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During infancy, the interviewee's cognitive abilities were stimulated by playing with her older siblings, and also by the mother, who was able to spend a lot of time with her children and did not work outside the home. Games like pat-a-cake were played, and toys were offered that had many bright colors and were enjoyable. She was also read to quite often from a very early age. According to the text, stimulating all of a baby's senses early and often is important for development. Reading to them is very good, so that's something that the interviewee's mother was definitely doing right. Another advantage that the interviewee had was the benefit of older siblings. Not only did the mother learn from mistakes that she might have made with them, but they were also around to play with the interviewee, meaning that she was benefitting from their interaction with her. Learning language…
"Try a little," said my mother, hesitating, wondering if I would like it. It was like an explosion of flavor in my mouth. I always thought I didn't like chicken, especially with vegetables, but this was different. It hardly seemed like the same animal, no pun intended, as what I was usually served. Even more wondrous were the little pockets of fried goodness called egg rolls. These were filled with vegetables like shredded cabbage and the spices made the green things delicious, rather than a pain to eat.
We often ordered out as a family during times of great joy and great sadness -- to celebrate, or when things were too hectic for home cooking. Eating Chinese food, even when I ordered the same thing, was never boring. I adored the special equipment needed to consume it -- the chopsticks, the flavor packets of neon yellow mustard and orange sweet…
The First Day
The little fat girl cried on the first day of kindergarten. And not just a little snivel, but a loud full throated 62 pound ear shattering temper tantrum that clearly bespoke the message to anyone who was listening & #8230;GET ME THE HELL OUTTA HERE!....NOW! I remember my stomach churning like the ocean off the southern tip of the African continent. I can still see her in my mind; she wore a red dress and black shoes. Her hair was as dark as her mood.
I can see us now, Miss Klafkey's class, all dressed up with nowhere to hide. There was a general sense of anxiety amongst us all, a pervasive sense of doom. I think we were all wondering the same thing; what does she know that we don't know?
It wasn't long before others were crying too, including mothers. My fellow condemned…
umors of the impact of repressed memory are prevalent, "yet data on cognitive functioning in people reporting repressed and recovered memories of trauma have been strikingly scarce" (McNally 2011). Part of the explanation for this lack of evidence is the high rate of failure to actually pull out repressed memories within the context of the lab. Many studies examining the issue focused on using psychologists using hypothetical scenarios "hoping that this guided-imagery technique will unblock the presumably repressed memories" (McNally 2011). ather than providing the guidance that would help the participant show repressed memories, "unfortunately, this procedure may foster false memories," therefore jeopardizing the entire study (McNally 2011). As such, evidence for repressed memories remains elusive.
As a future professor, it is important to understand how memory works within the minds of one's students. There are a number of different strategies one can use to help students remember the most…
Kensinger, Elizabeth a. (2007). Negative emotion enhances memory accuracy. Association for Psychological Science, 16(4), 213-219.
McNally, Richard J. (2011). Recovering memories of trauma: A view from the laboratory. Psychological Science. Harvard University Department of Psychology. Web. http://www.psychologicalscience.org/journals/cd/12_1/McNally.cfm
The (Im) persistence of Historical and Collective Memory: The Collective Forgetting of Vichy France and the Victims of the Holocaust
The unstable nature of human memory even on a personal level has been a persistent theme since Sigmund Freud's analysis of hysterics, to the modern day queries over the 'repressed memory' syndrome of alleged victims of childhood abuse. The fear of 'forgetting' such horrific historical events as the Holocaust in Europe and the crimes of the those collaborators of Vichy France has also spawned an additional, historical query into the nature of collective, human memory and the dangers of the unwillingness of human beings to confront the past.
Cognitive psychology suggests additional challenge to the difficulty of interpreting the Holocaust and also the "Vichy Syndrome" of a lack of historical guilt, that stretch beyond the moral allegations of fear or callousness. There may be a mental process that inhibits…
La Capra, Dominick, History and Memory after Auschwitz. "Chapter 1: History and Memory: In the Shadow of the Holocaust." Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1998.
Rousso, Henry. The Vichy Syndrome: History and Memory in France since 1944. "Introduction: The Neurosis." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991. Foreword by Stanley Hoffmann.
Memory is one of those human traits that both connects us to and alienates us from the past. In memory, we are most aware of how much the past remains just that -- in the past. In comparison to the here and now, we are also most aware of how much has been lost to the past when we recall the things we had and the things that are no longer there. Those really early memories about London, my home, come back to me in almost every detail, even while I tend to have trouble remembering what I did and where I went yesterday or the day before. These memories, or maybe a kind of urban nostalgia, bring to my mind many traditional places in the city that are close and dear to my heart. Indeed, I feel privileged to have known these places and lived through the time of…
Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…
Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).
Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).
Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).
Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
Lost Boys Never Forget" had always thought my childhood to be quite memorable. Birthday parties, family reunions, road trips, football games... It was a very active and eventful life when I was growing up, and I always seemed to have an exciting adventurous tale to tell in class the first day after summer break, or when my parents asked me how my day had been at the dinner table. I loved playing outdoors, and the nearby woods offered endless games of make-believe. However, when I was barely twelve years old, I chose to take a walk down the old, rarely used hiking trail in those woods with my friend Kenny. Down that path I would find something unlike anything I had ever seen before, and I would have such a life-changing experience that my entire twelve years of life before would seem almost like an empty slate with nothing…
The specific categories include the following:
4) temperature; and 5) feelings.
FINDINGS of the STUDY
The following table labeled Figure 1 in this study states the responses given by participants in both groups in this study and as well provides totals and grand totals for both groups which for the purpose of this study are labeled as follows:
Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light)
Group 2 - Memory Recall Group (Darkened or Muted Light)
Responses of Participants in Group 1 and Group 2
FIRST GROUP Color Smell Texture Temperature Feelings TOTALS GRAND TOTAL PARTICIPANT
SECOND GROUP Color Smell Texture Temperature Feelings TOTALS GRAND TOTAL PARTICIPANT
It is clear from the findings in this study which specifically show that Group 1 - Memory Recall Group (Outside Light) Participant responses were notably higher in their descriptive content more often describing more specific…
Takao, Ito, Hiroshi, Yamadera, Ritsuko, Ito, and Shunkichi, Endo (1999) Effects of Bright Light on Cognitive Disturbances in Alzheimer-type Dementia. Journal of Nippon Medical School. Vol. 66, No. 4.
Moore, R.: Visual Pathways and the Central Neural Control of Diurnal Rhythms. The Neurosciences 3rd Study Program, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT, 1974.
Shealy, Norman: Effects of the Lumatron upon Neurochemicals. Lecture given for Dr. Shealy by Dr. Klinghardt at the 6th Int. Rehab. Med. ass. Congress, Madrid, Spain, 1990
Wurtman, Richard u.a.: The Medical and Biological Effects of Light. in: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 453, 1985
These factors, however, can contribute to bias opinion. Legal professionals also consider occupation in relation to memory accuracy. For example, law enforcement officers tend to be better witnesses as they practice paying attention to detail, and are required to recall details on a regular basis. This overall category pertaining to the attributes of the witness have an effect on encoding and storing information, which are the first two stages of information processing. When these factors influence information processing, any information filtered to long-term memory can be significantly distorted.
The second category considered when establishing the accuracy of an eyewitness's memory is the attributes of the perpetrator. When questioning an eyewitness, legal professionals must inquire if the perpetrator was wearing a disguise, has a distinctive face, or if they were an acquaintance, friend, or family member. Each of these scenarios contributes to the accuracy of the individual's memory. The third general…
Baddeley, A. (2004), 'The Psychology of Memory', The Handbook of Memory Disorders for Clinicians.
Kensinger, E. (2007), 'Negative emotion enhances memory accuracy behavioral and neuroimaging evidence', Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 213-218.
Malpass, R. (2005), 'Eyewitness memory and identification', The San Antonio Defender,
Available at: http://eyewitness.utep.edu/Documents/Malpass&05EyewitMem&ID.SAD.pdf
Culture - Memory
Freudian Perspective of Memory: Article eview
Freudian Perspectives of Memory: Article eview
This article review is similar to the other article review regarding the nature of memory, yet in this case, the articles to be referenced here, describe the nature of memory with regard to psychoanalysis and the interplay among reality, fantasy, and memory. Though he began writing and practicing psychoanalysis before or concurrently with the advent of the motion picture, many of Sigmund Freud's ideas as presented in the articles to be discussed draw many similarities between the nature of memory and the nature of the screen or projected image. The author's of the articles not written by Freud make arguments and assessments of his ideas in the modern age, particularly with the advent of many digital technologies and a more globalized age. The paper will elucidate the main points drawing parallels and connections among the…
Freud, S. (1899) Screen Memories, 303 -- 322.
Freud, S. (1925) A Note upon the "Mystic Writing-Pad." On Metapsychology: The Theory of Psychoanalysis. Penguin: Harmondsworth, 429 -- 434.
Kennedy, R. Memory and the Unconscious, 179 -- 197.
Terdiman, R. Memory in Freud. 97 -- 109.
..Educational psychologists have made rather extensive investigations of semantic (declarative) and procedural memory with respect to studying and theorizing about classroom learning and teaching....very little theoretical or empirical work has been conducted in educational psychology that has examined the episodic (experiential and autobiographical) memories of teachers and learners in relation to instructional interventions and students' learning from such interventions.
Martin 1993: 169-170)
Another memory theory that has become popular and may have significant educational distinction is the concept of working memory, or rapid access memory that is finite (such as the AM of a computer and therefore cannot be stretched across to much stimulus or brain work to elicit memory of the core concepts.
esearch on test anxiety and working memory suggests that performance deficits caused by test anxiety can be explained by the extent to which individuals are able to use their working memory capacity (Darke, 1988b; Eysenck, 1985).…
Antoine, Marie, Shannon Donald, and Carolyn C. Cox. 2003. "Are Students Throwing Away Nutrition?." Journal of Research in Childhood Education 17:230.
Arnold, Magda B. 1984. Memory and the Brain. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Chance, P.A. 1999. Learning and Behavior. New York: AIPI.
Das, J.P. 1989. "Good and Poor Readers' Word Naming Time, Memory Span, and Story Recall." Journal of Experimental Education 57:101-114.
Other determining factors influencing long-term affects of abuse to a child include:
Whether the child's mother is supportive and child can confide in her.
Whether the child's experiences success at school
Whether the child has nurturing relationships with peers. (Ibid.)
Childhood intimacy problems and sexual abuse, interacting with family background, contribute the child's developing self-esteem and sense or "world" mastery being disrupted. These deficits, in turn, increase the probability of a child experiencing psychological problems later in his/her adult. These developmental deficits may lead to social and personal vulnerabilities later in life, and consequently contribute to the risk of mental health problems developing and/or increasing. (Ibid.)
Sexual Abuse "Signs"
Effects of early sexual abuse, which include childhood intimacy problems, last well into a person's adulthood and effect their relationships, family and work. Individual symptomatology tends to be reflected into the following four areas:
1. "Damaged goods: Low self-esteem, depression, self-destructiveness…
Profile: Sexual predators solicit children on the Internet," All Things Considered (NPR), June 19, 2001.
BETTER ANSWER to SEXUAL PREDATORS.(Editorial)(Editorial)," Seattle Post Intelligencer (Seattle, WA), June 15, 1997.
Bolen, Rebecca M.. "Child sexual abuse: prevention or promotion?," Social Work, April 1, 2003.
But I wasn't nearly excited as I had been the previous year on all counts. Toys and other gifts no longer held the same appeal to me -- already I could imagine when the books would be read, or the game already played a thousand times, and the brand new shine of each present seemed to fade with this knowledge. The wrapping papers, so many squares of petroleum-processed soon-to-be-confetti, were carefully un-taped and unfolded instead of being ripped off of each package, and though they would simply be making their way into the trash I folded each one ontop of those that had come before, forming a neat stack of flattened celebration, before I turned to examine the gift itself. There was something very bittersweet about the whole experience, and I remember savoring every moment of it.
I had always been a very serious child, or so I have been…
Childhood obesity: An epidemiological overview
Community and population
Childhood obesity is an increasingly serious problem in America and around the world. Obesity in all demographic categories in the U.S. is increasing; however the increase in the rate of obesity for young people is particularly worrisome. The longer an individual is obese over the course of his or her lifetime, the greater the social and financial costs. Obese persons experience school and workplace harassment; have difficulty fully participating in the full range of physical activities needed for health and personal well-being because of joint-related issues such as osteoarthritis; and incur higher healthcare costs as a result of a greater risk of suffering from diabetes, heart disease, and certain kinds of cancer. The longer the person is obese, the greater these risks are compounded and today's generation of obese children may never have a memory of what it is…
Childhood obesity facts. (2014). CDC. Retrieved from:
Healthier food access. (2014). Health People 2020. Retrieved from:
In the spaces provided beneath the flowchart, list the term that corresponds with the definition in each box.
ABC/123 Version X
Copyright © XXXX by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Hopper, C. How memory works. PowerPoint. etrieved from:
Computing IQ Essay
Consider the following scenario:
Kara is 10 years old. She has been given an intelligence test. Her mental age is 13.
According to Sternberg, what is Kara's IQ? Conduct research and interpret her score.
Kara's IQ is 130. One formulation of an intelligence quotient is that of mental age and a child with a superior mental age to her actual years thus has a higher IQ. "Sternberg's discussions on intelligence are very different from a lot of others because he appears to think that other than a static score, intelligence is somewhat malleable and should…
Lane, C. (20008). Gardner's multiple intelligences. The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide. Retrieved from: http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html
McLeod, S. A. (2010). Long-term memory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/long-term-memory.html McLeod, S. A. (2014). Classical Conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/classical-conditioning.html
McLeod, S. A. (2015). Skinner - operant conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
Paik, H. (2001). One intelligence or many? Alternative approaches to cognitive abilities. Personality Research.
Reavey, P. (010). Spatial markings: Memory, agency and child sexual abuse. Memory Studies.
According to Reavey (010), a critical component of recovery from childhood sexual abuse is reasserting the victim's sense of agency and control over her own life. All too often it is common when treating survivors to encourage them to see themselves as passive victims. The focus of Reavey's text is the spatial component of memory: women experience the trauma of abuse again and again because of the parallels between their current physical situation and that of their past, abusive histories. Reavey suggests that viewing the self as constantly in flux and changing and creating a new narrative linking past and present in a more positive way is a far more helpful concept to instill over the course of therapy. One of the challenges many women experience in dealing with abuse is that it takes place in a…
2011 4: 23.
According to Burton (2011), although pain is undeniably a 'real' thing, memories of pain can cause the actual, somatic trauma to linger long after the physical condition has passed. She cites one woman who was 'tricked' using a mirror to realize that she no longer was experiencing pain in one of her hands due to repetitive stress injury. "Mirror therapy illustrates the radical account of corporeal memory that is now current in the biomedical sciences, in which the body is a complex amalgam of fleshy reality and cerebral projection -- images and reality have merged, and the brain has the capacity to 're-member' its physiological attitudes" (Burton 2011: 30). Although Burton acknowledges that there is often a great deal of mistrust of biological sciences as reductive amongst humanities scholars, she suggests that the treatment of chronic pain can be useful as a study of the intersection of personal experience and medicine. Chronic pain is ill-understood by the medical community and often notoriously difficult to treat. Analyzing how memory can cause pain to be stored in the body and how tricking one's memory can release it shows how humanities-based understandings of medicine can prove useful for the biological sciences.
Pain is all too often negated or dismissed: rather Burton suggests an empathetic understanding of its causality and a holistic approach to pain treatment. Burton's article provides a starting point for many other treatments which try to address the intersection of pain and memory. Massage, yoga, and other forms of general exercise all encourage participants to construct a new concept of themselves through the reengineering of the body and a reconfiguration of the relationship of the individual to his or her physicality in the past, present, and future.
Wang, Q., & Brockmeier, J. (2002). Autobiographical remembering and cultural practice:
Understanding the interplay between memory, self and culture. Culture and Memory, 8(1), 45-64.
Autobiographical memory is a critical component of how an individual defines his or her sense of self in Western culture: the stories we remember and tell ourselves define how we see ourselves as human beings. According to Wang & Brockmeier (2002), not all cultures conceive of memory in such a personal and individualistic fashion: when asked to recollect a memory from childhood, Chinese undergraduates were more inclined to talk about collective experiences (Wang & Brockmeier 2002: 49). A more dependent and less individualistic concept of the self within a culture conspires to create different memories. Memories are not absolute and static, even highly personal ones; they are culturally contextual. Chinese residents even have later recollected memories than their American counterparts. "Personal remembering in these cultures evokes…
Film review: Memento (2000)
Director Christopher Nolan's film Memento (2000) chronicles the struggle of the main protagonist to find the killer of his wife, even though he suffers from a condition which makes it impossible to allow him to form new long-term memories. Over the course of the narrative it becomes clear that he was her killer. But when the private investigator (Teddy) Lenny hired to help him get to the bottom of his wife's death tries to convince him of the truth, Lenny effectively sets a trap for his future self, writing not to trust Teddy on a Polaroid. After forgetting what Teddy told him, Lenny kills Teddy, thus giving him a sense of closure, even though he knows (or at least his past self knew) that this was not the truth.
On one hand, Memento profoundly challenges the notion of memory as something static and real. It takes the genre of a typical mystery movie where the ending usually involves unmasking the true killer and circumvents this, given that the main character is incapable of really knowing the truth because of his condition. Yet there is also the suggestion that despite the absence of a coherent memory, Lenny is still the same person as he was before he lost his memory. His relationship with his wife, at least as recounted by Teddy, seems contentious and broken (the real way his wife died was that she did not believe he had memory loss and asked him to repeatedly inject her with insulin, as she was testing him to see if he would remember that he had done so only a short while ago). Although Lenny may have lost his ability to form new memories, his actions towards both his wife and Teddy indicate a deceitful and self-serving character that is consistent, even though his memories are not.
Memory and Forgetting: A Comprehensive Analysis
Memory loss is a huge problem in an aging population.
No substantive cure for memory loss.
Forgetfulness does not always accompany aging.
Different types of memory loss:
The memory impairment that comes with aging may be due to confusion as well as memory loss.
Memory loss and forgetfulness may be preventable.
There are a number of different approaches to reducing forgetfulness
Daily behavioral changes
The goal of the paper began as a meta-analysis of efforts aimed to reduce forgetfulness
Too many promising approaches to aiding memory impairment to engage in a traditional meta-analysis
Look at the theoretical overlap of different known approaches that may enhance or impair memory
F. Not engaging in a meta-analysis of a single therapy because single therapies do not have therapeutic efficacy.
G. Examine the hypothetical overlap between various treatment modalities
Bottiroli, S., Rosi, A., Russo, R., Vecchi, T. & Cavallini, E. 2014. 'The cognitive effects of listening to background music on older adults: processing speed improves with upbeat music, while memory seems to benefit from both upbeat and downbeat music.' Front Aging Neurosci, vol.6. pp. 284-. Available from: [November 11, 2014].
Cairney, S.A., Durrant, S.J., Jackson, R., & Lewis, P.A. 2014. 'Sleep spindles provide indirect support to the consolidation of emotional encoding contexts.' Neuropsychologia, vol. 63, pp. 285-92.
Cowan, N. (2008). What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Prog Brain Res, 169, pp.323-338. doi: 10.1016/S0079-6123(07)00020-9
Lo, J.C., Dijk, D.J., & Groeger, J.A. 2014. 'Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation. PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 9, e108100. Available from: . [4 November 2014].
Is repression a valid and legitimate process in the sense that Freud portrayed it or, alternatively, as might be presented in a more modern explanation?
According to Freud we 'repress' aspects of our memory we find unpleasant by relegating them to what Freud called our subconscious, versus our conscious mind (Ciccarelli 2013: 180). Scientists today are more inclined to view repression in light of the faulty operations of long-term memory retrieval. As new memories are created in a subject's long-term memory, existing memories can become distorted or replaced (Ciccarelli 2013: 182). Also, every time a memory is retrieved it is slightly altered, as it is affected by the memories that have been subsequently formed. Memory can also become distorted by current misinformation. We may think we have remembered something but we are really affected by the prompting of others.
Thus, repression can be legitimate in the sense that not…
Ciccarelli, S.K., & White, J.N. (2013). Psychology: An Exploration (2nd ed.). U.S.A.: Pearson
Johnson, Kareem J. & Barbara L. Fredrickson. (2005). "We all look the same to me:"
Positive emotions eliminate the own-race bias in face recognition.
Charles Simic's poem "My Mother Was a Braid of Black Smoke" appears in New and Selected Poems, 1962-2012. The poem is the story of the poet's genesis, and it is difficult for the reader to distinguish between what is actual memory and what is the impression or imagination of the speaker. The first stanza starts, "My mother was a braid of black smoke." The imagery in this stanza, with his mother's "swaddling," conveys the sense that Simic's childhood was not a wealthy or happy one. The cities were "burning cities," perhaps reference to the outbreak of war. When the speaker says "We met many others who were just like us," the reader gets the sense that they were outcasts. This imagery is in direct contradiction with the second stanza's imagery. For instance, the second stanza refers to gypsies, and distinguishes the speaker's family from the gypsies. "I was stolen…
Post-Memory and Marianne Hirsch
Marianne Hirsch discusses an important concept in Holocaust/Memory studies, post-memory. What kind of experience/process does post-memory refer to? Why did Hirsch need to invent such a concept? What is the importance of memory, family, and photography in order to understand post-memory?
Marianne Hirsch introduces the concept of "post-memory" in her 1992 essay Family Pictures: Maus, Mourning, and Post-Memory. According to Hirsch, post-memory "is the relationship of children of survivors of cultural or collective trauma to the experiences of their parents, experiences that they 'remember' only as the stories and images with which they grew up, but that are so powerful, so monumental, as to constitute memories in their own right….secondary or second-generation memory…." (1992). Post-memory is based on the recollections of the storyteller rather than the lived experience of the listener (Tal, 1996). Hirsch came to this understanding as a result of her own childhood experiences…
Goertz, K. (1998). Transgenerational representations of the Holocaust: From memory to 'post-memory'. World Literature Today, 72(1), 33.
Hensley, T. (2012). On Listening to Holocaust Survivors: Beyond Testimony. Oral History Review, 39(1), 132-136.
Hirsch, M. (1992). "Family Pictures: Maus, Mourning, and Post-Memory." Discourse, 15(2):3-29.
Tal, Kali. Worlds of Hurt: Reading the Literatures of Trauma. (1996) Accessed Online, 8/12/2012. http://www.kalital.com/Text/Worlds/index.html .
The sumptuous, mouth-watering buffet contains pastries shaped and made realistic to look like flowers fill the deep porcelain bowls. When one bites to each piece, one can not only taste the sweetness and nectar-taste, but smell the fruity aroma of each pastry piece as well. This goes gloriously delectable with the various dips of sweet and sour and meaty mixes of chocolates, and fruits. At the end of the table is a fountain of violet-colored liquid melodiously flowing down the slope of a small mountain with a meandering path.
The sound of flowing rivers, with the chirps of busy and mating birds and insects, and the sweet and soft melody of a harp being played in the background soothe the mind and spirit of any wandering soul with a healthy appetite and curious and adventurous palate that enters the cafe.
Stages of Language Production:
While there is not necessarily a consensus among researchers as to the precise nature of human language production, one widely accepted view is the information processing approach (obinson-iegler, 422). In that framework, language production generally occurs in four specific stages: (1) conceptualization, (2) planning, (3) articulation, and (4) self-monitoring.
In that regard, the conceptualization stage refers to the internal process whereby the individual develops the desire to communicate a specific thought to others (obinson-iegler, 422). The planning stage consists of the decisions pertaining to how the thoughts to be communicated are organized into a linguistic plan within the framework of the language in which the individual hopes to communicate. The articulation stage involves the actual expression of the thoughts formulated in the conceptualization stage through the linguistic plan developed in the planning stage (obinson-iegler, 422).
Finally, the self-monitoring stage consists of the individual's purposeful awareness of…
Robinson-Riegler, G., and Robinson-Riegler, B. (2008). Cognitive Psychology:
Applying the Science of the Mind, Second Edition. New Jersey: Allyn and Bacon/Pearson.
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
In the development of language skills the learning and implementation of semantic memory is therefore vital to the central aims of language and communication. The flowing quotation outlines the function of semantic memory in relation to language production
Semantic memory is the system that you use to store your knowledge of the world. It is a knowledge base that we all have and much of which we can access quickly and effortlessly. It includes our memory of the meanings of words - the kind of memory that lets us recall not only the names of the world's great capitals, but also social customs, the functions of things, and their colour and odour.
( What are semantic memories?)
3. The stages of language production and semantic memory
As has been discussed above, semantic memory is memory that is shared and common to the language users. It enables the understanding and recognition…
Learning and Conditioning. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/11255529/AP-Psychology-Review-Part-3?autodown=pdf
Linguistics. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/3920/?200914>
Semantic Memory. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.enotes.com /gale-psychology-encyclopedia/semantic-memory
What are semantic memories? Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/memory/understand/semantic_memories.shtml
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…
Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.
Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.
Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.
Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
There is also a similarity in the portrayal of women in both films. For example, Natalie in "Memento" manipulates Leonard, because of his faulty memory. Leonard is driven to avenge a wife whom he seems to regard in extremely idealistic terms. This suggests that a kind of virgin/whore complex attitude towards women is harbored by the main character. Although Fellini's film seems slightly more positive in the way that it views women, it also tends to portray women as either pristine, highly virginal women or mothers, or sexual, earthy goddesses. omen exist less as characters than as metaphorical or visual embodiments for how men see women, and how men remember the influence of women in their lives, as either children, or even in the short-term past.
Fellini's film ultimately suggests that looking backward with perhaps an overly idealized view of women and childhood is not necessarily a bad thing. Memory…
Amarcord." Directed by Federico Fellini. 1973.
Memento." Directed by Christopher Nolan. 2000.
Alice in Wonderland as Victorian Literature -- Being a child in Victorian England was difficult. They had to behave like the adults did, follow all rules, they had to be seen but not heard. Children, however, are naturally curious; unable to sit for long periods of time, and as part of normal cognitive development, consistently asking questions about the world. In fact, childhood is the period when a child acquires the knowledge needed to perform as an adult. It is the experiences of childhood that the personality of the adult is constructed. Alice's adventures, then, are really more of a set of curiosities that Carroll believed children share. Why is this, who is this, how does this work? and, her journey through Wonderland, somewhat symbolic of a type of "Garden of Eden," combines stark realities that would be necessary for her transition to adulthood.
For Victorians, control was part of…
Sander, David. The Fantasic Sublime: Romanticism and Transcendence in Nineteenth-Century Fantasy Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Thacker, Debora and Jean Webb. Introducing Children's Literature. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Walker, Stan. "Novels for Students: Alice in Wonderland." 1999. Enotes.com. .
The responses will be tabulated into data sheet that exhibit the participants ease of remembering that facts. The coding will produce levels which showing the proportionate ability to remember.
The data will then be input in a statistical program to give distributions and this will be subjected to a T-test to assess their significance level at 5%. The decision rule will be such that reject the null hypotheses if probability of occurrence of the distribution observed is less than 5%.
Implication of the esults
If the expected that the results show higher probability that the stress among older women it implies that, older women are susceptible forget and thus have a higher likelihood of encountering Alzheimer's condition. On the centrally if we reject the Null hypothesis -- failure to support the hypothesis -- it will imply that age and stress have nothing to do with memory lose and that it…
Kloet E.R., Joels M., & F., H. (2005). Stress and the Brain: from adaptation to disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6(6), 463-475.
Nelson, C.A., & Carver, L.J. (2008). The effects of stress and trauma on brain and memory: A view from developmental cognitive neuroscience. Development and Psychopathology, 10(04), 793-809. doi: doi:null
Sauro, M.D., Jorgensen, R.S., & Pedlow, C.T. (2003). Stress, glucocorticoids, and memory: A meta-analytic review. Stress, 6(4), 235-245.
Selye, H. (1998). A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(2), 230-231.
Learning & Memory
The Accuracy of Memory
The research I completed for this assignment was fairly straightforward. Upstairs in my living room on a day in which I had yet to leave the house, I tried to imagine my front door. I did so without having looked at it for at least 14 hours -- since I had arrived at home the evening before. Once I was able to visualize the door, I then wrote down all of the details that I could conceive of related to its physical appearance. My annotations on this subject included the fact that the door is white and is at the base of approximately 20 steps which lead to the main unit of the domicile. In this tall foyer, the white of the door stands out against the creme color of the walls around it (I was able to see this same color on…
Baars, B. (1997). In the Theater of Consciousness: the Workspace of the Mind. San Diego: Oxford University Press.
Dehon, H., Laroi, F. "Affective valence influences participant's susceptibility to False Memories and Illusory Recollection." Emotion. 10 (5): 627-639.
Gallo, D.A. (2010). "False memories and fantastic beliefs: 15 years of DRM illusion." Memory & Cognition. 38 (7): 833-848.
Lindsay, D.F., Read, D.J. (1994). "Psychotherapy and memories of childhood sexual abuse: a cognitive perspective." Applied Cognitive Psychology. 8: 281-338.
(Novick, 1996) According to Novick practices that are developmentally appropriate and that contain culturally relevant teaching are: "...well grounded in human development and brain-based research..." (1996) The teacher must understand that today's schooling: "...takes place in a wider political context, one in which currently there is a great deal of anxiety and controversy regarding the nature of schooling, the economy, and our society, itself." (Novick, 1996) Schorr (1990) states that "methods and materials that promote active, experiential, inquiry based, cooperative learning activities lend themselves to accommodating a wide range of abilities and interests." (as cited by Novick, 1996)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
It is critically important that the teacher of the middle-childhood classroom understand and apply in the classroom practice the theories as set out in this research in order to motive the students both on a group and individual level in their acquisition of knowledge and learning.
Bowers, C.A. & Flinders, D.J. (1990). Responsive Teaching. New York: Teachers College Press.
Bowman, B.T. (1992) Reaching potentials of minority children through developmentally and culturally appropriate programs. In S. Bredekamp & T. Rosegrant (Eds.), Reaching potentials: Appropriate curriculum and assessment for young children. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.
Bowman, B.T. (1994). The challenge of diversity. Phi Delta Kappan, November, 218-224.
Bowman, B.T. & Stott, F.M. (1994). Understanding development in a cultural context: The challenge for teachers. In B. Mallory & R. New (Eds.), Diversity and developmentally appropriate practices. New York: Teachers College Press.
American Childhood by Annie Dillard is a nostalgic narrative about her childhood. It is a book about growing up where the reader is able to see who Dillard was and who she became, following along on her journey and joining her in her childhood fascinations. Most of all, the book is a reminder of what it is like to be a child.
For the most part, the book did not contain any particularly interesting subjects or exciting events. As an example, Dillard writes extensively about her interest in collecting rocks and this becomes an ongoing topic in the book. hile it might seem that such a subject would make the book uninteresting, it managed to become a positive feature. This occurred for two main reasons. The first is that it made it clear that this is who Dillard was and that this is what her childhood was like. Dillard comes…
Dillard, A. An American Childhood. New York: Harper Perennial, 1988.
If a person behaves in a confused or agitated way, I would begin to suspect that all is not well. Drowsiness, abnormal eye movements, and a staggering gait are also symptoms that, together with the undesirable emotional and cognitive states, are symptoms that generally appear for Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (Heath Grades Inc., 2011).
The idea of "activation" concerns the frequency of memory use. The more a memory is used, the more it is activated. Activation leads to strength. Frequent activation means that a memory will become increasingly stronger. One example of this is the study process. If a piece of text is studied for the first time, recall is weak. When the initial memory is activated by revisiting material, it is strengthened slightly. Increased activation therefore means increased strength. In other words, activation is the active process that results in the unconscious strengthening of recall.
According to Halligan,…
Dowd, E.T. (2006, Sep.). What Changes in Cognitive Therapy? The Role of Tacit Knowledge Structures. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies. Vol. 6, No. 2.
Halligan, S.L., Michael, T., Clark, D.M., and Ehlers, A. (2003). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Assault: the role of Cognitive Processing. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Vol. 71, No. 3
Health Grades (2011). Symptoms of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Retrieved from: http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/w/wernicke_korsakoff_syndrome/symptoms.htm
Melnyk, L and Bruck, M (2004). Timing Moderates the Effects of Repeated Suggestive Interviewing on Children's Eyewitness Memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol 18.
Orientation will be held in a similar way, with parents exposed to Hahn's philosophy and rationale of the school curriculum, introduced to each of the teachers and invited to participate in joining in the various activities. Monthly reports will summarize the monthly events. Yearly reports will summarize the institution's annual achievement.
Description of assessment process used to document children's progress.
The Work Sampling System will be used which is a comprehensive assessment system for children in preschool though third grade. This consists of:
1. A modified Developmental checklist, arranged by 4 of the customary 7 domains: social development, language, art and music, and physical development.
2. Portfolios of children's work collected three or more times and year
3. Summary reports, written by teachers three times a year based upon their observations and ongoing records (Valeska Hinton early childhood educational center, Peoria, Illinois).
6 declines of modern youth; Kurt Hahn.…
6 declines of modern youth; Kurt Hahn. Wilderdom www.wilderdom.com/sixdeclinesofmodernyouth.html
Esquith. R. (2009) Lighting their fires: raising extraordinary kids in a mixed-up, muddled-up, shook-up world. New York: Viking
Four antidotes to the declines of modern youth -- Kurt Hahn Wilderdom www.wilderdom.com/fourantidotes.html
Dr. Kurt Hahn www.wilderdom.com/KurtHahn.html
Persistence of Memory
Between the horrors of World War I and the misery and death of World War II, writers and artists searched for answers and ways to find some peace of mind. With the introduction of Sigmund Freud's theory of the subconscious, a group of painters hoped that they could find these answers within the genius of their own minds. Perhaps, under the layers of rational thought and visions of the real world in front of them, they could reunite conscious and unconscious realms of experience so completely that the world of dream and fantasy would be joined to the everyday rational world of existence in "an absolute reality, a surreality." As Freud once noted: "A dream that is not interpreted is like a letter that is not opened." Surrealism offered the opportunity to push the envelop and find the truth. Thus, rose the very nontraditional artistic movement of…
Personal Childhood Story From Cuba
It is a night I will likely never forget. My sister and I had flown in to Cuba for a Quinceanara, which is the 15th birthday party for a young woman of Latina descent. We were very excited because the girl whose party it was a close friend of both my sister and I as well as of our extended family in Cuba. I remember my sister looked really pretty that night. She wore purple polka dotted dress with a lace frock that flared at the bottom. Her hair was pinned up in a bun and, at 14 years of age at the time, I thought she looked like it could have been her rite of passage/coming to womanhood birthday party instead of my friend's.
Quite possibly my sister had the same thought because, for some reason, she decided to drink alcohol for the first…
, 1998). Cognitive functioning, particularly memory performance has been found to be impaired in patients with childhood onset of growth hormone deficiency and HGH replacement therapies have been found to offset this memory impairment (Arwert et al., 2005). Studies have identified a link between improved attention and increases in memory performance in children with growth hormone deficiency (Arwert et al., 2005; Arwert et al., 2006). This is due to the connection between memory capacity and attentional resources.
Growth hormone deficiency that begins in childhood is most often treated with growth hormone supplementation in order to increase body size during adolescence (Nieves-Martinez et al., 2009). Yet recent studies have demonstrated that this treatment directly correlates to improved memory in adulthood. In fact studies have suggested that treatment with growth hormone in child onset deficiencies can in fact prevent learning and memory deficits later in life (Nieves-Martinez, 2009). Childhood onset of growth…
Arwert, L.I., Veltman, D.J., Deijen, J.B., Sytze van Dam, P., & Drent, M.L. (2006). Effects of Growth Hormone Substitution Therapy on Cognitive Functioning in Growth Hormone Deficient Patients: A Functional MRI Study. Neuroendocrinology, 83 (1), 12-19. doi: 10.1159/000093337
Arwert, L.I., Deijen, J.B., Muller, M., & Drent, M.L. (2005). Long-term growth hormone treatment preserves GH-induced memory and mood improvements: a 10-year follow-up study in GH-deficient adult men. Hormones and Behavior, 4, 343 -- 349. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2004.11.015
Arwert, L.I., Veltman, D.J., Deijen, J.B., Lammerstsma, A.A., Jonker, C., Drent, M.L. (2005). Memory performance and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor axis in elderly: A positron emission tomography study. Neuroendocrinology, 81(1), p31-40. doi: 10.1159/000084872
Arwert, L.I., Veltman, D.J., Deijen, J.B., Van Dam, P.S., Delemarre-Van de Waal, H.A., & Drent, M.L. (2005). Growth hormone deficiency and memory functioning in adults visualized by functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroendocrinology, 82(1), p32-40. doi: 10.1159/000090123
Social Work Practice Within Aboriginal
Building attached case study Lisa, describe discuss social work practice approach aboriginal innovative practice modalities a cultural context. This assignment refining approach practice integrating theories practices learned required readings.
ABOIGINAL AND INNOVATIVE SOCIAL WOK PACTICE APPOACH
Concepts in Social Work Practice within Aboriginal and Cultural Framework
In trying to attend to a client's challenges in psychology, it is imperative to provide an environment that is sufficiently safe where a client can talk and explore their problems (Brave Heart, 2004). This measure is adequate for many clients but not sufficient for all especially so when it comes to cases involving aboriginal persons. For the aboriginal clients, an understanding of adaptation difficulties and the inter-generation aspects is necessary to provide a wholesome resolution to the challenges at hand. This paper presents a discussion on the ideal approach in social work for the case of Lisa, who had…
Brave Heart, M.Y.H. (2004). The historical trauma response among Natives and its relationship to substance abuse: A Lakota illustration. In E. Nebelkopf, & M. Phillips (Eds.), Healing and mental health for Native Americans: Speaking in red. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Briere, J. (2002). Treating adult survivors of severe childhood abuse and neglect: Further development of an integrative model. In J.E.B. Myers, L. Berliner, J. Briere, C.T. Hendrix, T. Reid, & C. Jenny (Eds.). The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment, 2nd Edition. . Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Burns, D. (1999). The feeling good handbook. United Kingdom: Penguin Group.
Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R.M. (2012). Psychology. Milton, Qld. Australia: John Wiley and Sons.
Traumatic Long-Term Memory and related issues of forgetfulness. The differentiation of current competing theories under review regarding Traumatic Long-Term Memory are explored and critiqued. This research paper also explains the differences between the theories and their positive / negative contributions toward improving human memory.
Long-Term Memory is memory that has been consolidated or stored so that it is available after distraction (Long, 1996). It represents the storehouse of information that has been consolidated and made relatively permanent. Although the limbic system is the essential structure initiating consolidation, the actual memory stores are throughout the nervous system. Their location is a function of the brain structures involved in processing the information (Long, 1996).
Receptors to projection cortex have very little storage capability as they are used to process all information for that modality and thus are subject to interference. The sensory association cortex is more important for, at this level, patterns…
Anderson. (1995). In Pettijohn, T. (1998). Psychology: A Connectext. (4th Ed.). USA:
Dushkin / McGraw-Hill.
Bjork & Bjork. (1992). In Pettijohn, T. (1998). Psychology: A Connectext. (4th Ed.). USA:
Dushkin / McGraw-Hill.
Although some memories remain veritable and intact from the original experience, many memories are inextricably mixed up with post-analysis and interpretation. Furthermore, the authors examine psychological literature for information on memory processing, noting that false memories and actual reproductive memories activate the same brain regions and are therefore processed similarly. However, research shows that when people recognize the falseness of the memory at the time of encoding, they will process the cues differently. The researchers designed the present study based on these prior researches. Furthermore, the current study hearkens to advertising literature in general, which investigates the impact of ads on consumer behavior. The authors note that the retroactive impact of advertising has been studied far less than the proactive impact of advertising and therefore the present study can fill gaps in the literature and offer impetus for conducting future studies.
2. The psychological concepts discussed center on memory: both…
Piaget’s Stages of Development
Few theorists have had as strong an impact on developmental psychology as Jean Piaget. While the theories of Lev Vygotsky have offered compelling counterpoints to Piaget’s theories, the stages of psychosocial development Piaget proposed remain salient. In fact, it is easy to combine emerging research on childhood development from infancy to adolescence in terms of Piaget’s stages. As Lightfoot, Cole & Cole (2009) point out, evolutionary theories, information processing theories, and systems theories can all be integrated within the staged concept of development that Piaget proposed. Piaget shows how children develop physically, socially, and cognitively. Likewise, theories of childhood development can demonstrate how children develop self-awareness, empathy, and complex use of language. The four main stages of development include the sensorimotor, the preoperational, the concrete operational, and the formal operational. While far from being discreet stages with strong demarcations between them, empirical research in cognitive, behavioral,…
Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects
This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is rather on how the design of these inclusive programs can be most efficacious. Therefore, taking this into consideration, it is necessary to have early intervention for children with disabilities. However, an important element that is delineated in the chapter is that in as much as these children have special needs, they ought not to be treated in a dissimilar manner. The programs of early intervention for kids and preschoolers with special needs have to be centered on the similar…
Blackwell, W. H., & Rossetti, Z. S. (2014). The Development of Individualized Education Programs. Sage Open, 4(2), 2158244014530411.
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011). Inbrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: http://developingchild.harvard.edu/index.php/resources/multimedia/videos/inbrief_series/inbrief_science_of_ecd/
Cook, R. E., Klein, M. D., Chen, D. (2012). Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs, 8th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall.
Edutopia. (2007). Smart Hearts: Social and Emotional Learning Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/social-emotional-learning-overview-video
Truth and Memory in the Things They Carried
Tim O'Brien's novel, The Things They Carried, is more than a novel because it allows the reader to experience the Vietnam ar in a personal way and it allows O'Brien the opportunity to bring closure to the entire war experience. Throughout the novel, O'Brien reminds readers he is telling a story and that the story may or may not be fiction. The point of telling stories is not simply to make stories up but to create a passage to peace. O'Brien accomplishes this task with the novel because he allows stories to shape his life and his hope rather than break his spirit. O'Brien proves a good story is a combination of writing well and remembering better.
The Things They Carried is a war novel authenticated through O'Brien's experiences. O'Brien does not simply want to tell Vietnam ar Stories, he wants to…
O'Brien, Tim. The Things They Carried. New York: Broadway Books, 1990. Print.
ising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families
My goal is to make a positive change in the lives of young children, families, and the early childhood field by targeting childhood poverty.
Poverty is increasing most rapidly in families with young children. While poverty only rose by 1.3% in the childless 30-64 age bracket, it rose by nearly 8% in families with a head under 30 years old with one or more children in the home (Sum, 2011). In fact, young families with children are more than six times as likely to be impoverished as older families (Sum, 2011). This marks a shift in communities at-risk for poverty, from the elderly to children (Sum, 2011). In addition, this wealth disparity is not only visible among the impoverished. "By 2010, slightly more than one-third of the nation's young families were poor or near poor, up by nearly 10 percentage points from…
American Psychological Association. (2013). Effects of poverty, hunger, and homelessness on children and youth. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from: http://www.apa.org/pi/families/poverty.aspx
Engle, P. & Black, M. (2008). The effect of poverty on child development and educational outcomes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136, 243-256. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from Digital Commons website: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=psycd_fac
Salopek, J. (2010). Homelessness: Creating a welcoming classroom for homeless students.
Association for Staff and Curriculum Development, 52(6).
EC Assessment & Intervention
Background Information elated to Diagnostic Test
Diagnostic Test -- Developmental Area of Concern
At the Playground.
Developmentally Appropriate Instructional Goals
Cognitive Instructional Goal
Motor Instructional Goal
Physical Instructional Goal
Language Instructional Goal
The purpose of early childhood assessment is to document the present status of the child with regard to developmental milestones and to identify any developmental areas that require follow-up assessment or follow-along. Assessment of very young children needs to be integral to their daily activities. Children change very rapidly and it is too easy to assume that they have reached developmental milestones in all areas: marked development in one area can distract caregivers and therapists from a deficit or an area in which development is occurring at a slower rate than typical. ecording the developmental progress of children is not an onerous task if it is…
____. (2010, May). Developmental Checklists Birth to Five, The Early Childhood Direction Center. ASQ-SE-Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Retrieved http://ecdc.syr.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2013/01/Developmental_checklists_Updated2012.pdf
____. (2014). The HighScope Difference. HighScope. Retreived http://www.highscope.org/
Vygotsky, L.S. (1987). Thinking and speech. In R.W. Rieber & A.S. Carton (Eds.), The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky, Volume 1: Problems of general psychology (pp. 39 -- 285). New York: Plenum Press. (Original work published 1934.) Retreived http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html
people learn about the world is through reading. eading a well written book can provide the reader with a window into a life, or world that he or she might otherwise never encounter. The well written manuscript can provide a foundational understanding of a lifestyle, class or tradition to those who have never experienced and will never have the chance to experience. While a reader can gather a lot of information by reading a book, it is difficult to determine whether the information in that book is completely accurate. Even in a biography the information is only as accurate as the perception and interviews of the person who writes the text. For the most accurate and insightful information about a person or a lifestyle one usually turns to an autobiography. An autobiography usually provides an accurate picture not only of the events that occur in the subject's life, but also…
BOB EDWARDS, Profile: Writings of Vladimir Nabokov on what would be his 100th birthday., Morning Edition (NPR), 04-23-1999.
Nina Khrushcheva, These memoirs, like their author, openly defy father time., The Washington Times, 05-02-1999, pp B8.
Nabokov, Vladimir. SPEAK, MEMORY
Creative Non-Fiction Book/Movie Review
1. Write a 4-5 page book OR film review about one of the texts on the course—or choose from one of the texts below. You cannot write about one of the books, films, or authors you will be presenting on. Feel free to expand on one of your journal entries but be sure to add secondary sources to enhance your research. Submit a typed copy during the first class following reading week. Electronic submissions will not be accepted.
* Use proper MLA format:
* See Libraries for how to write a book review:
* See below for tips on writing film reviews:
Further Reading: (write about any one of the readings belows)
Jill Conway: https://www.amazon.ca/When-Memory-Speaks-Exploring-Autobiography/dp/0679766456
Sonya Lea: https://www.amazon.com/Wondering-Who-You-Are-Memoir-ebook/dp/B00RKI3NAY
Regina McBride: https://www.amazon.com/Ghost-Songs-Memoir-Regina-McBride/dp/1941040438
Lacy M. Johnson: https://www.amazon.ca/Other-Side-Lacy-M-Johnson/dp/1935639838
Herta Müller: https://www.amazon.com/Land-Green-Plums-Herta-Müller/dp/0312429940
A.J. Albany: http://www.jerryjazzmusician.com/2003/11/amy-albany-author-of-low-down-jazz-junk-and-other-fairy-tales-from-childhood/
When Conway claims in the first sentence of…
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…
Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html
This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.
Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html
This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
One group will consist of those with childhood abuse experience while the other group will consist of respondents who do not have childhood abuse experience. This grouping is done to achieve the objective of assessing whether respondents with abusive histories really posses a starkly different view of the family. Both groups shall consist of male and female adults, aged 26-55 years old. For the purpose for this research, those belonging to the abused groups will be those have experienced childhood sexual and/or physical abuse.
In terms of the research ethics, the respondents will be assured of their anonymity through verbal and written means. Before the start of the interview, the author will present to them a letter assuring them that all the information that they will be disclosing will solely be used for academic purposes. They will also be asked to choose a name or alias that will…
Baker, L.L. et al. (2002). Children Exposed to Domestic Violence. Retrieved from ttp://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:sWf-p3OsUz4J: www.lfcc.on.ca/ece-us.PDF+domestic+violence&hl=tl&ct=clnk&cd=16&gl=ph-on Dec. 11, 2008.
Coid, J. et al. (2001). Relation between childhood sexual and physical abuse and risk of revictimisation in women: a cross-sectional survey. The Lancet, 358, 450-454.
Domestic Violence Resource Center. (2008). Domestic Violence Statistics. Retrieved at http://www.dvrc-or.org/domestic/violence/resources/C61/on Dec. 9, 2008.
Family Health International Website. (n.d.) Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector's
The harmony is used for particularly dramatic effect in Bar 4, where four eight notes can be heard under beats 3 (the second half of a half-note) and 4. Schumann again creates movement in a similar way in Bars 8, 12, 14, and 20, where there is much more movement for the left hand than for the right. Schumann keeps most of his chords in the register below middle C; to do otherwise would create an overly dramatic darkness that would not be appropriate for the childhood memories this piece tries to call to mind for its listeners. He uses C3 on beat 1 for the harmony in Bar 13; it is the lowest note in the piece and adds to the sense of climax in Bar 14.
Schumann also made Traumerei emotional with his use of tempo. It is a slow piece, slowing even further with the ritard ("slower")…
Almansa, J., and Delicado, P., (2009), "Analysing musical performance through functional data analysis; rhythmic structure in Schumann's Traumerei," Connection Science, vol. 21. 2/3, pp.207-225.
Kamien, R. (1998). Music: An Appreciation. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Penel, a., and Drake, C., (1998). "Sources of timing variations in music performance: A
psychological segmentation model. Psychological Research, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 12-32.
individuals who see and later recall the same event produce markedly discrepant accounts. Aside from motivational factors (such as dishonesty) or personal differences in memory capacity there are a number of factors relevant to affecting the accuracy information recalled from long-term memory. One of the first things to consider when comparing different recollections of the same events is to consider under what conditions the respondents encoded the information which they later recalled. Important encoding conditions include the length of time the incident occurred (longer events result in more accurate recall) and any possible distracting circumstances that were present during the event that could interfere with encoding. However, perhaps the most important consideration concerns the preconceived notions of the eye of the beholder. A person encoding information that will be stored into long-term memory is not like a video camera. People view the world through preconceived notions or schema that frame…
Haber, R.N., Haber, L. (2000). Experiencing, remembering and reporting events. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 6(4): 1057-1097.
Schultz, S. (2001). Study advances memory theory. Princeton Weekly Bulletin, 90 (23). Retrieved on 12 April 2011 from http://www.princeton.edu/pr/pwb/01/0409/6a.shtml .
Wikipedia (2010). Eyewitness memory. Retrieved on 12 April 2011 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eyewitness_memory .
203). Others who lose a loved one they had cherished for many years may have a disposition "towards compulsive caregiving" (Bowlby, p. 206). The welfare of others is of prime concern for these individuals; instead of experiencing "sadness and welcoming support for themselves" after the death of a loved one or family member that has been loved for many years, these individuals "proclaim that it is someone else who is in distress and in need of the care which then insist on bestowing."
This compulsive caregiving often manifests itself with the selection of a handicapped person to become that person's caregiver. Imagine the daughter who since adolescence has idolized her father, and never left the home but rather attended college nearby to her parents' home. She never made a lot of close friends and preferred to be home with her dad especially. So when he died, according to Bowlby's compulsive…
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume I / Attachment. New York: Basic
Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume II / Separation / Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John. (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume III / Loss / Sadness and Depression. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Proust, Narratology f. Specifications
Narratology and Proust: An Essay on the Narrative Form
Narratology refers to the narrative form in literature, and all that it entails. It is concerned with the order and method by which the narrative is crafted. y design, a narrative must contain at minimum characters and a narrator, a voice apart from the characters that plays the role of storyteller, observer, and commentator. It is important because narration touches our lives through mass media, television, news print, and almost every form of information we receive in our daily lives. Four our purposes however, we will examine its use in fiction, or more finitely, the novel. In order to best understand the use of narratology within the novel context, we will examine the various elements of narratology according to conventional theory. Then, we will explore the example of Proust's style of narratology in his famous works, "In…
White, Hayden. The Content of the Form: Narrative Discourse and Historical Representation. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1987. http://www.sla.purdue.edu/academic/engl/theory/narratology/notes/whitecontent.html
Felluga, Dino. "General Introduction to Narratology." Introductory Guide to Critical Theory.[date July 17, 2002]. Purdue U. [Site Accessed July 15, 2003]. http://www.purdue.edu/guidetotheory/narratology/modules/introduction.html .
Brooks, Peter. Reading for the Plot: Design and Intention in Narrative. New York: Vintage, 1984.
Barthes, Roland. S/Z. Trans. Richard Miller. New York: Noonday P, 1974.
I participated in local programs to feed the homeless through the Ethiopian Christian Fellowship. I volunteered for the Alameda food bank as well as for local hospitals and animal shelters.
My volunteer work brought me out of my shell, and enabled to feel that I could make a difference in the lives of others. By healing others, I healed myself. Through maturity I have come recognize and respect my limits and honor my capabilities. In my ten years living in the United States I have experienced more inside myself than many even better traveled will experience in a lifetime. I have gone from a happy and busy childhood, to being a lonely and miserable man, isolated and old before his time, to once again becoming accepted and beloved person who is a vital part of his community.
Scholarship Statement: Bernard Osher Allied Health Scholarship
The language of health and medicine…
In this way, the organization is able to develop as needed or warranted by the plethora of external and internal circumstances that affect it daily.
There is often a negative connotation associated with Burns and Stalker's assessment of mechanistic organizations, and there is some truth in this qualitative perspective. This does not mean that all aspects of mechanistic organizations are too be seen as primarily detrimental or less-than-satisfactory, however; stability is a good thing, and in certain times and situations a very necessary thing. Stability and innovation, however, are not often mutual partners in an organization's growth and progression, and it was this issue that Burns and Stalker tackled. Their theory is improved upon only by a better understanding, provided by a longer view from the end (rather than the middle) of a century of great innovation and change, of the larger organizational influences and cycles that form the pattern…
Bechhofer, F. & McCrone, D. (2001). "Obituary: Tom Burns." The Guardian. Accessed 28 January 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2001/jun/28/guardianobituaries.socialsciences
Burns, T. & tsalker, G. (1961). The Management of Innovation. New York: Oxford university press.
Eldridge, J. (2001). "Obituary: Tom Burns." The Independent. Accessed 28 January 2010. http://www.tomburns.org.uk/independent.html
Sine, W.; Mitsuhashi, H. & Kirsch, D. 92006). "Revisiting Burns and Stalker." Academy of management journal 49(10), pp. 121-32.
To create his art, Long walks hundreds of miles for days and weeks at a time, often through uncultivated areas, from the countryside of England, Ireland, and Scotland, to the mountains of Nepal and Japan, and the plains of Africa, Mexico, and Bolivia (Spector pp).
Long documents his journeys with photographs, maps and lists of descriptive terms which are exhibited as individual works (Spector pp). Unlike other artists who manipulate the landscape to create Earthworks, Long does not alter the terrain by digging or constructing, he simply adjusts the placement of rocks and wood to subtly demarcate geometric shapes (Spector pp).
Long's 1980 "Red Slate Circle," is 336 inches in diameter and consists of 474 stones from a New York quarry, and when it is installed in the Guggeheim's rotunda, "the monumental ring echoes the building's unique spiral while conjuring images of vast canyons, still lakes, and stone pathways leading…
Vermont Georgia South Carolina Wyoming Circle." http://www.jamescohan.com/artists/richardlong/?page=1&num_pages=2&image=1212
Hackett, Regina. "Richard Long's Artwork Follows the Trail of the Natural World."
Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Seattle, WA); 11/15/1996; pp.
Gayford, Martin. "Take the Long way round When an ordinary mortal goes for a walk, it's just a walk. But when Richard Long pulls on his hiking boots, it's art. The Sunday Telegraph; 12/29/2002; pp.
Lost in Translation
This story is a typical immigrant success tale. It is a rich and an ambiguous story with the first section of the narrative representing, "Paradise," and revolves around Hoffman's childhood and adolescence in Cracow. The most prominent image in Eva Hoffman's mind during her family's immigration to Canada was the crowd gathered at the shore to see the ship off. She was thirteen years old and left Gdynia, Poland together with her father, mother, and younger sister. To her the crowd at the shore waving at them as the ship drifted away, was symbolic, it meant the end of everything she knew. Deep inside her there was sorrow and pain, she never wanted to leave Poland. As they journey on, her memory is filled with the loss she has suffered, Cracow a place she loved just as one would love a person. Her mind wonders around the…
Baldwin, James. "Stranger in the Village." Press, Beacon. Notes of A Native Son. Beacon Press, 1955 .
Hoffman, Eva. "Lost In Translation." Ed." Robert, DiYanni and Pat C. Hoy . Occassions for Writing: Evidence. Boston: Thomson, 2008. 176-77.
Nomaday, Scott. The Way to Rainy Mountain . UNM Press, 1976.
Life has some form of development through a range of events that could be considered rites of passages for every person. These experience that individuals face during their lives is substantial different yet contains many similarities at the same time. This essay will look at two accounts of different experiences by two famous authors that tackle aspects of what it means to face different stages in one's life. Both stories offer insights as to how our identity is shaped by our memory and our memory can be shaped by a plethora of individual and cultural experiences. Memory certainly serves as a "catch-all" term that encompasses a widespread range of factors that occur in the human experience.
Eva Hoffman's memoir, Lost in Translation, illustrates events from her life as she emigrated from Cracow, Poland to Vancouver, Canada. N. Scott Momaday's, The ay to Rainy Mountain is also about a journey…
Hoffman, E. Lost in Translation: A Life in a New Language. New York: Penguin, 1990. Print.
Kensinger, E. And D. Schacter. "Memory and Emotion." N.d. Boston College. Web. 28 October 2012.
Lanigan, J. "All Stories So Far." 1 Septiember 2009. English. Web. 28 October 2012.
Momaday, S. The Way to Rainy Mountain. University of New Mexico Press, 1976. Print.
Personality Psych Analysis of Tony Soprano
Freudian Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality
Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality makes the argument that human behavior is resultant of the interrelations amongst three constituent parts of the mind including the id, ego, and superego (Petocz, 1999). This theory of personality lays substantial significance of the manner in which conflict, more often than not unconscious, amongst the areas of the mind end up shaping an individual’s behavior and personality. The Id deals with instantaneous satisfaction of basic physical needs and desires and it functions completely unconsciously. The Superego takes into account social rules and morals, and is largely referred to as a person’s conscience. The Superego develops as a child progressively learns what is deemed to be right or wrong. Lastly, the ego, unlike the instinctive Id and the ethical superego, the Ego is the sensible, realistic part of an individual’s personality…