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Confucianism is not followed in strength. The modern context of this ancient philosophy was enquired into first by Max Weber. The conclusion was to include it into one of the world's major religions and it is "least conducive to capitalist development. East Asians, for their part, began to condemn this venerable tradition as they deepened their knowledge of contemporary things" (Bell; Chaibong, 2003, p. 361) in a nut shell, the dialect of Confucius actually defined as the e "Confucius the Man" is an inseparable part of the theory of Chinese philosophy and is a part of their culture which is relevant to any modern interaction. (Bell; Chaibong, 2003, p. 361)
According to the theories of this school of philosophy, the worlds are sustained by the three ultimate, the sanji or elements called the universe, heaven, and earth. Heaven and earth form the basis of human actions and i-ching or the…… [Read More]
Old Chinese Culture
Amy Tan's story, "The Bonesetter's Daughter" is a poignant tale about three generations of daughters. Although Tan writes of females from a female perspective, this novel is more about more than mother-daughter relationships, it is about human relationships. hen the past is hidden, it ripples through a family and the next generation like a stone in a stream, and guilt begins to haunts like a ghost.
Tan's novel is about three generations of Chinese women, Precious Auntie, LuLing, and Ruth, all of whom, although related, led very different lives. Ruth is the daughter of LuLing, who came to the United States when her first husband was killed in the war. After Ruth's birth, her second husband was also killed in an accident, all of which caused LuLing to feel cursed, which in turn led to depression that exposed Ruth to a series of suicide attempts and years…… [Read More]
ole of Confucianism in Chinese Culture
The Five Great elationships
Confucius identified five key relationships required for the smooth functioning of society and government. The first relationship identified must exist between ruler and subject characterized by benevolence and loyalty. In essence, the ruler must be generous and kind to his subjects who return the 'favor' with loyalty. The second ideal relation is that of the father and son characterized by and loving and reverence. Ideally, the father was expected to teach the sons kindness and sons were taught to be dutiful and obedient to their fathers. The relationship between husbands and wives in the third category would require good/listening. From a marriage perspective, the husband was expected to be good to his wife who would reciprocate with obedience. The relationship between the elder brother and younger brother would require gentleness and respect. Elders would be expected to be considerate towards…… [Read More]
ae Yang's Outlook on the Chinese evolution
Living under a Communist ruler is not a lifestyle that many in the western world are accustomed. Life is much different from the freedoms many in the western world are used to living with. Imagine a friend or family member accustomed to in a life of oppression. In the 1960s Americans were living in a prosperous time. That time period is when many families bought homes and started having families, which is often called the time of the "Baby Boomers." During the 1960s in China, things were remarkably different; China had become a Communist (Socialist) country under the Maoist revolution and later became a close ally of the Soviet Union.
The Peoples epublic of China underwent dramatic changes in 1966 that lasted until 1976. Historically the period is referred to as The Great Proletarian Cultural evolution. Mao Zedong (Mao) was the…… [Read More]
The Evolution of the Chinese Film Industry
Contemporary Chinese Film Poster (Chinese Films)
For literally thousands of years, the Culture of China has inspired people and been a source of awe and excitement for people all over the world. The Chinese culture is rather unique and elegant with elements that are not commonly found in other cultures. Part of the cultures attraction is undoubtedly because it is one of the oldest cultures in the world and had has thousands and thousands of years to evolve into what it is today. It has drawn so much interest that it is integrating with other cultures. Although much of the ancient traditions have been somewhat overcome by various estern influences and modernization, traces of various aspects of the previous cultures still manage to stand the test of time and can still be seen today.
Many changes have occurred in the Chinese…… [Read More]
The pogam pimaily suppots the local Chinese communities to maintain younge geneation's heitage backgound, and speading Chinese cultue in the U.S. The classes ae nomally held two to thee hous on weekends with Chinese language lessons and othe taditional cultual and at activities. Most students have high levels of oal poficiency in Chinese, but needed to enhance skills in liteacy. Chinese heitage schools ae mainly suppoted by two goups: the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) which is founded by Taiwan o Hong Kong immigant and heitage communities, and the Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) that is connected with immigant and heitage communities fom mainland China. Accoding to Scott McGinnis's (2005) compiled statistics, the combined enollment of NCACLS and CSAUS was aound 150,000 in 2003. The numbe of students in the heitage schools is lage than in othe CFL pogams acoss the U.S.
Many…… [Read More]
Chinese and Canadian Negotiation Styles
When dealing with businessmen globally, it's critical to be aware of the cultural beliefs and values that shape their negotiation style and business behavior. This is imperative for successful and positive business relationship because not all cultural foster similar beliefs and hence there can vast differences in negotiation styles. These differences become more pronounced as we move from west to east because while most western countries may have few things similar in terms of culture and education, the same is not true for eastern countries. In this paper we shall compare the negotiation style of Chinese and Canadians. This will help us understand what a business person from the west need to know about the Chinese business communication style in order to be successful in their relationship with them.
Negotiation refers to the process where two or more parties communicate with each other in order…… [Read More]
This rationale may prove correct to some degree, but only in those areas where the villagers have no means of communication between villages and thus no way of exchanging opinions and finding out about irregularities and breaking of the law. Kolhammer is pointing out that the declared official role of the organic law of Village Committees is only going to be put in practice after the villagers will be aware of the right they have according to it and act accordingly.
There is no possibility that one can draw the conclusion that peasants in most villages in China are not aware of their rights in terms of electing their village leader and Village Committee. The degree of knowledge in this sense may vary, but a country that has experienced huge economic changes after the death of Mao could not have remained immobile to significant social and political changes. The political…… [Read More]
ecause of rhetoric that was rampant through the region, the result was "a skewed perception among some Chinese intellectuals that Indian must have been a race of violent and uncouth barbarians" (Mather, 1992). The once positive relationship between the two regions was tarnished, as evident by the "Discourse on Triple Destruction" which illuminates the barbarian traits that the Indian people have (Mather, 1992). This laid, along with the foundational elements Scripture of Lao-tzu Converting the arbarians, for a negative perception of India and allowed for huddism to flourish on Chinese terms.
uddhism in China was taught as "radical dualism," with teachings that focused on sudden enlightenment on salvation through grace rather than through ascetic practices" making it more appealing to a larger population of Chinese (Whyte, 2008). The Consul General of China asserts that "in Northeast Asia and some Southeast Asian countries, the historical influence of Chinese culture could be…… [Read More]
In this briefing new employee human resources, we will be considering cultural management issues in the tourist industry and how they impact upon our business. Our company, Beach Bum Ltd. is a travel consultancy Agency which was recently hired to provide a critical analysis on whether or not sustainable tours can attract American ecological tourists to travel to countries such as Tanzania and Namibia. We are a culturally eclectic group of advisors specialising in all aspects of tourism. Cultural sensitivity is not only our watchword, but our bottomline. Please do not feel overwhelmed by all of this information. Some of you may feel as though you are back in college. est assured, the difference between profit and bankruptcy in our business is the ability to sell in that person's culture. People like to feel important and an acknowledgement of their importance is not just being nice. It is also…… [Read More]
That is, the notion of rivalry and envy is not inherently connected to rational ideas about good and evil. These ethical value judgments are quite secondary to the matter of human conflict and its role in the affairs of both love and power. As Giovetti (2012) points out, "Feng Yi Ting (running until June 7 and stopping in New York at the Lincoln Center Festival, also under Redden's directorship, in July) is characterised by an emotional neutrality that leaves the audiences to decide for themselves how they feel." (Giovetti, p. 1)
In many ways, this is a distinctly eastern way of approaching conflict, providing its details as a history rather than an allegory. And once again, as with the kung fu movies that made so great an impression on me as a child, the play would using certain visual strategies to supplement these themes. They demonstrate the same spare simplicity…… [Read More]
Chinese' Food and the Model Minority study in ethnic cuisine and culture, marginalization and commercialization, and the paradox of exoticism.
The anthropological theme studied for this work was that of the ethnic compromises and paradoxes inherent in creating a "Chinese" restaurant in America, for Americans. In every English speaking country from England to Canada, Chinese food is a huge business. For many immigrants it is one of the only businesses ready and willing to take them in. Most Chinese restaurants strive to present themselves as cultural representations where the American connoisseur can have a legitimate cross-cultural experience. The more I researched the actual traditions of Chinese and Asian cuisine and the way in which Western prejudices and expectations shape the presentation of this experience, the more it became apparent that --like so many other cultural phenomena-- the cultural relevance of the Chinese-food experience is far from untainted. Repeated immersion at…… [Read More]
In addition, the ceremony also contained firecrackers which were symbolic of purification and joy. The food that was served at a marriage ceremony was also symbolic. For example, fruit and longevity noodles were symbolic of harmony, happiness, and prosperity.
Indeed the marriage arrangement was detailed and extravagant (for the wealthy) during the Qing dynasty. Now that we understand the marital arrangement let us focus on the role of the ideal wife during Qing's Dynasty.
The role of the ideal wife (Qing Dynasty)
Once the transfer was complete, the wife was totally immersed in pleasing her husband and his family. All kinship ties to the wife's family were broken and when she visited her family, she was considered a guest not a relative. Smith (1994) asserts that this was a cause of distress for many new wives because they were usually amongst strangers and the mother in law had a great…… [Read More]
Ancient Chinese weddings began with elaborate preparation, including the proposal and acceptance. However, the wedding itself was rather simple, and generally comprised of the bride and groom paying homage to Heaven and Earth, the family ancestors and the Kitchen God, Tsao-Chun, at the family altar, after which they drank tea offered by the groom's parents, and then bowed to each other (Chinese pp). This completed the marriage ceremony. Although the marriage ceremony itself was simply, there were numerous customs that were required both before and after, many of which are still observed today.
Today, many Chinese-Americans choose to combine their traditional culture with modern estern traditions. Traditionally, the color red is the symbol of happiness and joy, and is used throughout Chinese celebrations, including weddings (Traditions pp). The wedding invitations and reception menus are a deep red with black or gold calligraphy, and the guest book is always…… [Read More]
Chinese Poetry - critical analysis of Wuchi Liu's Lord of the River Hsiang & in the Wilds there is a Dead Doe
Women Subjugation & Nature as Refuge
Analyses of the poems Lord of the River Hsiang and In the Wilds there is a Dead Doe by Wuchi Liu showed two emergent themes reflecting Chinese culture: the society's norm and regard towards their treatment of women and the use of nature to personify beauty and solace that women it (nature). The following discussion and analyses centers on a comparison of the two poems, centering on the similarities and differences that Liu utilized in using these emergent themes: that is, that of women subjugation and nature as refuge for women.
Evidently manifested in Liu's poems is the presence of women characters as subjects of each poem. Each illustrates the woman character as delicate, beautiful, and "fair," qualities that serve as stereotypes…… [Read More]
Chinese as the native language and culture to research. Include such information as the need to communicate, social organisation (tribes, cities, etc.) contacts with other cultures, development of a written language, nonverbal aspects of language (such as inflection and body language), changes over the centuries, etc.
Chinese culture and language
Chinese cultural values play an important role in shaping the community's social norms, with the majority of individuals in China being inclined to take on attitudes that are in accordance with their traditions. Chinese language needs to be understood as being much more than a dialect, as it has a strong socio-cultural effect on its speakers and as it affects individuals in a cognitive-linguistic way. The impact of such ideas on concepts such as people, families, and communities can be observed by addressing the way that they function with the language as a central model facilitating better connections between bodies.…… [Read More]
MEDIA (MIS) EPSENTATIONS OF CHINESE-AmericanS
Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans
Media (Mis) epresentations of Chinese-Americans
In the west, representations of people who are outside of the standard or norm, (white, middle & upper class, male) are not represented with accuracy. Chinese-Americans are one such group that doese not often receive an accurate or dynamically real representation of the spectrum of the culture or the people within it. Media representations in the west of Chinese-Americans are limited to a few stereotypes, generally. Some of those stereotypes include that all Chinese people practice and have mastered martial arts, and that all Chinese have exceptional intelligence in mathematics, sciences, and technology. Another media stereotype of the Chinese is that they are all short of stature, particularly poking fun at short men. Chinese men are often stereotypically represented as geeks or nerds -- exceptionally "book smart," but lacking in coolness and social skills.…… [Read More]
In order to become a deity, an individual must attain the status of immortality. The only way for these individuals to attain such status is to master the Five Precepts of Buddhism and reach Enlightenment. Once this is accomplished then the individual can become a deity. However, each God and Goddess only emerges as a real worshipped entity once they have become enshrined through lore and mythology. The Monkey King is perhaps the best known deity in China because the mythology that surrounds him is one of China's oldest and most popular narrative traditions. This story entitled "The Journey to the West" is the real foundation for Monkey King's status as a God within Chinese culture.
The concept of heaven and hell are also confusing when viewed from a western perspective. In Chinese culture, the perception of heaven is that of a supreme power that reigns over lesser Gods and…… [Read More]
The is a lack of clear instructions and of a proper indication of the level of student knowledge. Also, there is indication with regard to the Teacher's guidelines, only contain basic assessment information was available. From both the student and the instructor's viewpoint, there were no overall guidelines to describe how to implement Assessment task for ninth grades. In addition, the student descriptions of the task were very brief. The materials were not well organised. Also, the assessment task description and rubric is one document rather than well organised and separated as compared to the QSA Sample assessment.
The assessment is not suitable as presented for the Year 9 Chinese level. Also the assessment has little relevance to the required course objectives as reflected in teaching and learning.
Therefore, it has no real quantifiable ability to provide students with adequate opportunity to demonstrate the performance of particular criteria, especially in…… [Read More]
Chinese immigrants living in the an Joaquin Valley, California. It has 4 sources.
The an Joaquin Valley, California acquired its name in an interesting manner. panish history has documented this incident and attributed its name to a panish Army Lieutenant Gabriel Moraga who accidentally ventured to this unknown land while looking for new land for potential panish missions. During this journey, he came across a small creek, which he named 'aint Joachim', referring to aint Joachim, who was the father of Mary, the Virgin mother of Jesus Christ. In panish, aint Joachim became 'an Joaquin' and hence, the river near the creek came to be known as the 'an Joaquin River'. oon enough, the entire central valley came to be known as the 'an Joaquin Valley'. (How the Valle Got Its Name, 2000)
The Chinese immigrants who chose the United tates as a place to live did so for more…… [Read More]
culture of a country is likely to affect an individual's business practices including the distribution of its products within the country and outside, the production process and configuration of a product, and other business operations that contribute to the business growth and output. Cultures determine the different ways in which people behave and mostly in business.
'Knowing about the cultural circumstance of your country or foreign country where you wish to transact your business, can either help you prevent making mistakes that will affect your business.' (Hill, 2004) To do this, the paper chooses to focus it's analyzes on China's culture as the country of target and its implications to the business operations.
China has truly emerged as a country with great business opportunities and with a huge potential for economic growth. ith an improved international relations, a robust economy, and increased foreign investment doing business in China is quite…… [Read More]
Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Ch'en, Kenneth K.S. Buddhism in China: A Historical Survey. New Jersey: Princeton University
Press, 1907-1964. In this text, Professor Kenneth Ch'en writes a historical account of the development of Buddhism and how it modified as it grew. Buddhism is a unique religion in that it has been adapted to incorporate the cultural attitudes of the various countries in which it is found. Within China, Buddhism took an especially strong hold because it was able to incorporate the philosophical ideas of people like Confucius.
Ch'en's main argument of the piece seems to be that Buddhism is different from other religions. This is what makes the book a useful tool for academic research. There is not one set of dogmatic rules that have to be accepted, but rather many different versions of the religion. In this text, Ch'en has identified all of the social,…… [Read More]
Following are Hofstede's four categories and what they measure:
Power Distance (PD) is the "extent to which the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally" (Hofstede 1998) with a small PD meaning more equality in the society, and a large PD meaning less.
Individualism (ID) defines whether the society expects people to look after themselves or not. Its opposite is Collectivism, which Hofstede (1998) defines as "the extent to which people in a society from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people's lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty."
Masculinity (MA) defines the degree of distinction of gender roles. High MA means men are supposed to be "assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life" (Hofstede 1998). Its…… [Read More]
As a result, not only are foreign markets changing to adapt to the Chinese marketplace needs, the Chinese marketplace, and consumer, are likewise adapting and changing to meet the needs of the global market. For instance, the economic boom in China's urban areas is creating a new consumer culture where the consumer has more disposable income to work with. This itself has effected consumer preferences and patterns within the Chinese marketplace. The general result is that a more sophisticated Chinese consumer is emerging and foreign companies need to market to their sophisticated needs while at the same time marketing to the general population's needs.
Therefore, the most effective way for a company to build a strong brand name in the rapidly emerging Chinese market is to adapt itself to the rapidly changing Chinese culture. To do this, it is important that the foreign company create a local presence and thus…… [Read More]
Wandering in the Garden and Soul Mountain
In comparing and contrasting the literary techniques of "Wandering in the Garden, Waking from a Dream" and "Soul Mountain," one of the biggest contrasts between the two stories is perspective: Gao Xingjian's "Soul Mountain" is written in the 2nd person, while Pai Hsien-yung's "Wandering in the Garden" is written in 3rd person. The narrator in each story is omniscient, which is their biggest similarity -- but the two differ in style in the sense that "Wandering in the Garden" has a stream-of-consciousness manner that runs through it, taking the reader deep into the main characters thoughts as she revisits her past. The style of "Soul Mountain" is much more descriptive and focused on producing the effect of putting the reader at the heart of the action -- after all, the reader is the subject of the narrative and so it is almost like…… [Read More]
Female Agency in Short Stories
There are numerous points of similarity between Eileen Chang's "Shame, Amah!" and Wang Anyi's "Granny". Both stories depict the lives of Chinese domestic workers. Moreover, each tale is set during the same time period -- the years surrounding the Second World War. Furthermore, both of the authors are Chinese and display a marked affinity for the intimate details surrounding Chinese culture, which factors prominently in each respective tale. Still, there is a distinct point of differentiation in these works when it comes to the notion of female agency, and how it is displayed in each piece. It is significant that female agency factors into each of these tales. However, "Granny" is largely a story about a somewhat unconventional matriarch who is able to become the provider for a host of people. The concept of female agency in Chang's piece is centered around conventional notions of…… [Read More]
Vegetarian food is easily found in Buddhist restaurants in big cities of Taiwan. Many people enjoy vegetarian food due to health or religious reasons since there is a strong connection between Buddhist religion and vegetarian food. Still only a very small portion of the entire population is totally vegetarian.
ecreation is important in Taiwanese society and it has become more vital since Taiwanese started getting higher income in 1980s (Moiz, Wu, p. 107). They enjoy life the way any modern society would like going to the movies, enjoying karaoke, meeting family and friends and spending time in the parks. Eating out is also one activity Taiwanese enjoy and shopping malls are normally immensely crowded on the weekends. The night markets in Taipei see huge crowds where all kind of exotic stuff is sold.
Taiwan is a growing nation which has made its mark on the world…… [Read More]
Global Health Care and Culture
Traditional Health Care Concepts
Modern Health Care in China and its Affordability
The public health system in China has been able to make progress in many aspects owing to the economic growth of the country. Problems like child mortality and life expectancy have shown considerable improvements over the last 20 years in conjunction with the rising economy. With significantly more hospital beds in the country compared to about 10 years ago, China has made all efforts to embrace the modern medical system and formulated policies to make modern health care affordable to every Chinese citizen (Mehlhorn, Wu & Ye, n.d.).
However give the above context, it is still a fact that Chinese system of health care is still governed and guided by the cultural values and traditions of ancient Chinese health care. This is in conformation to the ways the Chinese value their centuries old…… [Read More]
This also shows how women became more active in the national political process, no matter their stance or beliefs. While the more traditional facts about communist China under Mao Zedong are explicated, there are some less horrific details about communist life of which the average American may not be aware. Sexual equality did grow. Food was distributed fairly. These are not the typical details of communist China we learn about in America.
Chang herself has several occupations as the story focuses upon her life and her struggles. She is a member of ed Guard at the age of 14. She works as a steelworker and an electrician. These kinds of positions are still considered unusual for women in American culture as well as in many other cultures around the world. During the Cultural evolution, there arose opportunities for women to progress socially and politically. This rings true for the Civil…… [Read More]
He wants readers to examine the behaviors of their minds and thoughts. We should practice observing how our minds behave so as to understand the nature of ourselves more deeply and accurately, but also to help us function through trauma as well as everyday life. Too often we are lost in our own thoughts; we do not take time to observe our thoughts outside of their content.
There are several stories of themes surrounding community and identity with or through community. This is a theme western readers may expect with literature from eastern cultures. While American culture is relatively more narcissistic and selfish, Chinese culture is more relatively selfless, and group oriented.
The titles of the stories are simple and some are quite poetic. Hsun's style is delicate and penetrates the reader's senses. It is a tribute to his ability that he is able to write such tender stories about…… [Read More]
Taoism, Confucianism, Judaism
Taoism, Confucianism, and Judaism
There are several major religions in the world and in different parts of the world the religions are quite diverse. In China, two major religions are Taoism and Confucianism, while in the West one of the oldest religions is Judaism. These religions are quite different, with historical, theological, and philosophical differences. But they also have certain aspects in common, such as honesty, integrity, and compassion. These religions espouse doctrines on how a person should to live their life, how they should behave in relationships, and how they should treat other people. This essay will explore these three religious traditions; their histories, differences, and similarities.
Sometime around 550 BCE, in the Chinese kingdom of Lu, there was born a man named Confucius, called "Kung Fu Tzu" in Chinese. After opening a school and serving as a minister for his ruler, Confucius was forced to…… [Read More]
Chinese Tourism for Hotels
Just as the 4ps are no longer sufficient to capture the sophisticated buyer of regular goods, the inquiring traveler is part of a larger network of service consumers who has a need more. And that's why the now recognized 7ps can play a major role in reaching out to tourist customers who come from different cultures or otherwise have an expectation of being part of something special that recognizes their passing needs (Khanna, 2011).
It is for this reason that many hotels that have an interest in the massively growing Chinese tourism sector have already turned their attention to this unique, well-informed, and rather well prepared community of buyers (Chen, L., 2011). As with any other customer, Chinese visitors want to be greeted with a sense of detail that at least tips its hat to the fact that both parties to the transaction respect what the…… [Read More]
Indeed, the trajectory of the narrative involves exacting revenge on those who prevented her marriage from taking place.
Although the Bride's marital aspirations might suggest that she holds a conservative sensibility, this is far from the case and she is ultimately more aggressive than Jen. While Jen also exhibits physical prowess, her sacrificial gesture at the film's conclusion signifies how she maintains a strong reverence for the Confucian moral code, assimilating her within the wuxia genre. Physically, the Bride resembles a dominatrix; she is taller than many of the characters and fights in a relentlessly savage manner (even going so far as to bite her adversary in one scene.) in contrast, Jen is more diminutive and her face and eyes are softer and less predatory. Where the Bride looks much more imposing than an average person, Jen has an average size that is not dissimilar from the other characters. Indeed,…… [Read More]
Chinese Internet Culture
Decades after the reforms of Deng Xiaoping known as the "Four Modernizations," "a focus on development of agriculture, industry, science and technology and the military" (The University of Michigan. N.D.); China in 2011, grapples with the multiple dilemmas of internet information access, personal freedom, and government control over content. The rise of digital media, web access, and information availability over the past two decades has spread around the globe encompassing the world's second largest economy. As economic freedom continues to slowly evolve in China, so too does the call from its citizens for unfettered access to internet technology and content become more pervasive. The Chinese internet culture is particularly fascinating due to this inherent dichotomy between government control over content and individual demands for information access. How China's leadership confronts the challenges of information dissemination will be critical to China's long-term economic, social, and political future.
March…… [Read More]
By the fifth millennium BCE, China had developed the basic elements that were to identify it as a civilization, such as social structure, agricultural skills and the domestication of animals (Schmidt pp). It was also developing concepts related to the order of the natural environment, to life, death, and life after death (Schmidt pp). China's cultural identity, as it is known today, can be traced to the endeavors of the Neolithic village communities of the Yangshao culture that flourished during this time (Schmidt pp). Ancient Chinese communities produced numerous vessels and objects from various mediums for use in both utility and religious purposes.
Only fragments and traces of items created in ephemeral materials remain from the prehistoric and early historic periods, yet numerous ancient Chinese objects of jade, earthenware, and metal have survived in fairly good condition, most of which were found preserved in ancient burial sites (Schmidt…… [Read More]
Zhenshi, Guo " Playing the Game by the Rules" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
Zhengrong, Hu (2004) the Post-WTO Restructuring of the Chinese Media Induistries and the Consequences of Capitalism." Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003.
Fong, Chien-san (2004) "It is Legitimate to Imagine China's Media as Socialist?"
Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
Ampuja, Marko (2004) "Critical Media Research, Globalization, Theory and Commercialization" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003..
rants, Kees (2003) "Auditing Public roadcasting Performance: Its Theory and Practice" Javnost -- the Public Vol.10 No.3 November 2003.
McQuail, Denis (2003) "Public roadcasting: oth Free and Accountable" Javnost; the Public Vol. 10, No. 4 November 2003.
Media Shakeup: Public What Readers Want or Perish" (2004) China Daily News [Online] located at http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003/09/02 / content 260549.htm
Feng, Chien-san (2004) "Is it Legitimate to Imagine China's Media…… [Read More]
Chinese-American Studies: Wen Ho Lee Case
United States of America is a melting pot of various communities who have been residing in the country for generations. They feel assimilated into the American culture where many of them have been born and brought up in the U.S. And hence have remote connections with the country of their ancestors. As a result, they feel very much a part of this country and believe they have the rights of a citizen. This is why they feel that they do not deserve to be discriminated against on the grounds of their origins. Therefore such communities protest if situations arise, where they feel they have been discriminated against in some or the other. Though United States confers all rights of citizenry to its nationals, there have been cases in the past where the U.S. government has discriminated against a person or a group on the…… [Read More]
China during the Tang dynasty was a period of beauty and regality among the Chinese citizenry. One of the art forms which took on new importance during the era was in writing. Literature both in the form of stories and poetry became artistic and beautiful. Those who could write best were elevated themselves to the pantheon of artists. This attitude about the importance of writing is visible in some of the stories of the ear. In the tale "Yingying's Story," the main character of Zhang finds himself completely enamored of a young seventeen-year-old girl. The only way that he is able to woo her is through his writing and in turn she is unwilling to show him her own writings for fear of how he will perceive her.
Zhang declares that he is physically unable to stand the three-month long wait it would take for a proper engagement…… [Read More]
Chinese Jade Burial Suits
During all my travels throughout ancient China, one of the more peculiar beliefs I came across was the notion that jade holds mystical powers, capable of preventing the body from decaying. I am currently in Chang'an, the capital of the dynasty, which is known in the present day as Xi'an. The year is 192 CE. The people of the estern Han Dynasty universally agree that this supposedly magical material is the essence of mountains, and because it prevents the decomposition of the physical form, it may in fact ensure rebirth. Now, as of the present day, very few of these jade burial suits still actually exist, and it may seem ambiguous as to whether or not they were a passing fad or a momentary excess amongst emperors. However, upon my investigation of the long-forgotten past, I have found that this practice of burying the dead with…… [Read More]
Chinese Communism and its Future.
The Chinese revolution came in the year 1949; it refers to the final stage of military conflict. hen the armies of Mao Test Tung and of General Chu crossed the Yangtse River in April 1949, the seal of defeat was almost set on the forces of Chiang Kai Shek. According to the bourgeois revolution, their beliefs would be followed by the proletarian socialist revolution. (Gao, Mobo 2008).
The revolution of how China differs from its counterpart is that in both countries (Russia and China) were backward at the beginning of this century. Their relations of production and their patterns of exploitation were semi-feudal (or related to feudalism) and were predominantly founded on agriculture. Both societies had Religious beliefs, reflecting the social conditions: in China Confucianism, and in Russia Greek Orthodoxy. However they had different traditions, culture practices and language. Both Russia and China had different…… [Read More]
2. Someone kicks a dog.
esponse: The person should go back and check if the dog is okay! This person may either drunk or extremely cruel and hates dogs. In any case, it is wrong to kick a harmless dog.
3. A woman carries a heavy jug of water on her head while her husband walks in front of her carrying nothing.
esponse: He should stop and help her with the jug of water. Her husband is not being a gentleman. He is not being a very good husband if he makes his wife carry heavy items and walks ahead of her though he not carrying anything, himself.
4. A male guest helps a female host carry dirty dishes into the kitchen.
esponse: The male guest should be thanked by the hostess because he is being courteous and polite by helping her carry out the dirty dishes.
5. A young…… [Read More]
Culture & Religion
Roman Catholic: The Roman Catholic religion believes in the Holy Trinity of a creator God the Father; Jesus Christ, His Son; and the Holy Spirit. Other beliefs that characterize the religion are the original sin; the forgiveness of sin; the second coming of the Lord; and life after death (CIM, 49). Given its belief in sin, the religion offers the hope of salvation through its sacraments and baptism. Infant baptism is encouraged to erase the original sin and as a start to a spiritual life through the Church. In addition, the Roman Catholic Church holds that the mass is a continuation of the sacrifice made by Christ and thus teaches the doctrine of transubstantiation or that the bread and wine at communion actually become the body and blood of Christ (Biblical Discernment Ministries, 1997). Generally, the religion has no dietary restrictions. However, it advocates abstaining from meat…… [Read More]
They wanted to know the best places to go after work, and expected him to help them in that regard.
Hanes finally told his Japanese trainers "he preferred not to mix business with pleasure." ithin a couple days, the group requested another instructor. The critical issue here, one can quickly discern, is that Hanes did not do his homework on the Japanese business culture; if he had, he would know the Japanese are intensely committed to their work, on duty and off duty.
The "Miscue No. 2" involves Ray Lopez, top salesperson for his company who was fluent in Spanish; he was sent to Buenos Aires to make a marketing pitch to a distribution firm there. He arrived and was picked up at the airport and surprised to learn that the meeting had been postponed for two days "...so that Ray could rest after the long trip" and also have…… [Read More]
Figue 1. Demogaphic composition of the United States (2003 estimate).
Souce: Based on tabula data in Wold Factbook, 2007 (no sepaate listing is maintained fo Hispanics).
Fom a stictly pecentage pespective, it would seem that Asian-Ameicans do not epesent much of a theat at all to mainsteam Ameican society, but these mee numbes do not tell the whole stoy of couse. Fo one thing, Asian-Ameicans ae one of the most divese and fastest gowing goups in the United States today (Hong, Kim & Wolfe, 2005). Accoding to Alvaez and Kimua (2001), studies have documented time and again that, consistent with thei histoical teatment, Asian-Ameicans continue to be the tagets of acially motivated popety vandalism, vebal haassment, theft, physical assaults, and in some instances, homicide; futhemoe, othe studies have confimed that a pesistent patten diving anti-Asian violence is the peception of Asian-Ameicans as foeignes who pesent an economic, academic, social, and/o…… [Read More]
In addition, repeating ACSI can provide trend data (Hall, 2002, p. 23+), important to government agencies, but also to new industries. Hall notes that, "Besides the ability of the ACSI to maintain a pulse on customer satisfaction, the ACSI is an index, not just a survey. This means it groups all participants and provides an integrated score, or index" (2002, p. 23+).
Schay et al. reported that the United States federal Office of Personnel Management uses a similar instrument that measures nine core dimensions underlying customer satisfaction. "These dimensions were distilled from 139 dimensions identified in the management, marketing, and organizational psychology literature. The dimensions are empirically related to organizational effectiveness and relevant to all service sectors" (Schay et al., 2000, p. 30), and therefore would need to be developed specifically for each industry.
hile ACSI is the dominant measuring tool in much of U.S. consumer satisfaction research, the Kano…… [Read More]
The rise of globalization has been a contentious issue both economically and politically. Aspects such as tax incentives for overseas operations, repatriation of dollars earned in foreign markets, and potential currency wars used to devalue exchange rates, are all problems plaguing a globalized society. Add the possible threat of cyber terrorism, and global companies have a cacophony of threats that are as difficult to enumerate as they are to understand. However, through these threats, society has generally benefited for the technological advances and financial globalization of enterprise. For one, capitalism continues to spread all around the world. This provides incentive for society to innovate, and improve the overall quality of life for everyone involved. Financial globalization provides the needed capital to overseas ventures that are deemed worthy of investment. Through transparency initiatives, emerging markets are now better able to secure vital funding needed to innovate. Language adoption has facilitated…… [Read More]
Silence too is an important part of communication in Singapore. It is customary to pause before answering a question, to indicate that the person has given the question the appropriate thought and consideration that is needed. Westerners habit of responding quickly to a question, to Singaporeans, often indicates thoughtlessness and rude behavior. Their demeanor is typically calm, and Westerners more aggressive style is often seen as off putting ("Singapore: Language," 2009). Authority is to be respected for both employees of an organization, in Singapore, and when dealing with other organizations (Tse, 2008), and communication content and tone should represent this respect. Business etiquette is also different in Singapore than in many Western countries.
Cultural Business Etiquette in Singapore:
Business is more formal in Singapore than non-Asian organizations are often used to. There are strict rules of protocol, with a clear chain of command, which is expected to be kept on…… [Read More]
The fact that China tried to cut off exports of tea to the British -- unless the British would stop bringing in opium to China -- shows again that laws and morality in China were of higher importance than the economy. The war that ensued in 1839 (the first "Opium ar") because the Chinese attempted to blockade the factories and keep the foreigners out. The British also won the second "Opium ar" in China and the law changed in China to allow opium as a legitimate trading item. It took a war to get the Chinese in the right frame of mind to change the law.
This is a key to the argument put forward in this paper. The Chinese didn't seem at all bothered when their trading partners were banned from coming into the country due to laws and morality. So the economy has been hampered, so what? The…… [Read More]
Heitage Assessment: Indian, Chinese and Ameican Cultues
In using the heitage assessment tool, thee (3) cultues wee consideed and compaed: Indian (autho's cultue), Chinese and Ameican.
The autho's cultue is highly influenced by ual Indian cultue, as s/he was aised in India until s/he was 25 yeas old. Because of this late influence of Ameican cultue, my Indian cultue has emained stonge within me. This is eflected in the autho's lifestyle, which stictly adheed to taditions and values held impotant by the Indians. Raised a Catholic, the autho is actively involved in the Chuch and paticipates in activities like Bible eading and celebating eligious holidays. The autho's stong Catholic Indian identity is also eflected in he social cicle, which pimaily consisted of Indians shaing the same cultual identity as he and pacticing Catholics.
Howeve, when talking about health maintenance, the autho mixes the influence of Indian cultue with the…… [Read More]
Japanese History And Chinese Fixation
Japanese History & Chinese Fixation
If any single term can characterize early Japan, it may be called a period of "Chinese fixation"
Borrowing of culture by Japan from China started with the introduction or adoption of Buddhism in 552 A.D. And continued steadily until the end of the Nara period in 784. This is an expression of the impact of Chinese Civilization. If any single term can characterize these two & half centuries, they would be called the period of "Chinese fixation." This indicates the adoption and integration of the concept of Chinese relationship and culture into the development of the leadership style, language, religion, and other aspects in the context of the history of Japan. For instance, in curtailing power of the great clans and promotion of the prestige or status of the imperial institution, China was vital in the provision of inspiration to…… [Read More]
New Culture May 4th movements. Why considered important modern Chinese history? 2. What Han synthesis? Who principle figure process elements bring create ? 3.
As suggested by the terminology, the New Culture movement refers to the attempt to rise against traditional Chinese culture. The movement was initiated by various Chinese intellectual circles around 1916 and was related to the perception that Confucian tradition contributed to the country's stagnation and national weakness and inhibited the development of China. The May 4th Movement, part of the overall Chinese cultural reform, refers to the day in 1919 that marked the immense popular protest against some of the terms that the treaty of Versailles included. The population reacted against Japan receiving territorial rights in China which had been previously owned by Germans. The Chinese intellectuals deemed the imperious need of a cultural movement that would enable China's adaptation of norms to those of the…… [Read More]
Hong Kong Food Culture
Unlike many other cities, Hong Kong offers a unique case study in the effects of globalization on local economies and cultures due to its premier status as a nexus between China and the West. Over the years, and even through British rule, Hong Kong maintained its own distinctly Chinese culture even in the face of relentless influence from other countries and explicit attempts to manipulate Hong Kong culture. However, globalization has caught up with Hong Kong, greatly undermining the traditional Chinese culture, a fact seen most clearly in the case of Hong Kong food culture. Nonetheless, Hong Kong retains its Chinese cultural importance, such that one examining the decline of Hong Kong food culture cannot help but see the areas in which the process has been inverted as well, with Hong Kong culture serving to integrate certain foods or drinks into Chinese society. Thus, as globalization…… [Read More]
Managing Organisational Culture
The values and behaviors that contribute to the unique social and psychological environment of an organization make up the organizations culture. Organizational culture is the summation total of an organization's past and current suppositions, incidents, viewpoint, and values that hold it together, and is articulated in its self-image, inner workings, connections with the outside world, and future prospects.
In dealing with the management of organisational culture, it is firstly essential to recognize as fully as possible the characteristics of the existing or new target culture to include the myths, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions that strengthen the culture. Organisational culture is not something that can be viewed very easily it is consequently quite hard to replace it. Usually when certain leaders form a company, their values are converted into the actions of the members of that organisation. When other leaders take over, it may not…… [Read More]
Honor Code of Chinese Warriors
The objective of this study is to discuss the honor code of warrior-heroes in Chinese history and to answer to what the honor code consists of and the origin of the honor code. As well, this study will examine how this honor code influenced the intentions, words, and actions of the warriors and how the honor code manifests itself in novels, how and when the codes apply and what competing visions existed in human conduct.
Wuxia is a term in Mandarin that means literally "martial arts chivalry" and is representative of a unique Chinese type of story that is dated back as far as the Tang Dynasty (681-907). Wuxia is defined by stories "that combine wushu (martial arts) tradition with deeds of heroic chivalry perfomed by men and women." (Pollard, 2011, p.1) Wuxia stories are rooted in "early youxia (?
) and cike (?
)…… [Read More]
Chinese calligraphy & Western calligraphy
Weather in the East or in the West, calligraphy, the art of writing, is first and foremost an art form, by definition. This art is dedicated to practical purposes, but as any craft, it has taken its own individuality as an expression of the craftsman's abilities, his imagination, creative power and mastering of the specific techniques.
Calligraphy and literature are highly dependent on each other in sia, particularly in China. Technology has brought typewriters and keyboards on writers' desks in most places in the world, yet Chinese writers as well as painters are still paying a great deal of effort and attention to the art of calligraphy. It is only through the lens of the Chinese culture that one might properly understand the value of calligraphy. Most of the western world would consider calligraphy as an art of the past with no particular resonance in…… [Read More]
The fact that communism still dominates affairs in the country can limit or discourage foreign investors. This is probably one of the main reasons for which large corporations are hesitant about investing large amounts of money in China (eatherbee & Emmers 42).
The masses no longer express interest in U.S. cultural values because it appears that the U.S. has experienced significant problems consequent to the 9/11 events. This enabled China to step forward and pose into a body that no longer had problems because of its communist background and that was ready to join other international actors in assisting society progress. The fact that China progressed significantly while the U.S.' image suffered meant that things would change significantly in Southeast Asia. Fair play is one of the main points of interest at this point, as "the concern in Southeast Asia is that the United States, rather than accommodating to a…… [Read More]
Once again, this is partially due to the tonality of Chinese language, and its relatively limited vocabulary and reliance upon intonation and contextual meaning. The brusqueness Fallows noted was also due to the paradoxical Chinese notion that because intimate relationships are so valued, one sign of intimacy is eschewing the use of please and thank-you: "To someone who grew up learning all the 'pleases' and 'thank yous' of polite English, Chinese as it is spoken between family and friends can sound extremely terse and direct" (Fallows 2010). In Chinese, when offered a glass of water, an individual will simply say the English equivalent of 'no' or 'I don't need it,' rather than 'no thank you' as would be acceptable in and American context (Fallows 2010).
Fallows' experience illustrates how, conversely, it might be quite difficult for a Chinese person to assimilate to the U.S. An individual might come across as…… [Read More]
l billion in 2007. This growth can be seen to represent the increasing interest of Chinese firms in acquiring resources, technology and brands outside of their own country (Carpenter & yman, 2009).
Lenovo was able to seal the deal essentially by acting like a estern firm. It did not approach the deal from the same perspective as say, the way that CNOOC did with its unsolicited bid and ultimately failed bid for Chevron. Lenovo had a strategic alliance with IBM prior to the deal, so that the latter's management and shareholders understood the strategic value of the deal. For Lenovo, it was able to maintain relationships with IBM, including taking some of its talent back to China with it.
Lenovo traded on the Hong Kong exchange, giving it the transparency needed by estern investors. Moreover, this also lent liquidity to Lenovo shares, allowing them to be used in the deal.…… [Read More]
All good things must come to an end, and at no time is this fact truer than in China in 1911, when the Xinhai Revolution resulted in the fall of the Qing Dynasty. This led to a period of unrest, as the world's powers engaged in orld ar I. Even though China had participated in the war on the side of the Allies, China was betrayed during the negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles. Instead of being given autonomy over a controlled sphere of interest in the Shandong district of China, the Treaty of Versailles instead gave this territory over to Japan. China's May 4th Movement ended up being an anti-est, anti-imperialist cultural shift that grew out of student demonstrations in 1919.
The weak response of the Chinese government to reclaim the Shandong province for itself in self-defense led to accusations of corruption. hether or not the government was…… [Read More]
This is called "reproduction worship." According to this belief the world originated from Yin and Yang life force. This has had a great impact on Chinese culture and its view of reproduction. Yin is considered a male life force with many powerful positive attributes while Yang is assigned mainly weaker attributes. eproduction is given much importance because of its power to move the universe ahead and to expand the same. The forces of Yin and Yang are both needed for actions to have impact. There are other beliefs that seem to have an impact on reproductive behavior among Chinese couples. (Tang, 1995)
Since Confucianism advocates sexual restraint and asceticism, marriage is seen as a vehicle for reproduction rather than a means of enjoying sex. Secondly families are considered very significant because of ancestor worship. Since ancestors are revered in Chinese culture, having a family is always the motivating force behind…… [Read More]