's difficult to look at the images of the Penn State University students performing pep rally chants and turning over a media van…… [Read More]
The Cook County CDED was formed in 1985 and is a private, non-profit organization supported by foundation and grants, as well as several individual donations annually.
To end disability-related discrimination and injustice through education and increased legal services for individuals and families with disabilities. This is accomplished through legal support and the support of local community families.
To fight for and increase the rights of children with disabilities by changing discriminatory practices, policies and laws.
To educate children, families and education professionals.
To provide assistance to families with disabilities in need.
To offer educational and extracurricular activities for children with disabilities as well as family members.
To increase awareness overall.
The CDED does not believe any individual or family should be denied the right to fair housing or education because of a disability. The CDED Community Center offers a place of solace for children with disabilities and families…… [Read More]
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…… [Read More]
Children and the Media
Whether or not children should be allowed to watch television or movies is one that elicits great controversy among parents, educators, and child development experts. Some have no problem with exposing children to media, others have distinct criteria to fulfill before allowing children to watch any form of media, and still others strongly advise against exposing children to media at all. The real issue is about the nature and quality of the messages and images that children consume as they watch or listen to media.
I believe there are distinct advantages for children and the potential for positive impact with many shows that are available for children today. Generally, the commercials that are viewed by children during age-appropriate viewing are not harmful in any way, though caregivers will want to be certain that the messages being conveyed match up with their overall philosophy. I also believe…… [Read More]
According to Smoll and Smith, there are two basic attitudes toward competition; an ego attitude and a mastery attitude. Parents who have an ego attitude toward their own competition -that is, they compete to win and to be better than others - are especially likely to be competitive with other parents about their child's achievements. Essentially, the parent goes from being proud to being boastful.
These, then, are the four psychological factors that must be recognized as we try to understand the youth sports experience of families: the identification of the parent with the child, the tendency of parents to fantasize about their child's potential, the sense of youth sport as an investment, and competitiveness between parents. Combined, these factors drive many parents to push their child to excel, and to take action when they feel that their child's potential is being ignored or inhibited. The unfortunate result is children…… [Read More]
These findings are consistent with those reported in studies of children older than 2 years but extend these findings to children who are spanked beginning at a relatively early age (issow Pp).
In the January 2002 issue of "Journal of Counseling and Development," Lisa Fontes states that Latino parents who engage in harsh physical discipline need help, however, they are far from homogeneous and their needs vary (Fontes Pp). She believes that many are "loving and devoted parents who practice traditional forms of child rearing that may include an authoritarian style and harsh corporal punishment, side by side with high levels of intimacy and support" (Fontes Pp). Fontes states that some Latino parents are often "incorrectly accused of abusing or neglecting their children because non-Latino professionals are puzzled by their unfamiliar yet harmless practices" (Fontes Pp). hile other Latino parents, like parents from other groups, punish their children in ways…… [Read More]
Promoting the understanding of cultural differences is crucial, because a large number of child abuse and neglect cases involve allegations against minorities.
As a result, in some areas a psychologist may interview the involved caregivers and children to help the courts decide whether parents have behaved abusively and to determine their children's placement. However, sometimes the psychologists' unfamiliarity with a culture leads to unfair decisions. In some Hispanic cultures, for example, parents may not be socialized to express anger directly. Sometimes a child's action may cause that repressed anger to erupt. In such instances, parents may need training in anger management and discipline, instead of a prison sentence and denied access to children.
Because of this situation, the American Psychology Association offers assessment standards for culturally varied populations:
Learn about the culture of the person being assessing. Consult with others who know the culture because there is not always literature…… [Read More]
The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).
According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:
1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.
2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.
3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…… [Read More]
Child abuse and neglect is a highly discussed issue in the present day. For a long time now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. There are significant implications from child abuse and neglect in the United States and it is imperative to come up with the necessary ways of dealing with it. The solution is to have a propagating state program that encompasses poor and underprivileged children. There is also need for family programs that educate and teach households on better child treatment and attaining the necessary skills. Such programs should also be expanded to schools to determine their vulnerabilities and needs.
Child abuse and neglect is a highly debated issue in the contemporary. For a lengthy period now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) have been experientially demonstrated to be linked to an assortment of…… [Read More]
Children aised by Same-Sex Parents have more Problems than Children aised by Different-Sex or Single Parents
As more and more states legalize same-sex marriages, there is growing concerning among many proponents and critics alike about the effect that these civil unions will have on children. Although many children of same-sex unions are from previous heterosexual unions, adoption is also being used by growing numbers of same-sex partners and new reproductive technologies are providing lesbian couples with the ability to "father" their own children and surrogate mothers are available to gay couples if they have the financial resources. Given the increasing numbers of children who are being raised in same-sex parent households, these are legitimate issues that require further examination to determine if popular thought that children raised by same-sex parents have more problems than children raised by different sex or even single parents. To this end, this paper provides a…… [Read More]
Children's Functional Health Pattern Assessment
Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP)
Erickson's Developmental Stage:
Erickson's Developmental Stage:
Erickson's Developmental Stage:
Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Can formulate words with meaning
Climbs by themselves
Uses crayons and scissors
Runs, jumps and climbs
Reads at appropriate level
Can't sit alone
Not toilet trained
Unable to tie shoes
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Eating proper amounts
Eating on a regular basis
Trying new foods
Eating proper amounts
Lack of weight gain
Excessive…… [Read More]
In relationship of his reading comprehension -- Manuel knows how to read at grade level. He really does get the plain indication and can figure out the connotation of a lot of words in the course of context clues. He can effortlessly recapitulate what he has just read and grabbed some of the main ideas as well as extrapolations. His writing needs a lot of work. A lot of the time he leaves out things like prepositions and over uses the imperative regarding creating the words so that they could be plural. For instance -- take the word "children." Manuel will normally just adds an "s" on it so that it can be plural. During other times he does not make certain terms plural. Homonyms are a big issue for Manuel. His language appears to emphasis needs to be on structuring a basis of appropriate sentence structure and sentence syntax.…… [Read More]
Montano urges a rigorous critical examination of children's literature for racism, linguicism, sexism, and bias. The importance of critical examination is to empower teachers, students, and parents to recognize the root causes of bias, prejudice, and stereotype. The function is not simply to point out obvious instances of racism, linguicism, sexism, and other biases. Moreover, it is not enough to include literature written from multicultural perspectives in classroom syllabi. As Gonzalez & Montano (2008) point out, it is important to recognize bias in all its forms: "The mere inclusion of multicultural literature is not enough to disrupt privilege or injustice. Nor is it enough to ask teachers to deconstruct stereotypes in texts and images if teachers are unaware of the subtle biases that exist therein," (p. 77). Montano calls the process of analysis critical literacy.
The process by which critical literacy can be attained varies but Montano provides…… [Read More]
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Hong Kong
The prevalence of mental health problems in people with disabilities is estimated at between thirty and fifty percent, in Hong Kong (Vasa & oy, 2013). Anxiety disorders are the most common mental problems occurring during adolescent and childhood, at least one in ten people having anxiety disorders. In addition, anxiety disorders are the most common manifestations of psychological distress among people with autism. People with autism are much likely to be anxious than their non-autistic peers. Oftentimes, they are described as highly anxious. The co-morbidity of separation anxiety is frequent in people with autism. Similarly, epidemiological studies indicate that approximately eighty percent of people with autism have separation anxieties. This study concentrates on discussing the treatment method or way of Autism and Separation Anxiety Disorder among children and adolescents in Hong Kong.
isk factors owing autism
Young people with autism are more prone…… [Read More]
In spite o the accusations of being a misogynist and encouraging the young minds to embrace such theories related to gender stereotypes, Polly and Diggory, the first two children to populate the series, are far from impersonating stereotypes. Polly appears to be a smart and sensitive young girl, wiser to some degree than her friend, Diggory. In opposition to the children who regardless of their gender, seem to share similar degrees of intelligence, courage and common sense, the adults they describe as part of their reality are more likely to express what to some degree could be the result of certain personal convictions of the author in the two fields of gender that are not very flattering for women in general.
Nevertheless, the novels of the Chronicles are valuable, among other things, because of their potential to enchant, keep the reader interested and intrigued all the way up to the…… [Read More]
Borland (1997) states that,"...the construct of giftedness has undergone significant changes in recent times." (Borland, 1997, p. 13) the author also refers to modern educationists and theorists of intelligence such as Gardner and his Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
Howard Gardner has put forward his Theory of Multiple Intelligences in contradiction to the older hierarchical view of intelligence which, Gardner asserts, privileges some types of intelligence over others. The "types" of intelligence that Gardner has isolated includes the following: Visual or Spatial Intelligence; Musical Intelligence; Verbal or Linguistic Intelligence; Logical and Mathematical Intelligence; Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligence and the Bodily or Kinesthetic Intelligence. He later added an eighth to the list, which is the Naturalist Intelligence. These intelligences he sees as natural propensities in every child that may be obscured to hidden due to cultural and social factors. In the past linguistic and rational models and ideals of intelligence have trended…… [Read More]
She found that this was true, even when a plan was developed for the division of labor so that it was distributed more evenly between both partners. Gjerdingen's study used a time study analysis similar to that used by Craig. Gjerdingen discussed the possibility that cultural differences could have influenced the results. Cultural differences might have influenced Craig's study in a similar manner, but this factor was not mentioned as a potential limitation of the study either.
New Zealand study supports the potential for cultural bias regarding work related gender differences. Else (1997) addressed the same division of labor issue in New Zealand. They found that the gendered division of labor was prevalent in New Zealand society, with the women's work outside of the home having less importance than the men's as far as "breadwinning" is concerned. Else's study found that men's transfer of "household" wages is still considered payment…… [Read More]
The objective of this work is to provide viable research techniques to use in order to help a child and her family. This report represents a summary of Alicia Thomas, a nine-year-old African-American 4th grader with a series of legitimate medical as well as possibly psychosomatic physiological and psychological concerns. The young lady has been specifically diagnosed as having a duodenal ulcer with the inherent gastrointestinal symptoms including vomiting and intermittent pain. The pain has been linked to increased absenteeism from school, four hospitalizations, adverse sleeplessness, nightmare experiences with detail of dismemberment and professed fears of death for herself and for her family members.
The family consisted of eight total children and an intact parental situation but of these members, there has also been a history of mental retardation, depression and one sibling who has since deceased but in life was a main care provider. There is also…… [Read More]
Children of men opens in an apocalyptic future where the world has not seen birth of a child for last eighteen years. Set in 2027, the film presents a very bleak picture of a world that has lost its fertility. Interestingly no reason for that is given and viewers are left to wonder why exactly have all women suddenly become barren. Many American women struggle with infertility and according to statistics, one in eight women would need some kind of fertility treatment to have children. But the situation is nowhere as worse as the film presents. This raises the question as to why would the director choose to present the world in such a dark light? Is he trying to make us think about infertility in general? Was this an attempt to connect infertility with despair and gloom in the apocalyptic world? Is there a theological message woven somewhere deep…… [Read More]
Child abuse and all of its aspects, affect not only the child and his immediate family, but society as a whole pays the price by this maltreatment of our youngest and most important resources. The purpose of this essay is to present two differing hypotheses on this interesting and important topic. In examining these two proposals, I'm attempting to reach new understanding and preventive measures to reducing and hopefully eliminating child abuse in the near future.
H1: Child sexual abuse incidence and future substance abuse incidence is positively correlated.
Determining risk factors for substance-abuse is often difficult with the amount of information available to the authorities today. Psychological and physiological variables certainly affect one's tendency to drift towards substance abuse and dependence. When looking at those who do abuse drugs or alcohol the upbringing and treatment of that person as a child may hold certain keys to understanding this dreaded…… [Read More]
Child Abuse and Sexuality
There has been increasing awareness about stopping sexual child abuse, which has now become an important public health concern (Hammond, 2003; hitaker, Lutzker, & Shelley, 2005). In 2005 more than 83000 cases related to child sexual abuse have been listen in the state-based reports, that have been accumulated by the office of Child Abuse and Neglect (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [U.S. DHHS], 2007). Majority of these cases related to sexual abuse never get registered or reported. Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, and Hamby's (2005) conducted a survey a while back in which the sample constituted of parents along with children. The results of the survey were that, in the year before the survey, out of every 1000 children 82 have been a victim of sexual abuse (hitaker, 2008).
The abused child undergoes various problems socially, behaviorally, psychologically and physically. Depression, PTSD, somatization, and personality disorder…… [Read More]
Child of age
The film Child of age (Home Box Office, 1992) depicts the devastating effects of child abuse. In the film Beth Thomas, a child who was severely abused and later adopted, discusses her shocking attitudes and desires that include wanting to kill her little brother and adoptive parents. She also discusses numerous incidents of abusing animals and her brother. Her depiction reminds one of a person with a psychopathic personality (now termed antisocial personality disorder).
Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of disregard for the rights of others that occurs since 15 years of age and presents with three or more of the seven symptoms that are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The symptoms include a failure to conform to norms or other rules, deceitfulness, impulsivity, aggressiveness or irritability, disregard for the safety of oneself or others, responsible behavior, and a…… [Read More]
Ultimately, Osborn succeeds in using idiom of the period that is immediately accessible through various venues of popular culture (she describes Crockett as seeming to "be half varmint") and weaves the language of the legend into the story. This differs significantly from Fritz' work in that the story of Pocahontas involves primarily third person language and modern idiom with none of the tall-tale style phrasing. Overall, this story differs significantly from that of Fritz' work in that it challenges the reader to simultaneously deal with the fact and the legend - something that might be confusing for younger readers, but remains quite effective.
Finally, there is Julius Lester's John Henry. John Henry was a purportedly actual (his reality has been up for debate) rail-road worker who was certainly larger in physical stature and stronger than most people, but he certainly could not have accomplished what legend would credit him with.…… [Read More]
Child of the Dark was the first book written by Carolina Maria de Jesus, a black Brazilian woman born in 1914. The book rapidly became a bestseller in Brazil. The book is famous and still in print today, published in 14 languages. It details the story of the woman's struggle as the great-grandchild of slaves, to seek a better and productive life for herself and her family. Though the theme is common to many great heroes, it inspires motivation and awe in many people. Her book in fact became the best selling novel in Brazilian history, capturing a unique aspect of her life and times.
The book brings to life the hardships and social and economic difficulties of the people of Brazil. The story resounds in the heart of many, as it tells the struggle of a young woman born into poverty who becomes famous.
Born in the year 1914…… [Read More]
Further, this provides a social training for all students, teaching them that students with exceptionalities can function just as well in society as students without those exceptionalities (paras. 8-9).
In my classroom, I plan to address these students' needs through implementing different programs for each special circumstance in the classroom. For instance, Sharpe notes that inclusion is not a one-size-fits-all solution (paras. 10-12). Because of this, I plan to help students with exceptionalities in my classroom by being sure individual support plans are put into place and that students with and without exceptionalities are interacting without incident. In addition, I plan to monitor student interaction in order to encourage students of all abilities to work and learn together.
Sharpe, W.S. (2005). etrieved June 15, 2009, from Education World. Web Site:
Tomko, C.F. (1996). What is Inclusion? etrieved June 15, 2009, from Kids Together,
Inc. Web Site: http://www.kidstogether.org/inclusion.htm
Whitbread,…… [Read More]
Thus, the participants with ASD were as able to attend to the images as the control group and imitate the perceived emotional state. However, only the typically-developing children showed activity in the pars opercularis during the imitation task. The pars opercularis is associated with some mirroring functions.
As expected, the scans revealed that the participants with ASD had far less activity throughout the MNS. Also as predicted, results indicated an inverse relationship between MNS activity and autism symptom severity. Symptom severity was assessed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Interview.
Results therefore supported the hypothesis that ASD is correlated with a dysfunctional MNS. Children with autism often cannot understand, anticipate, or read the emotional expressions of others and the current study points to a possible underlying cause for this dysfunction. Typically developing children not only imitated the observed emotion but likely felt it as well;…… [Read More]
d. Compare/Contrast with their own lives.
e. Work on an artistic representation of that country's culture.
f. Individually, present to small group; or group present to class with each member providing information on a specific part of the child's life in another country.
4. As a take-home activity, write a reflective essay (2-6 paragraphs, depending on level) about what you learned from this assignment, how you think the child's life differs from yours, how it is similar, and what you might change about your own life based on this assignment.
Analysis - Background -- Differentiated Instruction recognizes that students have varying background knowledge, language, preferences in learning, and interests. DI is a process designed to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class -- in the same lesson.
Differentiated Access -- each student will have access to a variety of written and kinesthetic materials that…… [Read More]
Children in urban areas may lack support for physical education, because of the absence of safe places to play in their environments. While the contributing factors to obesity may be the same -- too many calories and not enough physical activity -- the reasons that an activity and caloric balance occurs must be addressed locally, and not in a generic fashion.
Within six months: aise awareness about the organization. Contact local, state, and national leaders. Touch base with leaders who are sympathetic to the goals of the organization. Disseminating the message of obesity reduction through public service messages as well as replicating existing programs and advocacy messages will be part of the organization's efforts to make connections with sympathetic leaders.
Within a year: esearch and target critical programs and initiatives that will become the focus of fundraising of the organization.
Ongoing, but within a year to six months to…… [Read More]
Director Martin Teicher of the Developmental iophsychiatry Research Program at McLean said that maltreatment in childhood can effect changes in brain function and structure. A child's brain continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence. His interactions with the environment create effects, which stabilize in puberty and adulthood. These experiences determine how the child will be wired. The four types of cranial abnormalities, which are permanent, are limbic irritability, arrested development of the left hemisphere, deficient integration between the left and the right hemispheres, and increased vermal activity.
The McLean researchers investigated 253 adults in an outpatient mental health clinic. More than half of them reported a history of physical or sexual abuse in childhood. The researchers found that those who were abused as children scored higher in the Limbic System Checklist. The finding provided evidence that abuse in childhood caused electrical impulses when limbic cells communicate. This results in seizures,…… [Read More]
Differentiating between phenomena of Theory-Theory and Theory of Mind
The 'Theory of Mind' is a cognitive-based science that examines how humans develop and ascribe mental states to people around us and how such mental states are used to foretell one's behavior and actions. It delves into the process of mental abilities and mind reading (Marraffa). 'Theory -- Theory', on the other hand, focuses on the structure of concepts, how they are acquired and applied in real life. Theory-theory points out that concepts are woven around theories and that one must first learn the theories in order to acquire the concepts (eiskopf)
Theory of mind grows over time. The intuitive social skills appear during the infancy stage while the reflective social cognition manifests during the preschool and the preceding toddler stages. Children aged three years understand that different people want and feel different things. Such mental stance is formidable…… [Read More]
This entire process aids a client to seek and see the humor in life experience. Communication is also extremely significant since it helps by preventing any feelings of inferiority by the client since the counselor is viewed as an equal instead of a superior (Knoff, 2002).
A therapist ought to make the client to view him or herself as the perfect authority in his or her own way experience; therefore, he or she is capable of satisfying his or her own potential for development. It is also vital to note that in difficult situations individual may not grow and develop into being a responsible character. This is experienced in situation where a child or an adolescent is refused and denied acceptance and positive regard by others and in the event that the positive regard is made conditional upon the child or adolescent, behavioral characteristics change for the worse. This can…… [Read More]