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The state parent locator service lessens the delay of collection of child support. The child support enforcement agencies in most states have the authority to order genetic testing in order to establish the parentage in cases of paternity. Child support payments can be ordered once the parent is found. ithholding of wages and seizure and sales of properties may be used to enforce child support.
Cash Assistance Programs:
Under the Title IV-a, Assistance for Families with Dependant Children (AFDC), cash assistant or welfare of these families was managed at State level. President Gerald Ford signed into law the Title IV-D of the Social Security Act on January 4, 1975 which created a state-federal child support enforcement program (Morgan par, 2). Through the enforcement of child support, the program had two goals i.e. cost avoidance (helping families on welfare leave the assistance roll while those not on the assistance rolls avoid…
Amneus, Daniel. "The Case for Father Custody." Fathermag.com. Fathermag.com. Web. 8 Mar. 2010. .
"Annulment Laws." AboutDivorce.org. AboutDivorce.org. Web. 8 Mar. 2010. .
Canada. Department of Justice. About Child Support. Canada.gc.ca, 3 Sept. 2009. Web. 8 Mar. 2010. .
"Child Custody Rights." Child Suppot Laws. Child Suppot Laws. Web. 8 Mar. 2010. .
Child Support Distribution Act of 2000 (H.R. 4678) overwhelmingly passed the House of Representatives last September 7, 2000 by a vote of 405 to 18. A similar measure, now called the Child Support Distribution Act of 2001 (S. 918) was introduced in the Senate's 107th session but never came to debate.
The need for better enforcement of child support laws were evident in a recent survey that showed that fewer than one-fifth of inner-city children born to single teenage mothers receive child support from their fathers. In fact, half of these children never see their fathers at all. Many fathers are unable to provide support because they are unemployed and do not have any marketable skills. As a result, a great majority of these teen mothers depend on welfare to support their children (Moore).
The Child Support Distribution Act seeks to address these problems such as these, factors that hinder…
Clinton, William J. "Statement on House of Representatives action on the Child Support Distribution Act" Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents; Washington; Sep 11, 2000: 2020.
Erikson, Jan. "Child support linked with Fathers' Rights Bill" National NOW Times; Washington; Winter 2001: 11.
House okays bill to send child support to parents." Chicago Tribune 8 September 2000: 12.
Moore, Melissa. "Children of young disadvantaged women are unlikely to receive consistent support from their fathers" Family Planning Perspectives; New York; Nov/Dec 1998: 291-292.
child support,' Beller (1996) highlights the issue of children being the intellectual capital of the future and suggests that any society, which wishes to safeguard the socioeconomic well being of its future generations needs to ensure that appropriate and adequate investments are made in the education and overall welfare of its children. Having, thus, tabled the enormous stake that society has in its children, Beller then discusses the unfortunately increasing trend in America today of single parent families, which has led to a sizeable number of children who suffer the outcomes from low income and smaller inputs of parental time. To emphasize the enormity of the issue, Beller cites studies that show that present trends, if unchanged, will lead to six out of every ten children who are born today spending part of their childhood in a single-parent family, usually headed by a mother.
Given the objective of insuring the…
Beller, A.H. (1996). Small change: Problems and prospects in child support.
Consumer Interests Annual. 42.17.
Another important thing is that the biological basis of the relationship that exists between the child and the parent would also be a basis for child support obligations. In a situation where the biological father of the child who had sexual interactions with the mother of the child just once and never did have any relationship with the mother or the child, the father should have child support obligations on the basis of being the biological father of the child Kargman, 1983()
In a scenario where a same sex partner who has no biological relationship with the child nor legal relationship with the child or their mother but had a long-term emotional relationship with both, should the couple split up, the partner would have child support obligations as a result of the child relying on the partner for provision of his/her needs Meyer & Bartfeld, 1996.
This is based on…
Bartfeld, J. (2003). Falling through the Cracks: Gaps in Child Support among Welfare Recipients. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65(1), 72-89.
Carlson, M., Garfinkel, I., McLanahan, S., Mincy, R., & Primus, W. (2004). The Effects of Welfare and Child Support Policies on Union Formation. Population Research and Policy Review, 23(5/6), 513-542.
Garfinkel, I., & Lanahan, S.M. (1990). The Effects of the Child Support Provisions of the Family Support Act of 1988 on Child Well-Being. Population Research and Policy Review, 9(3), 205-234.
Harknett, K., & Knab, J. (2007). More Kin, Less Support: Multipartnered Fertility and Perceived Support among Mothers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69(1), 237-253.
Child Support Programs and their contribution in making United States a welfare state
The current essay is aimed at exploring the legislations and policies related to child support and welfare and how it helped United States to be a welfare state. The author has analyzed the child support programs and whether these programs have been helpful for the parents of children. The author has also discussed the problems related to these support programs as well as their benefits.
Welfare and Child Support Receipt
In 2005, there were 6.8 million custodial parents in need of child support through either legal awards or unofficial arrangements there were spend an annual average of $5,600 annually, or an average of $465 monthly. "Overall, custodial parents reported receiving $25.9 billion directly from the non-custodial parent for support of their children in 2005." According to the April 2006 Current Population Survey, "sixty-one percent of all custodial…
BibliographyBlank, R.M., & Ellwood, D.T."The Clinton legacy for America's poor." In J. Frankel & P. Orszag (Eds.), American economic policy in the 1990s. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (2002): 749-800Cabrera, N., & Peters, H.E. "Public policies and father involvement." Marriage and Family Review, 29(4), (2000): 295-314.Edin, K. "Single mothers and child support: The possibilities and limits of child support policy." Children and Youth Services Review, 17(1/2), (1995): 203-230.Farrel, M., Glosser, A., & Gardiner, K. "Child support and TANF interaction: Literature review. Report to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation," U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Falls Church, VA: The Lewin Group. (2003).Garfinkel, I., McLanahan, S.S., & Robins, P.K. (Eds.). "Child support assurance: Design issues, expected impacts, and political barriers as seen from Wisconsin." Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press. (1992)Grall, T.S. "Custodial mothers and fathers and their child support: 2005." (U.S. Census Bureau Current Population Reports, P60-234). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. (2007).Greene, A.D., and Moore, K.A. "Nonresident father involvement and child well-being among young children in families on welfare." Marriage and Family Review, 29(2/3), (2000):159-180.Lerman, R.I., & Sorensen, E. "Child support: Interactions between private and public sectors." Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. (2001)Miller, M. "Through the eyes of a father: How PRWORA affects non-residential fathers and their children." International Journal of Law, Policy, and the Family, 20(1), (2006): 237-260.Pirog, M.A., & Ziol-Guest, K.M. "Child support enforcement: Programs and policies, impacts and questions." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 25(4), (2006) 943-990.Sorensen, E., & Halpern, A."Child support enforcement: How well is it doing?" Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute. (1999)U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. "FY2008 Preliminary Report." Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. (2008).U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. "Strategic Plan FY2005-2009. Washington, D.C.": U.S. Government Printing Office. (2004)U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means. 2008 Green Book. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. (2008)Venohr, J.C., Price, D.A., Van Wert, L.D., & Anders, C.M. "Child support pass through in Minnesota: A process and outcomes evaluation." Report to the Minnesota Department of Human Services, Child Support Enforcement Division. Denver, CO: Policy Studies, Inc. (2002)Waller, M.R., & Plotnick, R. "Effective child support policy for low-income families: Evidence from street level research." Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 20(1), (2001): 89-110.Wisconsin Historical Society. "A brief explanation of the Social Security Act." (April 1936) Retrieved November 18, 2011 from hrrp://content.wisconsinhistory.org/u?/tp,3891]
Such a solution, if successfully implemented, would decrease the immense gender gap that still exists in the traditional American family stereotype in which the mother has to take care of the children with a father that has a rather limited implication.
Another proposal to increase consistency of noncustodial fathers paying their child support relates to punitive measures (revocation of driver's license, etc.) and direct withholding from paychecks and income tax returns. Empirical data shows that these measure have had a mixed success. In many cases "paycheck withholding is effective" (3) but most of the times work for fathers who believe that the decision to pay child support is not fair, whilst in the case of those that agreed to this decision, such measures are not successful on the long run. Other punitive measure have proved successful over the years like immediate withholding, criminal penalties, tax intercepts, and the ability to…
Lin, I.-F. (2000). Perceived fairness and compliance with child support obligations.
Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62
McElroy, W. (2004) In Defense of "Deadbeat" Dads. FoxNews. Retrieved from http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,127958,00.html
Meyer, D.R., & Bartfeld, J. (1998). Patterns of child support compliance in Wisconsin. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60
payment of child support is universally recognized as a responsibility of parents engaged in the process of divorce. Ordinarily the obligation of paying child support terminates for parents on the eighteenth birthday or graduation from high school of the involved child but this is not the case for children who qualify, legally, as disabled children. Under Texas law, child support for disabled children is treated much differently. Not only is such support calculated differently, it is also terminated differently.
Child support in Texas is ordinarily calculated in accordance with guidelines that are based simply on the number of children and the combined incomes of the divorcing parents. In calculating child support for disabled children, however, consideration is given to the special needs that accompany the care of such children. Texas law has taken such factors into consideration and allows the Family Court to take such special needs into account when…
In the end, the epidemic of out of wedlock children by professional athletes is a serious concern. These athletes, whether they like it or not, are role models to the youth of today, and as such, they need to be especially concerned with the moral implications of their actions. By using Kantian morality, one easily begins to see that at no point is having an out of wedlock child a moral decision. From conception, when the mother-to-be is used as a means for the ends of sexual gratification, to the lack of consideration for the effects the stress of paternity suits will have on the team in general, to the complete disregard for the child who had no voice in the decision at all and relied on the two parents to make the best decision possible, each step was fraught with immorality.
Chan, S. "The Confucian Notion of…
Chan, S. "The Confucian Notion of Jing." Philosophy East and West 56(2) Apr. 2006: pp. 229-253. Academic OneFile database. Thomson Gale. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. December 5, 2006 http://find.galegroup.com .
Crane, P. "This Week's SI: An Inside Look." Sports Illustrated. 29 Apr. 1998. Sports Illustrated. December 5, 2006 http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/features/1998/weekly/980504/insidelook.html.
May, L., Collins-Chobanian, S., & Wong, K. Applied Ethics: A Multicultural Approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005.
Rachels, J. & Rachels, S. The Elements of Moral Philosophy. Columbus, OH: McGraw Hill, 2006.
Of course, besides child sponsorship programs, many other programs must be developed in a poor region, programs that address more fundamental issues of poverty. Child sponsorship only does its part in supporting the development of a region, country, and of the international community. It is not the most fundamental form of aid for development, but it does its part, which can be quite significant at the level of a community. Through this method, more and more communities can benefit from the child sponsorship program, in the same time participating in other international aid programs. "Sponsorship is not the only way to help poor people, but it is one important way" (Endersby, 2006).
What made child sponsorship very debated in the past decades is the involvement of specific religious organizations into such programs. This can put some pressure on the child in a specific religious or lifestyle sense, but such practices…
Brehm, Vicky, and Gale, Julie, NGO funding and policy bulletin, Bulletin no.3, November 2000, available at http://danny.oz.au/politics/poverty/child-sponsorship.html ;
Child Sponsorship, Frequently Asked Questions, available at http://www.dontbuyicecream.com/9425.html;
Endersby, Alastair, Sponsoring a child, January 19, 2006, available at http://www.idebate.org/debatabase/topic_details.php?topicID=472;
Preslar, Andy, a Child-Centered Approach to Child Sponsorship, June 2003, available at http://www.ministrywatch.org/mw2.1/F_FullRpt.asp?EIN=362423707 ;
The author notes that little research is accorded to children's diminished psychosocial behavior following divorce. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten cohort (n=10,061), he examines the associations between divorce and children's outcome and suggests that divorce is associated with diminished psychosocial well-being in children thereby explaining the connection between divorce and lower academic achievement.
The study is useful for my research since it mentions psychosocial factors. Nonetheless, I find author's conclusions shaky for at least three reasons: firstly, author limited his study to children of kindergarten age therefore conclusions cannot be generalized to children of all ages; secondly, many more variables must taken into consideration regarding resulting low academic achievement; thirdly, children's academic level prior to divorce must be considered too.
. Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650-666 .
I found this article helpful for my…
3. Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650-666 .
I found this article helpful for my research since it connects past and present material on divorce concluding with gaps and research questions that still need to be addressed.
The author observes that research on divorce during the past decade focused on a range of topics that included associations between divorce and the well being of children and former spouses, interventions for divorcing couples, and predictors for divorce. Methodology generally employed longitudinal studies, genetically informed designs, and statistical models that controlled for possible confounding variables. Current trends are to focus on the number of family transitions (e.g. quantity of divorce, remarriage etc.). The author concludes with description of existent gaps in the literature and suggestions for new directions in research.
Family Law Midterm
Instructions: Please respond to each question in essay format. Each question highlights the week in which the subject matter was covered but please do not forget to include the subject matters (and themes) covered in week 2. Also, please include "practice points" wherever practical. Please read each question first before starting to answer. For each question, you should assume that you have told your client that he/she should consult a lawyer but you are giving advice learned from this class.
Each question is worth 25 pts.
We learned about the laws of child support in New York State. You have a client who is 21 years old who has been dating a woman who is also 21 years old. Your client tells you that his girlfriend is pregnant. The couple is not married and do not live together. Your client has mixed emotions…
Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development
Beyond problems of financial inequality that occur when countless young children reside in poor as well as persistently inadequate households, poor children can easily perpetuate the never-ending cycle when they achieve adulthood. Prior study implies that children who're born poor as well as are constantly poor are considerably much more most likely to remain poor as grownups, quit school, give teenage premarital births, and also have spotty employment details than all those not very poor at birth (atcliffe and McKernan 2010). This previous research focused on the earliest cohort of youngsters reviewed here-children born in between 1967 and 1974 as well as who turned Thirty amid 1997 and 2004. An important query is whether or not this link has endured with time. Even though information aren't accessible to see outcomes via age 30 for children born within the subsequent two cohort…
Duncan, Greg, W. Jean Yeung, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Judith Smith. 1998. "How Much Does Childhood Poverty Affect the Life Chances of Children?" American Sociological Review 63(3): 406 -- 23.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2010. "Childhood Poverty Persistence: Facts and Consequences." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2012. "Child Poverty and Its Lasting Consequence." Washington, DC: Urban Institute
Vericker, Tracy, Jennifer Macomber, and Olivia Golden. 2010. "Infants of Depressed Mothers Living in Poverty: Opportunities to Identify and Serve." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Gradually, there are lesser desired adoptive kids as society have come to accept single mother who parent their children compared to earlier. The disgrace of giving birth to a child outside marriage has lowered and hence, the bulk of single moms prefer to have their kids with them in place of "relinquishing them" for being adopted. Besides, thanks to advanced technology, "birth control" pills are instantly accessible to the fertile populace, and, as abortion has been legalized, a pregnancy which is unplanned could be stopped. A new dimension to the problem has emerged because of the decrease in the supply of desirable adoptable infants and the rising infertility among Americans. (Infant Adoption is Big Business in America)
It is anticipated that out of every six couples, one couple has problems in conceiving and total infertile couples may number 5.3 million. A lot of adopters who are presently desirous of adoption…
Adoption is big business: Rationalizations for Adoption. http://www.adoption-articles.com/adoption_business.htm
Adoption: The Child Commodities Market is Big Business. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/224728/adoption_the_child_commodities_market.html?page=2
Avery, Rosemary. J. Adoption Policy and Special Needs Children. Auburn. Westport: CT.
Cahn, Naomi R; Hollinger, Joan Heifetz. Families by Law: An Adoption Reader. New York
Define child and labor separately.
Child labor in the United States has long been a subject of concern. The U.S. enacted strict child labor statutes in 1938 (Labor, 2009), and has continued to enforce that law. However, there remain problems at home in the U.S. And abroad. The United States seeks to enforce the law, but there are times when it is difficult to catch perpetrators of violations. However, the U.S. has trade restrictions against countries that do not have strict enforcement of international standards. This research examines statutes in the United States (including their historic antecedents), what is being done to violators, and how trade is affected by citizen outcry against human rights violators and compliance with international law.
Current thinking on human rights dictates that children reach a certain age before they are to be put into the workforce. However, different cultures have different…
Browne, M.N., Frondorf, A., Harrison-Spoerl, R., & Krishnan, S. (2004). Universal moral principles and the law: The failure of one-size-fits-all child labor laws. Houston Journal of International Law, 27(1), 1-37.
Bullard, M.G. (2001). Child labor prohibitions are universal, binding, and obligatory law: The evolving state of customary international law concerning the unempowered child laborer. Houston Journal of International Law, 24(1), 139-171.
Cox, K. (1999). The inevitability of nimble fingers? law, development and child labor. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 32(1), 115-146.
Donald, C.G., Ralston, J.D., & Merker, S.L. (2002). Results of opinion surveys related to Kentucky's child labor laws. International Journal of Public Administration, 25(7), 859- 876.
Child Abuse in England
The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.
esides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.
The bruises on Clara's…
1) Ananova. 2002, UN Urges Government to Outlaw Smacking
2) Allen, N. 1992, Making Sense of the Children act 1989, Longman
3) BBC News. 2002. Dentists Asked to Diagnose Child Abuse, UK
4) -, Church Tackles Child Abuse, England
ut the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment. In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur.
The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children. If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to…
Carter, Janet. (2000). Domestic violence, child abuse, and youth violence: strategies for prevention and early intervention. San Francisco: Family Violence Prevention Fund.
CUPA: Canadian Union of Public Employees. (1997). What we owe to families: a brief on child welfare in Manitoba. Winnipeg: Canadian Union of Public Employees.
CWLA: Child Welfare League of America. (1997). Child abuse and neglect: a look at the States. Washington, D.C: Child Welfare League of America.
Drucker, Philip. M. (October, 1997). "The consequences of Poverty and Child Maltreatment on IQ Scores." The Vincentian Chair of Social Justice Papers. Vincentian Center Faculty Colloquium Presentation, New York.
On the other hand, others may require a few weeks to get adjusted (Thompson; Connell; Bridges, 1988).
Threshold of esponsiveness:
This refers to how strong a stimulus requires to be reminded of a response from a child. For instance, one child may find a light touch irritating while another may need a deep hug to continue a response. This intensity of reaction refers to the vigor level of the response that is the characteristic of that child.
Another example is a child who has little threshold of responsiveness but at the same time his intensity of reaction is quite high may react to a bad taste medicine with a very loud, "Yuck!" along with lots of frowning and spitting. In contrast, another child may have the same threshold of responsiveness but a low intensity of reaction may just crumple his nose in dislike.
Persistence - Attention Span
This describes of…
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. (1995). Child maltreatment and attachment organization: implications for intervention. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir and J. Kerr (Eds.). Attachment theory: Social, developmental and clinical perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
Fox, N., Kimmerly, N., & Schafer, W. (1991). Attachment to mother/attachment to father: A meta-analysis. Child Development.
Goldsmith, H., & Alansky, a. (1987). Maternal and infant temperamental predictors of attachment: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
Seifer, R., Schiller, M., Sameroff, a., Resnick, S., & Riordan, K. (1996). Attachment, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament during the first year of life. Developmental Psychology.
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.
Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, R.H., & Corwyn, R.F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Pastor's Responsibilities with Child Abuse
Comment by abina:
Pastor's Responsibilities with Child Abuse
It is important for pastors and youth pastors to become familiarized with the child abuse laws in the state in which they serve. Many youth pastors encounter child abuse in their service to their church, and there are specific guidelines that should be followed for reporting child abuse. Failure to report child abuse can result in criminal prosecution for the youth pastor (Hammar, 2010). If a youth pastor gains information about a child being abused in their home environment, he/she must follow the proper protocols for reporting child abuse. The youth pastor should also inform the senior pastor about the abuse.
The senior pastor should ensure that the youth pastor contact the local child protective services and report the abuse. The senior pastor should also ensure the church has procedures for handling child abuse that…
Shelley, M. (1985). Well-Intentioned Dragons: Ministering to Problem People in the Church. Waco, TX: Word.
Unknown (1986). Restoring your Spiritual Passion. Nashville, TN:Oliver-Nelson.
Unknown (1992). Under the Predictable Plant: An Exploration in Vocational Holiness. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Children: Exposure to Violence Through the Media
The extent to which exposure to violence creates violent children and/or aggressive behavior is a subject which has been debated in a comprehensive manner. However, the fundamental research findings are consistent. The research continues to demonstrate that exposure to violence creates negative manifestations in the behavior of children. "While violence is not new to the human race, it is an increasing problem in modern society. With greater access to firearms and explosives, the scope and efficiency of violent behavior has had serious consequences. We need only look at the recent school shootings and the escalating rate of youth homicides among urban adolescents to appreciate the extent of this ominous trend" (Beresin, 2010). Given the fact that children are manifesting violent behavior in more and more disturbing ways, making places like schools -- previously dens of safety -- into places where children feel unsafe…
Beresin, V .E. (2010). The Impact of Media Violence on Children and Adolescents: Opportunities for Clinical Interventions. This article examines the biophysiological impact of violent images on children and how those exact dynamics work. Retrieved march 25, 2013 from http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/developmentor/the_impact_of_media_violence_on_children_and_adolescents_opportunities_for_clinical_interventions
Grayson-Mathis, C.E. (2005, June 10). Media violence may affect children's minds.
Offers a thorough appraisal on how violent media images impact the minds of children using relevant literature to support the case.
Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20050610/media-violence-may-affect-childrens-minds
The Watertown (MA) Family Network creates a community for mothers who may not have anyone to ask questions about their infants and toddlers. As the video's narrator stated, "There are no roadmaps to raising children." With the Network, which is free and provides resources such as a new mom support group, parents do not need to feel as if they are all alone with this rewarding, but challenging, job of raising a child.
Epstein (2009) suggests there are five types of family engagement: childrearing, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, and representing other families. A comprehensive family involvement plan can be developed by choosing several of these types.
In the church-based childcare center where I worked, as with the Watertown Network, staff helped parents who had questions about what they should do at home. This center was in a military community where many young mothers were away from their…
Grisham-Brown, J., Hallam, R., and Brookshire, R. (2006). Using authentic assessment to evidence children's progress toward early learning standards. Early Childhood Education Journal 34(1), pp. 45-51.
Kostelnik, M.J., Soderman, A.K., and Whiren, A.P. (2011). Developmentally appropriate curriculum: Best practices in early childhood education. Boston: Pearson.
Mueller, J. (2011). Authentic assessment toolbox. Retrieved from http://jfmueller.faculty
Child abuse is one of the most dangerous and serious problems confronting society, perhaps because of the helplessness and innocence of the victims. What is particularly bothersome about child abuse is that it occurs in all income, racial, religious, and ethnic groups and in urban and rural communities. Likewise, there is no uniform definition of what constitutes child abuse, making it difficult to ascertain what prevention and treatment methods are most effective. For example, in Sweden, the law prohibits any physical punishment of children, including spanking. By contrast, in some countries of Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, parents are expected to punish their children by hitting them.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to child abuse. Part II defines child abuse. In Part III, a history of child abuse is offered. Part IV evaluates why child abuse exists according to control theory and anomy theory. In…
Writing allows for a child's full self-expression, especially when the activity offers the opportunity for the child to explore beyond the written word itself. For example, younger students in classrooms stocked with colorful writing implements can use color, shape, and size of lettering to convey emotion and intent. Whereas older children are training themselves to apply strictly cognitive processes to the writing exercise, a young student in the second grade still explores writing from a holistic perspective. It is therefore possible to evaluate and analyze one young child's writing sample from a holistic standpoint. Arianna is in the second grade, and she wrote a letter to a classmate as part of this assignment. Clarity, support, organization, and mechanics are the four criteria used to evaluate Arianna's material, albeit from an age-appropriate foundation.
Arianna's sample reveals a strong sense of clarity for someone her age, as she writes a…
Secondly, the kid should be assisted in augmenting their reasoning and by making them know deaths with realistic information. Thirdly, the kid should attain consent to allow him/her do away with old lifestyle and come up with new lifestyle. An example of a long-term effect includes troubles with the internalization of conscience.
Loss at Teenage Years
At this age, for the teenager to finish the duties of psychological loss the adolescent requires to resist parent figures that nevertheless are constantly available. Parent loss will interrupt these duties. Secondly, control matters will continually affect the teenager's behaviors, more so if he/she feels a great part of the resolutions about his life are out of his/her control.
In order to reduce the short-term effects, teenagers are required to feel that they do have rising control over their very own lives. Also, adults should offer them many chances as much as possible in…
1. Bonanno G., Neria Y., Mancini a., Coifman K., Litz B. & Insel B (2007)Is there more to complicated grief than depression and posttraumatic stress disorder? A test of incremental validity. Psychological Medical Journal.116, pp. 342 -- 351
2. Brent, D., Melhem N., Donohoe MB & Walker M. (2009). The Incidence and Cause of Depression in Bereaved Youth 21 Months after the loss of a Parent to Suicide,
Accident, or Sudden Natural Death, Psychological Medical Journal.166, pp.786 -- 794.
3. Hensley P., Slonimski C., Uhlenhuth E. & Clayton P. (2009)Escitalopram: an open-label
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…
Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html
This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.
Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html
This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
It took them a while to get used to it but eventually, they were able to communicate with softer words and softer tone.
According to systems theory (Titelman, 1998), it was my duty to work on both Dave and his family so that their communication problem is uprooted from its origins. When his parents began to realize the impact of their meaningless arguments on Dave, they set quite a few rules for themselves. These rules included no harsh words or arguments in front of Dave and increased participation in his social & academic life. They realized the importance of their emotional support and gravity of the condition of Dave.
It was important to make Dave feel that he was needed and appreciated for being wonderful just the way he was. His parents also felt the need for a stable atmosphere at home where Dave could share his thoughts, fears and…
Bailey K.D. (1994) Sociology and the new systems theory: toward a theoretical synthesis. USA. Sunny Press.
Beck A.T. (1979) Cognitive Therapy Of Depression. NEWYORK .USA. Guilford press
Clark. D.A., Beck A.T. & Alford B.A. (1999). Scientific foundations of cognitive theory and therapy of depression. USA. John Wiley and Sons.
Einstein D. (2007) Innovations and Advances in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. Australia. Australian Academic Press
Interviews with his parents reveal a disturbing trend. His parents do not seem to want to challenge Christopher in any meaningful way and instead enable his lack of progress. Perhaps out of fear for his tantrums, Christopher's mother makes excuses for her son's behavior. The experiment of homeschooling Christopher has therefore been unproductive because he is not challenged, and therefore is not learning as much as he could be. His social skills have also been hampered by his homeschooling environment, and by the attitudes of his parents. Christopher does not understand certain social conventions. For instance, he will pass gas while talking to people or make a wolf whistle at a female.
Christopher has no real friends his own age. He seems to prefer being around adults due to the extra compassion and attention they show him. Christopher throws temper tantrums when he feels anxious or put on the spot,…
"Asperger's Syndrome." WebMD. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/tc/aspergers-syndrome-symptoms
"Cleft Lip and Palate," (2011). Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002046/
Children of Alcoholic Parents
It is generally accepted that alcoholism tends to run in families and that compared with children of non-alcoholics, children of alcoholic parents have approximately four time greater risk of becoming alcoholics themselves (Reich Pp). However, the causal factors that determine the development of alcohol abuse and dependence have not yet been conclusively determined (Reich Pp).
Studies from the 1950's and 1960's generally emphasized psychosocial explanation, such as "poor parenting, lack of good role models. And impoverished home life" (Reich Pp). Beginning in the 1970's, research has investigated heritable components in the familial transmission of alcoholism" (Reich Pp). Adoption studies analyses of half-siblings and studies comparing identical and fraternal twins have all provided evidence that genetic factors play a crucial role in the etiology of alcoholism (Reich Pp). Although there is strong evidence for a genetic contribution, few researchers would deny the influence of environmental factors in…
Nishioka, Elaine. "Helping children of alcoholics."
Journal of School Health; 11/1/1989; Pp.
Chassin, Laurie. "Academic Achievement in Adolescent Children of Alcoholics."
Journal of Studies on Alcohol; 1/1/1999; Pp.
Developmental Observation of Five-Year-old
Statement of esearch/Observation: To observe a five-year-old female child in her natural setting to determine age appropriate developmental stages.
Description of Child Being Observed: The subject is a five-year-old female: Maribel.
My friend has a five-year-old niece. The subject's mother was contacted and agreed to allow the observations to take place in her home and on the playground. The project was discussed and plans were made to accommodate all involved parties.
The introductory visit was conducted at my friend's house, also the child's grandmother's home. Maribel often visits her grandmother and is very comfortable within this home setting.
Upon this visit, Maribel was introduced to me as her aunt's visitor. She said, "hi" to me, and asked me if I was visiting her aunt. I replied yes, and asked Maribel if she would like to sit with me and wait…
Alliance for Childhood. "Importance of play." 2 May, 2003 http://www.allianceforchildhood.net/projects/play/index.htm
Bergen, D. Pretend Play and Young Children's Development. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood, 2001. ERIC,ED458045.
Fisch, S.M., & Truglio, R.T. (2001). "G" is for growing: Thirty years of research on children and Sesame Street. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kagan, J. "Child." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 25 Mar. 2004. http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar110700 .
As some journalists have brought up, this scandal is evocative of the scandal with the Catholic Church and demonstrates how a marked upheaval in the way universities and institutions are conducted (Hamilton, 2012).
The media, while impartial, can often be a moral compass for the rest of the world. Few people can forget the horrors of the reactions of Penn State's college students when the scandal just broke, upon the firing of Joe Paterno: the media captured how the students rioted the streets, acting out, even turning over a news van. The rest of the world watched in revulsion: these college students, by sympathizing with Paterno, someone who had essentially protected and sheltered a pedophile, these young college students were sympathizing with Sandusky, the pedophile in question. "It's difficult to look at the images of the Penn State University students performing pep rally chants and turning over a media van…
Engel, J. (2012, July 16). Penn State should get death penalty. Retrieved from Foxsports.com: http://msn.foxsports.com/collegefootball/story/penn-state-should-lose-football-privileges-dealth-penalty-in-wake-of-freeh-report-child-sex-abuse-071212/
Hamilton, M. (May, 27 2012). Penn State and Catholic Church Child Sex-Abuse Trials Divide Penn. Public. Retrieved from Dailybeast.com: http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2012/05/27/penn-state-and-catholic-church-child-sex-abuse-trials-divide-penn-public.html
Kane, C. (July, 23 2012). Penn State penalties: $60 million fine, 4-year bowl ban. Retrieved from Chicagotribune.com: http://www.chicagotribune.com/sports/college/ct-spt-0724-penn-state -- 20120724,0,6965116.story
Muskal, M. (2012, June 22). Jerry Sandusky convicted of 45 child sexual abuse charges. Retrieved from LA Times: Jerry Sandusky convicted of 45 child sexual abuse charges
The Cook County CDED was formed in 1985 and is a private, non-profit organization supported by foundation and grants, as well as several individual donations annually.
To end disability-related discrimination and injustice through education and increased legal services for individuals and families with disabilities. This is accomplished through legal support and the support of local community families.
To fight for and increase the rights of children with disabilities by changing discriminatory practices, policies and laws.
To educate children, families and education professionals.
To provide assistance to families with disabilities in need.
To offer educational and extracurricular activities for children with disabilities as well as family members.
To increase awareness overall.
The CDED does not believe any individual or family should be denied the right to fair housing or education because of a disability. The CDED Community Center offers a place of solace for children with disabilities and families…
About Us. (n.d.). Children's Defense Fund (CDF): Health Care Coverage for All of America's Children, Ending Child Poverty, Child Advocacy Programs. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.childrensdefense.org/about-us/
Epilepsy Fdn.-Mission Statement. (n.d.). Epilepsy Foundation-Epilepsy Foundation-trusted, reliable information for people with seizures, and their caregivers. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsylegal/
Mission Statement. (n.d.). because a goblin is a terrible thing to waste.. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.goblindefensefund.org/mission.html
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…
Fraser, C.; Burchell, B. & Hay, D. (2001). Introducing social psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Heffner. (2003). "Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html
Pelzer, D. (1995). A Child Called it. Omaha: Omaha Press.
Springhouse. (1990). "Piaget's Cognitive Stages.' http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/piaget.htm
Children and the Media
Whether or not children should be allowed to watch television or movies is one that elicits great controversy among parents, educators, and child development experts. Some have no problem with exposing children to media, others have distinct criteria to fulfill before allowing children to watch any form of media, and still others strongly advise against exposing children to media at all. The real issue is about the nature and quality of the messages and images that children consume as they watch or listen to media.
I believe there are distinct advantages for children and the potential for positive impact with many shows that are available for children today. Generally, the commercials that are viewed by children during age-appropriate viewing are not harmful in any way, though caregivers will want to be certain that the messages being conveyed match up with their overall philosophy. I also believe…
According to Smoll and Smith, there are two basic attitudes toward competition; an ego attitude and a mastery attitude. Parents who have an ego attitude toward their own competition -that is, they compete to win and to be better than others - are especially likely to be competitive with other parents about their child's achievements. Essentially, the parent goes from being proud to being boastful.
These, then, are the four psychological factors that must be recognized as we try to understand the youth sports experience of families: the identification of the parent with the child, the tendency of parents to fantasize about their child's potential, the sense of youth sport as an investment, and competitiveness between parents. Combined, these factors drive many parents to push their child to excel, and to take action when they feel that their child's potential is being ignored or inhibited. The unfortunate result is children…
Smoll, F.L., & Smith, R.E. (2002) Children and Youth in Sport: a Biopsychosocial Perspective 2nd ed. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co.
These findings are consistent with those reported in studies of children older than 2 years but extend these findings to children who are spanked beginning at a relatively early age (issow Pp).
In the January 2002 issue of "Journal of Counseling and Development," Lisa Fontes states that Latino parents who engage in harsh physical discipline need help, however, they are far from homogeneous and their needs vary (Fontes Pp). She believes that many are "loving and devoted parents who practice traditional forms of child rearing that may include an authoritarian style and harsh corporal punishment, side by side with high levels of intimacy and support" (Fontes Pp). Fontes states that some Latino parents are often "incorrectly accused of abusing or neglecting their children because non-Latino professionals are puzzled by their unfamiliar yet harmless practices" (Fontes Pp). hile other Latino parents, like parents from other groups, punish their children in ways…
Straus, Murray a. "Spanking and the making of a violent society." Pediatrics;
Fontes, Lisa Aronson. "Child discipline and physical abuse in immigrant Latino families: reducing violence and misunderstandings."
Journal of Counseling and Development; 1/1/2002; Pp.
Promoting the understanding of cultural differences is crucial, because a large number of child abuse and neglect cases involve allegations against minorities.
As a result, in some areas a psychologist may interview the involved caregivers and children to help the courts decide whether parents have behaved abusively and to determine their children's placement. However, sometimes the psychologists' unfamiliarity with a culture leads to unfair decisions. In some Hispanic cultures, for example, parents may not be socialized to express anger directly. Sometimes a child's action may cause that repressed anger to erupt. In such instances, parents may need training in anger management and discipline, instead of a prison sentence and denied access to children.
Because of this situation, the American Psychology Association offers assessment standards for culturally varied populations:
Learn about the culture of the person being assessing. Consult with others who know the culture because there is not always literature…
Besharov, Douglas J. Recognizing and Reporting Child Abuse: Protecting Children from Abuse and Neglect. Washington, D.C. University of Maryland's Welfare Reform Academy, 2000.
Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) of 1974. 23 November 2006. http://laws.adoption.com/statutes/child-abuse-prevention-and-treatment-act - capta-of-1974.html.
Dershowitz, Alan. M. Contrary to Popular Opinion. New York: Pharos Books, 1992.
Murray, Bridget. Cultural insensitivity leads to unfair penalties. Monitor 30.9, October
The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).
According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:
1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.
2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.
3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…
Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.
Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.
Child abuse and neglect is a highly discussed issue in the present day. For a long time now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. There are significant implications from child abuse and neglect in the United States and it is imperative to come up with the necessary ways of dealing with it. The solution is to have a propagating state program that encompasses poor and underprivileged children. There is also need for family programs that educate and teach households on better child treatment and attaining the necessary skills. Such programs should also be expanded to schools to determine their vulnerabilities and needs.
Child abuse and neglect is a highly debated issue in the contemporary. For a lengthy period now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) have been experientially demonstrated to be linked to an assortment of…
Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after intervention. (2005, May 23). The Free Library. (2005). Retrieved February 03, 2017 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after...-a0133049592
A research study undertaken by McMaster University Medical Facility steered Professor Harriet Macmillan, Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences and Pediatrics showed that children that continue being in their homes subsequent to being abused or neglected by their parents, or are taken back to those homes subsequent to intervention by social service institutions are at a high risk for more abuse or neglect in a period of within three years. The conclusion made from examining 163 families with a long-established history of child abuse or neglect is that there is no intervention confirmed or established to decrease the rise of abuse or neglect when the children who have experienced such harsh conditions remain in the home.
The magazine article is pertinent to my paper as it indicates the recurrence of child abuse and neglect.
Cost of child abuse and neglect takes large toll. (2001, May 10). Columbus Medical Association.
Children aised by Same-Sex Parents have more Problems than Children aised by Different-Sex or Single Parents
As more and more states legalize same-sex marriages, there is growing concerning among many proponents and critics alike about the effect that these civil unions will have on children. Although many children of same-sex unions are from previous heterosexual unions, adoption is also being used by growing numbers of same-sex partners and new reproductive technologies are providing lesbian couples with the ability to "father" their own children and surrogate mothers are available to gay couples if they have the financial resources. Given the increasing numbers of children who are being raised in same-sex parent households, these are legitimate issues that require further examination to determine if popular thought that children raised by same-sex parents have more problems than children raised by different sex or even single parents. To this end, this paper provides a…
Allen, D.W. (2006). An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(3), 949-951.
Crowl, A., Ahn, S. & Baker, J. (2008). A meta-analysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 4(3), 385-407.
Somerville, M. (2007). Children's human rights and unlinking child-parent biological bonds with adoption, same-sex marriage and new reproductive technologies. Journal of Family
Studies, 13(2), 179-180.
Children's Functional Health Pattern Assessment
Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP)
Erickson's Developmental Stage:
Erickson's Developmental Stage:
Erickson's Developmental Stage:
Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Can formulate words with meaning
Climbs by themselves
Uses crayons and scissors
Runs, jumps and climbs
Reads at appropriate level
Can't sit alone
Not toilet trained
Unable to tie shoes
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group.
Eating proper amounts
Eating on a regular basis
Trying new foods
Eating proper amounts
Lack of weight gain
In relationship of his reading comprehension -- Manuel knows how to read at grade level. He really does get the plain indication and can figure out the connotation of a lot of words in the course of context clues. He can effortlessly recapitulate what he has just read and grabbed some of the main ideas as well as extrapolations. His writing needs a lot of work. A lot of the time he leaves out things like prepositions and over uses the imperative regarding creating the words so that they could be plural. For instance -- take the word "children." Manuel will normally just adds an "s" on it so that it can be plural. During other times he does not make certain terms plural. Homonyms are a big issue for Manuel. His language appears to emphasis needs to be on structuring a basis of appropriate sentence structure and sentence syntax.…
Belland, B.G. (2008). A scaffolding framework to support the construction of evidence-based arguments among middle school students. Education Tech Research Dev., 21(9), 79-89.
Bodrova, E. & . (1998). Scaffolding emergent writing in the zone of proximal development. Literacy Teaching and Learning, 21(8), 1-18.
Clay, M.M. (2005, June 6). Literacy lessons designed for individuals: Teaching procedures. NH: Heinemann. Atlanta, Georgia.
Rodgers, E.M. (2004). Interactions that scaffold reading performance. Journal of Literacy Research, 12(7), 23-67.
Montano urges a rigorous critical examination of children's literature for racism, linguicism, sexism, and bias. The importance of critical examination is to empower teachers, students, and parents to recognize the root causes of bias, prejudice, and stereotype. The function is not simply to point out obvious instances of racism, linguicism, sexism, and other biases. Moreover, it is not enough to include literature written from multicultural perspectives in classroom syllabi. As Gonzalez & Montano (2008) point out, it is important to recognize bias in all its forms: "The mere inclusion of multicultural literature is not enough to disrupt privilege or injustice. Nor is it enough to ask teachers to deconstruct stereotypes in texts and images if teachers are unaware of the subtle biases that exist therein," (p. 77). Montano calls the process of analysis critical literacy.
The process by which critical literacy can be attained varies but Montano provides…
Baum, F. (1900). The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.
Gonzalez, R. & Montano, T. (2008) "Critical analysis of Chicana/o children's literature: Moving from cultural differences to sociopolitical realities," Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education: Vol. 3: Iss. 1, Article 6. DOI: 10.9741/2161-2978. Available at: http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/jpme/vol3/iss1/6
Herge. (1930). Tin in the Congo.
Riorden, R. (2007). The Titan's Curse.
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Hong Kong
The prevalence of mental health problems in people with disabilities is estimated at between thirty and fifty percent, in Hong Kong (Vasa & oy, 2013). Anxiety disorders are the most common mental problems occurring during adolescent and childhood, at least one in ten people having anxiety disorders. In addition, anxiety disorders are the most common manifestations of psychological distress among people with autism. People with autism are much likely to be anxious than their non-autistic peers. Oftentimes, they are described as highly anxious. The co-morbidity of separation anxiety is frequent in people with autism. Similarly, epidemiological studies indicate that approximately eighty percent of people with autism have separation anxieties. This study concentrates on discussing the treatment method or way of Autism and Separation Anxiety Disorder among children and adolescents in Hong Kong.
isk factors owing autism
Young people with autism are more prone…
Mash, E.J., & Barkley, R.A. (2013). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.
Ozonoff, S., Rogers, S.J., & Hendren, R.L. (2013). Autism spectrum disorders: A research review for practitioners. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Pub.
Saklofske, DH, & Schwean, V.L. (2009). Handbook of psychosocial characteristics of exceptional children. New York [u.a.: Kluwer [u.a..
Vasa, R.A., & Roy, A.K. (2013). Pediatric anxiety disorders: A clinical guide. New York, NY: Humana Press.
In spite o the accusations of being a misogynist and encouraging the young minds to embrace such theories related to gender stereotypes, Polly and Diggory, the first two children to populate the series, are far from impersonating stereotypes. Polly appears to be a smart and sensitive young girl, wiser to some degree than her friend, Diggory. In opposition to the children who regardless of their gender, seem to share similar degrees of intelligence, courage and common sense, the adults they describe as part of their reality are more likely to express what to some degree could be the result of certain personal convictions of the author in the two fields of gender that are not very flattering for women in general.
Nevertheless, the novels of the Chronicles are valuable, among other things, because of their potential to enchant, keep the reader interested and intrigued all the way up to the…
Lewis CS. Dorsett LW. Mead, ML C.S. Lewis' Letters to Children. Simon and Schuster, 1996
Hooper W.C.S. Lewis: A Complete Guide to His Life & Works. HarperCollins, 1998
Lindsley a.C.S. Lewis: His Life and Works. C'S. Lewis Institute. Discipleship of Heart and Mind. Last updated on Tue, 2009-09-29. Available at: http://www.cslewisinstitute.org/cslewis/index.htm
Borland (1997) states that,"...the construct of giftedness has undergone significant changes in recent times." (Borland, 1997, p. 13) the author also refers to modern educationists and theorists of intelligence such as Gardner and his Theory of Multiple Intelligences.
Howard Gardner has put forward his Theory of Multiple Intelligences in contradiction to the older hierarchical view of intelligence which, Gardner asserts, privileges some types of intelligence over others. The "types" of intelligence that Gardner has isolated includes the following: Visual or Spatial Intelligence; Musical Intelligence; Verbal or Linguistic Intelligence; Logical and Mathematical Intelligence; Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Intelligence and the Bodily or Kinesthetic Intelligence. He later added an eighth to the list, which is the Naturalist Intelligence. These intelligences he sees as natural propensities in every child that may be obscured to hidden due to cultural and social factors. In the past linguistic and rational models and ideals of intelligence have trended…
Borland, J.H. (1997). The Construct of Giftedness. PJE. Peabody Journal of Education, 72(3-4), 6-20. Retrieved April 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=96242801
Education - Our Fundamental Resource. Retrieved May 5, 2007, at http://www.usc.edu/libraries/archives/cityinstress/mccone/part7.html
Dealing with Differences in Academic Ability. Retrieved May 5, 2007, at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/SumItUp/chapter3.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006537456
Gottfredson, L.S. (2004, Summer). Schools and the G. Factor. The Wilson Quarterly, 28, 35+. Retrieved May 8, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006537456
She found that this was true, even when a plan was developed for the division of labor so that it was distributed more evenly between both partners. Gjerdingen's study used a time study analysis similar to that used by Craig. Gjerdingen discussed the possibility that cultural differences could have influenced the results. Cultural differences might have influenced Craig's study in a similar manner, but this factor was not mentioned as a potential limitation of the study either.
New Zealand study supports the potential for cultural bias regarding work related gender differences. Else (1997) addressed the same division of labor issue in New Zealand. They found that the gendered division of labor was prevalent in New Zealand society, with the women's work outside of the home having less importance than the men's as far as "breadwinning" is concerned. Else's study found that men's transfer of "household" wages is still considered payment…
Craig, L. 2006. Children and the revolution: A time-diary analysis of the impact of motherhood on daily workload. Journal of Sociology. 42, p.125.
Else, a. 1997. Having it Both Ways?. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand. 9, pp.16-26
Gjerdingen, D. 2000.
Expectant Parents' Anticipated Changes in Workload After the Birth of Their First Child. Journal of Family Practice. FindArticles.com. 27 Apr. 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0689/is_11_49/ai_68145585
The objective of this work is to provide viable research techniques to use in order to help a child and her family. This report represents a summary of Alicia Thomas, a nine-year-old African-American 4th grader with a series of legitimate medical as well as possibly psychosomatic physiological and psychological concerns. The young lady has been specifically diagnosed as having a duodenal ulcer with the inherent gastrointestinal symptoms including vomiting and intermittent pain. The pain has been linked to increased absenteeism from school, four hospitalizations, adverse sleeplessness, nightmare experiences with detail of dismemberment and professed fears of death for herself and for her family members.
The family consisted of eight total children and an intact parental situation but of these members, there has also been a history of mental retardation, depression and one sibling who has since deceased but in life was a main care provider. There is also…
Annunziata, Jane. (n.d.). "Play Therapy With A 6-Year-old With Jane Annunziata, PsyD." Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://www.apa.org
College of Agricultural Sciences (1999). Cognitive Development/Play-Overview. College of Agricultural Sciences, Penn State University. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://www.penpages.psu.edu/penpages_reference/28507/2850764.htmL
Ferguson, E.D. (1989). "Adlerian Therapy: An Introduction." Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada: Adlerian Psychology Association of British Columbia.
Wikopedia. (n.d.). Post-traumatic stress disorder. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-traumatic_stress_disorder
Children of men opens in an apocalyptic future where the world has not seen birth of a child for last eighteen years. Set in 2027, the film presents a very bleak picture of a world that has lost its fertility. Interestingly no reason for that is given and viewers are left to wonder why exactly have all women suddenly become barren. Many American women struggle with infertility and according to statistics, one in eight women would need some kind of fertility treatment to have children. But the situation is nowhere as worse as the film presents. This raises the question as to why would the director choose to present the world in such a dark light? Is he trying to make us think about infertility in general? Was this an attempt to connect infertility with despair and gloom in the apocalyptic world? Is there a theological message woven somewhere deep…
Ostwalt, Jr., Conrad E. 2005. Hollywood and Armageddon: Apocalyptic themes in recent cinematic presentation. Screening the sacred: Religion, myth, and ideology in popular American film, ed. Joel W. Martin and Conrad E. Oswalt Jr. Boulder: Westview Press.
Vineberg, Steve. 2007. Rumors of a birth. ("Children of Men" Movie review). The Christian Century 124, no. 3: 44.
Ostwalt, p. 62
Child abuse and all of its aspects, affect not only the child and his immediate family, but society as a whole pays the price by this maltreatment of our youngest and most important resources. The purpose of this essay is to present two differing hypotheses on this interesting and important topic. In examining these two proposals, I'm attempting to reach new understanding and preventive measures to reducing and hopefully eliminating child abuse in the near future.
H1: Child sexual abuse incidence and future substance abuse incidence is positively correlated.
Determining risk factors for substance-abuse is often difficult with the amount of information available to the authorities today. Psychological and physiological variables certainly affect one's tendency to drift towards substance abuse and dependence. When looking at those who do abuse drugs or alcohol the upbringing and treatment of that person as a child may hold certain keys to understanding this dreaded…
Appel, A. & Holden, G (1998). The co-occurrence of spouse and physical child abuse: a review and appraisal. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 578-579.
Putnam, F. (2003). Ten-year research update review: child sexual abuse. ACAD Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 42-3,268-278.
here are the articles if you want to read them:
Child Abuse and Sexuality
There has been increasing awareness about stopping sexual child abuse, which has now become an important public health concern (Hammond, 2003; hitaker, Lutzker, & Shelley, 2005). In 2005 more than 83000 cases related to child sexual abuse have been listen in the state-based reports, that have been accumulated by the office of Child Abuse and Neglect (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services [U.S. DHHS], 2007). Majority of these cases related to sexual abuse never get registered or reported. Finkelhor, Ormrod, Turner, and Hamby's (2005) conducted a survey a while back in which the sample constituted of parents along with children. The results of the survey were that, in the year before the survey, out of every 1000 children 82 have been a victim of sexual abuse (hitaker, 2008).
The abused child undergoes various problems socially, behaviorally, psychologically and physically. Depression, PTSD, somatization, and personality disorder…
Whitaker, D.J. et al. (2008). Risk factors for the perpetration of child sexual abuse: A review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect 32, 529 -- 548.
Yoshihama, M. And Horrocks, J. (2010). Risk of intimate partner violence: Role of childhood sexual abuse and sexual initiation in women in Japan. Children and Youth Services Review 32: 28 -- 37
Ziersch, A., Gaffney, J., & Tomlinson, D.R. (2000). STI prevention and the male sex industry in London: Evaluating a pilot peer education program. Sexually Transmit ted Infections, 76, 447-453.
Child of age
The film Child of age (Home Box Office, 1992) depicts the devastating effects of child abuse. In the film Beth Thomas, a child who was severely abused and later adopted, discusses her shocking attitudes and desires that include wanting to kill her little brother and adoptive parents. She also discusses numerous incidents of abusing animals and her brother. Her depiction reminds one of a person with a psychopathic personality (now termed antisocial personality disorder).
Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by a pattern of disregard for the rights of others that occurs since 15 years of age and presents with three or more of the seven symptoms that are listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The symptoms include a failure to conform to norms or other rules, deceitfulness, impulsivity, aggressiveness or irritability, disregard for the safety of oneself or others, responsible behavior, and a…
Home Box Office. (1992). Child of Rage. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g2 -
Ultimately, Osborn succeeds in using idiom of the period that is immediately accessible through various venues of popular culture (she describes Crockett as seeming to "be half varmint") and weaves the language of the legend into the story. This differs significantly from Fritz' work in that the story of Pocahontas involves primarily third person language and modern idiom with none of the tall-tale style phrasing. Overall, this story differs significantly from that of Fritz' work in that it challenges the reader to simultaneously deal with the fact and the legend - something that might be confusing for younger readers, but remains quite effective.
Finally, there is Julius Lester's John Henry. John Henry was a purportedly actual (his reality has been up for debate) rail-road worker who was certainly larger in physical stature and stronger than most people, but he certainly could not have accomplished what legend would credit him with.…
Fritz, Jean. The Double Life of Pocahontas. New York: Putnam Juvenile, 2002.
Lester, Julius. John Henry. New York: Puffin, 1999.
Osborn, Mary Pope. American Tall Tales. New York: Knopf Books for Young Readers, 1991.
Child of the Dark was the first book written by Carolina Maria de Jesus, a black Brazilian woman born in 1914. The book rapidly became a bestseller in Brazil. The book is famous and still in print today, published in 14 languages. It details the story of the woman's struggle as the great-grandchild of slaves, to seek a better and productive life for herself and her family. Though the theme is common to many great heroes, it inspires motivation and awe in many people. Her book in fact became the best selling novel in Brazilian history, capturing a unique aspect of her life and times.
The book brings to life the hardships and social and economic difficulties of the people of Brazil. The story resounds in the heart of many, as it tells the struggle of a young woman born into poverty who becomes famous.
Born in the year 1914…
Further, this provides a social training for all students, teaching them that students with exceptionalities can function just as well in society as students without those exceptionalities (paras. 8-9).
In my classroom, I plan to address these students' needs through implementing different programs for each special circumstance in the classroom. For instance, Sharpe notes that inclusion is not a one-size-fits-all solution (paras. 10-12). Because of this, I plan to help students with exceptionalities in my classroom by being sure individual support plans are put into place and that students with and without exceptionalities are interacting without incident. In addition, I plan to monitor student interaction in order to encourage students of all abilities to work and learn together.
Sharpe, W.S. (2005). etrieved June 15, 2009, from Education World. Web Site:
Tomko, C.F. (1996). What is Inclusion? etrieved June 15, 2009, from Kids Together,
Inc. Web Site: http://www.kidstogether.org/inclusion.htm
Sharpe, W.S. (2005). Retrieved June 15, 2009, from Education World. Web Site:
Tomko, C.F. (1996). What is Inclusion? Retrieved June 15, 2009, from Kids Together,
Inc. Web Site: http://www.kidstogether.org/inclusion.htm
Thus, the participants with ASD were as able to attend to the images as the control group and imitate the perceived emotional state. However, only the typically-developing children showed activity in the pars opercularis during the imitation task. The pars opercularis is associated with some mirroring functions.
As expected, the scans revealed that the participants with ASD had far less activity throughout the MNS. Also as predicted, results indicated an inverse relationship between MNS activity and autism symptom severity. Symptom severity was assessed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Interview.
Results therefore supported the hypothesis that ASD is correlated with a dysfunctional MNS. Children with autism often cannot understand, anticipate, or read the emotional expressions of others and the current study points to a possible underlying cause for this dysfunction. Typically developing children not only imitated the observed emotion but likely felt it as well;…
d. Compare/Contrast with their own lives.
e. Work on an artistic representation of that country's culture.
f. Individually, present to small group; or group present to class with each member providing information on a specific part of the child's life in another country.
4. As a take-home activity, write a reflective essay (2-6 paragraphs, depending on level) about what you learned from this assignment, how you think the child's life differs from yours, how it is similar, and what you might change about your own life based on this assignment.
Analysis - Background -- Differentiated Instruction recognizes that students have varying background knowledge, language, preferences in learning, and interests. DI is a process designed to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class -- in the same lesson.
Differentiated Access -- each student will have access to a variety of written and kinesthetic materials that…
Children Around the World. (2010). Discovery Education. Retrieved from:
Benjamin, a. (2003). Differentiated Instruction: A Guide for Elementary School Teachers. Larchmont, MY: Eye on Education Publishers.
Williams, J. (2011). A Rich World of Thinking: National Standards for English Language Arts. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/magazine/article/National_Standards_English_Language/
Children in urban areas may lack support for physical education, because of the absence of safe places to play in their environments. While the contributing factors to obesity may be the same -- too many calories and not enough physical activity -- the reasons that an activity and caloric balance occurs must be addressed locally, and not in a generic fashion.
Within six months: aise awareness about the organization. Contact local, state, and national leaders. Touch base with leaders who are sympathetic to the goals of the organization. Disseminating the message of obesity reduction through public service messages as well as replicating existing programs and advocacy messages will be part of the organization's efforts to make connections with sympathetic leaders.
Within a year: esearch and target critical programs and initiatives that will become the focus of fundraising of the organization.
Ongoing, but within a year to six months to…
Edible schoolyard. (2010). Official website. Retrieved October 27, 2010 at http://www.edibleschoolyard.org/
Fast food near schools means fatter kids. (2009, January 10). Reuters. Retrieved October 27,
2010 at http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE5013LU20090102
Hellmich, Nina. (2010, January 20). Michelle Obama to launch initiative fighting childhood obesity. USA Today. Retrieved October 27, 2010 at http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/weightloss/2010-01-20-michelle-obama-obesity_N.htm
Director Martin Teicher of the Developmental iophsychiatry Research Program at McLean said that maltreatment in childhood can effect changes in brain function and structure. A child's brain continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence. His interactions with the environment create effects, which stabilize in puberty and adulthood. These experiences determine how the child will be wired. The four types of cranial abnormalities, which are permanent, are limbic irritability, arrested development of the left hemisphere, deficient integration between the left and the right hemispheres, and increased vermal activity.
The McLean researchers investigated 253 adults in an outpatient mental health clinic. More than half of them reported a history of physical or sexual abuse in childhood. The researchers found that those who were abused as children scored higher in the Limbic System Checklist. The finding provided evidence that abuse in childhood caused electrical impulses when limbic cells communicate. This results in seizures,…
Business Wire (2000). McLean Researchers document brain damage linked to child abuse and neglect. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning. Retrieved on April 16,
2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2000_Dec_14/ai_68013850/?tag=content;col1
Lapp, K.G.; Bosworth, H.B.; Strauss, J.L.; Stechuchak, K.M., et al. (2005). Lifetime
sexual and physical victimization among male veterans with combat-related Post-
Differentiating between phenomena of Theory-Theory and Theory of Mind
The 'Theory of Mind' is a cognitive-based science that examines how humans develop and ascribe mental states to people around us and how such mental states are used to foretell one's behavior and actions. It delves into the process of mental abilities and mind reading (Marraffa). 'Theory -- Theory', on the other hand, focuses on the structure of concepts, how they are acquired and applied in real life. Theory-theory points out that concepts are woven around theories and that one must first learn the theories in order to acquire the concepts (eiskopf)
Theory of mind grows over time. The intuitive social skills appear during the infancy stage while the reflective social cognition manifests during the preschool and the preceding toddler stages. Children aged three years understand that different people want and feel different things. Such mental stance is formidable…
Astington, Janet Wilde, and Margaret J. Edward. "The development of theory of mind in early childhood." Social Cognition in Infancy* 5 (2010): 16.
BOND, ALLISON. "How Moving Effects Mental Health in Kids." Huffington Post. The Huffington Post, 17 Apr. 2014. Web. 14 Oct. 2016.
Hartup, Willard W. "Peer relations in early and middle childhood." Handbook of social development. Springer U.S., 1992. 257-281.
Hay, Dale F. "Early peer relations and their impact on children's development." Encyclopedia on early childhood development 1.1 (2005): 1-6.
This entire process aids a client to seek and see the humor in life experience. Communication is also extremely significant since it helps by preventing any feelings of inferiority by the client since the counselor is viewed as an equal instead of a superior (Knoff, 2002).
A therapist ought to make the client to view him or herself as the perfect authority in his or her own way experience; therefore, he or she is capable of satisfying his or her own potential for development. It is also vital to note that in difficult situations individual may not grow and develop into being a responsible character. This is experienced in situation where a child or an adolescent is refused and denied acceptance and positive regard by others and in the event that the positive regard is made conditional upon the child or adolescent, behavioral characteristics change for the worse. This can…
Golden, L.B. (2002). Case Studies in Child and Adolescent Counseling. Chicago: Merrill / Prentice Hall.
Knoff, H.M. (2002). The Assessment of Child and Adolescent Personality. New York: Guilford Press.