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Childhood place: Past and present
When I was very young, my maternal grandmother was the host of every family get-together. My parents and I would drive what seemed like an eternity on the highway to get to her small, slightly shabby corner house. My grandmother was very set in her ways and didn't like to change things, so the house had remained relatively the same in its exterior appearance and interior decor for many years. The outside of the house was a faded blue. The color palate of the interior of the house was mostly oranges, browns, and greens that had been popular when the house was first furnished, but were no longer in style. The sofa I always sat on was slightly saggy in the middle. My grandmother had a much smaller television than we had at home, with fewer channels, and my relatives and I would…
Adverse Childhood Experiences
A female colleague of mine was subjected to sexual abuse as young children, and she suffered severe emotional trauma as a result of that abuse. "Gloria," was unlucky to have an alcoholic father, who would come home late at night, very drunk, go into her room, fondle her, suck her little breasts, and insist that she play with his private parts. In my own childhood I was beaten repeatedly by my mother for wetting the bed. I didn't realize until fairly recently that I have had emotional problems based on those regular beatings with my mother's clenched fist (although sometimes she used a branch off a tree outside out house).
The adverse childhood experiences that Gloria had did not involve sexual intercourse, but they did involve criminal behavior on the part of her alcoholic father. Her father and mother owned a convenience store in Los Angeles,…
Child Welfare Information Gateway. (2012). Long-Term Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved February 3, 2014, from http://www.childwelfare.gov .
The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. (2013). Pyramid. Retrieved February 3,
2014, from http://www.cdc.gov .
Otherwise, he would just sit comfortably in my hand, holding whatever he was eating between his front paws, periodically rotating it for the best biting angle.
In addition to the original Habitrail ™ setup, I also built Mickey a more secluded dungeon-like underground "basement," gluing my old, children's building blocks together to make the walls. I kept making the walls higher by adding more and more blocks, and eventually its volume exceeded that of the original plastic cage city on top of it. One of the plastic tubes led directly from the main cage down into the dungeon through a hole I drilled in the wooden roof. Mickey really seemed to appreciate it, spending most of his time there.
Unless I tapped on the roof to let him know I was there, he hardly came up at all.
That summer my Dad thoughtfully surprised me at sleep-away camp by showing…
" Hence, images of children are often used to "reproach the rest of the adult world for its misdemeanours"; and in presenting that picture, children connote "both the future and a moral voice of the 'good self'..."
Burman generalizes that the "universalization of Northern childhood thus mirrors the Northern colonial domination of the South." And interfaced with that dynamic, she continues, is the "Christian symbolism associated with colour ("white-child-angel, black child-devil")... [and] the fact that where "black and white children are portrayed together [in commercials or public service announcements for aid-related agencies] the white figure adopts a protective...and sometimes enveloping...stance towards the black, which...extends beyond the human to the portrayal of animals." And in contemporary aid and development literature, childhood "has been fractured so that only children of the North develop, while children of the South are primarily portrayed as those whose childhoods have been stolen." Children of the North's…
An-Na'Im, Abdullahi, 1994. Cultural Transformation and Normative Consensus on the Best Interests of the Child. in: P. Alston, ed. The Best Interests of the Child: Reconciling Culture and Human Rights. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1994, 62-81.
Burman, Erica, 1999. Appealing and Appalling Children. Psychoanalytic Studies, 1(3), 285-301.
Burman, Erica, 1995. The Abnormal Distribution of Development: policies for Southern women and children. Gender Place & Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography, 2(1), 21-37.
Freeman, Michael, 1997. The Moral Status of Children: Essays on the Rights of the Child. The Hague, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Attachment behaviors and attachment experiences are central to child development, and can have lasting impacts on adult psychology. Attachment refers to a “sustained, developmental...connection,” (Mossler, 2014, 13.1). The attachment process is emotional, but it also serves distinct biological and evolutionary functions in enabling the survival of the species. As Mossler (2014) points out, attachment bonds can be formed between an infant and any adult due to the fact that early humans contended with far greater physical and environmental risks that might leave infants vulnerable should one or both parents perish. Infants experiencing healthy attachments will also evolve a sense of security that is essential for psychological resilience and the reduction of risk for separation anxiety and other attachment-related issues. This paper outlines the different attachment theories provided by Bowlby and Ainsworth, both of which show how attachment experiences are central to the evolution of fundamental social needs, such as trust…
Poets of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth century concerned themselves with childhood and its various experiences, but the particular historical and aesthetic contexts within which different poets wrote affected their perspective on the matter greatly. As literature moved from Romanticism to naturalism, the tone poets took when considering children and their place in society changed, because where children previously existed as a kind of emotional or romantic accessory, they soon became subjects in their own right, with their own experiences and perspectives. By examining illiam ordsworth's "Michael," illiam Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper," and .B. Yeats' "A Prayer for my Daughter," one is able to see how the gradual transition from Romanticism to naturalism brought with it a less exploitative consideration of children, one that better reflected their place in the rapidly changing world.
The first poem to examine is illiam ordsworth's "Michael," because it fall squarely in the…
Blake, William. Songs of Innocence and Experience. London: Basil Montagu Pickering, 1866.
Wordsworth, W. Lyrical Ballads. 4th. 2. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, & Orme, 1805.
Yeats, William. The Collected Poems of W.b. Yeats. London: Wordsworth Editions, 2000.
Childhood Obesity and prevention: Action by parents and children.
Obesity, also known as overweight is defined by WHO (2018:1) as the excessive accumulation of fats that can cause harm to the health of an individuals. Obesity or overweight metrics are measured through the use of internationally accepted formula Body Mass Index (BMI). This involves the juxtaposition of body weight in kilograms against the body height in Meters. Simply put dividing the weight of an individual in KGs by the Square of the Height in Meters. Once the result is obtained, the individual can be classified as either normal weight, overweight or obese. For instance, an adult whose BMI is between 25 and 29.9 is said to be overweight, but when it goes beyond that then he is considered obese as observed by the WHO.
The audience of immediate interest in this case is the parents and the children both of…
In an experiment, a Caucasian girl named Morgan was shown pictures of two girls - one white and one black.
hen asked who was smarter, Morgan pointed to the white girl. She was then shown a picture of a white and a black boy and was asked who threw garbage on the floor. She then pointed to the black boy (Stern-LaRosa and Bettman 2000).
Morgan is only three years old.
The experiment shows how early prejudice can affect people's perceptions, and the various negative ways in which they are manifested.
Morgan, however, is far from a lost cause. Experts agree that children often look to adults for guidance, and that there are many strategies to help children like Morgan work through their attitudes towards difference.
Definitions of prejudice
Studies of prejudice and discrimination usually center on a group of common ideas. Most experts begin with stereotypes, which are…
Cohen, Warren. 1999. "Sticks and stones." U.S. News and World Report. March 1, 1999, p. 61.
Doyle, Anne B. And Frances Aboud. 1995. "A Longitudinal Study of White Children's Racial Prejudice as a Social-Cognitive Development." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 4(2): 209-228.
Powlishta, Kimberly et al. 1994. "Gender, Ethnic, and Body Type Biases: The Generality of Prejudice in Childhood." Developmental Psychology, 30(4): 526-536.
Stern-Larosa, Caryl and Ellen Hofheimer Bettmann. 2000. Hate Hurts: How Children Learn and Unlearn Prejudice. New York: Scholastic.
"Try a little," said my mother, hesitating, wondering if I would like it. It was like an explosion of flavor in my mouth. I always thought I didn't like chicken, especially with vegetables, but this was different. It hardly seemed like the same animal, no pun intended, as what I was usually served. Even more wondrous were the little pockets of fried goodness called egg rolls. These were filled with vegetables like shredded cabbage and the spices made the green things delicious, rather than a pain to eat.
We often ordered out as a family during times of great joy and great sadness -- to celebrate, or when things were too hectic for home cooking. Eating Chinese food, even when I ordered the same thing, was never boring. I adored the special equipment needed to consume it -- the chopsticks, the flavor packets of neon yellow mustard and orange sweet…
Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…
Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).
Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).
Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).
Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) "Studies have shown that on any single day (called "point prevalence" by epidemiologists) about 2% of school-aged children and about 8% of adolescents meet the criteria for major depression." It is true then that this condition affects millions of children a year along with their families. Depression itself is mysterious and most likely a necessary function of our psyche, but for many this state of mind can lead to much disastrous and dangerous conditions.
The purpose of this essay is to present a 10-point program that helps parents understand several factors associated with depressive disorders. This essay will list these 10 ideas and provide a baseline of information that can help provide a firmer grasp on some of the more hidden qualities that are present within a depressive disorder.
elax. Depression is common and can be treated. If…
Hoecker, J. (2010). Depression Treatment for Children: What Works? Mayo Clinic, May 2010. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/depression-treatment/expert-answers/faq-20057888
National Alliance on Mental Illness (nd). Depression in Children and Adolescents Fact Sheet. Viewed 15 Feb 2014. Retrieved from http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=By_Illness&template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=88551
In the last three decades, the rates of childhood obesity have increased by more than three times. This is according to the American Health Trust (2013), which further reports that 30 states have over 30% of their children above the overweight mark. Weight ranges greater than what is considered healthy for a given height, is what is considered overweight or obese by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These weight ranges are considered to increase the likelihood of some health complications such as Type 2 Diabetes, hypertension, sleep apnea and liver disease. Both the CDC and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend the Body Mass Index (BMI) as the screening tool to identify possible weight problems in children.
Overweight and obese children are at a risk of developing serious health complications such as diabetes type 2 and hypertension (CDC, 2015b). Children and adolescents are the ones…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015a). Healthy Weight. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/ on August 29, 2016
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015b). Childhood Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /obesity/childhood/ on August 29, 2016
Chang, W., Lee, P., Lai, H., Chou, Y. & Chang, L. (2009). Perceptions of exercise in obese school-aged children. Journal of Nursing Research, 17(3), 170-176.
Fahlman, M., Dake, J., Mccaughtry, N., & Martin, J. (2008). A pilot study to examine the effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children. Journal of School Health, 78(4), 216-222.
" (p. 420).
A study conducted by ekert et al. (2007) examined the following variables for 234 college students:
both mother and father care and overprotection, participant gender, family environment variables including conflict and control, adult attachment variables, attributional style and control-related cognitive variables, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The results of the study confirmed other studies' results regarding the impact of overprotection. As was found with the other studies, overprotection resulted in anxiety and depression among college students.
This paper has shown the detrimental effects of overprotective parenting. Overprotective parenting results from a desire from parents trying to maintain psychological control their children. This may be a result of the parents own anxieties which creates worrisome parenting. Parents attempt to protect their children from experiencing stress. However, in this attempt parents are actually creating many harmful effects. These effects may begin prior to birth and be exhibited…
Chorpita, B.F., & Barlow, DH (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124(1), 3-21. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3
Coplan, R.J., Arbeau, K.A., & Armer, M. (2008). Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten Springer Science & Business Media. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9183-7
Giotakos, O. (2002). Parenting received in childhood and early separation anxiety in male conscripts with adjustment disorder Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/217062069?accountid=27965
Hortrum, P., (1994). The age of anxiety (1994). Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214441790?accountid=27965
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…
Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.
Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.
Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.
Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
it's made me who I am, the reason is I have had to work so much harder. I would take it again, gladly. It has taught me to take good and bad, and to change the bad into good. It gives you a sense of motivation, fight for yourself, it gives you that perseverance to carry on. I have succeeded and am still succeeding" (Klompas & oss, 2004, p. 300).
Blood, G.W., Blood, I.M., Tellis, G.M., & Gabel, .M. (2003). A preliminary study of self-esteem, stigma, and disclosure in adolescents who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 28(2), 143. doi:10.1016/S0094-730X (03)00010-X
Daniels, D.E., & Gabel, .M. (2004). The Impact of Stuttering on Identity Construction. Topics in Language Disorders, 24(3), 200.
Greenberg, J. (2008). Understanding the Vital Human Quest for Self-Esteem. Perspectives on Psychological Science (Wiley-Blackwell), 3(1), 48-55. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00061.x
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, . (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal…
Blood, G.W., Blood, I.M., Tellis, G.M., & Gabel, R.M. (2003). A preliminary study of self-esteem, stigma, and disclosure in adolescents who stutter. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 28(2), 143. doi:10.1016/S0094-730X (03)00010-X
Daniels, D.E., & Gabel, R.M. (2004). The Impact of Stuttering on Identity Construction. Topics in Language Disorders, 24(3), 200.
Greenberg, J. (2008). Understanding the Vital Human Quest for Self-Esteem. Perspectives on Psychological Science (Wiley-Blackwell), 3(1), 48-55. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6916.2008.00061.x
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, R. (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 51(3), 669-687.
seminar was revolving more around why childhood education is important and the various credentials that support increased effort in this arena. Even though there were many related topics covered in this seminar, the major objective and goal is the relevance of early childhood education. It has been stated that early childhood development is a time when the child not only develops physically but socially, emotionally and cognitively as well. The infants enter into this world with a certain group of abilities and talents. They have many potentials that need to be worked on and brought out by the parents.
When looking into this subject through the perspective of a psychologist, many different theories can be used For instance; Sigmund Freud talked about the three essays sexuality and the different stages that a child must pass through in the right way. If a child does not successfully finish a stage, he…
Bornstein, D. (2013). Protecting Children from Toxic Stress. New York Times.
Felitti, M., Vincent, J., Anda, M., Robert, F., Nordenberg, M., & Williamson, M. et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245 -- 258.
Lazar, I., Darlington, R., Murray, H., Royce, J., Snipper, A., & Ramey, C. (1982). Lasting effects of early education: A report from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. Monographs Of The Society For Research In Child Development, --151.
Zigler, E., Taussig, C., & Black, K. (1992). Early childhood intervention: a promising preventative for juvenile delinquency. American Psychologist, 47(8), 997.
ith real sense of self, she will have a skewed look at the world around her. In her eyes, she is empty, as is the world.
Nel is grounded but this does not mean she is complete. Sula is labeled a wild child because she is not conventional like those around her. She moves to get herself away from Bottom and has several casual affairs with men. hen she returns, the townspeople view her as wicked. Those in her town call her a "roach" (112) and "bitch" (112) and her death is a welcome relief. She has an affair with Nel's husband, which makes Nel look like nothing short of an angel in the novel. Sula's life was not nice and neat. Nel married and had children, which was something of a traditional lifestyle for a woman. In short, Nel conforms to what society expects of women. Sula decided not…
Morrison, Toni. Sula. New York: Plume Books. 1973. Print.
childhood any less safe and enjoyable now than in the past?
Childhood is a period that initiates a change in the perspective of the family or the parents involved. It entails the aspect of responsibilities and commitments for the parent to ensure safe and secure parenting for the child. However, concerns continue to arise due to the dynamic nature of the society. The society keeps on evolving, changing various aspects and practices within the community. Through these developments, the child does not escape the eventual outcomes from these changes. Social construction consists of incorporation of new practices, which develop into the norm of the society while the old are replaced through these procedures and changes. The child faces challenges in their adaptive mechanisms as these changes come with risks, anxieties, worries and fear from the eminent social changes.
The social changes led to the evolution of a generalized world, in…
childhood is a fascinating time for children, and the adults around them who watch them grow. It is a time of exploration, self construction, and improved understanding. Middle childhood is between the ages of 6 and 8, with some reports extending that age range to as much as 11 years old (CDC 2012). This is the period of the child who is featured in this observation and empirical analysis. She and her two parents live in a suburban neighborhood that can be seen as middle class. She is about six and a half, and has just entered elementary schooling in the context of first grade. As she closes in on her first year of real school, it is clear how the social environment of that school has impacted her overall development.
The observation was carried out in three stages. First, I met her and her mother at a local park,…
Bunce, Guy. (2011). Educational implications of Vygotsky's zone of proximal development on collaborative work in the classroom. Academics. Web. http://www.guybunce.co.uk/writings/academic/vygotsky-and-the-classroom.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Middle childhood. Child Development. Web.
Another study conducted by Deblinger, et al. (2001) also investigated the efficacy of CBT based interventions and reported that compared to the participation-based model, repeated MANOVAs indicated that those mothers attending CBT sessions showed better results in context of improvements in intrusive thoughts and negative parenting. This should be however mentioned that sample size of virtually all the intervention programs was limited ranging from 10-80 that makes it difficult to opine whether or not such studies can be implemented successfully at a larger scale.
The empirical knowledge in context of interventions in treating abused adolescents and children is still limited and needs much more research. There is a lack of follow-up programs for each intervention program being presented as both Ahmed, et al. (2007) and others compared the pre-test and post-test results within short span of implementing the program. This indicates that there is an increased need to assess…
Ahmad, A., Larsson, B., & Sundelin-Wahlsten, V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Nordic journal of psychiatry, 61(5), 349-354.
Chaffin, M., & Friedrich, B. (2004). Evidence-based treatments in child abuse and neglect. Children and youth services review, 26(11), 1097-1113.
Cohen J.A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A.P. & Steer, R.A. (2004), A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 393-402.
Cohen, J.A., & Mannarino, A.P. (1996). A treatment outcome study for sexually abused preschool children: Initial findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(1), 42-50.
experienced a significant increase in the cost of health care. In 2004, 16% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was spent on health care. In 2010, President Obama signed the "Affordable Health Care for America Act (HR 3962)" that has been a topic of heated debate since discussions began decades ago. Health care funding and design has been a major issue for U..
Provide a discussion that demonstrates you have an understanding of the impact the cost of health care has on the economy. Be sure to discuss the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
According to Forbes (2012), America does not have a debt problem; it has a healthcare one. The price of health care is eating up the economy.
Health care spending is growing to almost 1.5 times the rate of growth of its gross domestic product (i.e. The market value of all its goods and services within a certain…
Forbes. (2012)The U.S. Does Not Have A Debt Problem ... It Has A Health Care Cost Problem http://www.forbes.com/sites/toddhixon/2012/02/09/the-u-s-does-not-have-a-debt-problem-it-has-a-health-care-cost-problem/
Focus on Health Reform
Joan & Bartlett, (2012) A Distinctive System of Health Care Delivery www.jblearning.com/samples/076374512X/Shi4e_CH01.pdf
Teens often call the abuse of inhalants "huffing." They may spray aerosol fumes directly into their mouth or nose; inhale the substance inside a paper or plastic bag or on a rag; or from balloons filled with nitrous oxide. There is also a strong correlation between depression and huffing: "Between 2004 and 2006, an estimated 218,000 youths aged 12-17 used inhalants and also experienced depression in the past year," and depressed teens were more than three times as likely to start using inhalants, as "the reverse is also true, showing that teens often started using inhalants before depression began" (Inhalants and huffing, 2010, Parents: The antidrug). Besides exhibiting the symptoms of depression, such as moody or withdrawn behavior, teens who are huffing may smell like the substance they are abusing, appear drunk or uncoordinated, and slur their speech. Missing household products, rags that smell like chemicals that can be abused…
Inhalants. (2010). Teen drug abuse. Retrieved February 3, 2010 at http://www.teendrugabuse.us/inhalants.html
Inhalants and huffing. (2010). Parents: The antidrug. Retrieved February 3, 2010 at http://www.theantidrug.com/drug-information/commonly-abused-drugs/inhalants-huffing/default.aspx
Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include:
Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her.
Whether the child's experiences success at school
Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.)
Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.)
Sexual Abuse "Signs"
Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas:
1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…
Profile: Sexual predators solicit children on the Internet," All Things Considered (NPR), June 19, 2001.
BETTER ANSWER to SEXUAL PREDATORS.(Editorial)(Editorial)," Seattle Post Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), June 15, 1997.
Bolen, Rebecca M.. "Child sexual abuse: prevention or promotion?," Social Work, April 1, 2003.
Childhood obesity: An epidemiological overview
Community and population
Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious problem in America and around the world. Obesity in all demographic categories in the U.S. is increasing; however the increase in the rate of obesity for young people is particularly worrisome. The longer an individual is obese over the course of his or her lifetime, the greater the social and financial costs. Obese persons experience school and workplace harassment; have difficulty fully participating in the full range of physical activities needed for health and personal well-being because of joint-related issues such as osteoarthritis; and incur higher healthcare costs as a result of a greater risk of suffering from diabetes, heart disease, and certain kinds of cancer. The longer the person is obese, the greater these risks are compounded and today's generation of obese children may never have a memory of what it is…
Childhood obesity facts. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:
Healthier food access. (2014). Health People 2020. Retrieved from:
EFEENCES & WOKS CONSULTED
Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,
Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family elations. 57 (3): 335+.
Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior
in Children." Social Work esearch. 28 (3): 153+.
Itzin, C. (2000). Home Truths About Child Sexual Abuse: A eader. outledge.
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Miller, K. (2003). "Understanding and Treating eactive Attachment Disorder." Working
Papers from medical Educational Services Workshop. Arlington, Tx, February, 2003.
Minnis, H., et.al., 92006). "eactive Attachment Disorder." European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 15 (2): 336-42.
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REFERENCES & WORKS CONSULTED
Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,
Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family Relations. 57 (3): 335+.
Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior
in Children." Social Work Research. 28 (3): 153+.
Childhood type diabetes and obesity
Which three databases will you use?
Search each database, using key words, for relevant research on this subject. What key words did you use in the Search Strategy fields? nclude all attempts and limitations used to refine your search.
Childhood obesity diabetes
Childhood obesity diabetes
Report the number of citations identified from each database in the number of articles found field.
Select one article from a peer-reviewed nursing journal published within the last three years -- or a germinal article which may contain an earlier publication date -- and provide the citation in APA format.
Hayden, M.R., Joginpally, T., Salam, M., & Sowers, J.R. (2011). Childhood and adolescent obesity in cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: A clinical vignette and ultrastructure study. Diabetes Management, 1(6), 601-614. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/dmt.11.50
Answer the following questions using your selected research article:
Q1. s this…
I limited the search range for peer-reviewed journals. Also, the journal has a doi; a volume number and serial number; and is authored by research scientists who provided their personal histories and sources of their funding.
Q3. Does this research article generate support for evidence-based practice? If not, state why it does not. Please review the critical appraisal guideline on pg. 466-480.
The authors of the study specifically state that it has implications for evidence-based practice. If adolescent obesity causes permanent changes to the structure of the tissue of sufferers, this has longstanding implications for public policy: it means that adolescents may be unlikely to outlive their parents' generation. Despite numerous improvements in diabetes management, diabetes often suffer severe health consequences. It is imperative that diabetes be thwarted by reducing the likelihood of early-onset obesity, not simply managed in a secondary and tertiary manner after the fact. "This current epidemic-pandemic of CAOO causes a red flag to be raised in order to have primary-care providers become more involved and understand this complex problem. The CAOO pandemic may alter the future course of human disease unless we as primary-care physicians intervene" (Hayden 2011 et al.).
It is very likely that many children have been less fortunate than me and that they either became drug addicts themselves or they came to live on the streets as a result of having parents who express more interest in drugs than in their own children.
My experiences are definitely traumatizing and I would not want anyone going through what I endured. Despite this, I managed to find a meaning for everything that has happened to me and I succeeded in using my forces with the purpose of improving my condition. Unlike ordinary people, I would not allow myself to be put down by the conflicts I've seen in my family, by the fact that I was often isolated, or by the emotional violence that I have been subjected to. I will certainly remember the time I spent with my family for most of my life, but the fact that…
Memory is one of those human traits that both connects us to and alienates us from the past. In memory, we are most aware of how much the past remains just that -- in the past. In comparison to the here and now, we are also most aware of how much has been lost to the past when we recall the things we had and the things that are no longer there. Those really early memories about London, my home, come back to me in almost every detail, even while I tend to have trouble remembering what I did and where I went yesterday or the day before. These memories, or maybe a kind of urban nostalgia, bring to my mind many traditional places in the city that are close and dear to my heart. Indeed, I feel privileged to have known these places and lived through the time of…
Strengths and Barriers to Program Implementation for Childhood Obesity
With any plan to implement a program, there are both strengths and barriers. The program addressed here will be on childhood obesity. The strengths of the program will be community and organizational, while the barriers will be environmental and ethical. By carefully considering and addressing all of these, it can be determined how best to move forward with implementation of the program. That will provide the highest level of success for the program and will raise the value of it in such a way as to provide children and their parents with ways to combat obesity in their families and in their community.
Strengths -- Community and Organizational
The main strengths of the childhood obesity program are community and organizational in nature. When a community comes together, issues like childhood obesity can be mitigated (Ebbeling, Pawlak, & Ludwig, 2002).…
Ebbeling, C.B., Pawlak, D.B., & Ludwig, D.S. (2002). Childhood obesity: Public-health crisis, common sense cure. Lancet, 360(9331): 473 -- 482.
Janssen, I., Craig, W.M., Boyce, W.F., & Pickett, W. (2004). Associations between overweight and obesity with bullying behaviors in school-aged children. Pediatrics, 113(5): 1187 -- 1194.
Must, A., Jacques, P.F., Dallal, G.E., Bajema, C.J., & Dietz, W.H. (1992). Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. The New England Journal of Medicine, 327(19): 1350 -- 1355.
Reinehr, T., & Wabitsch, M. (2011). Childhood obesity. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 22(1): 21 -- 25.
Childhood Obesity in Turner County, GA Ages 6-11
Turner County is one of the regions in Georgia that is affected by childhood obesity and overweight. Generally, childhood obesity is one of the major public health concerns and issues affecting Georgia. Currently, the state is among the top three states with high prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight issues. Despite the numerous measures that have been undertaken to deal with the problem and significant gains that have been made in the process, Georgia still has a high rate of childhood obesity cases. In essence, Turner County is still largely affected by the issue of childhood obesity similar to other counties in Georgia. However, a clear understanding of the extent of childhood obesity in Turner County among children aged 6-11 years requires collecting vital statistics on this population. For this analysis, the researcher has relied on a questionnaire and interview of healthcare…
Davila-Payan et al. (2015, March 12). Estimating Prevalence of Overweight or Obese Children and Adolescents in Small Geographic Areas Using Publicly Available Data. Preventing Chronic Disease, 12. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /pcd/issues/2015/14_0229.htm
Johansson, S. (2014, October 15). Maternal Overweight and Obesity in Early Pregnancy and Risk of Infant Mortality: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Sweden. British Medical Journal, 349. Retrieved from http://www.bmj.com/content/349/bmj.g6572
Childhood Obesity Questionnaire
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…
Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46
The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.
The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
My earliest meaningful experience with nature occurred when I was an eight-year-old child. My family took a vacation to New Mexico to visit one of those family friends that I called Uncle Joe, though he was not actually related to me in any way that I could discern. Uncle Joe had been a Vietnam War veteran, and, even as a child, I could tell that part of Uncle Joe stayed in Vietnam, though it would be years before I even realized that Joe had gone to war and longer still before he began to explain to me some of the experiences he had there. When he came home, he became involved in some type of business, which was apparently a profitable one, and he moved from his hometown to a ranch in the middle of nowhere, New Mexico. To this day, I could not tell you the exact location…
Standards for Early Childhood Professionals
There have been a great number of advances, strides, and changes in the field of Early Childhood or Early Childhood Development. Perhaps one of the most overt changes in this field is the nomenclature and jargon. This field was not always called Early Childhood. The field of Child Development is fairly recent as well. Expansion in perspectives on education and human development sparked the invention and subdivisions of stages of development. The stage dedicated to infants, toddlers, and children that have not yet reach the age for formal education is called Early Childhood. Since the existence of Early Childhood, there have become a number of degree and certification programs for Early Childhood. Early Childhood was not always available as a major or degree concentration. Some of the changes and increased formality in Early Childhood have changed the way Early Childhood professionals are educated…
Ackerman, D.J. (2004). What do teachers need? Practitioners' perspectives on early childhood professional development. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 24(4), 291 -- 301.
Sheridan, S.M., Edwards, C.P., Marvin, C.A., & Knoche, L.L. (2009). Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs. Early Education Development, 20(3), 377 -- 401.
controversy regarding childhood obesity, as this is a pressing matter and as there are more and more cases involving children becoming obese as a result of a series of factors involving poor nutrition, little to no exercise, and a general failure to understand why it is important for them to adopt attitudes that can maintain them healthy. The percentage of children becoming obese has experienced a steady increase in recent years, this standing as proof with regard to how conditions have become critical. The increase of the number of obese children is directly proportional with the advancement of technology and fast food, taking into account that children become more and more attached to technological devices and find it easier and more enjoyable to eat fast food.
Numerous pediatricians, parents, and policy-makers have gotten actively involved in discussing the topic of childhood obesity and in finding strategies they can use with…
Paxon, Christina, "Childhood Obesity," (Brookings Institution Press, 2006)
Vaca Durr, Olga, "It's Not about Childhood Obesity: It Is about Being Healthy for Life," (Inspiring Voices, 12.11.2012)
SPECIAL EDUCATION & EALY CHILDHOOD
Tasks in Special Education and Early Childhood
Defining Intellectual Disability and Degrees Thereof
Language is a powerful tool or a powerful weapon. The language used to described non-normative populations is often accompanied by a vigorous and often difficult discussion regarding what kinds of words are academically, professionally, and medically describing abnormal populations. One such term with an interesting history is the term "mental retardation." Within the recent years of the 21st century, there has been a shift away from the term mental retardation and more toward the phrase intellectual disability. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) has been an influential party with respect to this linguistic, conceptual, and social shift. Dunlap (2009) elaborates upon the definition of mental retardation that the AAIDD proposes, stating that it is "a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive…
Dunlap, L.L. (2009). An introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. NJ: Pearson.
Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2007). The Renaming of Mental Retardation: Understanding the Change to the Term Intellectual Disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(2), 116 -- 124.
Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2008). The Intellectual Disability Construct and Its relation to Human Functioning. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46(4), 311 -- 318.
Doctors of nursing practice have an ethical and professional obligation to disseminate findings that emerge from relevant and timely research. One area of ongoing concern is the near-epidemic levels of childhood obesity that have emerged in recent years due in large part to increasingly sedentary lifestyles and poor eating habits among young people. This paper provides an assessment and reflection on the success of the program design for disseminating the results of childhood obesity research, the challenges that were encountered, and the ethical considerations that may warrant additional attention. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues are provided in the conclusion.
Assessment and eflection
Over the past several weeks, my understanding of the national health-promotion and disease-prevention issue has become far more acute. The extent of the childhood obesity problem in this country became increasingly apparent as study after study confirmed the existence of the problem…
Berkowitz, B. & Borchard, M. (2009, January). Advocating for the prevention of childhood obesity: A call to action for nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 14(1), 37-41.
Cawley, J. (2006, Spring). Markets and childhood obesity policy. The Future of Children, 16(1),
Hannan, M. (2014, April 1). Setting the standard. National Recreation and Parks
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
Alice in Wonderland as Victorian Literature -- Being a child in Victorian England was difficult. They had to behave like the adults did, follow all rules, they had to be seen but not heard. Children, however, are naturally curious; unable to sit for long periods of time, and as part of normal cognitive development, consistently asking questions about the world. In fact, childhood is the period when a child acquires the knowledge needed to perform as an adult. It is the experiences of childhood that the personality of the adult is constructed. Alice's adventures, then, are really more of a set of curiosities that Carroll believed children share. Why is this, who is this, how does this work? and, her journey through Wonderland, somewhat symbolic of a type of "Garden of Eden," combines stark realities that would be necessary for her transition to adulthood.
For Victorians, control was part of…
Sander, David. The Fantasic Sublime: Romanticism and Transcendence in Nineteenth-Century Fantasy Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Thacker, Debora and Jean Webb. Introducing Children's Literature. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Walker, Stan. "Novels for Students: Alice in Wonderland." 1999. Enotes.com. .
(Novick, 1996) According to Novick practices that are developmentally appropriate and that contain culturally relevant teaching are: "...well grounded in human development and brain-based research..." (1996) The teacher must understand that today's schooling: "...takes place in a wider political context, one in which currently there is a great deal of anxiety and controversy regarding the nature of schooling, the economy, and our society, itself." (Novick, 1996) Schorr (1990) states that "methods and materials that promote active, experiential, inquiry based, cooperative learning activities lend themselves to accommodating a wide range of abilities and interests." (as cited by Novick, 1996)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
It is critically important that the teacher of the middle-childhood classroom understand and apply in the classroom practice the theories as set out in this research in order to motive the students both on a group and individual level in their acquisition of knowledge and learning.
Bowers, C.A. & Flinders, D.J. (1990). Responsive Teaching. New York: Teachers College Press.
Bowman, B.T. (1992) Reaching potentials of minority children through developmentally and culturally appropriate programs. In S. Bredekamp & T. Rosegrant (Eds.), Reaching potentials: Appropriate curriculum and assessment for young children. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Bowman, B.T. (1994). The challenge of diversity. Phi Delta Kappan, November, 218-224.
Bowman, B.T. & Stott, F.M. (1994). Understanding development in a cultural context: The challenge for teachers. In B. Mallory & R. New (Eds.), Diversity and developmentally appropriate practices. New York: Teachers College Press.
35). Information can also be added that relates to families, parents, and others whose primary culture and language are not in the mainstream.
Using children's literature to teach diversity: It is not a new idea for teachers to use literature to educate young children. But because Gillian Potter and colleagues assert that teachers are being challenged "as never before" to create experiences that are culturally meaningful to all children -- literature has come under a new and vitally important focus. And for those purposes, children's literature is a "powerful resource" to aid children in the knowledge of their known world, and literature allows them to travel to other worlds and "explore the unfamiliar" (Potter, 2009, p. 108).
For children of diverse cultures literature enhances their development of language, it fosters intellectual development and supports the growth of the child's personality and moral development as well, Potter goes on (p. 2).…
Biles, Barbara. (2008). Activities that Promote Racial and Cultural Awareness. KCET. Retrieved
January 26, 2011, from http://www.pbs.org/ .
Corso, Robert M., Santos, Rosa Milagros, and Roof, Virginia. (2002). Honoring Diversity in Early Childhood Education Materials. Teaching Exceptional Children.
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet, and Pulido-Tobiassen, Dora. (1999). Teaching "Diversity": A Place to Begin. Early Childhood Today. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www2.scholartic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3499&print=1.
" (p. 12) According to Cromer (2005) the literature that addresses the relationship between stressful life events and obsessive compulsive disorders does provide some degree of support implicating traumatic life-stress as being a factor in the onset and maintenance of the obsessive compulsive disorders however the exact relationship between the SLE and OCD "remains an empirical questions" specifically relating to "traumatic negative life events" (2005; p.13) Most of studies in this area investigation the association between SLEs and OCD have held limitations of: (1) small sample sizes; and (2) difficulty of establishing retrospectively the temporal relationship between onset and SLEs; and (3) a limited scope with regard to the effect of SLEs on OCD. (2005; p.13) Cromer relates that "mounting evidence suggests that early life-stress, in particular may preferentially incline individuals to develop adult psychiatric disorders." (2005; p.13) McCauley et al. (1997) states evidence from a large epidemiological investigation that…
Beamish, Patricia M. And Hill, Nicole R. (2007) Treatment outcomes for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a critical review.(Private Practices) Journal of Counseling and Development 22 Sept 20077. Online available at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-170413211.html
Bechtel, Robert B. And Ts'erts'Man, Arzah (2002) Handbook of Environmental Psychology. John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Boston University School of Social Work (2007) Online available at http://www.bu.edu/ssw/training/pep/programs/workshops/boston/index.shtml
Cromer, Kiara R. (2005) a Pathoplastic Vulnerability Mode: An Association Between Traumatic Stressful Life Events & OCD. Florida State University 2005. Online available at http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11/unrestricted/Cromer_Thesis_Nov_2005.pdf
American Childhood by Annie Dillard is a nostalgic narrative about her childhood. It is a book about growing up where the reader is able to see who Dillard was and who she became, following along on her journey and joining her in her childhood fascinations. Most of all, the book is a reminder of what it is like to be a child.
For the most part, the book did not contain any particularly interesting subjects or exciting events. As an example, Dillard writes extensively about her interest in collecting rocks and this becomes an ongoing topic in the book. hile it might seem that such a subject would make the book uninteresting, it managed to become a positive feature. This occurred for two main reasons. The first is that it made it clear that this is who Dillard was and that this is what her childhood was like. Dillard comes…
Dillard, A. An American Childhood. New York: Harper Perennial, 1988.
They gain a sense of distance, distust, and constaint in thei institutional expeiences, a distust that is common to White woking class Italian households, and Black woking class housing pojects alike. Middle class childen lean to egad leisue time as a time of skill building, to deal with stanges, even stange adults, to look these adults in the eye, and to compot themselves like membes of the pivileged class. This is paticulaly cucial in a nation of advancement like Ameica, wheeby one's social and oute demeano tanslates into one's educational oppotunities, evaluation of one's job pefomance, and the ability to advance in a still class-bound society.
The findings and implications fo teaches
What can teaches do to emedy such findings? Teaches can seek awaeness within thei own minds and backgounds. They must ty to tanslate that geate class and cultual awaeness into monitoing the pogess of students fom cultually depived…
references when making cultural allusions in class. Encourage students from the backgrounds of the book's study, the working class, the ethnic, and those of racial minorities, to pair with a diversity of students, to enhance their skills with strangers, and simply coping with 'strangeness.'
When grading assignments, teachers must try to remember some students are not allowed a quiet place to work, or have extra tutoring, or come from homes where homework is valued. Perhaps offer these students some quiet study time after school, or even offer parents information about community-based lessons at a cost the parents can afford, and just as critically have access to, perhaps via public transportation. Assign skills working class students may have that their middle-class cohorts may not have -- such as Italian cooking for Columbus Day, for a working-class boy like Yanelli, for example or reading a poem to a Black child with a voice strong from singing in his local church choir -- to make them feel empowered and to show that they can succeed at something they are 'good' at, and uniquely good at that! Above all, be aware of cultural as well as racial inequalities in this land of opportunity -- but of unequal opportunities for all
These policies blurred the state and church boundary. In the end he could not satiate the religious right elements completely and got severe criticism from leftist and feminist groups. His religious stance got him the presidency and it was also the religion that got him out of the office.
Primary Source ibliography
Jimmy Carter: His Childhood, Upbringing & Presidency
Carter, Jimmy. (1996). A Government as Good as Its People. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.
This volume presents sixty-two of the best and most notable public statements made by Jimmy Carter on his way to becoming president of the United States. Excerpts from the debates with President Ford, Interviews, speeches and news conferences of Jimmy Carter, made on the road to the White House. He speaks on such topics as crime, poverty, nuclear energy, foreign policy and human rights annd thus this book can be a good insight on Carter's…
Jimmy Carter: His Childhood, Upbringing & Presidency
Ebel, H. & deMause, L. (1997). Jimmy Carter and American Fantasy: Psychohistorical Explorations. Two Continents / Psychohistory Press. New York.
Fantasy analysis is a technique for examining an historical record such as a newspaper article, Congressional committee transcript or Presidential speech and picking out the body language, metaphors, repetitive phrases, similes, strong feelings and symbolic terms and then determining their common themes. The result is an understanding of the shared, un-conscious meaning of the record. The psychohistorian is thus provided with a valuable tool for getting beneath the formality and defensiveness of the manifest content to underlying feelings and fantasies. Fantasy analysis was first described in Jimmy Carter and American Fantasy, ed. Lloyd deMause and Henry Ebel and so this book can be considered good in analyzing the impact of faith on Carter's life & presidency.
Orientation will be held in a similar way, with parents exposed to Hahn's philosophy and rationale of the school curriculum, introduced to each of the teachers and invited to participate in joining in the various activities. Monthly reports will summarize the monthly events. Yearly reports will summarize the institution's annual achievement.
Description of assessment process used to document children's progress.
The Work Sampling System will be used which is a comprehensive assessment system for children in preschool though third grade. This consists of:
1. A modified Developmental checklist, arranged by 4 of the customary 7 domains: social development, language, art and music, and physical development.
2. Portfolios of children's work collected three or more times and year
3. Summary reports, written by teachers three times a year based upon their observations and ongoing records (Valeska Hinton early childhood educational center, Peoria, Illinois).
6 declines of modern youth; Kurt Hahn.…
6 declines of modern youth; Kurt Hahn. Wilderdom www.wilderdom.com/sixdeclinesofmodernyouth.html
Esquith. R. (2009) Lighting their fires: raising extraordinary kids in a mixed-up, muddled-up, shook-up world. New York: Viking
Four antidotes to the declines of modern youth -- Kurt Hahn Wilderdom www.wilderdom.com/fourantidotes.html
Dr. Kurt Hahn www.wilderdom.com/KurtHahn.html
While the primary cause of stuttering may be related to physiological disposition of the brain (the way it handles language skills and speech patterns), environmental factors may affect the physical condition or may even play a decisive role in triggering its activation. Psychoanalytical therapies may also help stuttering children "re-teach" the behavior of brain -- in other words, adapt to its different functioning -- and help overcome it before reaching adulthood.
Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. etrieved 5 March 2012 from http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046
Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. etrieved 5 March 2012, from http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, . (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing esearch, 51(3), 669-687.
Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186…
Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. Retrieved 5 March 2012 from http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046
Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. Retrieved 5 March 2012, from http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf
Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, R. (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 51(3), 669-687.
Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186
Risk taking behavior usually comes from feeling like one does not belong with others. At that point, a person does things that they would not otherwise do in an effort to fit in with other people. A lot of them do drugs or drink or smoke cigarettes, and some of them turn to promiscuous behavior in order to try to be accepted. I never did these things at that age because I was too afraid of the things that could happen to me. I did not want to get caught or be labeled a 'bad person' or get in trouble with my parents. They were very controlling, and that was part of the reason that I never did anything like that. I was not brave enough to be interested in taking that kind of risk because of my fear that my parents would punish me or not care about me…
At school, he struggled with math academically, and occasionally had conflicts with his teachers. These conflicts were not characterized by anger, but at his teacher's frustration at what they saw as his lack of attentiveness and lack of class participation. He was often described (and still is) as quiet and reserved by teachers, friends, and family. He recalls resenting going to school many years, and did not get much positive reinforcement in terms of his academic intelligence. Although his academic performance was adequate, he says he did not feel particularly intelligent. This began to change in junior high, when his performance in sports grew stronger after a growth spurt. The growth spurt, the esteem this garnered him on the team and at school translated into a greater sense of self-worth in the classroom, and greater engagement and confidence when dealing with others. For the first time he succeeded in school,…
Cramer, Craig, Bernadette Flynn, & Ann LaFave. (1997). Erikson's stage 4: Latency.
Introduction to Stages. Erikson homepage. Retrieved 8 Nov 2008 at http://web.cortland.edu/andersmd/ERIK/stage4.HTML
Pro-multi-factorial nature: Grants allow communities to create programs that are both diet and nutrition-related (askin 2010).
Con: Small grants for community programs cannot address major structural problems, such as too many fast food establishments within walking distances of schools or a lack of places for children to play safely (askin 2010).
H.. 3092: Pro-feasibility: It is more cost-effective to treat an individual for obesity early on, than to treat the individual for diabetes, heart disease, or other serious complications that can occur later in his or her life (Luhby 2010).
Con: Medicaid programs may experience cuts in the future, due to spiraling costs. Adding to the program's mandates may not be feasible (Luhby 2010).
Pro-enforceability: Many individuals may want to lose weight for health reasons, but lack the knowledge about proper nutrition to do so (askin 2010).
Con: Simply because individuals possess nutritional knowledge and receive counseling does not mean…
Edible Schoolyard. (2010). Official Website. Retrieved October 7, 2010 at http://www.edibleschoolyard.org/
H.R. 3092. (2010). Gov Track U.S.. Retrieved October 7, 2010 at http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h111-3092
H.R. 3144 Gov Track U.S.. Retrieved October 7, 2010 at http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bill.xpd?bill=h111-3144
Luhby, Tom. (2010).Soaring Medicaid costs could bust state budgets. CNN.
Lawrence Kohlberg based his ideas of moral development on Piaget's stage theory, stating that children proceeded from the pre-conventional punishment-obedience and personal reward orientation, to the conventional good boy-nice girl orientation/law and order orientation, and finally to the mature social contract orientation/universal ethical principle orientation (Becker, Dorward, & Pasciak, 1996).
Unsurprisingly perhaps, popular media aimed at parents, such as Child magazine, does not emphasize childhood sexual awareness, but rather the control that parents have over their child's intellectual and moral development is. The inability of parents to propel their children beyond the logical progression of stages stressed by Piaget and Kohlberg, or the dangers of arrested development if conflicts are not resolved in Freud and rickson are subsumed in advice on how the parent can engineer the child's social environment. In the article "Charm School for Tots," the magazine explains what it calls the new tiquette Revolution for tots at…
Erik Erikson accepted the Freudian theory of infantile sexuality, but believed that other non-sexual issues were equally important in childhood development. He theorized that the infant moved from stages of "Basic Trust vs. Mistrust," followed by conflicts of "Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt," "Initiative vs. Guilt," Industry vs. Inferiority, "Identity vs. Role Confusion, "Intimacy vs. Isolation," Generativity vs. Stagnation," and finally into the stage of "Ego Integrity vs. Despair." Personality malformation was likely to occur if the child's conflicts were not resolved, resulting in the child being stuck in one of these stages (Davis & Clifton, 2007, p.1). Jean Piaget, in contrast believed that the child's neurological capacity was the primary influence upon his or her ability to comprehend the world, as the child moved from the sensorimotor, to the preoperational, to the concrete operational stages, followed by the formal operational stage when the child could comprehend such concepts as 'here' and 'away,' and size, shape and mass ("Jean Piaget's Theory of Development,"2007). Lawrence Kohlberg based his ideas of moral development on Piaget's stage theory, stating that children proceeded from the pre-conventional punishment-obedience and personal reward orientation, to the conventional good boy-nice girl orientation/law and order orientation, and finally to the mature social contract orientation/universal ethical principle orientation (Becker, Dorward, & Pasciak, 1996).
Unsurprisingly perhaps, popular media aimed at parents, such as Child magazine, does not emphasize childhood sexual awareness, but rather the control that parents have over their child's intellectual and moral development is. The inability of parents to propel their children beyond the logical progression of stages stressed by Piaget and Kohlberg, or the dangers of arrested development if conflicts are not resolved in Freud and Erickson are subsumed in advice on how the parent can engineer the child's social environment. In the article "Charm School for Tots," the magazine explains what it calls the new Etiquette Revolution for tots at New York's Plaza Hotel, which hosts a class the teaches children how to be respectful of others by offering advice on how to choose the right silverware.
Kohlberg would no doubt see the age group that apparently delights in the class as being in the 'nice/good' child stage or law and order conventional periods of development, and are thus eager to obey parents in exchange for approval while Erickson would see the desire to receive rule-governed behavior as a desire for affirmation of boundaries and trust in adult authorities. Freud would see such an obsession with control over oral and sanitary issues as a hold over from the anal and oral stages. The teacher of the class does show some acknowledgement of the existence of stages of childhood development, when she states that
Change4Life: Government Movement to educe Childhood Obesity
Change4Life, a public health program in England, effective since January of 2009 and organized by the Department of Health is the country's first national social marketing campaign to reduce obesity (NHS, 2009, pp. 13). More specifically aimed at families with children under twelve years old, the initiative seeks to reduce childhood obesity and foster healthy and happy children, who in turn grown into happy and healthy adults. In recent years, a rise in obesity numbers and a decrease in physical activity led the Change4Life campaign to challenge the behaviors of English families that lead to excess weight gain (Change4Life, 2009, pp.1). In hoping to eliminate obesity from the earliest stages of life, Change4Life works to not only adjust citizen's weight, but their overall health and well-being through education and easily-accessible information. In essence, this campaign aims to encourage people to lead overall healthier…
Boseley, S. 2011 November 15. Obesity advisory group disbanded by government. The Guardian. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2011/nov/16 / obesity-advisory-group-disbanded [Accessed on 29 March 2012].
The Bow Group. 2009. Bow Group responds to the Children's Food Campaign: Criticism
of Change4Life. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.bowgroup.org/content/bow-group-responds-childrens-food-campaign-criticism-change4life [Accessed on 29 March 2012].
Change4Life. 2009. Change4Life Evaluation: Summary of Approach. Web. Retrieved
Another important strategy is that of exploring spatial relations. In such activities, children gain a better visual and practical sense of the spatial relations within mathematics. Scholastic's article portrays two girls discussing the appropriate spatial placement of a couch in a dollhouse. Such thinking methods can be influenced utilizing activities asking the children to map their house, their school, or their neighborhood in proportions. This will help open the child's mind to a more organized way of approaching spatial relations.
Using such strategies help lay the foundations of mathematics essential for later higher levels of learning. It is important to introduce elementary topics and concepts as early as possible, without boring young children to loose their interest. Early math lessons should include engaging activities which help keep the child moving and the learning environment active.
Personal Childhood Story From Cuba
It is a night I will likely never forget. My sister and I had flown in to Cuba for a Quinceanara, which is the 15th birthday party for a young woman of Latina descent. We were very excited because the girl whose party it was a close friend of both my sister and I as well as of our extended family in Cuba. I remember my sister looked really pretty that night. She wore purple polka dotted dress with a lace frock that flared at the bottom. Her hair was pinned up in a bun and, at 14 years of age at the time, I thought she looked like it could have been her rite of passage/coming to womanhood birthday party instead of my friend's.
Quite possibly my sister had the same thought because, for some reason, she decided to drink alcohol for the first…
They experienced things, such as sex and drugs, earlier than others, but their adolescence lasted longer because it was hard to break away from their single parent. Divorce affects these children most of all during adulthood. In romantic relationships, fear of abandonment can make them choose people they feel safe with, even though the partner may be abusive. She found that only 40% of those now in their 30s and 40s are married. The rest live in various kinds of relationships from cohabitation to still dating. More than 50% have chosen to not have children "because they believe they know too little about good parenting" (New 1).
Childhood is not fun for children of divorced families. They talk about logistics surrounding the holidays and the stress from two parents who vie for their love. They have memories of sadness and loneliness surrounding holidays, rather than happy memories. They were not…
Hughes, Robert, Jr. "The Effects of Divorce on Children." Menweb. 2005. http://www.menweb.org/divorcekids.htm .
New Research on Kids of Divorce: The Unexpected Legacy of Divorce." Family Education. 2007. http://life.familyeducation.com/divorce/29600.html .
Strong, Bryan; Cohen, Theodore F. And Devault, Christine. The Marriage and Family Experience. 9th Ed. New York: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 2005.
"For example, the more women considered prejudice to occur across a variety of contexts, the more they reported depression, anxiety, and decreased self-esteem." (Foster & Dixon, 2002, p.1)
These findings about the limits of group conciousness hint that perhaps, rather than focusing on a generalized female conciousness raising outside of the workplace, focusing on specific managerial objectives of female advancement within specific industries and workplaces might be more beneficial. Change the conciousness of managers, specifically male managers, through diversity workshops and penalizing sexism, rather than focus on changing female's perceptions of their competance alone. Create a sense of 'it's everywhere,' one also runs the risk of creating a sense that 'there is nothing I can do' and of learned helplessness in the hearts of female workers. Even from my own unwitting beneficical experience of sexism, I know how difficult it is to be confrontational as an entry-level employee, when one…
Anthis, Kristine. "The role of sexist discrimination in adult women's identity development." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. November 2002, p.1-4. Retrived from Find Articles at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_2002_Nov/ai_97728461/pg_1
Mindi D. Foster and Kenneth L. Dion. "The role of hardiness in moderating the relationship between global/specific attributions and actions against discrimination." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. August 2004, p.1-5. Retrived from Find Articles at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_3-4_51/ai_n6212699
Renzetti, Claire M. & Daniel Curran, Women, Men, and Society. Fifth Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon, 2002
It brought her the unfortunate gift of paralysis and along with it, as it happens for most people, bitterness, frustration, and sometimes the wish to put an end to all the suffering. I was amazed to witness such dramatic changes in one person who was so special to me once! The generous, kind, patient person she was became just the opposite after she started to be so dependent on the help of everyone around her for the smallest of things, like drinking a glass of water, or washing her face. At first I was angry and could not understand. I refused to acknowledge she will never be the same as before. but, step-by-step, I began to understand the stages old people go through when they need the help of others more and more every day, not to mention the pains they go through. Further experiences broadened my horizon on the…
Black Experience in American Culture
This is a paper that analyzes the black experience in American culture as presented by Hughes, Baldwin, Wright and Ellison. It has 20 sources in MLA format.
African-American authors have influenced American culture as they have come forward to present issues that the society would rather have forgotten. Authors such as ichard Wright alph Ellison, Langston Hughes and James Baldwin have come under fire as they have written about the racial and biased experiences throughout their life [Capetti, 2001] and through their narratives they have forged a link between the past, the present (themselves) and their future (the unborn generation).
These literary works are an effort on their part to prove to their nations that regardless of the perceived realities their existence and lives have valuable. The slave past some of these authors have had created a void in their lives that at times left…
1] Sundquist, Eric J. who was Langston Hughes? Relevancy: 100; (Commentary) 12-01-1996
2] Buttitta, Anthony. "A Note on Contempo and Langston Hughes." London: Cunard, 1934. 141.
3] Langston Hughes on Scottsboro. College Literature, 10-01-1995, pp. 30(20). Vol. 22
4] Okafor-Newsum, Ikechukwu, of Dreams Deferred, Dead or Alive: African Perspectives on African-American Writers.. Vol. 29, Research in African Literatures, 03-22-1998, pp. 219(12).
Lying is perhaps one of the most common wrongs we (virtually all of us) commit in the course of our life. It could even be true to say that it is human nature to tell lies. Consciously or unconsciously, we often lie to evade embarrassing or awkward situations, get out of trouble, and/or make other people feel better or intimidate them. Unfortunately, even though lying may be good or bad depending on the situation at hand, or depending on who you ask, we usually disregard the impact our lies can have on not only those lied to, but also us. Even the most trivial of lies can have severe unexpected consequences.
As an individual, I regard myself as a straightforward and honest person. This is a value that I have emulated from my father since childhood. My father has always taught me the importance of candidness and truthfulness. I have…
(Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Strategy 3: Community Food Access - Promote efforts to provide fruits and vegetables in a variety of settings, such as farmers' markets, farm stands, mobile markets, community gardens, and youth-focused gardens. (Institute of Medicine, 2009)
Action Steps: (1) Encourage farmers markets to accept Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) food package vouchers and WIC Farmers Market Nutrition Program coupons; and encourage and make it possible for farmers markets to accept Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (or SNAP, formerly the Food Stamp Program) and WIC Program Electronic enefit Transfer (ET) cards by allocating funding for equipment that uses electronic methods of payment; (2) Improve funding for outreach, education, and transportation to encourage use of farmers markets and farm stands by residents of lower-income neighborhoods, and by WIC and SNAP recipients. Introduce or modify land use policies/zoning regulations to promote, expand, and protect potential sites…
Berkowitz, Bobbie and Borchard, Marleyse (2009) Prevention of Childhood Obesity Advocating for the Prevention of Childhood Obesity: A Call to Action for Nursing. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. ANA Periodicals Vol 14 -- 2009 No 1 Jan'09http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Vol142009/No1Jan09/Prevention-of-Childhood-Obesity.aspx
Dehghan, Mahshid, Akhtar-Danesh, Noori, and Merchant, Anwar T. (2005) Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. Nutrition Journal 2 Sept 2005. Online available at: http://www.nutritionj.com/content/4/1/24
National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research (NCCOR) March 06, 2009 http://obssr.od.nih.gov/news_and_events/news.aspx
Local Government Actions to Prevent Childhood Obesity (2009) Institute of Medicine. September 2009. Report Brief. Online available at: http://www.rwjf.org/files/research/20090901iombrief.pdf
Parents of Obese Children and Charges of Child Abuse: What Is Our
esponse? Pediatric Ethics, Issues, & Commentary, 337-342.
This article provides a discussion on the problems related to childhood obesity and the potential redresses that could be ethically used to help mitigate the growing trend. Some healthcare professionals have also argued that obesity in children is sufficient grounds for some parents to be prosecuted for a form of child abuse in extreme cases. Yet, there are many social and cultural barriers that are present that can prevent parents from being able to understand proper diets or have access to nutritious foods. Some researchers have noted the irony of a country that allows removing obese children from their homes but that does not support healthier children through controlled advertising, legislating a living wage, or making healthy foods affordable (Lang, 2012).
The article notes that states have a mandate to protect…
Hopkins, K. D., & Elliot, L. (2010). How can primary care providers manage pediatric obesity in the real world? Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 278-288.
Lang, K. (2012). Parents of Obese Children and Charges Of Child Abuse: What Is Our Response? Pediatric Ethics, Issues, & Commentary, 337-342.
Savinon, C., Taylor, J., Canty-Mitchell, J., & Blood-Siegfried, J. (2012). Childhood obesity: Can electronic medical records customized with clinical practice guidelines improve screening and diagnosis? Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 463-471.