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Several factors should be considered before the restrictions are lessened. The relaxation of the policy will only be considered if there is an ample amount of evidence showing that low fertility rates will be sustained. Current studies show that China is transitioning into a small family culture. In 30 pilot counties the policy has been lifted, allowing couples to choose their family size (Poston, 2002, p333-47).
However, the National Family Planning and eproductive Health Survey also showed that in urban areas where the one child policy is strictly enforced, 43% of women still preferred two children. Another aspect which needs to be considered is that laws from the past may not be appropriate for the present. During the past 25 years China has drastically changed their socioeconomic infrastructure. (Winckler, 2002, p379-418)
To many the one child policy seems obsolete, because of the immense progress gained from wealth and globalization. Due…… [Read More]
China's One-Child Policy
In 1981 the Chinese government implemented the reproductive health program, also known as the one-child policy. This policy was intended to limit the number of births per family in order to stem a growing concern about over-population. This paper takes the position that while the population in China has stabilized, the overall effect of the policy has been detrimental to the nation in the long-run.
Chinese officials insist the reproductive health program is fully voluntary. omen are free to voluntarily select the timing and spacing of their pregnancies. There are no targets and quotas for births and sterilizations, abortion is not promoted as a method of family planning, and coercion does not exist (Mosher).
However, according to Steven Mosher the Chinese government sets national targets for family size and total population. These numbers are achieved through bribes and punishments for the officials responsible for enforcing the one-child…… [Read More]
China's growth rate has slowed dramatically in the last 30 years under the auspice of the One-Child Policy. In fact, at this point it is believed that growth rate is under 2% and that the population replacement rate is at 2.1%, meaning that if these numbers are accurate and hold up, the population of China could actually decrease at some point in the future.
Hence, the One-Child Policy could be seen to be an immense success. But at what cost?
The 'side effects' of the Policy have and likely will continue to have a staggering effect on Chinese society. The sterility and abortion atrocities by the government, like the abandonment and infanticide of female infants by the parents, not only scream of a Policy that has lost its moral compass, but it has created a huge disparity between the number of males to females. This disparity means there a…… [Read More]
hina's One hild Policy
In the last part of the 20th entury, hina, also known as the "sleeping giant," has transformed itself from a predominantly rural, pre-industrialized society to a political and economic challenger. Since the Maoist Revolution of 1949, also known as the Great Patriotic Revolution, hina has transformed itself from a feudal system to one of the world's faster growing economies globally. hina is huge -- in both geography and population. Over the last few decades it has experienced unprecedented economic growth with an average GDP of well over 10%. Even though the actual per capita income is still within the lower-middle category of global statistics, hina still remains the third largest economy in the world. Modern hina participates with a major role in the global economy, and organizations within the developed world take hina quite seriously. hina's own view of her economy is "Socialism with hinese haracteristics,"…… [Read More]
Child Policy in China
Button, G. (2011). China's One-Child Policy and the Population Explosion. Indian Journal of Economics and Business, 10(4), 467-474.
Button is an accomplished author of various scholarly texts and is a holder of a masters of science in education and a bachelor's degree in international studies. In the past, Button has worked as a Research Assistant at the University of Denver, and more recently, he assumed the position of Volunteer at Peace Corps. Button is therefore qualified to comment on topical issues revolving around history, political science, as well as economics.
In his article, Button explores not only the genesis of the One-Child Policy but also its implementation and relevance. The author also critically analyses the criticism that has been leveled against the One-Child Policy in the past. He concludes that although the said policy has contributed significantly to the country's economic growth, it has also been…… [Read More]
Hall (1987) examined the effects of the one child policy from a cultural/anthropological and ethnographic perspective. Her study revealed that such policies unwittingly result in a cultural change in attitudes, beliefs and even behaviors exhibited by children. For example, couples may lean toward the decision that having more than one child "cramps their economic style" and that may lead to the one child being spoiled and the 'babyhood' period being drawn out (Hall, 1987).
The author suggests that a country full of only children will result in children who grow into adults that will be self-centered and less likely to be concerned with the welfare of the country as a whole, and more likely to be concerned with their own personal satisfaction. This goes against the Chinese ideology that it is important to serve the country rather than oneself, and Hall suggests that "a citizenry made up of…… [Read More]
" Deng's one child policy, moreover, had been one of the most important insurance plans put in place to insure the speed and power of Chinese capitalist development.
What this mean was that Deng chose to channel the capital surplus of the Chinese people into factories, railroads, power plants, and the damming the Yangtze River with the massive Three Gorges Dam, rather than into an ever larger Chinese population.
Deng's One Child Policy: Positive and Negative
As often happens in periods of massive change in human history, the results of Deng's one child policy were partly good and partly bad. Let's begin with some of the negative consequences of Deng's policy. Most noticeable is the fact that there are more "little emperors" than there are "little empresses" in China today. Because another aspect of Deng's population policy was abortion on demand, many young Chinese who were about to become parents…… [Read More]
Advanced technology played a big role in infanticide as it allowed couples to check the gender of the child before it was born. Ultrasounds helped couples check the sex of their child and allow them to make a decision on abortion easier. Infanticide managed to unbalance the sex ratio in china as there were far too many males and not so many females. Women do not have a big role to play in determining the gender of their children as the husbands are the ones who make the decisions. There have been cases where a husband has beaten his wife to abort her child. Then are cases where the wife has to go into hiding so that people won't be able to know if she is pregnant. This helps a lot if they are expecting a girl and they need to abort it. There have been a lot of families…… [Read More]
Parents are aware that the competitive economy combined with the pressure to succeed means they must push their children. Schools and teachers are also under tremendous pressure to perform. "Some schools link teacher pay to student test performance, and the pressure on teachers is intense" (Chang 2008:5).
However, despite the economic gains of recent years, there is also a profound sense that something has been lost of China's native culture. One recent editorial in the Chinese Communist Party's official newspaper stated that Chinese cultural development "lagged behind rising diplomatic and economic clout, reducing China's overall influence and exposing it to foreign dominance" (Boden 2011). The Party stated its desire to build up China's organic culture, rather than importing it from the West, which risks the possible tainting of the populace with western ideas. "It decried that Walt Disney Co.'s Mulan appropriated a Chinese legend that proved popular at the box…… [Read More]
S. intelligence and military analysts expected, prompting fears that Beijing will attack Taiwan in the next two years, according to entagon officials." However, the Taiwanese spokesman, Chang Jung-kung, says this report is inaccurate, noting that the entagon does not take into account the latest development between Taiwan and China, who have entered a new phase since Chairman Lien Chan's journey of peace to China in 2005. China also responded by reporting that the entagon "viciously exaggerated Chinese military outlay, spreading a 'China threat theory.'"
In conclusion, it appears as if the growing differences in economic and political policies between the United States and China have increased watchfulness and suspicion on the parts of both major countries, leading to the possibility of another "Cold War" between the U.S. And another new, threatening communist country, China.
Clark, Matthew, "China a Security Threat to U.S. " the Christian Science Monitor, 28 Jun…… [Read More]
This is called "reproduction worship." According to this belief the world originated from Yin and Yang life force. This has had a great impact on Chinese culture and its view of reproduction. Yin is considered a male life force with many powerful positive attributes while Yang is assigned mainly weaker attributes. eproduction is given much importance because of its power to move the universe ahead and to expand the same. The forces of Yin and Yang are both needed for actions to have impact. There are other beliefs that seem to have an impact on reproductive behavior among Chinese couples. (Tang, 1995)
Since Confucianism advocates sexual restraint and asceticism, marriage is seen as a vehicle for reproduction rather than a means of enjoying sex. Secondly families are considered very significant because of ancestor worship. Since ancestors are revered in Chinese culture, having a family is always the motivating force behind…… [Read More]
Infanticide in China
In 2007, the United Nations Population Fund published a study that argued there were 60 million "missing" girls in Asia, a direct result of female infanticide (Karabin, 2007). Infanticide, by definition, is the unlawful killing of very young children, and in some cultures this practice is conducted against female babies in particular. The result is that countries like China have a serious population imbalance, with many more males than females (BBC, 2012). This paper will examine the issue of female infanticide in China, its causes and what potential solutions there might be to this serious problem.
Lee (1981) notes that female infanticide has long been practiced in China. riting just after the introduction of the one-child policy in China, Lee notes that "this form of discrimination against women…persisted in varying degrees over hundreds of years." She outlines the techniques used to commit the crime: "drowning in…… [Read More]
China & India: Rapid Economic Growth -- Additional pages
Additional Introduction / Conclusion Copy
How did China and India emerge so rapidly as enormous economic powers? This paper reviews the circumstances of the economic advancement that both countries have made, and establishes that these nations became economic powerhouses due to the sheer size of their economies -- along with the strategies they employed.
The Indian economy has been among the "fastest growing economies" in the world since the late 1980s, according to Kunal Sen, writing in the peer-reviewed journal Contemporary South Asia. He insists that most experts (in "the international financial press") are incorrect when they assert that the Indian economy began to accelerate following the "radical economic reforms of 1991" (Sen, 2009, p. 364).
In fact, Sen writes, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita began to rise "…in the late 1970s, and has kept on steadily increasing over…… [Read More]
Parenting Styles and their Effect on Children Behavior
Different Parenting Styles
This research paper is based on Baumrind's theory of parenting and covers the impact and consequences of different parenting styles on children's development extensively. Four parenting styles named authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved are discussed in detail. This paper also discusses parenting style of Canada, Japan and China in contrast with Baumrind's theory of parenting. All the impacts and influences on parenting style are deeply studied and discussed.
Early years of learning in a child's life is believed to make a significant difference in the way they develop and go on to learn throughout their lives (Kim, 1999). Developmental psychologists have been making research about the role played by parents and its impact on child development. However, developing a cause-and-effect link between parents behavior and brought up and its impact on child behavior and attitude is a relatively tough…… [Read More]
AFICA'S PETOLEUM AND CHINA'S ECONOMIC GOWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
How Africa's Petroleum Supply Is Important to China's Economic Growth and Development
While China continues to grow, its oil demand is poised to grow rapidly. For China to ensure its oil security, it must obtain oil from the global world because it lacks adequate domestic resources to quench the thirsty appetite of the country's rapid economic development. Any approach for growth that the country takes in its demand for oil is likely to affect the global oil market and influence existing system and order of international oil. As one of its oil strategy, China's firms are reaching every corner of the world to purchase oil or invest in oil fields showing to have opportunities disregarding the possible enormous risks. Some of China's national oil enterprises have made outstanding investment activities in African countries (Ma, 2010). Today, China's largest imports from Africa continue…… [Read More]
Business Environemnt of China
Main issues in the case
The case points to China's unprecedented growth and expansion on the world stage vis-a-vis business performance. Many observers expect China to become the economic superpower of the future replacing America in that role. China started off with supreme difficulties and it was only in the post-Deng period that it has overcome its challenges. Problems that it faces however exist in conjunction with its political and democratic system. The question of whether these elements will or will not impede China from achieving world dominance is one that occupies many observers.
China is more than 10,000 years old. During much of that time, it has lived in tumultuous change and poverty with effective reform only occurring in the post-1980s. Since then, it has reduced the number of its citizens living in poverty by over 200 million people as well as achieving a sevenfold…… [Read More]
Nail Houses and Ghost Cities of China
This paper will take a keen on the major geological matters such as demographic, ecological, as well as political presently before the People's Republic of China. It will go further to recapitulate as well as scrutinize to discover whether ecological along with inhabitants matters in connection to the nail house as well as ghost cities deem to be the major problems in front of China then establish the Chinese government role in attempting to get a lasting solution to every issue and if at all the government reaction can entirely get to the bottom of this issue for the betterment of this great nation.
In the largest part of current concern of Monu publication, phenomenon of nail houses in China has been brought on board by one fellow who unintentionally seems to have the unruffled noun (name) in history (Human u). And this…… [Read More]
The United States and China as today's political and economic world leaders still suffer from the consequences of gender inequality and inequity. Combined economic, sociological and historical factors hamper and resist the achievement of equality between the sexes. Man's dominance for thousands of years will be strenuous to eliminate or minimize. It will not be an easy achievement but, nonetheless, an ideal objective for which every man and every woman on earth should pursue unrelentingly. #
East Asia Environment & Social Development Unit (2002). China country gender review. World ank. Retrieved on February 15, 1020 from http://www.worldbank.org.cn/English/content/gender-en.pdf
Gaddis, R. (2010). Gender Equality in the United States. Associated Content:
Associated Content, Inc. Retrieved on February 20, 2010 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/pop_print.shtml
Haussman, R. et al. (2009). The global gender gap report. World Economic Forum:
Weforum.org. Retrieved on February 15, 2010 from http://www.weforum.org/pdf/gendergap/report2009.pdf
Jordans, F. (2006). U.S. slips in gender equality survey.…… [Read More]
The Nature of the Book Trade between China and France
In the past, it was apparent that the Chinese government’s approach to matters culture and art did not significantly differ from its stance on a variety of other factors that involved various internal affairs of the nation. However, while it may have exercised some control on the distribution aspect of culture and art, it has largely remained ineffective as far as control on the consumption front was concerned. In general terms literature has always been an important item of culture and art. In recent times, more and more current authors are exploring modern literature. Towards this end, geographical boundaries no longer act like a limiting factor. As a matter of fact, this is increasingly becoming a competitive frontier amongst contemporary authors. Chinese authors, who have been missing in action in this particular case, are catching up. In addition to…… [Read More]
"9.8% in urban areas; substantial unemployment and underemployment in rural areas; an official Chinese journal estimated overall unemployment (including rural areas) for 2003 at 20% (2004 est.)" (CIA orld Factbook "China") the occupation breakdown for the nation is also rather simplistic, with a large protion of the population still being engaged in agricultural industries: "agriculture 49%, industry 22%, services 29% (2003 est.)" (CIA orld Factbook "China")
Cultural habits of China are relatively universal as the nation has relatively few national minorities and limited immigration from other nations due to its communist legacy. The majority ethnic group Han Chinese constitutes 91.9% of the total population with the significant minorities including Zhuang, Uygur, Hui, Yi, Tibetan, Miao, Manchu, Mongol, Buyi, Korean, and other nationalities, constituting only a total of 8.1%. There is though a significant social and cultural disparity between urban and rural populations. Urban China is relatively modern, with many conveniences…… [Read More]
When inquired to share their views whether it is going to be encouraging or damaging in case China assumed to be "considerably having more potential on the economic front compared to today, " in sixteen nations nearly the majority of 11 nations or a multitude of 5 nations witness it as encouraging. Prominently, this upbeat notion is seen in several nations, like Mexico of 54%, whose production sectors face a major competition with China. Taking an average estimate, 49% see it as encouraging and 33% view it as downbeat. In just four nations does a multitude view it as downbeat - Italy which is 47%, Spain -- 47%, Turkey -- 42%, and Argentina -- 41%. There is also a divided opinion in two nations - the U.S. And Germany. (22-Nation Poll Shows China Viewed Positively by Most Countries Including Its Asian Neighbors)
The U.S. Dow Jones Indexes who carried out…… [Read More]
As a Western manufacturing company of English Language products considering a major investment in one of the BRICS countries—preferably China—it is advisable that the company first possess an assessment of the feasibility of achieving the company’s aims in a country like China, which currently is in a trade war with the U.S. that shows no signs of letting up. Moreover, an examination of the overall context of globalized society in the 21st century will help the company to determine whether this investment would be particularly strategic at this time or not. While the general business environment in China (in the widest sense) is positive, there are a number of obstacles that Western companies face when attempting to enter the Chinese market. Cultural and institutional challenges make up the bulk of these obstacles, but, as other companies have overcome them in the past with the right approach, it…… [Read More]
12). Six weeks after that public relations disaster for RC2 Toys, other toy company, Fisher-Price, was obliged to recall "nearly 1 million of its most popular character toys, also because of lead paint," Field continues. Not long after those embarrassing recalls, Mattel and Fisher-Price announced "three more recalls from China" (Field, 12).
When an adult item is recalled, it doesn't make as big a negative splash as when items for children are recalled, so the toy industry was truly rocked by these events. One can also factor in the American economic downturn at the time of these above-mentioned recalls; that is, when people are out of work by the millions, and many are having their homes foreclosed, to have one's hard-earned dollars spend on a product that might sicken family members is doubly impactful on the negative side of the ledger.
Field explains that the recalls have had a "far-reaching…… [Read More]
More unfavorable publicity came in June when Jintao had to undergo medical checkups to ensure he was SARS-free when meeting President Bush and other G-8 leaders in France. There is little doubt that China's international standing was clearly badly damaged by its government's mishandling of the SARS epidemic.
On July 21, 2004, Dr. Bates Gill, Freeman Chair in China Studies Committee on House International Relations Subcommittee on Asia and the Pacific, stated official Chinese estimates show China now has roughly 840,000 persons living with the HIV virus and as of the end of 2003, only 62,159 persons had been tested and officially confirmed to be HIV-positive. "The remaining HIV-positive individuals in China, estimated at 780,000 persons or more, are not known to public health authorities, and the individuals themselves probably do not know their status, posing significant risks for the further spread of HIV." Yet, outside observers believe that…… [Read More]
The Dilemma of a Ethical Practices and Profitability of Trading with China
China continues to have one of the world's strongest and most resilient economies, achieving a 10.3% Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate in 2010 compared to the world average of 4.2% and the United States' 2.9%. U.S. Lawmakers continue to question the $4M in foreign aid that Congressional budgets are requesting for one of the fastest growing economies globally today (Pennington, 2011). Despite the rationalization that this significant amount of investment is necessary for clean energy primary research, the rationalization is weak when compared to the many economic challenges and hardships the U.S. continues to face (Pennington, 2011). As of October, 2011 the cumulative 2011 trade deficit with China is today at $217B, down from a high of $270B earlier in the year. Arguably China could more afford to provide foreign aid to the U.S., not vice…… [Read More]
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…… [Read More]
The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.
Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…… [Read More]
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…… [Read More]
Heckscher-Ohlin explain China's Trade?
The Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem, essentially, states that a capital-abundant country will export capital-intensive goods, whilst a labor-abundant country will export labor-intensive goods. The following essay suggests that contemporary USA and China follow the pattern of the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem where America, low in unskilled human labor but high in capital and agriculture, exports those goods in quantity, whereas China, low in capital but rich in unskilled human labor, exports those resources. Focusing on China, the essay traces China's current economic policies and patterns of trade in order to establish whether China's pattern of trade is consistent with the predictions of Heckscher-Ohlin.
Statement of the Problem
The Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem states that a capital-abundant country will export capital-intensive goods, whilst a labor-abundant country will export labor-intensive goods. The following essay wonders whether China's economic policies and system, in general, and the Chinese-U.S. trade routine, in particular, coheres with…… [Read More]
The fact that communism still dominates affairs in the country can limit or discourage foreign investors. This is probably one of the main reasons for which large corporations are hesitant about investing large amounts of money in China (eatherbee & Emmers 42).
The masses no longer express interest in U.S. cultural values because it appears that the U.S. has experienced significant problems consequent to the 9/11 events. This enabled China to step forward and pose into a body that no longer had problems because of its communist background and that was ready to join other international actors in assisting society progress. The fact that China progressed significantly while the U.S.' image suffered meant that things would change significantly in Southeast Asia. Fair play is one of the main points of interest at this point, as "the concern in Southeast Asia is that the United States, rather than accommodating to a…… [Read More]
Walmart is one of the world's largest, most successful, and most vilified corporations. – Art Carden, 2010
Today, Walmart is the largest company in the world with more than 11,500 retail units in 28 countries, annual sales exceeding $288 billion and 2.2 million employees called “associates” (Walmart corporate and financial facts, 2015). In addition, Walmart is one the largest private employers in both the United States and Canada (Walmart corporate and financial facts, 2015). What makes Walmart particularly noteworthy is that it achieved its current level of success in retailing, and no other retailers have come close to being as influential or large (Shaw). Notwithstanding its economic success, Walmart has also been the source of significant amounts of criticism because of the low wages it pays as well as its adverse impact on small businesses in the cities and towns in which it competes. To determine the facts about…… [Read More]
Wild Swans: Three Daughters of China
Wild Swans is the story of three generations of women in China in the 20th century. The author is Jung Chang: her autobiography comprises the last third section of the book; the first two sections are devoted to telling the story of her grandmother Yu-Fang and her mother Bao Qin. Instead of writing a straight autobiography, Chang chose to begin her story two generations back—the purpose being to provide not only personal historical context but also a sense of the cultural historical context in which her family came into being. By beginning the book with the statement that her grandmother “became the concubine of a warlord general” at the age of fifteen, Chang immediately gives her story a sweeping, grand epic backdrop: she is no mere commoner of humble origins but rather a figure whose family was right in the heart or thick of…… [Read More]
Dr. Federoff has in the past been an advocate of widespread use of genetically modified foods, vehemently disagreeing with opponents on the issue: "We wouldn't think of going to our doctor and saying, 'Treat me the way doctors treated people in the 19th Century, and yet that's what we're demanding in food production."
Jonathon Porrit, one of Gordon Brown's leading green advisers, warned last year, "Population growth, plus economic growth, is putting the world under terrible pressure." He said that Britain has no choice but to drastically reduce its population so as to build a "sustainable" society. The trust of which Porritt is a part, Optimum Population Trust (OPT), released data last year suggesting UK population be cut to 30 million persons in favor of sustainability. The represents a fifty percent cut in the UK population. Whether or not an economic downturn has caused Porrit to rehash his…… [Read More]
Angelo Epifani drove his car into my daughter, killing her instantly. The driver left the scene of the accident, likely fearing the repercussions and unable to face the consequences. My daughter was left lying on the street in the middle of the night, alone, to die. Her name was Jiao Shiqi. She was only 20 years old when she died, a delightful, kind, intelligent, and sweet girl.
Jiao Shiqi had her whole life ahead of her. She had immigrated to Canada not long before her untimely death. The courage it must have taken Jiao Shiqi to move to a foreign country alone was remarkable, but she handled it so well that she made friends nearly the minute she disembarked from the plane: flight AC031 direct from Beijing to Toronto Pearson.
Her marks at Columbia International College were so good, that Jiao Shiqi was planning on completing her college degree at…… [Read More]
Lastly, the gender gap has meant that males need to engage in more intense competition for females. As a result, money has become a more important means of attracting females (ei, 2009). These different factors combined to push more rural Chinese into the cities in search of better work. This in turn kept the cost of labor down, fueling intense economic growth that kept the unemployment rate in urban areas down. Even with the recent economic downturn, official unemployment rates for urban China were at just 4.2% for the fourth quarter of 2008, up from 4.0% in the previous quarter (Xinhua, 2009). These official figures have never fluctuated too much, although they were significantly higher in the late 1970s when economic modernization began, between 5-6% (Giles et al., 2004). It should be noted that the official unemployment rates belie the reality of China's economy, which features tens of millions of…… [Read More]
This population of aging, having had just one child, will rely upon society as a whole to care for them, instead of an extended family as was once traditionally and culturally the case.
The Rural Subsistent Dwellers
Evidenced by the lower income figures reported widely, China's rural farming populations have perhaps been the hardest hit by the One Child Policy. here ancient traditions and customs once dominated the way of life in the rural areas, China's reform policies, especially that one limiting One Child per family, have long impacted the rural way of life and productivity in China (Diamant, Neil, 2000, 93). here families that farmed once had children, sometimes numerous children, and those children helped to farm and bring in productive crops that could sustain the family, with the results of the family's labors far reaching and providing a source of income as well; since the One Child Policy…… [Read More]
138). Despite the contribution these SEZs have made to the Chinese state, Becker cautions that such meteoric growth is probably not sustainable over the long-term. For instance, Becker points out that, "Technology is changing assumptions about the future of industrial labor needs. ecent studies suggest that the link between high growth and job creation may not continue forever. In the 1980s it took a 3% increase in economic growth to produce a 1% increase in employment. By the 1990s, it took more than twice as much growth -- a 7.8% increase -- to achieve the same result. (2006, p. 154).
How has all of China's modernization affected rural China in places as Fengyang?
While the major urban centers of China have enjoyed spectacular growth in recent years, less prosperity (or none at all) has flowed to the country's rural regions such as Fengyang. Fengyang stands out because it was…… [Read More]
establishment of the People's Democratic Republic in China in the late 1940's, the Chinese Communist Party actively re-engineered society to curb birthrates and bring the country's population down to manageable levels. Part of this idea was a process that would re-imagine the family, a concept first found in the work of Plato. However, this invention of an 'ideal family' as being a paradigmatic national goal of social reformers that has its origins in British Malthusianism and gave birth to the practice of eugenics in the United States. It complemented a long tradition of periodic moral reforms and religious revivals that have existed in the United States since the Great Awakening.
The modern American concept of 'family values' owes its existence to the progressives of the late 19th century, whose principal manifestation was in organizations such as the Women's Christian Temperance Union and the Society for the Prevention of Vice. The…… [Read More]
gender selection ETHICS
History attests to the fact that couples from oyal families down to rural peasants have shown preference for a male child leading to numerous problems for the girl child and creating a sex ratio imbalance in some traditional societies. When preference for a male child is more pronounced and obvious, any method that can allow a couple to choose the gender of their unborn child is likely to create tremendous potential for gender discrimination and sex-ratio imbalance. Sex-selection or gender-selection as it is commonly known as is one such method that threatens to put female children at risk of being outnumbered by their male counterparts. The pre-conception gender selection techniques along with some other means of choosing the gender of the unborn child has come under severe criticism because of the ethical issues they raise. We must understand that while preference for a specific sex is limited…… [Read More]
To the extent a broad security agenda appropriately includes a concern over energy resources, that concern must address issues of consumption patterns, lifestyle habits, and insufficient development of alternative energy sources and processes. By contrast, direct population control such as through mandatory restrictions against having children represents a simplistic and unproductive approach to the problem that, in addition, is violative of fundamental human rights and autonomy of individuals and families to decide for themselves how large a family to have.
Furthermore, in terms of security, the real issue in the realm of energy and natural resources relates not to their overuse but to their deliberate disruption or destruction for terrorist or criminal purposes. Typical examples would include recently publicized cases of individuals who attempted to profit from oil and natural gas futures by puncturing pipelines located in remote areas to drive up prices in conjunction with coordinated efforts to pre-purchase…… [Read More]
2. Someone kicks a dog.
esponse: The person should go back and check if the dog is okay! This person may either drunk or extremely cruel and hates dogs. In any case, it is wrong to kick a harmless dog.
3. A woman carries a heavy jug of water on her head while her husband walks in front of her carrying nothing.
esponse: He should stop and help her with the jug of water. Her husband is not being a gentleman. He is not being a very good husband if he makes his wife carry heavy items and walks ahead of her though he not carrying anything, himself.
4. A male guest helps a female host carry dirty dishes into the kitchen.
esponse: The male guest should be thanked by the hostess because he is being courteous and polite by helping her carry out the dirty dishes.
5. A young…… [Read More]
Development is a general concept that includes many different aspects. The definition of development is improvement in human welfare, quality of life, social well-being, and satisfying the population's needs and wants. There are many different measurements for development, such as GDP, GNI, Human Development Index, Gender Inequality Index, Gini coefficient, and etc. Since each nation has its own culture, history, tradition, religion, and etc., the measurement of a successful development varies for different countries. As a result, although the general development concepts apply to all countries, each country needs to find their own specific way to develop. China has led the world its development among many various measures; especially economic growth. This analysis will consider some of the factors that are associated with China's exception development trajectory and what option it may hold in the future.
China's History of Development in the Twentieth Century
To understand China's rapid…… [Read More]
Women Status Contemporary India
The Status and ole of Women in Contemporary India
The women in contemporary India have a very significant role as they fulfill crucial responsibilities in almost every sector including family life, agricultural development and industrial development. However, it is unfortunate that such contributions have remained mostly indistinguishable to the planners and policy makers due to which the Indian women have always experienced an unstable status in the country. Even in this modern era of science and technology, women in India are still considered a disadvantaged group as there has been no change in the conventional structure of society as well as cultural and moral standards (Chakrapani and Kumar, 1994).
In addition, a majority of women are still unaware of the social laws that have been designed to alleviate the problems women face in the society. As a consequence, distressed situations influence Indian women more than Indian…… [Read More]
In J. Smith (Ed.), Understanding families into the new millennium: A decade in review (p. 357-381). Minneapolis, MN: National Council on Family Relations.
Ferree, M. (1984). The view from below: Women's employment and gender equality in working-class families. In .. Hess, & M.. Sussman (Eds), Women and the family: Two decades of change (p. 57-75). New York: Haworth Press.
Fung, J. (2010). Factors associated with parent-child (dis)agreement on child behavior and parenting problems in Chinese immigrant families. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 3993), 314-327.
Hewlett, S., & West, C. (1998). The war against parents: What we can do for America's beleaguered moms and dads. New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Hwang, K., Chang, S., Chen, S., Chen, C., & Yang, K. (2001). Chinese relationism and depression. Unpublished manuscript.
Lai, E., & Fang, S. (2001). Sex role attitude and housework participation among men and women in Taiwan. Paper presented at the…… [Read More]
, plots a strategy of growth.
While the case study shows blue-sky levels of growth, in reality the consortium of companies must carefully navigate the many stipulations of the Chinese government, while at the same time staying focused on the most attractive part of the market, those families in the top 15% of per capita incomes living predominantly in coastal regions. That is the target market. As can be seen from the analysis for this case study, it is foolish to consider the insurance programs in China as a revenue source; they are best practices in bureaucracy. The better approach is to become the premier provider of birthing and medical facilities for the most affluent families, with in-home birthing possible as well. Using this strategy they can get distanced from the ethical issues of Chinese birth quotas and the draconian nature of Chinese policy on controlling population growth.
The bottom…… [Read More]
It is noteworthy that most recently the government started soliciting opinions from legal academies, interested groups and the general public when drafting a major piece of legislation, to achieve democratic lawmaking and advance further compliance with the law (Lo, V.I., 2007).
The most important economic event at this stage or in the years following the 1978 economic reform in China is undoubtedly its accession to WTO at the end of 2001. Following 15 years of numerous negotiations and adjustments of policies, China eventually entered the mainstream world economy and started enjoying the benefits and facing the challenges of WTO.
In response to WTO requirements, China underwent a "make-over" in many aspects. A brief summary of China's WTO promises is shown in Figure 9A. According to the WTO agreement, China is subject to reviews by the WTO in the 8 years following its accession. The most recent one was announced in…… [Read More]
Native populations never had such concepts. That many nations are artificial creations incapable of food self-sufficiency undercuts the self-sufficiency argument. Nations around the world may need, at the very least, to organization into larger, more diverse blocs the way Europe has in order to have any hope of attaining food self-sufficiency.
Inefficient and illogical colonial-era boundaries are just one externality that is impacting the ability of the world to feed itself. Trade regulations are another. No matter the justification, trade barriers and tariffs reduce the efficiency of the global food trade. hen nations protect certain industries with these barriers, they fail to take advantage of comparative advantages. orse, such regulations stifle innovation. hen regulations are removed, innovation allows industries to find a new equilibrium. An example of this can be found with Canadian wine production. Prior to the U.S.-Canada Free Trade Act, the Canadian wine industry was subsidized heavily.…… [Read More]
Lead: Chinese students who study abroad used to be among the most sough-after workers in China. Now, they are increasingly facing barriers to employment. Negative stereotypes and the rising quality of domestic education have Chinese employers turning their backs on the once-venerated "sea turtles.' In many ways, their story encapsulates the cultural conflicts internal to China as the nation continues its rapid pace of globalisation.
As recently as a few years ago, Chinese students who traveled abroad in pursuit of higher education were known as 'sea turtles'. This was seen as high praise - the turtle is revered as a symbol of luck in Chinese culture -- and these students were viewed as among the most fortunate of their generation. Today, these students are known by the much less flattering sobriquet of 'seaweed'.
When they were sea turtles, Chinese students who studied in the West were virtually guaranteed to have…… [Read More]
Passing judgment on the reasons that women choose to have CVS is unwise under all circumstances. According to the belief systems of some individuals, all abortion is morally wrong and the use of CVS merely encourages sex-selective abortion or aborting fetuses because the resulting child is more likely to have genetic diseases associated with one gender (such as hemophilia in males). But once the principle is established that women have a right to choose to have an abortion, it is not the medical profession's right to decide what is a 'good' reason or a 'bad' reason to have an abortion, so long as the center is in compliance with the law regarding fetal viability.
The same is true regarding the availability of CVS, given that the center's view of abortion rights seems to be clearly tied to its policy. The center presumably does not take a position on…… [Read More]
Shanghai Entrepreneurial Real Estate Development Project
Shanghai is a city located on the Eastern Coast of China that has grown to be one the financial powerhouses of the industrialized world. The urban population growth trend can be explained by the fact that much of the rural population is increasingly migrating to the urban centers in search of economic opportunities. The Pudong are has also been responsible for an extraordinary share of the population growth in Shanghai. For example, there was a fifty six percent increase in the population from a little over three million in 2001 to roughly five million in 2011. This real estate development project consists of a structure that will be composed of twin towers that will reach the planned height of 250m and be attached by a podium. The project's financial calculations estimate an internal rate of return would be nearly thirty percent (26.88%)…… [Read More]
Families, Delinquency & Crime
The fundamental changes occurring to families in the 2st century can be classified into two different categories, depending on the internal or the external perspective that is used in the analysis. The external perspective proposes an analysis of the sociodemographic changes that have occurred to families under the impact of the external factors of the 2st century. The sociodemographic changes are characterized both by the numbers, by a quantitative reflection of families, and by the relationships that are formed within each family.
From the first perspective, the 2st century has imposed both changes in the number of families (some cultures, notably the Western ones, have encountered decreases in size because of an increased reluctance of individuals to get married) and in the formation of these family groups. As such, in many of these family groups, the norm has translated from a man-woman marriage as the basis…… [Read More]
Theory -- Approach Linkage
Human trafficking in Vietnam: Article critique
Although no region of the world is immune to the problem of human trafficking, in certain areas the crime is particularly acute. In Asia, the ratio of trafficked persons relative to the rest of the population is even higher than it is worldwide, with 3 victims per every 1,000 inhabitants, and that is only of the persons who are known to be trafficked (uong 2012: 48). There are also a likely very high percentage of trafficked persons who are not detected by any legal agencies at all. "The exact number of victims of human trafficking, therefore, is likely to be much higher" (uong 2012: 49). The majority are likely thought to be women, specifically women in the sex trade. With this in mind, uong (2012) offers a gender-based analysis of trafficking, with a focus upon Vietnam. Vietnam is often called…… [Read More]
Psychological studies have confirmed 'altruistic behavior' can be elicited in people. 'Peer Pressure' could also be utilized as an effective psychological tool in reducing resource consumption and in promoting other healthy environmental practices. [Center for Naturalism] A case in point is the Chinese governments 'Grain to Green' Program that offered cash incentives to farmers to convert marginal farmlands to forests. As Alan Tessier, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF) says, "Much of the marginal cropland in rural communities has been converted from agriculture to forests through the Grain-to-Green Program, one of the largest 'payment for ecosystem services' programs in the world," "Results of this study show that a community's social norms have substantial impacts on the sustainability of these conservation investments." [ScienceDaily] uilding this collective self-control at the community, national and international level holds the key to the success of an environmentally sustainable future. Motivated and environmentally conscious…… [Read More]
Such relationships in childhood begin with the parents, and for Asher, these early relationships are also significant later, as might be expected.
However, as Potok shows in this novel, for someone like Asher, the importance of childhood bonds and of later intimate bonds are themselves stressed by cultural conflicts between the Hasidic community in its isolation and the larger American society surrounding it. For Asher, the conflict is between the more controlled religious environment of the community and the more liberal environment of the art world he joins. What Potok shows about this particular conflict might seem very different from what others experience, others who are not part of such a strict religious background and who are not artists. However, children always find a conflict between the circumscribed world of their immediate family and the world they join as they strike out on their own. This conflict is often portrayed…… [Read More]
mericas Coalition Puts Marijuana Legalization Up for Discussion. Retrieved from the New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/18/world/americas/nations-in-americas-urged-to-consider-legalizing-pot.html?_r=0
Bakalar, N. (2006). Marijuana as Medicine: Consider the Pros and Cons,. The Mayo Clinic .
Lawrence Genen, M.M. (2012). Cannabis Compound buse. Medscape Reference .
National Instritute of Health. (2012, December). DrugFacts: Marijuana. Retrieved from National Institute on Drug buse: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana
Considering the magnitude of the worldwide illicit drug trade and its impact on the United States, take a position on merican enforcement policy in the world. nalyze the impact that merican drug enforcement has had on the international drug trade. Has it been effective?
The countries in which drug plants such as poppy (for opium and heroin) and cannabis (for marijuana), such drugs are smuggled into them. International drug trafficking is a billion-dollar business that grows each year.
Drugs trafficked on an international scale include heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine etc. It has been…… [Read More]
American Foreign Policy from three articles from Annual Edition's American Foreign Policy: Article 33, "Musclebound: The Limits of U.S. Power" by Stephen M. alt; Article 12, "A Small Peace for the Middle East" by Arthur Hertzberg; and Article 11, "To Be An Enlightened Power" by u Xinbo. It answers the following questions: 1) hat is the overall foreign policy issue/theme/problem that links the articles together. 2) hat are the central arguments of each article? Discuss these noting if they agree, complement, or conflict. 3) hich articles or authors do you tend to support and why? hat persuaded you? 4) hat should be the final foreign policy responses and solutions to the problem(s)? 5) If you like, you can conclude with any personal reactions to the articles.
American Foreign Policy
All three authors, alt, Hertzberg, and Xinbo, clearly believe that the United States should change its approach to foreign policy. The…… [Read More]
The new powerful leader who emerged from that struggle starting in 618 was Li Shimin. Some of the more notable accomplishments of Li Shimin involved restoring stable government, developing technological advances, and by utilizing the "free labor and military service of millions of peasants" he helped bring in enormous tax revenues to the point that the government was "more affluent than it had ever been."
Meantime during the time that the Tang dynasty was emerging as the power source, Buddhism helped to stimulate closer contact with other countries and cultures. According to Ping Yao, writing in the peer-reviewed journal Nan Nu, Chinese Buddhism became "instrumental in the development of mothers' identity and in the conceptualization of ideal maternal virtues" (Yao, 2008, p. 57). By examining the epitaphs that are left from the Tang dynasty, Ping Yao has determined that children whose mothers were strong Buddhists mostly complied with their mothers'…… [Read More]
While cases such as that of Kukdong graphically illustrate the importance of CS and codes of conduct, anti-sweatshop activists continue to display considerable hesitation and equivocation as they wrestle with implementing CS in China. In the words of the late activist Trim Bissell of the Campaign for Labor ights, China has become a "planetary black hole" attracting global production with its cheap labor, but "the anti-sweatshop movement has been without a China strategy."9For example, in January 2000, the University of California (UC) announced that it would not allow any university-licensed products to be produced in countries that do no tallow freedom of association and collective bargaining, in effect banning products made in China (China and the American Anti-Sweatshop Movement (http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:MfmUl9ll5pwJ:laborcenter.berkeley.edu/globaleconomy/china_american.pdf+china+sweatshops+unions&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9&ie=UTF-8)."
Efforts are underway to accomplish several things when it comes to China's sweatshops. The first thing that the union and labor leaders are demanding is that the world pay closer…… [Read More]
In examining the pros and cons of the outsourcing of products and the impact they have will be covered using as much information as possible to give a clear presentation of the facts. One pro-can be seen in the cost savings to the United States citizens in regards to the costs of Chinese imported products. The cons can be seen in the risks of doing business with the companies. Kathie Canning states in the Private Label uyer 2008 article, "Risky business: U.S. retailers and manufacturers need to weigh the pros and cons carefully before doing business with China," "In 2007, Chinese exporters of animal ingredients deliberately laced their products with melamine. Scores of U.S. pets became ill or even died after ingesting tainted food products. The ingredient turned up in both private label and national brand offerings across the country." This unfortunately is not the end of the story. Toys…… [Read More]
honored one, I offer this comment with grave regret that it shall even be received, for in his Excellency's well intentioned attempt to seek the advice of the more sagacious residents of Kyoto and Edo, he is playing into the hands of the barbarians whose own societies are marked with the spilled blood of noble rulers, instigated when words of dissent were expressed in writing. The Americans, whose black ships now dot the horizon in the Bay of Uraga, are presently ruled by the descendents of that generation that penned a doctrine of disloyalty and dissent in their effort to justify the chaos that gave them advantage in their homeland.
The subject before us is not one that should be given over to public scrutiny. This consideration of proper course is not an entertainment, not an exercise of intellect, as over time became the case of the Forty-seven Ronin. In…… [Read More]