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COMMUNITY CHILD CARE SERVICES HAVE COME a LONG AY IN THE FIELD OF DISABILITY SERVICES. BY USING RELATED LITERATURE FROM THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA CRITICALLY DISCUSS HO THESE SERVICES IN THE COMMUNITY ARE REACHING OUT FOR THE HOLISTIC NEEDS OF THESE DISABLED CHILDREN AND HO THESE CAN ACTUALLY BE IMPROVED.
Community child care services for children with disabilities
Community child care services have experienced much progress during recent years, as studies and an increasing amount of efforts have worked together in providing disabled children with a series of privileges. Several acts implemented during the last few decades have made it possible for children with disabilities to be accepted into the social order without being discriminated on account of their particularities. Every child is unique and it is extremely important to help children with disabilities become an active part of society. Providing disabled children with care has become a primary agenda in…
Child Care on Single Parents
Over the past several years, more single parents with children, mostly women, have joined the workforce (Ford, 1995). As a result, childcare has become an extremely important social policy issue. Many single parents, particularly those with low incomes, find it difficult to finance the cost of decent childcare.
In addition, poor quality of childcare has become an increasingly significant problem in the United States. Low wages for childcare workers result in high turnover and inexperienced childcare providers.
As more and more single parents have moved, by necessity or choice, from the home into the workforce, the need for affordable, quality childcare has become a crucial social issue. However, this need often goes unmet. As a result, there is an enormous impact and cost placed on single parents.
Recent research reveals that 71% of parents reprimanded for child neglect did not have enough money to pay…
Women's Stake in Improving the Availability, Affordability, and Quality of Child Care and Early Education," National Women's Law Center (1999).
Center for Early Education and Development (CEED). (1992). University of Minnesota. Retrieved on Internet at http://education.umn.edu/ceed/publications/factfind/ff1992e.htm .
Children's Defense Fund, The State of America's Children: Yearbook 2001 (2001).
Coalition on Human Needs (CHN). (2003). CHN Issue Brief on Child Care. Retrieved on Internet at http://www.chn.org/issuebriefs/childcare.asp .
Infant Child Care and Attachment
There is much concern about how infant child care will affect a child's emotional attachment to his parents and shape his future behavioral profile. Concerns around the effects of infant child care on the nature of a child's attachment to its parents and on the child's future behavioral profile bear particular relevance at a time when the traditional family unit has evolved to include the likelihood of two working parents. Increasing numbers of infants are enrolled into some form of daycare at earlier and earlier stages in their lives, prompting renewed examination of the possible impact on both the child's parental attachment and his future socialization. ecent debate has focused on the possibility that children enrolled in out-of-home child care as infants are at risk for later social and emotional development (Belsky, 1988; Clarke-Stewart, 1988).
In assessing the role of infant child care on attachment…
Ahnert, Liesolette & Lamb, Michael E. (2003)
Shared Care: Establishing a Balance Between Home and Child Care Settings."
Child Development 74 (4), 1044-1049
The newsletter talks about upcoming events, as well as other relevant center news, and gives parenting tips. As discussed earlier, parental involvement in the form of volunteerism, as well as community involvement, is strongly encouraged. There are no child assessments performed, however.
The Center and Quality Child Care:
There are many ways the center provides quality child care. Their health policies are quite strict and each child's health is assessed when they are dropped off. The environment is designed specifically to facilitate learning. The activities are often child initiated and hands on, taking advantage of the benefits of High Scope research. Guidance is encouraging, with teachers and assistants there to support physically and emotionally the needs of the children, without hindering their natural creativity and learning experience. Discipline was appropriate, using encouragement and positive reinforcement when children behaved properly.
The Caregivers and Quality Child Care:
Each of the caregivers truly…
Parent handbook. (2008). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from http://www.valleyinterfaithchildcarecenter.org/pdfs/parenthandbook.pdf .
Tuition rates. (June 2008). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from http://www.valleyinterfaithchildcarecenter.org/pdfs/costsforcare.pdf .
Valley Interfaith Child Care Center. (No date). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from http://www.valleyinterfaithchildcarecenter.org/pdfs/vicccbrochure.pdf .
Day Care Services
hen both parents need to work to support the family, but the family has a child and there is no family member available to provide care for that child, the only option for those parents is to locate a child care facility and trust that the care will be of good quality. This paper reviews the process that parents will go through in determining which facility to use, and then what they should know before selecting a high-quality child care facility.
The city is Fresno and the state is California.
There are minimum standards for child care in California, including that they must be licensed by the state. One child care center can include infants, toddlers, preschool or school-aged children, but separate licenses are required for each category. It is more common to have a child care center specialize in just one age group, but as mentioned,…
California Department of Education. (2014). Child Care Centers. Retrieved May 28, 2014,
from http://www.cde.ca.gov .
California State Requirements. (2013). Worker Qualifications. Retrieved May 28, 2014, from https://daycare.com/california .
Children's Services Network. (2012). Finding Child Care. Retrieved May 28, 2014, from http://www.cvcsn.org .
Parents' well being should be whole in order to give wholly to their children. When parents encounter marital problems for example, they tend to project frustrations and failures to their children. Adjustments in the parents' side are also felt by their children. A journal on Marital Adjustment, Marital Discord Over Childrearing, and Child Behavior Problems: Moderating Effects of Child Age by Mahoney, et. al., studied whether marital discord over childrearing contributes to child behavior problems after taking into account general marital adjustment, and if child age moderates associations between child behavior problems and either general marital adjustment or marital discord over childrearing. he journal points to a low-to-moderate association which exists between general marital adjustment and child behavior problems. but, further studies as to specific assessment of marital functioning are needed.
When a mother is not healthy physically or mentally, her child rearing practices are also affected. Problems within herself…
Therefore, child rearing thus affect the well-being of young children. Children are formed upon different factors that surround them, and a big factor is how they are brought up by their caregivers. It is essential for parents or parent-substitute to understand the child's uniqueness, recognize what approach is appropriate for him/her, check on his/her own personal well being, and realize that the child lives in a diverse world full of different culture, character and teachings.
A www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=pubmed&Cmd=Search&Term="Gerlach a"%5BAuthor%5D&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus" Gerlach a. "Circle of caring": a First Nations worldview of child rearing. Can J. Occup Ther. 2008 Feb;75(1):18-25
Annette Mahoney, Ernest N. Jouriles, Joel Scavone. Marital Adjustment, Marital Discord over Childrearing, and Child Behavior Problems: Moderating Effects of Child Age. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, Vol. 26, 1997 www.vision.org/visionmedia/article.aspx?id=3724 www.websters-online-dictionary.org
Routines for Home-Based Childcare:
Early childhood educators usually assume a significant role in ensuring that children they care for are offered an environment and atmosphere that permits each of them to grow and flourish in an appropriate way for every individual. As the major responsibility of caregivers, good quality in childcare basically promotes and enhances the development of the child. In attempts to promote the development of a child, the core of every early education and childcare initiative is based on the consideration of the needs and interests of children as well as their parents and families.
The process of promoting and enhancing child development incorporates partnership with parents in every aspect of childcare services, development of routines, and valuing every child in the home-based childcare setting. Partnership with parents or their involvement can be described as active participation by parents in planned, constant, and meaningful ways in all programs…
Workplace Child Care
The world of business and economy has changed significantly over the last century. It was unusual for both partners in a marriage to work outside of the home just 50 years ago. In 2011, however, almost half (47.5%) of all the families in the United States had two working parents (Finn, 2013). This figure is likely to rise with every passing year. There are at least two main factors that contribute to this: The increased ability of women to enter the workplace on the same level as men in terms of profession choice and salarly, and on the other hand, the increasing difficulty of families to make ends meet on a single salary, which does not increase to match inflation rates. Hence, while women have become empowered to expand themselves not only domestically, but also economically, this empowerment has, in the case of many families, become a…
BASF (2013). Work-Life-Balance. Retrieved from: http://www.basf.com/group/corporate/en/sustainability/employees/work-life-balance
Casey, J. And Dobbs, J. (2007). Employer-Supported Child Care. Effective Workplace Series, 8. Retrieved from: http://workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/sites/workfamily.sas.upenn.edu/files/imported/pdfs/EWS_ESCC.pdf
Finn, L. (2013). Benefits of a Day Care in the Workplace. Global Post. Retrieved from: http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/benefits-day-care-workplace-2120.html
Hahn, C. (2013). Day Care: An Office Affair. Retrieved from: http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2007/04/day_care_an_office_affair.html
Thirdly, despite the fact that propositions have been made to ensure a minimum support for the cases mentioned above, there is no legal framework for discriminatory action. More precisely, it is rather difficult to decide that one child needs financial support and assistance, while another may not need help. Therefore, the applicability of the child care plan should be universal and free because the equality among all citizens must be maintained.
During the economic slowdown of the last years, it is rather difficult to ensure an equal and satisfying child care system. Indeed, state resources cannot afford to provide the same amount of interest and financial assistance. However, in terms of policy planning, the child care system must be based on the principles of equality. In this sense, the state must ensure equal treatment to all families as children are equal in their rights. Even so, during transitory times such…
Almanac of Policy Issues. Child care. 2010. Retrieved from http://www.policyalmanac.org/social_welfare/archive/child_care.shtml
Edie, David. Toward a new child care policy. The Urban Institute. 2006. Available at http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/311347_childcarepolicy.pdf
Motherhood - Extent and Effects of Maternal Employment. Available at Motherhood - Extent and Effects of Maternal Employment - Single Parent, Gender, Family, Development, Mothers, Children, Women, Countries, Child, and Childcare http://family.jrank.org/pages/1187/Motherhood-Extent-Effects-Maternal-Employment.html#ixzz15joGOlFk
Whoever runs the day care center might also not understand how to work with disabled children or children whose first language is not English. Parents might want to monitor their child's progress at the child care center before committing to a long program of care.
HIV: Causes and Solutions
There is no one cause for the AIDS crisis. However, a lack of proper medical funding in regions with populations hit most severely by the disease is a major cause of the proliferation of AIDS. The large for-profit pharmaceutical corporations funnel far more money into marketing than into research and development, making the search for a cure or a vaccine thwarted by the quest for financial gain.
The primary cause for the AIDS crisis is the stigma that still surrounds the disease until this day. When AIDS was first spreading during the 1980s, the sexually transmitted virus…
Turn of the Screw / Child Care
A Turn to Screw the Young
An Argument for the Freudian Analysis of Innocence, Sexuality, and Abuse of Children in the Classic by Henry James
Henry James has been celebrated for his realism, and his writing can provide a unique glimpse into the nature of humans within our society. The world portrayed within James' work is removed from the harsh, garish world of the reader's life, yet the characters remain intact and complete within their own reality. This technique is part of what makes James' work so captivating and revealing. The social issues which are touched on throughout his body of work are as relevant today as they were in his time, for the created reality of his characters is timeless. The Turn of the Screw is considered to be one of Henry James' most celebrated stories, the supernatural atmosphere drawing readers in,…
2007). Further, if child care hours increased between three and 54 months (4 1/2) years, their vocabulary scores are lowered by the time they reach 5th grade (Belsky et al., 2007). This suggests that long-term child care use has important implications not only on children's socio-emotional functioning but on academic achievement as well.
Knowing this, it becomes more evident that parents cannot overlook the importance of choosing high quality child care if only to moderate the effects of long-term child care use.
Earlier, it was mentioned that high-quality child care is a predictor of positive pre-academic skills. Follow-up studies on the same children show that this is a potentially enduring effect; all other factors being equal, their vocabulary scores were consistently higher through the 5th and 6th grades than children who did not attend child care (Belsky et al., 2007). This again shows that children's early experience is critical to…
Belsky, J. 2007. "Are there long-term effects of early child care?" Child Development, Vol. 78, No. 2.
Harrison, L. 2002. "Maternal employment and infant-mother attachment security at 12 months postpartum." Development Psychology, Vol. 38, No. 5.
Jaffari-Bimmel, N. 2006. "Social development from infancy to adolescence: Longitudinal and concurrent factors in an adoption sample." Development Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 6.
Johnson, S. 2007. "Evidence for infants' internal working models of attachment." Psychological Science, Vol. 18, No. 6.
Learning Organizations and Child Care
Learning organizations are generally viewed as being businesses or enterprises that facilitate learning throughout all of their operational processes and systems. They seek to encourage growth, innovation and collaboration among the key staff and consumers through this learning, and then to use that experience to strengthen the entire organization. A key difference is that the organization is a critical element of the learning that takes place.
There seem to be many components, but three characteristics are most common about learning organizations. The first is there has to be a supportive overall learning environment. Even in a traditional business environment, participants need to be encouraged to learn and need to be allowed to be responsive to the learning that occurs. The second is that what is learned needs to be able to be put into practice. What is learned has to be used to help advance…
Austin, M.S. And Harkins, D.A., Assessing change: can organizational learning work for schools? Suffolk University, Boston, MA. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://suffolk.academia.edu/DebraHarkins/Papers/795466/Assessing_change_can_organizational_learning_work_for_schools .
Infed. Organizational Learning. (2001). Retrieved October 10, 2011 from http://www.infed.org/biblio/organizational-learning.htm .
President, Harper Supply Company
The possibility of providing child care assistance to employees
Since we last spoke I have been conducting extensive research into the matter of providing some form of child care assistance to the employees of Harper Industries. Needless to say, I have read much, studied much, and learned much. The final form of this reading, studying, and learning is attached to this memorandum.
As you know, we had a very positive reaction from the employees concerning the possibility of offering some assistance to them in the very expensive area of child care. Before beginning this study I was unaware of the monetary expense involved in having one child taken care of by an honest, kind individual. Since completing the writing of this report I am much more tolerant and much more knowledgeable about the matter of the difficulties of obtaining reasonably priced, reliable child care. In my…
Bloomfield, J. (1998). Establishing work-site child care centers: basic steps and considerations, Compensation and Benefits Management.
Carlson, A. (1998). The Trojan horse of child care, Executive speeches.
Durham-Vicks, L. (2000). Emergency child care; an important benefit, Washington
Business Journal. 19(21), 65.
Middlehurst House Case
Proposed Middlehurst House Budget Adjustments
Our catchment area continues to show high interest in the childcare services that Middlehurst House offers. We consistently have a waiting list of children and receive enthusiastic inquiries from parents each month. Casual discussions with realtors in our area and exploration of the county's residential property values database indicate that the surrounding neighborhoods are experiencing more gentrification. Indeed, there are indications -- including our parent satisfaction survey results -- that our client families would support higher tuition. I have provided some information below that I believe we should consider as we move into the new fiscal year.
Opportunities to Increase Quality of Care
Although our class sizes are well within the state and city regulations, and compare favorably with recommendations from the National Association for Education of Young Children (NAEYC), for early childhood education and daycare programs ("NAEYC," 2012). Still,…
Company Sponsored Childcare
Recently there has been a movement in urban planning to give more consideration to the needs of the community for which a project is being planned. Urban planning no longer only involves where to place buildings and how to adjust traffic flows. Urban planning is beginning to consider more and more the community that it serves. Many communities that are slated for renovation consist of a large number of mothers that could work if they had access to childcare. Providing mothers an alternative that would allow them to work and care for their children at the same time would increase the local workforce of a community and raise the economy of the area as well.
Companies have known about the benefits of company-based childcare since the mid 1970s. Many companies have programs in place that allows on-site childcare for their female employees. The proposed research will explore…
Bohl, Charles.(2000) "New Urbanism and the City: Potential Applications and Implications for Distressed Inner City Neighborhoods." Housing Policy Debate. 11 (4): 761-780.
Chen, Donald,(2000) "The Science of Smart Growth" Scientific American. 283 (6): 84-91
Durham-Vichr, Deborah,(2000) "Emergency Childcare an Important Corporate Benefit," Washington Business Journal, Oct. 20, 2000, 19 (24): 65.
Poticha, Shelly.(2000) " Comment on Charles C. Bohl's New Urbanism and the City: Potential Applications and Implications for Distressed Inner City Neighborhoods." Housing Policy Debate. 11 (4): 815-819.
Childcare Facility at Nichols Corporation
The Chief Officer, Nichols Corporation
eport Submittal on Benefits of On-Site Childcare Facility at Nichols Corporation
This letter is a transmittal notice of the Benefits of On-Site Childcare Facility at Nichols Corporation being submitted to the Chief Officer, Nichols Corporation.
The report is based on a research on the benefits a childcare on-site facility would have on the employees, the employers, and the entire corporation. The report takes a review of previous literature on the topic, describes the research setting and instruments used, the results of the research, and recommendations for the Nichols Corporation. The report is not only useful for Nichols Corporation, but also any other reader who is interested in the topic, as a source of information, or even a basis for a new research.
It is hoped that the report is useful and a vital resource for decision making.
Abraham, Y. T., & Bowdidge, J. S. (1990). Work-place Child Care Act: A prototypical portrayal of potential public policies. Public Personnel Management, 19(4), 411.
Bond, J., Galinsky, E., and Swanberg, J. (1998).The 1997 national study of the changing workforce. New York, NY.
Brandon, P. D., & Temple, J. B. (2007). Family Provisions at the Workplace and Their Relationship to Absenteeism, Retention, and Productivity of Workers: Timely Evidence from Prior Data. Australian Journal of Social Issues (Australian Council of Social Service), 42(4), 447-460.
Brick, C, S,, Allen, T, D, & Spectpr, P, E, (2002), The relation between work-family conflict and job satisfaction: A finer-grained analysis, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60, 336-353.
Working parents often have issues with hildare that limit them in the workplae in terms of produtivity, often leading to absenteeism (Louv, 1992). The problem that this study aims to address is how to delimit this situation and provide working parents with the means to ahieve high produtivity without sarifiing time to meet the needs of hildare (Payne, Cook, Diaz, 2012).
Purpose and Sope of the Work:
The purpose of this study is to show how providing an on-site hildare faility is benefiial to employees as well as to Nihols Corporation beause it frees up time for workers to devote more energy to work and thereby ahieve higher produtivity; it eliminates stress; and it provides ease, omfort, seurity, and pratiality, and onveniene to working parents, ahieving an overall muh more positive workplae environment (Abraham, Bowdidge, 1990; Kane, 2004). It also aims to show that providing hildare is not expensive for…
c. Recommendations for further research
Oyer, P. (2008). Salary or Benefits. Research in Labor Economics, 28: 429-467.
Family Studies in the Early Childcare Education Context
Contexts and Issues in Family Studies in the Early Childcare Education Context Issue Review: Homeless Families in Indonesia
Contexts and Issues in Family Studies in the Early Childcare Education Context
Issue Review: Homeless Families in Indonesia
The purpose of this work is to first explain the reasons examination of this issue has been chosen, to discuss and review the topic and make links to journal articles. Secondly, from reading and reflection on this topic, identify a range of practical strategies that teachers, preschools & schools could introduce that would be helpful for families and children in relation to that matter. Finally this work will identify a range of new government or community strategies, policies or responses that are believed appropriate for families in relation to this topic.
. In one report entitled, "Height and weight as a reflection of the…
McClure, Maureen W. (2002) Schools Ready to Teach, Children Ready to Learn, Communities Ready to Protect Both: Minimum Service Standards in Indonesians Project Online available at: http://www.gtzsfdm.or.id/documents/dec_ind/donor_act_re_sta / DSEF%20Sc hool%20ready%20to%20Teach_SPM.pdf.
Dockett, S., and Tegel, K. 1995. Situation-based learning in early childhood teacher training. Teaching Review, 3(1):40-44. Online at: http://scs.une.edu.au/CF/Papers / Dockett.htm.
Social Development (2005) Aesean Online at: http://www.aseansec.org/9765.htm
Early Education and Childcare Plans 2001-2004: Guidance to Partnerships
Developmental Observation of Five-Year-old
Statement of esearch/Observation: To observe a five-year-old female child in her natural setting to determine age appropriate developmental stages.
Description of Child Being Observed: The subject is a five-year-old female: Maribel.
My friend has a five-year-old niece. The subject's mother was contacted and agreed to allow the observations to take place in her home and on the playground. The project was discussed and plans were made to accommodate all involved parties.
The introductory visit was conducted at my friend's house, also the child's grandmother's home. Maribel often visits her grandmother and is very comfortable within this home setting.
Upon this visit, Maribel was introduced to me as her aunt's visitor. She said, "hi" to me, and asked me if I was visiting her aunt. I replied yes, and asked Maribel if she would like to sit with me and wait…
Alliance for Childhood. "Importance of play." 2 May, 2003 http://www.allianceforchildhood.net/projects/play/index.htm
Bergen, D. Pretend Play and Young Children's Development. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood, 2001. ERIC,ED458045.
Fisch, S.M., & Truglio, R.T. (2001). "G" is for growing: Thirty years of research on children and Sesame Street. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Kagan, J. "Child." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 25 Mar. 2004. http://www.worldbookonline.com/wb/Article?id=ar110700 .
Women are just as capable (and more capable in some areas) as men are, and they should be treated equally in the workplace. In addition, men should take on some of the household duties, and women should have more than simply part-time opportunities open to them. The Canadian economy is facing many threats from overseas, and to devalue women and the contribution they could make is shortchanging Canadian women, and keeping the Canadian economy in a 20th century mentality when it needs to move along, modernize, and look toward the future. Childcare must move into the 21st century, as well, and there should be enough childcare for all the families who need it, at a low cost, so women can truly afford to work outside the home.
Caplin, E. (2003, January/February). Canadian rights for women worldwide. Canadian Speeches, 16, 60+.
Dhruvarajan, V. And Vickers, J. (2002). Gender, race, and…
Caplin, E. (2003, January/February). Canadian rights for women worldwide. Canadian Speeches, 16, 60+.
Dhruvarajan, V. And Vickers, J. (2002). Gender, race, and nation: A global perspective.
Fenwick, T. (2004). 8 Gender and the new economy- Enterprise discourses in Canada: implications for workplace learning and education. In Globalizing Education for Work: Comparative Perspectives on Gender and the New Economy, Lakes, R.D. & Carter, P.A. (Eds.) (pp. 131-152). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kainer, J. (2003). Valuation, resistance and women's work: A review essay. Journal of Canadian Studies. 1-9.
Term: Winter, 2014
Age of Child: 6 years old
Date of Observation: February 3, 2014
Time of Observation: 9:00 to 10:00
Place of Observation: Child Care Center
Other People Present in the Observation Setting: 1 teacher, 1 assistants, 15 other children
Development: Appears mostly normal; has some problems with fine motor skills and challenging cognitive skills.
Permission: Permission was granted by the Director of the Child Care Center, the child's teacher and his parents
John was observed unobtrusively from some distance. The observer sat at a desk in the classroom while the teacher and assistant worked with children. The observer did not interact with the child and in fact remained out of the way of the children and teachers for the duration of the observation. The observation included classroom activities such as children writing their names, coloring, and building puzzles. The children then had snacks after which…
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S. (2007). Lev Vygotsy. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from:
Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development
Beyond problems of financial inequality that occur when countless young children reside in poor as well as persistently inadequate households, poor children can easily perpetuate the never-ending cycle when they achieve adulthood. Prior study implies that children who're born poor as well as are constantly poor are considerably much more most likely to remain poor as grownups, quit school, give teenage premarital births, and also have spotty employment details than all those not very poor at birth (atcliffe and McKernan 2010). This previous research focused on the earliest cohort of youngsters reviewed here-children born in between 1967 and 1974 as well as who turned Thirty amid 1997 and 2004. An important query is whether or not this link has endured with time. Even though information aren't accessible to see outcomes via age 30 for children born within the subsequent two cohort…
Duncan, Greg, W. Jean Yeung, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Judith Smith. 1998. "How Much Does Childhood Poverty Affect the Life Chances of Children?" American Sociological Review 63(3): 406 -- 23.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2010. "Childhood Poverty Persistence: Facts and Consequences." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2012. "Child Poverty and Its Lasting Consequence." Washington, DC: Urban Institute
Vericker, Tracy, Jennifer Macomber, and Olivia Golden. 2010. "Infants of Depressed Mothers Living in Poverty: Opportunities to Identify and Serve." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Child Abuse in England
The bruises on Clara's upper arms are indicative of something serious that the health visitor, if she, indeed, has been seeing her for two and a half years, should have noted or anticipated. The account given is so scanty that the general information can hardly be gleaned. The other family members should have been asked or given in the account, even if the health visitor does not know the family very well. The barest family statistics could still have been obtained.
esides Christine, who are the other adults in the family? And how many more children are in it? What is the socioeconomic status of this family? Its culture mix? Christine's educational achievement, her family and work background, her current aspirations and view of her present condition must be obtained. So too the views of the other members be secured.
The bruises on Clara's…
1) Ananova. 2002, UN Urges Government to Outlaw Smacking
2) Allen, N. 1992, Making Sense of the Children act 1989, Longman
3) BBC News. 2002. Dentists Asked to Diagnose Child Abuse, UK
4) -, Church Tackles Child Abuse, England
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, .H., & Corwyn, .F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual eview of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
Eisler, . (2000). Tomorrow's children: A blueprint for partnership education in the 21st century. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Garcia, P., & Holt, C.B. (2005, December). Preparing teachers for children in poverty: The Nashville District picks up the mantle for qualified instruction in high-needs schools. School Administrator, 62(11), 22.
Gilbert, N. (1997). Combating child abuse: International perspectives and trends. New York: Oxford University…
Ashley, O.S., Brady, T.M., & Marsden, M.E. (2003). Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: A review. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 29(1), 19.
Bradley, R.H., & Corwyn, R.F. (2002). Socioeconomic status and child development. Annual Review of Psychology, 371.
Dane, B. (2000). Child welfare workers: An innovative approach for interacting with secondary trauma. Journal of Social Work Education, 36(1), 27.
Dodds, T.L. (2006). Defending America's children: How the current system gets it wrong. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(2), 719.
The Watertown (MA) Family Network creates a community for mothers who may not have anyone to ask questions about their infants and toddlers. As the video's narrator stated, "There are no roadmaps to raising children." With the Network, which is free and provides resources such as a new mom support group, parents do not need to feel as if they are all alone with this rewarding, but challenging, job of raising a child.
Epstein (2009) suggests there are five types of family engagement: childrearing, communicating, volunteering, learning at home, and representing other families. A comprehensive family involvement plan can be developed by choosing several of these types.
In the church-based childcare center where I worked, as with the Watertown Network, staff helped parents who had questions about what they should do at home. This center was in a military community where many young mothers were away from their…
Grisham-Brown, J., Hallam, R., and Brookshire, R. (2006). Using authentic assessment to evidence children's progress toward early learning standards. Early Childhood Education Journal 34(1), pp. 45-51.
Kostelnik, M.J., Soderman, A.K., and Whiren, A.P. (2011). Developmentally appropriate curriculum: Best practices in early childhood education. Boston: Pearson.
Mueller, J. (2011). Authentic assessment toolbox. Retrieved from http://jfmueller.faculty
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…
Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html
This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.
Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html
This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
Being a parent isn't easy, offer a helping hand so parents can rest or spend time together. 3) Help yourself. When things pile up take time out so you don't get to the point of feeling overwhelmed or out of control. 4) Don't get frustrated if your baby cries. 5) Get involved, assist in community efforts to develop services to meet the needs of healthy children and families. 6) Promote programs at school to teach children, parents, and teacher's strategies to be safe. 7) Help develop parenting recourses at your local library. 8) Monitor your child's television and video viewing, watching violent behavior can harm children. 9) Volunteer at a local child abuse prevention program. 10) eport suspected abuse or neglect. Education, community involvement and cooperation are significant factors in the effort to prevent children from suffering maltreatment.
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). easonable suspicion of child…
Levi, B.H. & Portwood, S.G. (2011, Spring). Reasonable suspicion of child abuse: Finding a common language. Journal of law, medicine & ethics. Vol. 39, Issue 1, 62-69. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=cf7e5f19-4670-42ea-b115-83ef3ac5d27b%40sessionmgr115&vid=4&hid=112
Patton, W.W. (2011). Child protective services -- Histirical overview. State University.com. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1828/Child-Protective-Services.html
Ten Ways to Help Prevent Child Abuse. (NDI). Prevent child abuse America. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.preventchildabuse.org/publications/parents/downloads/ten_ways_to_prevent.pdf
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Child maltreatment 2009. U.S. department of health and human services. Retrieved April 2, 2011 from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/ programs/cb/pubs/cm09/cm09.pdf
Child abuse and neglect is a highly discussed issue in the present day. For a long time now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. There are significant implications from child abuse and neglect in the United States and it is imperative to come up with the necessary ways of dealing with it. The solution is to have a propagating state program that encompasses poor and underprivileged children. There is also need for family programs that educate and teach households on better child treatment and attaining the necessary skills. Such programs should also be expanded to schools to determine their vulnerabilities and needs.
Child abuse and neglect is a highly debated issue in the contemporary. For a lengthy period now, the detrimental impacts of child abuse and neglect have been acknowledged. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) have been experientially demonstrated to be linked to an assortment of…
Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after intervention. (2005, May 23). The Free Library. (2005). Retrieved February 03, 2017 from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/Child abuse and neglect recurs with children at home after...-a0133049592
A research study undertaken by McMaster University Medical Facility steered Professor Harriet Macmillan, Professor of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences and Pediatrics showed that children that continue being in their homes subsequent to being abused or neglected by their parents, or are taken back to those homes subsequent to intervention by social service institutions are at a high risk for more abuse or neglect in a period of within three years. The conclusion made from examining 163 families with a long-established history of child abuse or neglect is that there is no intervention confirmed or established to decrease the rise of abuse or neglect when the children who have experienced such harsh conditions remain in the home.
The magazine article is pertinent to my paper as it indicates the recurrence of child abuse and neglect.
Cost of child abuse and neglect takes large toll. (2001, May 10). Columbus Medical Association.
Children aised by Same-Sex Parents have more Problems than Children aised by Different-Sex or Single Parents
As more and more states legalize same-sex marriages, there is growing concerning among many proponents and critics alike about the effect that these civil unions will have on children. Although many children of same-sex unions are from previous heterosexual unions, adoption is also being used by growing numbers of same-sex partners and new reproductive technologies are providing lesbian couples with the ability to "father" their own children and surrogate mothers are available to gay couples if they have the financial resources. Given the increasing numbers of children who are being raised in same-sex parent households, these are legitimate issues that require further examination to determine if popular thought that children raised by same-sex parents have more problems than children raised by different sex or even single parents. To this end, this paper provides a…
Allen, D.W. (2006). An economic assessment of same-sex marriage laws. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 29(3), 949-951.
Crowl, A., Ahn, S. & Baker, J. (2008). A meta-analysis of developmental outcomes for children of same-sex and heterosexual parents. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 4(3), 385-407.
Somerville, M. (2007). Children's human rights and unlinking child-parent biological bonds with adoption, same-sex marriage and new reproductive technologies. Journal of Family
Studies, 13(2), 179-180.
She found that this was true, even when a plan was developed for the division of labor so that it was distributed more evenly between both partners. Gjerdingen's study used a time study analysis similar to that used by Craig. Gjerdingen discussed the possibility that cultural differences could have influenced the results. Cultural differences might have influenced Craig's study in a similar manner, but this factor was not mentioned as a potential limitation of the study either.
New Zealand study supports the potential for cultural bias regarding work related gender differences. Else (1997) addressed the same division of labor issue in New Zealand. They found that the gendered division of labor was prevalent in New Zealand society, with the women's work outside of the home having less importance than the men's as far as "breadwinning" is concerned. Else's study found that men's transfer of "household" wages is still considered payment…
Craig, L. 2006. Children and the revolution: A time-diary analysis of the impact of motherhood on daily workload. Journal of Sociology. 42, p.125.
Else, a. 1997. Having it Both Ways?. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand. 9, pp.16-26
Gjerdingen, D. 2000.
Expectant Parents' Anticipated Changes in Workload After the Birth of Their First Child. Journal of Family Practice. FindArticles.com. 27 Apr. 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0689/is_11_49/ai_68145585
The evidences presented in this regard explain how different studies and research support that obesity can have profound deteriorating psychological effects as well as health effects on children. The changing eating lifestyles leading to increased consumption of fast foods and sodas have contributed greatly in doing so however; children and parents cannot control obesity if it is genetically engineered. Genetics play a role in the bodily structure. If children are obese due to their genetic constitution, reduced consumption of food cannot help however, physical activities such as exercises have greatly shown results in maintaining their weight. Preventive measures can be taken on a broad level to reduce the spread of obesity among children. In this regard, schools can be helpful to plan a balanced diet for children. At lunch, sodas must be banned and replaced with fruit juices or clean water so that children get accustomed to drinking healthy beverages.…
Akhtar-Danesh, N. (2004). Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal, 4-24.
Bagchi, D. (2010). Global Perspectives on Childhood Obesity. London: Academic.
Butcher, P.M. (2006). Childhood Obesity. The future of Children, 3-18.
Cassell, D.K., & Gleaves, DH (2006). The Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating Disorders. New York: Facts on File.
The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.
The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…
Bolen, Rebecca M. 2003. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?. Social Work 48, no. 2: 174+.
Cochrane, John, Gaynor Melville, and Ian Marsh. 2004. Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge. Book online.
Child Abuse. National Institutes of Health. Available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childabuse.html
Child Abuse Statistics. Available at http://www.childhelp.org/resources/learning-center/statistics.Internet
Of course, besides child sponsorship programs, many other programs must be developed in a poor region, programs that address more fundamental issues of poverty. Child sponsorship only does its part in supporting the development of a region, country, and of the international community. It is not the most fundamental form of aid for development, but it does its part, which can be quite significant at the level of a community. Through this method, more and more communities can benefit from the child sponsorship program, in the same time participating in other international aid programs. "Sponsorship is not the only way to help poor people, but it is one important way" (Endersby, 2006).
What made child sponsorship very debated in the past decades is the involvement of specific religious organizations into such programs. This can put some pressure on the child in a specific religious or lifestyle sense, but such practices…
Brehm, Vicky, and Gale, Julie, NGO funding and policy bulletin, Bulletin no.3, November 2000, available at http://danny.oz.au/politics/poverty/child-sponsorship.html ;
Child Sponsorship, Frequently Asked Questions, available at http://www.dontbuyicecream.com/9425.html;
Endersby, Alastair, Sponsoring a child, January 19, 2006, available at http://www.idebate.org/debatabase/topic_details.php?topicID=472;
Preslar, Andy, a Child-Centered Approach to Child Sponsorship, June 2003, available at http://www.ministrywatch.org/mw2.1/F_FullRpt.asp?EIN=362423707 ;
" (National Conference of State Legislatures Forum for State Health Policy Leadership, 2007). However, regardless of state, the applicants have to meet certain qualifications. First, applicants have to be both uninsured and not eligible for Medicaid for other forms of state sponsored insurance. In addition, not all S-CHIP recipients have to be children; states can get waivers to use S-CHIP funds to cover adults. These other recipients are generally adults who are responsible for S-CHIP eligible children, and/or pregnant women. However, "at the end of 2005, four states had waivers to use SCHIP to cover childless adults, and nine states cover unborn children who will be eligible for SCHIP at birth as well as prenatal and childbirth services for the mother of the child." (National Conference of State Legislatures Forum for State Health Policy Leadership, 2007). The fact that states have chosen to do this reaffirms the concept that the…
DeNavas-Walt, C., B. Proctor, and J. Smith. (2007). Income, poverty, and health insurance coverage in the United States: 2006. Washington: U.S. Census Bureau.
Dubay, L. (2007).
Making sense of recent estimates of eligible but uninsured children.
Retrieved January 28, 2008 from the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation
fifth of all Americans have some type of disability (United States Census Bureau, 2000).
Alarming? Yes, however, disabilities do not discriminate and people of all ages, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds can be affected or have a family member who has a disability. Disabilities in children may include, but are not limited to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Disorder, Autism, Central Auditory Processing Disorder, Dyscalculia, Dyslexia, Dysgraphia, Dysprazia, Learning Disabilities, and Nonverbal Learning Disability. While these are only a few of the ever-growing list of disabilities discovered in children, the list continues to grow as additional research is conducted to identify more disabilities in children. This paper will discuss the issues, concepts, and findings of recent literature on the important issue of children with disabilities. It will also include information on how a disabled child and the parents search for help and resources with an emphasis being on treatment and educational…
Administration for Children and Families. (2004). Head Start Bureau.
Accessed March 30, 2004, from, http://www.acf.dhhs.gov/programs/hsb/index.htm
American Dietetic Association. (2004). Position of the American Dietetic Association: providing nutrition services for infants, children, and adults with developmental disabilities and special health care needs. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 104 (1) 97-108.
Bayerl, C., Ries J., Bettencourt M., & Fisher P. (1993). Nutrition issues of children in early intervention programs: primary care team approach. Semin Pediatric Gastroenterol Nutrition 4:11-15.
We are essentially powerless to prevent all dysfunctions - but, the mental health and social support structures within communities have the responsibility to do as much as they possibly can to promote healthy family life for all. This support often involves early identification of dysfunctional families, counseling, disruption of negative patterns. The schools, churches, hospitals and any other institution both public and private have a responsibility to reach out and try to help those who are suffering - and often that suffering must be alleviated at the source, the dysfunctional family.
Abell, Troy D., et al. "The Effects of Family Functioning on Infant irthweight." Journal of Family Pratice 32.1 (1991): 37(8).
Hamamci, Zeynep. "Dysfunctional relationship beliefs in parent-late adolescent relationship and conflict resolution behaviors." College Student Journal 41.1 (2007): 122(16).
Hillis, Susan D., et al. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk ehaviors in Women: A Retrospective Study." Family Planning…
Abell, Troy D., et al. "The Effects of Family Functioning on Infant Birthweight." Journal of Family Pratice 32.1 (1991): 37(8).
Hamamci, Zeynep. "Dysfunctional relationship beliefs in parent-late adolescent relationship and conflict resolution behaviors." College Student Journal 41.1 (2007): 122(16).
Hillis, Susan D., et al. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Women: A Retrospective Study." Family Planning Perspectivesq 33.5 (2001): 206(5).
Martin, Don and Maggie Martin. "Understanding Dysfunctional and Functional Family Behaviors for the at-Risk Adolescent." Adolescence 35.140 (2000): 785(4).
Care Partnerships Will Maximize ebecca's Independence?
Care partnerships can help ebecca in many ways, including increasing her independence. ebecca cannot be fully independent, but her independence can be maximized via the use of ancillary services. ebecca also needs psychological and social support services as she is feeling increasingly more pessimistic about her changing condition. Given that, the care partnership should include a support group, individual psychological counseling, as well as family counseling. A support group will help ebecca receive support from others in her situation and will reduce ebecca's social dependence on her family. This way, ebecca can enjoy her sister's company and that of her husband and young children without viewing them as her only source of social support. The group will also help ebecca receive advice related to her medication situation, and the breakdown of communication between her and her husband. egarding that, the psychological counseling will be…
Partial vaccination was not effective on children 6-23 months. This meant that full vaccination is necessary to optimally protect children of this age group from Influenza (Shueler et al.).
The results are consistent with those of other evaluative studies on children through randomized, controlled trials for efficacy and observational studies for effectiveness (Shueler et al., 2007). Vaccine effectiveness depends on the characteristics of the study population, specificity of the outcome, and the Influenza season. It was dissimilar to the findings of Ritzwoller and his team in that Shueler and team's subjects had more exposure to Influenza. The more specific outcome of laboratory-confirmed Influenza made the detection possible. And Shueler and his team's findings were similar to Ritzwoller and his team's in that the findings of both teams offered assurance that vaccination of young children would be beneficial, even in a year with sub-optimal match (Shueler et al.).
Vaccination Efficacy not…
Ambrose, C.S., et al. (2008). Current status of live attenuated influenza vaccine in the United States for seasonal and pandemic influenza. Influenza Respiratory Viruses:
Blackwell Publishing. Retrieved on April 26, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/588302
Eisenberg K.W., et al. (2004). Vaccine effectiveness against laboratory-confirmed
Influenza on children 6 to 59 months of age during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005
Children are a wonderful source of entertainment. They truly are!
We learn from infancy how to interact socially with each other. When my children were just newborns, they could delight people for hours with their smiles and their giggles. Many parents, I have noticed, put mirrors in the cribs for the babies to make faces at and interact with.
Being twins, my girls would often stare at each other for hours, making faces and laughing at each other. We were very fortunate in that even though they were premature by a month, our girls were both normal weight and came home together within a week of birth. Therefore, they were able to share a crib, and later a bed, during their prime developmental stage. In her article, "The Development of Social Competence in Children," Sherri den states that infant will take part in "social exchanges" by a "reciprocal matching process."…
Oden, Sherri. "The Development of Social Competence in Children." http://ericae.net/edo/ED281610/htm.1987.
Child Care and Mother-Child Interaction in the First 3 Years of Life," NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, Developmental Psychology, Vol. 35, No. 6. APA, 2002
Fields, Roger. "Interaction: The Key to Children's Ministry." The Cold Water Cafe. 2001.
The prevailing child labor practices in the world not only jeopardize the childhood of the children but also adversely effects their cognitive, physical, mental, behavioral and social aspects of life. The child labor practices are followed due to the rate of increased poverty and cultural beliefs which enforces the children to contribute in the house hold income. The lawsuits against the child labor exist but are not applied to the fullest due to the poverty rate and lack of educational and institutional services for the under privileged children. Therefore, the awareness among the parents and adults should be increased about the hazards of child labor on the life of children and families should be provided with adequate support to refrain their dependency on the earnings of their children.
Causes of Child Labor
Child Labor Statistics
Law Suits against Child Labor
Steps to Eradicate Child Labor…
Grootaert, C., & Kanbur, R. (1995). Child labor: A review. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, (1454).
International Labor Organization (2012).Making progress against child labor. Available from:http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/-ed_norm/-ipec/documents/publication/wcms_221513.pdf
Moehling, C.M. (1999). State child labor laws and the decline of child labor. Explorations in Economic History, 36(1), 72-106.
Shonkoff, J.P., & Phillips, D.A. (2000).From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development. National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055.
The author of this report is to describe and consider the different options that exist when it comes to childcare. Each one will be described and there will then be a recitation of the pros and cons of each approach. Indeed, multiple options exist but there are obviously tradeoffs with each one. The author will proceed as directed and will choose the best one, based on the totality of the options that exist and which one is best. While being a stay-at-home parent is not always possible or practical, it is probably the best overall option for childcare in many situations.
One option that exists when it comes to childcare is a daycare facility. The upsides to this option include that there are typically licensure and background checks for such facilities and there will be plenty of opportunities for socialization and exposure to other people, which is something…
Child and Elder Abuse
Many children and frail elderly people are at risk of being abused largely because their ability to defend themselves is impaired. In the recent past, the media has been awash with many cases of abuse and neglect involving children and the elderly. In this text, I conduct an online research in an attempt to identify and analyze two recent cases of child and elder abuse.
ecently, Alyssia Skinner - a resident of Hernando, was according to ojas (2013) "charged with child neglect, aggravated child abuse with great bodily harm, and torturing and caging a child." This severe case of child neglect and abuse was discovered after detectives visited her home and found a 17-month-old baby living in deplorable conditions. The said baby had been living in a small room which was largely disorganized and had no toys. Further, the room in question had several soiled…
Hollingsworth, H. (2013, February 12). David and Pamela Martin Charged With Child Abuse for Allegedly Handcuffing Teen to Pole. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from the Huffington Post website: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/02/12/david-pamela-martin-child-abuse-handcuff-teen-pole_n_2670898.html
Rojas, J. (2013, February 15). Citrus County Woman Charged With Severely Abusing Toddler. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from Bay News website: http://www.baynews9.com/content/news/baynews9/news/article.html/content/news/articles/bn9/2013/2/15/citrus_county_woman_.html
Starr, R. & Wolfe, D.A. (Eds.). (1991). The Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect: Issues and Research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Both of the children were a bit older, so he was not constantly monitoring their every move. Instead, his attention shifted from watching the girl, who was playing with another set of children, and watching his son, who was also playing in a separate area with another group of children. Periodically however, he was texting on his phone. This texting interrupted his watching the children. The girl would go to him for a couple of minutes at a time, but then she would run off with her friends again. The son did not approach his father again once he was playing with the other kids. The father was however, sitting less than ten feet away from the areas where both of his children were playing.
The father in this case was careful in terms of periodically observing what his children were doing and where they were, but he could have…
Associated Press. (2009). Long-lost children rarely turn up. FoxNews. Retrieved 29 April 2013 from www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,528038,00.html
Gradually, there are lesser desired adoptive kids as society have come to accept single mother who parent their children compared to earlier. The disgrace of giving birth to a child outside marriage has lowered and hence, the bulk of single moms prefer to have their kids with them in place of "relinquishing them" for being adopted. Besides, thanks to advanced technology, "birth control" pills are instantly accessible to the fertile populace, and, as abortion has been legalized, a pregnancy which is unplanned could be stopped. A new dimension to the problem has emerged because of the decrease in the supply of desirable adoptable infants and the rising infertility among Americans. (Infant Adoption is Big Business in America)
It is anticipated that out of every six couples, one couple has problems in conceiving and total infertile couples may number 5.3 million. A lot of adopters who are presently desirous of adoption…
Adoption is big business: Rationalizations for Adoption. http://www.adoption-articles.com/adoption_business.htm
Adoption: The Child Commodities Market is Big Business. http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/224728/adoption_the_child_commodities_market.html?page=2
Avery, Rosemary. J. Adoption Policy and Special Needs Children. Auburn. Westport: CT.
Cahn, Naomi R; Hollinger, Joan Heifetz. Families by Law: An Adoption Reader. New York
Pastor's Responsibilities with Child Abuse
Comment by abina:
Pastor's Responsibilities with Child Abuse
It is important for pastors and youth pastors to become familiarized with the child abuse laws in the state in which they serve. Many youth pastors encounter child abuse in their service to their church, and there are specific guidelines that should be followed for reporting child abuse. Failure to report child abuse can result in criminal prosecution for the youth pastor (Hammar, 2010). If a youth pastor gains information about a child being abused in their home environment, he/she must follow the proper protocols for reporting child abuse. The youth pastor should also inform the senior pastor about the abuse.
The senior pastor should ensure that the youth pastor contact the local child protective services and report the abuse. The senior pastor should also ensure the church has procedures for handling child abuse that…
Shelley, M. (1985). Well-Intentioned Dragons: Ministering to Problem People in the Church. Waco, TX: Word.
Unknown (1986). Restoring your Spiritual Passion. Nashville, TN:Oliver-Nelson.
Unknown (1992). Under the Predictable Plant: An Exploration in Vocational Holiness. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
Child abuse is one of the most dangerous and serious problems confronting society, perhaps because of the helplessness and innocence of the victims. What is particularly bothersome about child abuse is that it occurs in all income, racial, religious, and ethnic groups and in urban and rural communities. Likewise, there is no uniform definition of what constitutes child abuse, making it difficult to ascertain what prevention and treatment methods are most effective. For example, in Sweden, the law prohibits any physical punishment of children, including spanking. By contrast, in some countries of Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, parents are expected to punish their children by hitting them.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to child abuse. Part II defines child abuse. In Part III, a history of child abuse is offered. Part IV evaluates why child abuse exists according to control theory and anomy theory. In…
Interviews with his parents reveal a disturbing trend. His parents do not seem to want to challenge Christopher in any meaningful way and instead enable his lack of progress. Perhaps out of fear for his tantrums, Christopher's mother makes excuses for her son's behavior. The experiment of homeschooling Christopher has therefore been unproductive because he is not challenged, and therefore is not learning as much as he could be. His social skills have also been hampered by his homeschooling environment, and by the attitudes of his parents. Christopher does not understand certain social conventions. For instance, he will pass gas while talking to people or make a wolf whistle at a female.
Christopher has no real friends his own age. He seems to prefer being around adults due to the extra compassion and attention they show him. Christopher throws temper tantrums when he feels anxious or put on the spot,…
"Asperger's Syndrome." WebMD. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/tc/aspergers-syndrome-symptoms
"Cleft Lip and Palate," (2011). Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002046/
In the second phase of the research, testing of the children in various areas related to their attitude towards outdoor play will take place. Appreciation and awareness of the natural world, signs of emerging independence or continuing dependence, and a variety of other variables associated by previous research with outdoor play will be examined. This will also provide some direct insight as to the factors that motivate outdoor play, allowing for further extrapolation. Specifically, plans and procedures for motivating increased outdoor play and more positive attitudes towards/greater appreciations of outdoor play will be recommended based on the findings of the two research phases. From this, the beginnings of a comprehensive view of early childhood attitudes towards outdoor play and the benefits of increasing positive attitudes towards outdoor play will hopefully be established.
The observations made in this research will not provide enough evidence to lead to any entirely conclusive…
Chan, L. & Louie, L. (2003). "The Use of Pedometry to Evaluate the Physical Activity Levels among Preschool Children in Hong Kong." Early childhood development & care 173(1), pp. 97-107.
Kernan, M. & Devine, D. (2010). "Being Confined within? Constructions of the Good Childhood and Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Education and Care Settings in Ireland." Children & society 24(5), pp. 371-85.
Maday, G, (2005). "Indoor play systems." Scholastic early childhood today 19(6), pp. 33-4.
Valentine, G. & McKendrick, J. (1997). "Children's outdoor play: Exploring parental concerns about children's safety and the changing nature of childhood." Geoforum 28(2), pp. 219-35.
In addition, the human pronoun "her" is used to refer to the mother penguin, while "it" would have been a more appropriate choice if the author wanted to reinforce the penguins' animal aspects (BBC 3, 8). hile the author does use the term "chick" throughout the book, mixing it with the human-like terms further allow the child reader to grasp the non-fiction elements of the book while still remaining interested and emotionally involved in the story. Evoking sadness in the reader, a photograph shows the mother walking away from her baby. Through the use of these words and illustrations, the fact that the penguins are animals living in a natural home is emphasized, while children are still engaged through the mild human-like qualities that are ascribed to the animals (BBC 3-4).
Thus, a comparison of the personification used in The Cat and the Hat and in Baby Penguins yields great…
BBC. Baby Penguins. New York, Scholastic, 2009.
Dr. Seuss. The Cat in the Hat. New York: Random House, 1957.
ut the result of child abuse, including difficulty in adjusting to society and difficulty in education tend to result in a higher rate of unemployment. In short, child abuse tends to produce the same conditions where child abuse is more likely to occur.
The research shows two vital things, the first being that the number of cases of child abuse are exceedingly high, and two, that the number of cases are increasing. With the amount of money being spent on child abuse prevention, the question must be asked as to why rates continue to increase. While some believe that the increase is only due to increased awareness, this does not hold true when you consider both the extreme rise in numbers and the rise in the numbers of severely injured children. If sexual abuse cases had been increasing, this could be attributed not necessarily to more incidents, but to…
Carter, Janet. (2000). Domestic violence, child abuse, and youth violence: strategies for prevention and early intervention. San Francisco: Family Violence Prevention Fund.
CUPA: Canadian Union of Public Employees. (1997). What we owe to families: a brief on child welfare in Manitoba. Winnipeg: Canadian Union of Public Employees.
CWLA: Child Welfare League of America. (1997). Child abuse and neglect: a look at the States. Washington, D.C: Child Welfare League of America.
Drucker, Philip. M. (October, 1997). "The consequences of Poverty and Child Maltreatment on IQ Scores." The Vincentian Chair of Social Justice Papers. Vincentian Center Faculty Colloquium Presentation, New York.
Secondly, the kid should be assisted in augmenting their reasoning and by making them know deaths with realistic information. Thirdly, the kid should attain consent to allow him/her do away with old lifestyle and come up with new lifestyle. An example of a long-term effect includes troubles with the internalization of conscience.
Loss at Teenage Years
At this age, for the teenager to finish the duties of psychological loss the adolescent requires to resist parent figures that nevertheless are constantly available. Parent loss will interrupt these duties. Secondly, control matters will continually affect the teenager's behaviors, more so if he/she feels a great part of the resolutions about his life are out of his/her control.
In order to reduce the short-term effects, teenagers are required to feel that they do have rising control over their very own lives. Also, adults should offer them many chances as much as possible in…
1. Bonanno G., Neria Y., Mancini a., Coifman K., Litz B. & Insel B (2007)Is there more to complicated grief than depression and posttraumatic stress disorder? A test of incremental validity. Psychological Medical Journal.116, pp. 342 -- 351
2. Brent, D., Melhem N., Donohoe MB & Walker M. (2009). The Incidence and Cause of Depression in Bereaved Youth 21 Months after the loss of a Parent to Suicide,
Accident, or Sudden Natural Death, Psychological Medical Journal.166, pp.786 -- 794.
3. Hensley P., Slonimski C., Uhlenhuth E. & Clayton P. (2009)Escitalopram: an open-label
Children's Literature - Hardy Boys and Encyclopedia Brown
The Shore oad Mystery
On page 12 of The Shore oad Mystery there is moment of potential stress between brothers Joe and Frank, and their Aunt Gertude, over the boys' bad move of tracking in dirt on mother's freshly vacuumed carpet. In any family, boys (and fathers) especially are prone to forget to take their shoes off (in the winter it's snow and ice; in the spring, summer and fall, it's dirt, mud, and leaves). "Frank and Joe! Look at yourselves!" their aunt barked out. And when Joe compliments his aunt of the aroma of food cooking, she urges him not to "change the subject" (a ploy boys are quite adept at), but soon she sees Joe's skinned arm and bruised forehead and notices Frank's limp (the result of the accident), and her tone changes.
The brothers loved their aunt and knew…
Dixon, Franklin W. The Shore Road Mystery. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1964.
Sobol, Donald J. Encyclopedia Brown and the Case of the Sleeping Dog. New York:
Delacorte Press, 1998.
Children and the Media
Whether or not children should be allowed to watch television or movies is one that elicits great controversy among parents, educators, and child development experts. Some have no problem with exposing children to media, others have distinct criteria to fulfill before allowing children to watch any form of media, and still others strongly advise against exposing children to media at all. The real issue is about the nature and quality of the messages and images that children consume as they watch or listen to media.
I believe there are distinct advantages for children and the potential for positive impact with many shows that are available for children today. Generally, the commercials that are viewed by children during age-appropriate viewing are not harmful in any way, though caregivers will want to be certain that the messages being conveyed match up with their overall philosophy. I also believe…
This developmental theory provides one possible explanation for why Pelzer continued to defend and protect his mother for so long, and felt such a duty to do so; as the object of his repressed desires and his attempts to exhibit protective and masculine behavior, this would have been his essential task (Heffner 2003).
The age of six is somewhat on the cusp of Piaget's stages of preoperational and concrete operational. Many of the author's observations, such as that he "could determine what kind of day [he] was going to have by the way [his mother] dressed," suggest that he was already in the concrete operational stage, where future events could be abstracted from current information in a cause-and-effect manner (Pelzer 1995; pp. 30). Becoming stuck in this developmental phase due to a lack of stimulation and motivation was almost certainly a factor in the author's perspective throughout much of his…
Fraser, C.; Burchell, B. & Hay, D. (2001). Introducing social psychology. Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Heffner. (2003). "Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://allpsych.com/psychology101/sexual_development.html
Pelzer, D. (1995). A Child Called it. Omaha: Omaha Press.
Springhouse. (1990). "Piaget's Cognitive Stages.' http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/piaget.htm
It took them a while to get used to it but eventually, they were able to communicate with softer words and softer tone.
According to systems theory (Titelman, 1998), it was my duty to work on both Dave and his family so that their communication problem is uprooted from its origins. When his parents began to realize the impact of their meaningless arguments on Dave, they set quite a few rules for themselves. These rules included no harsh words or arguments in front of Dave and increased participation in his social & academic life. They realized the importance of their emotional support and gravity of the condition of Dave.
It was important to make Dave feel that he was needed and appreciated for being wonderful just the way he was. His parents also felt the need for a stable atmosphere at home where Dave could share his thoughts, fears and…
Bailey K.D. (1994) Sociology and the new systems theory: toward a theoretical synthesis. USA. Sunny Press.
Beck A.T. (1979) Cognitive Therapy Of Depression. NEWYORK .USA. Guilford press
Clark. D.A., Beck A.T. & Alford B.A. (1999). Scientific foundations of cognitive theory and therapy of depression. USA. John Wiley and Sons.
Einstein D. (2007) Innovations and Advances in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. Australia. Australian Academic Press
The Cook County CDED was formed in 1985 and is a private, non-profit organization supported by foundation and grants, as well as several individual donations annually.
To end disability-related discrimination and injustice through education and increased legal services for individuals and families with disabilities. This is accomplished through legal support and the support of local community families.
To fight for and increase the rights of children with disabilities by changing discriminatory practices, policies and laws.
To educate children, families and education professionals.
To provide assistance to families with disabilities in need.
To offer educational and extracurricular activities for children with disabilities as well as family members.
To increase awareness overall.
The CDED does not believe any individual or family should be denied the right to fair housing or education because of a disability. The CDED Community Center offers a place of solace for children with disabilities and families…
About Us. (n.d.). Children's Defense Fund (CDF): Health Care Coverage for All of America's Children, Ending Child Poverty, Child Advocacy Programs. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.childrensdefense.org/about-us/
Epilepsy Fdn.-Mission Statement. (n.d.). Epilepsy Foundation-Epilepsy Foundation-trusted, reliable information for people with seizures, and their caregivers. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.epilepsyfoundation.org/epilepsylegal/
Mission Statement. (n.d.). because a goblin is a terrible thing to waste.. Retrieved October 22, 2010, from http://www.goblindefensefund.org/mission.html
Children Should Be equired to ead More
Almost all the parents want their child to be intelligent. Every parent yearns for their child to be well-groomed, brilliant and smart. This is why parents spend a lot of their time in trying to search for the best schools for their children and expect the teachers to be exceptionally outstanding. However, they forget the fact that their own attitudes and habits have a great effect on the personality of a child. Thus, the parents must realize that by making books an essential part of their children's lives, they can heighten the wisdom and learning potential of their child more than a school teacher can help to increase ("Early Moments sharing the gift of reading").
It is not by an accident, brainwave, infection or encouragement that children learn to read. They learn to read when they are taught to do so. eading cannot…
Copperman, Paul. Taking Books to Heart: How to Develop a Love of Reading in Your Child. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley, 1986. 223-226. Web. 4 Nov 2011.
Child Abuse and Neglect
TEATMENT OF PHYSICALLY ABUSIVE FAMILIES
Cognitive behavioral therapy is typically the recommended course of therapy for physically abusive families. Children who reside in such families often experience PTSD as a result of their experiences, and CBT focuses on "re-exposure interventions, education about violence and cognitive restructuring, processing of emotional cues, social problem-solving skills, and parenting interventions" (Vickerman & Margolin 2007). In groups or individually, children are encouraged to re-visit traumatic experiences, talk about them, and to find alternative coping mechanisms to deal with negative emotions. Depending on the nature of the family relationship, family members may also be involved and subjected to individual or family counseling, to enable them to find alternative ways to deal with anger, other than lashing out at other family members.
CBT involves the restructuring of responses, and encouraging those who are aided to think: "I am not responsible for my parents'…
Gaudin, J.M. (1993). Child Neglect: A guide to intervention. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved:
Relapse prevention model. (2012). Therapy corner. Retrieved:
The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).
According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:
1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.
2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.
3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…
Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.
Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.