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In more severe cases, intravenous administration of fluids may be required. Additionally, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that antibiotics may shorten the course and diminish the severity of the illness.
Immediate treatment is critical for a successful outcome because death from cholera can occur within just a few hours. Without rehydration, approximately half the people with cholera die according to the World Health Organization (Cholera). However, when treated promptly, the number of fatalities drops to less than one percent.
To prevent cholera, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, recommends that travelers to parts of Africa, Asia, or Latin America where epidemic cholera is occurring take the following measures:
Drink only water that you have boiled or treated with chlorine or iodine. Other safe beverages include tea and coffee made with boiled water and carbonated, bottled beverages with no ice.
Eat only foods that have…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/cholera_gi.html
Cholera. Medical College of Wisconsin. http://healthlink.mcw.edu/article/954988124.html
Cholera. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/topics/cholera/en/
Cholera complications. MayoClinic.com. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/cholera/DS00579/DSECTION=complications
"However, some baceteria -- including the one that causes cholera -- regularly pass through this gauntlet (stomach acid) to wreak havoc in the intestines" (Seppa, 2002, p. 357). Seppa's study continues by asserting that, "the result is severe diarrhea that can lead to fatal dehydration" (Seppa, p. 358).
Treating cholera can be done with a variety of antibiotics and medical supplies, but the simplest and most effective way to both minimize the effects of cholera as well as to keep the patient alive is by re-hydrating the individual.
Hydration of the individual takes place by drinking large quantities of water, or water mixed with salts and sugars to replace the chemicals being lost through the severe diarrhea. This method of treating cholera is used throughout the world and is the most effective method of doing so. Most experts believe that re-hydration of the patient is much more important than attempting…
Antibacterial virus might suppress cholera, (2005) Science News, Vol. 167, No. 3, p. 38
Colwell, R.R.; (2006) Cholera outbreaks and ocean climate, Social Research, Vol. 73, No. 3, pp. 753-760
Ion dilution leads cholera bacteria to disperse (2003) Science News, Vol. 164, No. 19, pp. 293- 294
Jortner, a.; (2007) Cholera, Christ, and Jackson: The epidemic of 1832 and the origin of Christian politics in antebellum America, Journal of the Early Republic, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 233-264
Professor Mabel Morana of ashington University in St. Louis, professor of Spanish and Latin American Studies, explains that Garcia Marquez is a genius at restoring the "time-honored mission of entertaining by means of the mere act of narrating" (Morana, 1990). In other words, Garcia Marquez's writing is so effective it really isn't crucially important who or what he is writing about. Just jump on board and enjoy the ride. Getting older? Garcia Marquez will enliven and energize a person. Feeling grumpy and experiencing some forgetfulness? Garcia Marquez knows just the cure for what ails you -- his wonderfully coherent and riveting storyline and narrative.
riting in Contemporary Literary Criticism, Morana asserts that Garcia Marquez's brilliant narrative intermingles the "real and imaginary, the autobiographical and the collective" in life, and has "no justification beyond the revival of the 'forgotten art of telling stories'" (Morana, 1990). Storytelling is a gift that many…
Franco, Jean. "Mementos Mori." Novels for Students, 246.16 (1988): 573-574.
Jones, Anne Hudson. "Literature and Medicine: Garcia Marquez' Love in the Time of Cholera." Contemporary Literary Criticism Vol. 254 (1997): 1169-1172.
Marquez, Gabriel Garcia. Love in the Time of Cholera. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co., 1989.
Morana, Mabel. "Modernity and Marginality in Love in the Time of Cholera."
Furthermore, Florentino proves that "love never fails." Much of Love in the Time of Cholera remains tragic and heart-wrenching, as Florentino is spurned by the object of his desire. Yet, rather than give up on Fermina he proves that his love for her is greater than life itself; only through the death of her husband is Florentino able to fulfill his romantic fantasy. However grim this thought may seem, Florentino "thinks no evil" and "does not rejoice in iniquity." Rather, he patiently waits for the moment in which he can be with Fermina. This moment arrives late in their lives, but as Paul states, "love suffers long."
Fermina probably never knows this type of love, as her response to Florentino and even her response to her husband show. She does not seem as consumed by love as Florentino and in fact shows some degree of resentment toward his advancements throughout…
S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS elief (PEPFA) are part of the reason as to why the disease prevention efforts in Haiti are very successful.
Despite this level of success, the Haitian disease prevention efforts are faced with several challenges. The challenges include shortage of human resource, widespread poverty as well as very limited infrastructure. The Haitians successful disease treatment and prevention programs such as the Partners in Health model (community-based care), the Gheskio model of integrated care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission as well as the use of antiretroviral therapy are currently being replicated around the world. Early warning systems have also been developed and deployed.Joint efforts have been initiated in Cholera prone areas to help in reducing the impact and number of cases of the disease. These actions are noted by WHO (2012) to have helped in reducing the mortality rate from 22.4% in 2010 to 1.4% in 2011.…
Kroenig et al. (2010).Successes and challenges of HIV treatment programs in Haiti: aftermath of the earthquake. HIV Ther. 2010 March; 4(2): 145 -- 160.
Taperro, JW., Taixe, RV (2011).Lessons Learned during Public Health Response to Cholera Epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011 November; 17(11): 2087 -- 2093.
World Health Organization (2012). Haiti. WHO Health Compendium Consolidated Appeal Process.Available online at http://www.who.int/hac/about/donorinfo/cap_haiti_2012.pdf
Cholera in Somalia: Resources Determine Strategy
Cholera in Somalia
Cholera Background Information
Vibrio cholerae (cholera) is a Gram-negative bacterium that threatens human health when water and food supplies become contaminated (eil, Ivers, and Harris, 2012). Its emergence occurs most often in crowded and unsanitary conditions and on average kills approximately 50% of those who develop symptoms and never receive treatment. Death occurs because a toxin secreted by the bacterium is endocytosed by epithelial cells in the small intestine, leading to unregulated cAMP production and chloride secretion into the lumen. The increasing chloride concentration in the lumen forces the body to secrete large amounts of water, potassium, sodium, and bicarbonate, leading to severe dehydration. The amount of fluid lost can reach 1 liter per hour in adults and if not compensated for, death follows in just hours.
The presumed ancestral home of cholera is the Ganges River Delta region, which is…
WHO Somalia. (2011). Emergency Humanitarian Action, Weekly Highlights 6 -- 12 August 2011. EMRO.WHO.int/Somalia/. Retrieved 6 Feb. 2012 from http://www.emro.who.int/somalia/pdf/EHA_weekly6-12August_011.pdf
World Health Organization and UNICEF. (2006). Oral Rehydration Salts: Production of the new ORS. (WHO/FCH/CAH/06.1). Geneva: WHO Document Production Services.
World Health Organization and UNICEF. (2011). Water bourne diseases pose lethal threat to children in southern Somalia: Rapid response needed as cholera cases increase. EMRO.WHO.int. Retrieved 6 Feb. 2012 from http://www.emro.who.int/somalia/pdf/Press_Release_WHO_UNICEF_SOMALIA.pdf
Cholera is an acute diarrheal infection caused by a bacterium called Vibrio cholerae that infects the intestines of human and causes massive dehydration. Most estimates believe that there are 3-5 million cases of cholera globally each year, with about 100,000 deaths. The infection varies between little or no symptoms to serious and life-threatening cases. In about 5% of the population, infected individuals will have massive watery diarrhea, vomiting, leg cramps, and resulting ancillary issues caused by shock and dehydration (Bjorklund, 2011).
Type of Pathogen
The bacterium that causes cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is a gram negative, non-spore forming, curved rod bacterium that is oxidase positive. From a biological perspective, it is quite mobile with a single point tail (flagellum). It is not toxic itself, but when it enters a host it produces a toxin that is poisonous to humans and causes symptoms. Not all cholera bacteria produce this toxin,…
Ali, M., et al. (2011, July 14). The global burden of cholera. Retrieved from World Health Organization: http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/90/3/11-093427/en/
Bjorklund, R. (2011). Cholera. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish.
Brock, T., et al. (2000). Biology of Microorganisms (9th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Krauss, H., et al. (2003). Zoonoses Infectious Diseases Transmissible from Animals to Humans (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: ASM Press.
Cholera is a well-known acute diarrheal infection that results from ingestion of water or food contaminated with the Vibrio cholera bacteria (Fong, 2013). The primary distinguishing epidemiologic characteristic of the disease are its tendency to appear in explosive outbreaks and its predisposition to causing pandemics that progressively affect huge areas and spread across national borders. Despite numerous efforts to contain cholera, it continues to occur as a major public health issue in Kenya. In fact, since the first emergence of a cholera outbreak in 1997, intermittent outbreaks have been recorded. Throughout 1997 to 2010, Kenya has confronted widespread cholera attacks. The latter part of 2012 was characterized by intense outbreaks that began from the Kakuma refugee camp, spreading to the other areas and involving at least 50,000 cases and 8000 deaths, nationwide (Fratamico, 2005). The reoccurrence of the disease in Kenya in the early months of 2015 indicates that cholera…
Fong, I. W. (2013). Challenges in infectious diseases. New York, NY: Springer.
Fratamico, P. M. (2005). Foodborne pathogens: microbiology and molecular biology. Wymondham: Caister Acad. Press.
Mahamud A. S. et al., (2012). Original article Epidemic cholera in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya, 2009: the importance of sanitation and soap. J Infect Dev Ctries 2012; 6(3):234-241. http://www.jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/download/1966/694 http://www.who.int/hac/crises/ken/sitreps/Kenya_CholeraOutbreak_in_Kakuma_May2006.pdf
Haiti and Cholera
In the modern world, despite the numerous technological improvements, natural disasters continue to occur, and with them, often epidemic level disease vectors. In January 2010, an earthquake hit the Island of Haiti in the Carribean. This was one of the worst natural disasters in recent history, putting over 4 million people at risk, with a death toll of at least 300,000, and at least one million individuals displaced from their homes. This was a 7.0 earthquake, powerful, so much so that it devastated buildings, the infrastructure of the Island, and even agricultural fields. Experts, in fact, believe that it may be several decades before Haiti has even marginally recovered, and most of their political and governmental buildings were destroyed. In addition, over 1/4 million houses had to be razed to the ground, and 30,000 commercial buildings were no longer safe for occupation. If this were not enough,…
REFERENCES USED OR CONSULTED
Coleman, W. (2009). Cholera. New York: Chelsea House.
Fountain, H. (January 25, 2010). A Deadly Quake in a Seismic Hot Zone. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/26/science/26fault.html?_r=1
Lies, A. (2011). The Earthquake in Haiti. North Mankato, MN: Abdo Consulting Group.
Mayo Clinic. (2012). Infectious Disease Basics. Retrieved from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/infectious-diseases/
Garcia Marquez Love
Love clearly exists within Love in the Time of Cholera, a novel by Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Garcia Marquez's masterful novel of the enduring love of Florentino for the beautiful Fermina describes love in a great many forms, and a great many ways. In the novel, love is strongly influenced by family, and often family itself begins to define love.
Love within marriage is examined within the context of Fermina and Dr. Jevenal Urbino's long-lasting and tumultuous marriage. The idea of fidelity and love are also examined, both within the traditional sense of sexual fidelity and within a perhaps more meaningful context of emotional faithfulness and steadfastness. Age and love are also examined, as Fermina and Florentino's love is renewed in their old age, as time and wisdom show in their new relationship, and their fight to claim love as time and death encroach. Ultimately, Love in the…
Garcia Marquez, Gabriel. 1989. Love in the Time of Cholera. Penguin Books.
The quality life would include provision of good education, health care, adequate employment opportunities, safe drinking water and clean air, reduction of crime and many more (World Bank 2004, p.1). This report also poses that a country will only be deemed developed when life expectancy increases, provide average income and ensure adult literacy. In brief human development involves all features of individuals' well-being, this range from health condition to their economic and political freedom. This has not been achieved yet in Kenya and most of African countries hence cannot claim to be developed.
With the rampant cholera and other diseases affecting the lives of Kenyans, it is obvious that they cannot achieve the development goals. There is a lot of effort put into achieving their millennium development goals and if achieved it will be a break-though for Kenya. Cholera still inhibits the country from developing since the majority…
Independenceday. 2010. 'Geography of Kenya', Viewed 1 May 2010
Q1. Discuss the physicians changing perceptions of the nature of cholera, its treatment, and therapy in 1832, 1849, and 1866. How did these factors change? Why?
Today, the general public and physicians alike are well aware of the need for proper sanitation in the public water system. But during the 19th century, knowledge about the spread of germs and disease was less widespread, and cholera, although widely accepted as a serious threat to public health, was still controversial in its ascribed origin. The hero of cholera research is John Snow, who, through the use of city mapping was able to trace an 1854 London epidemic to a single water pump and even was able to identify the microbe that had caused it, using an ordinary microscope. Such particles were not found in other pumps far away from the disease outbreak. Before Snow, such as during the 1832 epidemic, many physicians…
The following is a response to a major disaster in the Asian coastal country of Bangladesh. A major and destructive typhoon has recently hit the country and there are significant problems. The result of this typhoon has seem massive death, destruction and population displacement, and to worsen the situation, data indicates that cases of a diarrheal disease consistent with cholera have been reported.
This essay will highlight the priorities of work that need to be addressed in order to respond to the cholera outbreak that appears imminent. This response will recommend certain actions that need to be implemented and which agencies to seek assistance from to help in making the plan work. Pre-deployment preparations for those flocking to the disaster will also be discussed to give a more descriptive form to the problem.
Impacts of Cholera Outbreaks
It is important and preliminary to understand the problems and risks associated…
Tappero JW, Tauxe RV. Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2011 Nov [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1711.110827
The World Health Organization (2006). Communicable Disease following natural disasters. Risk Assessment and Priority Interventions. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/diseasecontrol_emergencies/guidelines/CD_Disasters_26_06.pdf
Vaccinations in disaster situations: Recommendations of the PAHO/WHO special program for vaccines and immunization (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.paho.org/English/PED/te_vacc.htm
On the part of his fellow scientists, Snow's research was resisted because it was conducted with intellectual 'leaps' of logic in his determination to find the cause, as opposed to Farr's more technical and methodological approach. Farr had the more comprehensive health surveillance program, but Snow's hypothesis and instincts were correct. Snow drew upon past studies involving smallpox, cowpox, and syphilis, to extrapolate parallel examples of how the disease was transmitted, while Farr clung to the airborne model of disease transmission popular at the time even after reviewing such studies. Farr stated that non-living or zymotic material was transmitted through the air, and hence the closer the quarters of the affected, the more apt the material would be transmitted through the air.
The commonly-held belief was that fecalized air and water were the primary conduits of the disease. Farr believed primarily that the transmission was "miasmatic" and the prevalence in…
Expression of Love and the Rhetoric of Romance in Swann's ay And Love In The Time Of Cholera
Florentino Ariza in comparison to Charles Swann
Gabriel Garcia Marquez's "Love in the Time of Cholera" and Marcel Proust's "Swann's ay" both deal with romance as being a force that both benefits and damages people's mental status. hereas the devoted lover in "Love in the Time of Cholera," Florentino Ariza, puts across great dedication toward his loved one and their union, Charles Swann appears to be less interested in the emotional aspect of love, as he appears to respond to stimuli on the basis of his diplomatic character.
One is perfectly able to observe and to understand the love that Florentino feels toward Fermina Daza, as the man expresses authentic romantic love. In contrast, the love that Swann puts across in regard to Odette appears to be without an actual bases, as…
Marquez, Gabriel Garcia, Love in the time of cholera, (Vintage, 2007)
Proust, Marcel, Swann's way, (Forgotten Books, 1934)
I did not find a quote for this, I came to deduce this as a result of reading through the book
I haven't found a quote here, this was also deduced from a larger part of the text
Zimbabweans are very intelligent people who are now scattered all over the world as a result of Mugabe ruining their beautiful country
This report goes on to state that; "...If Zimbabweans all over the Diaspora come together and map a course for their country, I think that country will find its feet again with time" (Kaira). It therefore follows that a central aspect of any NGO plan must include the mobilization and motivation of the Zimbabwean people with regard to their own freedom and stability.
Don't neglect Aids crisis, warn health workers. etrieved December 25, 2008, at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/dec/18/zimbabwe-cholera-aids-death-rates
Dragging out the end (2008) etrieved December 25, 2008, at (http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/dec/23/zimbabwe-south-africa)
Blair D. (2008) How to save Zimbabwe after Mugabe. etrieved December 25, 2008 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/3556785/How-to-save-Zimbabwe-after-Mugabe.html
Hill G. (2005) What Happens after Mugabe? Cape Town: Zebra.
Kaira C. Zimbabwe after Mugabe. etrieved December 25, 2008, at http://www.economist.com.na/content/view/55/34/1/3/
Kirchick, J. (2007)…
Don't neglect Aids crisis, warn health workers. Retrieved December 25, 2008, at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/dec/18/zimbabwe-cholera-aids-death-rates
Dragging out the end (2008) Retrieved December 25, 2008, at ( http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/dec/23/zimbabwe-south-africa )
Blair D. (2008) How to save Zimbabwe after Mugabe. Retrieved December 25, 2008 from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/3556785/How-to-save-Zimbabwe-after-Mugabe.html
Hill G. (2005) What Happens after Mugabe? Cape Town: Zebra.
precautions an individual could take to ensure that he or she remained safe during an outbreak of cholera. There are basic sanitary precautions that individuals should implement to ensure that they remain healthy during such an outbreak that largely stems from people interacting with bacteria transmittable through feces. The most immediate of these pertains to remaining hydrated, since cholera can become fatal when individuals are plagued by diarrhea that is unusually watery. During a cholera outbreak, people should immediately begin taking oral rehydration solution, since "it can save your life" (CDC, date).
In terms of additional hydra care, it is vital that individuals remain hydrated by continuing to intake water. However, it is best to ensure that such water is actually purified. People should use purified water to drink, cook with, clean, and take care of their other basic hygienic needs -- such as brushing their teeth. Options for purifying…
When using the bathroom, it is vital to utilize standard toilets and latrines if they are available. If not, people should take care to avoid defecating near any sort of water which might be contaminated. An alternative for defacating when there is not a sanitized toilet available is to bury feces so its germs do not spread. Finally, people should ensure that they get vaccinated as quickly as possible since, "there are two oral cholera vaccines available, Dukoral (manufactured by SBL Vaccines) which is World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified and licensed in over 60 countries, and Shanchol" (CDC, 2013).
If I had to explain the real cause of John's acne and of acne in general to Aunt Jane, I would begin by telling her that there are, of course, hair follicles on people's faces. Additionally, I would impress upon her that such hair follicles are often found on the back and the neck area. When these hair follicles get clogged up with oil and dirt, the body in turn produces acne through a series of processes. The hair follicle that is clogged will eventually sell up and break, unleashing all of the pent up oil, dirt, and noxious bacteria that developed in the waste of these substances. Once those elements get into the skin, there is further swelling that leads to pimples, blackheads, and other forms of acne, which typically manifests itself as "a red, irritating skin rash" (Cole, 2013).
However, the aforementioned process can become exacerbated by certain factors. Stress is a factor in acne. When people are tired and more stressed out (for whatever reason), their bodies tend to reflect this physical exhaustion by falling prey to more maladies. Moreover, acne is also related to hormones. During the pubescent stage, the levels of testosterone is increasing at rapid rates for teenagers. For some people, an imbalance or pronounced amount of these hormones can help trigger or worsen their propensity to have acne. As with most physical traits, there is also a degree of heredity associated with acne and which can be responsible for its manifestation. People in families in which more than one person has severe acne are more likely to develop some manifestation of this cosmetic problem. Oftentimes, it may be as severe as that which plagued
It is due to inadequate "civilized amenities," meaning, that people are subjected to drinking water that is contaminated by feces. It can also be treated with lots of fluids and electrolytes, but these countries do not have the knowledge or resources to save people from dying from cholera.
8. John Updike Down the River In what respectis Uncle Tom's Cabin superior to Huckleberry Finn?
Because the black man, Jim, in Twain's story, is a more realistic person. He is responsible, and has dreams of buying his deaf daughter's freedom, while experiencing his freedom on the raft. Uncle Tom is not a genuine character.
9. Elizabeth Kolbert Dead Reckoning Why have the Turks refused to acknowledge the Armenian genocide?
The Turks are afraid of losing their identity as a nation. They do not want to admit that their existence as a nation is the result of war crimes.
They want the…
A journal entry from that era wrote "you do remember it: cholera was everything; it had absorbed everything, politics, uprisings, theater, intrigues" (Delacroix, ca 1832).
The effects of the July Monarchy would be far-flung and its effects would be felt for decades to come. Child labor laws were enacted, the free press was virtually legislated out of business, and there was an abundance of 'reform' including the establishment of elementary schools for boys in 1833, which was expanded to include girls in 1836.
The bourgeoisie were the main power brokers of the Monarchy and they wielded the power in an effective manner. Louis Philippe was their leader and reigned supreme ousting his predecessor Charles X who abdicated his rule during the July evolution.
Delacroix, LE.; (ca 1832) Portrait of Niccolo paganini, Washington, D.C., The Phillips Collection
Merriman, J,; (2004) Press, revolution, and social…
Delacroix, LE.; (ca 1832) Portrait of Niccolo paganini, Washington, D.C., The Phillips Collection
Merriman, J,; (2004) Press, revolution, and social identities in France, 1830-1835, Canadian Journal of History, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 147-149
Ghost Map, written by Steven Berlin Johnson, is a book that is based on the most terrifying epidemic which broke out in London. This book describes how the city and science was changed after this epidemic. This book is indeed a must read because the writer of this book describes one of the most deadly outbreaks of cholera on Victorian London, in relation to how it changed the cities, our scientific approach towards the disease in the modern world and much more. The idea of gemeinschaft was incorporated in this piece of writing, describing how an epidemic affects a city of traditions, values, language and common (Cities, 2001).
There are two main people that have been talked about in this book and play the central protagonists. The first one is Dr. John Snow and the second one is everend Henry Whitehead. The map of the cholera cases is created by…
"Cities." (2001) World of Sociology, Gale. Farmington: Gale. Credo Reference
"Cholera." (2010) Black's Medical Dictionary, 42nd Edition. London: A&C Black.
Kohn, George Childs (2008). Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence: From Ancient Times to the Present. New York: Facts on File. pp. 46
Globalization Case Study
The country I have selected to complete this assignment is the Sudan, which is part of Central Africa. Earlier this month there was a reported epidemic of cholera in Juba, which is part of the epublic of South Sudan (WHO, 2014). Cholera is a contagious disease which is extremely fatal and is caused by "ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae" (Thalo, 2014). Specifically, there was one confirmed death attributed to this disease as of May 18th, and over 30 suspected cases altogether.
Were I the lead nurse in a shelter working in this country in a situation in which people were rapidly filing in to seek assistance, the first thing I would do is gather my team of nurses and brief them on the nature of this disease and how it is contracted. I would inform them of the dire nature of…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Cholera -- Vibrio cholerae infection. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/diagnosis.html
Thabo, O. (2014). Cholera outbreak in Juba, Republic of South Sudan. www.who.int. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/hac/en/
World Health Organization. (2014). Cholera outbreak in Juba, central equatorial state. search.who.int / Retrieved from http://search.who.int/search?q=health+crises+2013&ie=utf8&site=who&client=_en_r&proxystylesheet=_en_r&output=xml_no_dtd&oe=utf8&getfields=doctype
Other employment prospects in fields such as petty trading, retailing, transportation and domestic service also developed simultaneously in urban areas. In the nineteenth century, when the industrial working class became much larger and more important in the social structure they begin to assert themselves socially, politically and economically, evolving into the social order we see today.
Growth of Cities
According to Jeffery G. Williamson (1990) Britain grew at an unusually rapid growth rate during the first part of the nineteenth century. Census data of the period indicates that some nineteenth-century cities grew at rates "that would bring cold sweat to the brow of twentieth-century housing committees" (p.2). Glasgow grew at 3.2% annum in 1830's, Manchester and Salford at 3.9% in the 1820's; Bradford at 5.9% in the 1830s, and Dukinfield nearly tripled in size the 1820's. These were the fast-growing cities and towns in the industrializing north.
The British population…
Comanor, W.S. (2005). Life during the Industrial Revolution. World book. irthebest.com. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.irthebest.com/industry_Industrial_life.html
Emsley, C., Hitchcock, T., & Shoemaker, R. (2011, March). Communities -- Irish London. Old Bailey proceediongs online. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/static/Irish.jsp
"Industrial revolution: The industrial revolution in Great Britain." (2006) The Columbia electronic encyclopedia. Pearson Education Publishing as Infoplease. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858818.html
Kreis, S. (2001). The origins of the industrial revolution in England. The history guide. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html
The role of community in achieving proper water and sanitation standards in times of disaster
It is important to note that whenever a natural or manmade disaster hits a particular region, the entire community is put at risk since it is them who suffer the direct results of the disaster. These negative outcomes of the disaster could be social, economic and even psychological. It is therefore necessary to properly educate the entire community on how they can cope with water shortage and sanitation problems that are as a result of either flooding or hurricanes. The various community drinking water treatment plants should have elaborate emergency plans that are to be put in action should there be a disruption of the service. It is integral that the community water treatment facilities comply with the stringent requirements that are laid down by both the federal and state regulations.
After the emergency for…
Associated Contents,(2010) The Importance of Water to Health and to Human Life
Copeland, C (2005). Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities:Impacts,
Needs, and Response
She is said to have refused to stop being a cook and this led to infection of people in a New York maternity hospital consequently she was re-arrested by the health officers and taken back to quarantine in 1915 till her death in 1938. This sparked a lot of human rights issues concerning quarantine as never before.
The typhoid pandemic in New York went hand in hand with the poliomyelitis pandemic that began in 1916. The health officers began to separate parents from their children in chagrin of many. This saw the wealthier families provide isolation rooms and treatment for their children right at home. However, in November of the same year when the pandemic subsided, it was after well above 2,300 lives claimed by the pandemic, a vast majority being the young.
It was not long until the world war brought with it another challenge of prostitution and consequent…
Barroni & Lemer, (1993). Temporarily Detained: Tuberculous Alcoholics in Seattle: 1949
through 1960. Public Health then and now. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 86 No. 2. http://ajph.aphapublications.org/cgi/reprint/86/2/257.pdf
Elizabeth & Daniel M., (1988). AIDS: The Burdens of History. PP 151-152. London: University
of California Press Ltd. retrieved on May 17, 2010 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=z6NTN5uYOEAC&pg=PA151&lpg=PA151&dq=the+most+concerted+attack+on+civil+liberties+in+the+name+of+public+health+in+American+history.%22&source=bl&ots=ex3b2rbZNW&sig=A0oWLrxni6iipuMdeUwT5jiCzEI&hl=en&ei=jvXyS6jkJZGnsAazg8HrCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=the%20most%20concerted%20attack%20on%20civil%20liberties%20in%20the%20name%20of%20public%20health%20in%20American%20history.%22&f=false
There is a direct correlation between the lack of clean safe water for drinking and cooking with nutritional problems. The lack of clean drinking water leads to diseases like diarrhea. Nutritional deficiencies are directly related to lack of potable water. This is because a person does not get enough calories, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, or minerals in their body. Undernutrition has been associated with 45 percent of global deaths and nearly 7.4 percent of the world's children are at risk of undernutrition. Malnourished children have weakened immune systems that make them more susceptible to diarrhea when they are exposed to dirty water. The lack of clean water means that individuals will be living in non-sanitized environments and this increases the risk of suffering from diarrhea. People suffering from diarrhea will eat less and they are unable to absorb the nutrients they need from the food they eat, which results in…
For Mary and Colin, Martha is the greatest example of motherhood and helps both of them to live as peaceable as possible in the manor house. There is also Dr. Craven, the brother of Archibald and uncle to Colin, who watches over Colin during his illness and who hopes to inherit the manor if and when Colin dies. Lastly, there is Saidie, Mary's ayah or nursemaid/nanny who abandons Mary to the cholera, hoping that she dies along with her parents. Of course, there are other characters like Mrs. Medlock and Phoebe, but these are only secondary figures that do not play real important roles in Mary's life.
Two of the most important events in the Secret Garden are Mary leaving India and her discovery of robin redbreast and the secret garden. In the first event, when the cholera epidemic breaks out and every member of her family, along with all…
Burnett, Frances Hodgson. The Secret Garden. New York: Penguin Classics, 2002.
"The Secret Garden." Internet. 2009. Accessed September 3, 2009 from http: / / www.
Population of the City of Atlantis on March 30, 2003 = 183,000
of new active cases of TB occurring between January 1 and June 30, 2003 = 52
of active TB cases according to the city register on June 30, 2003 = 238
The incidence rate of active cases of TB for the 6-month period was: [ONE POINT]
per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population
130 per 100,000 population
183,000 is 183% of 100,000, so the rate per 100,000 would be 52 divided by 1.84...or 28.
The prevalence of active TB as of June 30, 2003, was: [ONE POINT]
14 per 100,000 population
130 per 100,000 population
144 per 100,000 population
264 per 100,000 population
e. none of the above
B -- using the same math as above...except it's 238 / 1.84 -- 129.3
3. Which of the following is an advantage of active surveillance?…
(De Leon, 2010)
Finally, in recent years there has been a call for more stringent regulatory measured to be put in place in order to prevent this category of disease. Many experts refer to outdated laws and policies that are not successful in detecting and prevent problems along the entire food production process (Jessen). They also refer to restricted and inadequate legal tools to check the spread of the diseases. There is therefore a need not only to update present legislation but also for organizations and individuals to be become more aware of the need to prevent this type of disease from occurring.
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. etrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. etrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). etrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. etrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFEDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. Retrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). Retrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. Retrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCRFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFERDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/foodborneillness.html
The text identifies one practical reason that this is the case, indicating that "One of the particularly threatening aspects of this compression of time is that people can now cross continents in periods of time shorter than the incubation periods of most diseases. This means that, in some cases, travelers can depart from their point of origin, arrive at their destination, and begin infecting people without even knowing that they are sick." (3) This means that an epidemic can be spread from multiple "ground zero" locations before it is even clear that the condition in question has come to reflect so significant a threat of proliferation. To the practical interests of preventing the disease's further spread, this denotes a real and substantial challenge to public health and safety administrators in the developed world. Quite to this point, the text reveals that the United States has experienced a greater level of…
g., maggots in rotting matter.
Pasteur believed that germs, just as those that caused fermentation, could also be causing disease. With the support of other scientists and collaborators, he was able to isolate several disease causing bacteria, cholera (with Robert Koch) and small pox (work originally done by Edward Jenner), among several others. While working with cholera in chicken, Pasteur helped set the foundation for the idea of vaccinations; this had been proposed by others earlier. That a mild form of the virus or bacteria induces the creation of antibodies in the host. When infected by a virulent form of the virus or bacteria, the antibodies created in the system can destroy the infecting agents thereby protecting the host. Pasteur's work influenced the creation of vaccinations.
After successfully using it in the cure of cholera, small pox and several other diseases, Pasteur used this idea in identifying a cure for…
Cohn, David V. (1996, February 11). The Life and Times of Louis Pasteur. Retrieved. March 17, 2009 at http://louisville.edu/library/ekstrom/special/pasteur/cohn.html
Debre, P.; E. Forster (1998). Louis Pasteur. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Hart, Michael H. (1992). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. Citadel Press. pp. pp.60-61.
Morris, D.; Abel, E. (2002). Stereochemistry. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…
1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.
3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance. http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/actionplan/html/
4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
(SA AIDS Drugs Company Set for Africa Sales)
The immense market potential for anti-retrovirals will signify a huge bonus for the company and also its shareholders. 8% of the roughly 4 million people in Mozambique are in need of the treatment for HIV / AIDS and were getting it. The fact of the matter is that HIV / AIDS has long been noted for it potential capability for raking in more money and the SA Cabinet some years ago had already stated its strong interest in the lucrative local development of AIDS drugs in the abortive Virodene experiment. The company obtained sanction from the U.S. Federal Drug Administration for certain of its anti-AIDS medicines as was of late given the award for the biggest share of the South African government anti-retroviral drug tenders. This is in greater measure part because it possesses a good BEE profile, assuring the support of…
Drug deals: Medicines, Development and HIV / AIDS. 2000. Retrieved at http://www.vso.org.uk/Images/position_papers_drug_deals_tcm8-1597.pdf . Accessed 17 September, 2005
HIV / AIDS Situation in Mozambique. Retrieved at http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/50875.pdf . Accessed 17 September, 2005
Marketing Medicine: Insider Secrets to online healthcare Marketing. March, 2002. Retrieved from http://www.medic8.com/MarketingMedicine.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005
Mozambique: fact file. Retrieved at http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/kidsweb/world/mozambique/mozfact.htm . Accessed 18 September, 2005
ar in Iraq
How Has it Impacted Basra?
Since the war in Iraq has begun, it has become almost impossible to turn on your radio or television without hearing about what has taken place in regard to Saddam Hussein or with our troops so many miles from home. Long before the official first shots were fired, the debate of whether the United States should pursue a war with Iraq has been hot and heavy. But, whether you are for or against the war, most of us can not help feeling a sense of anticipatory anxiety as we wonder what will happen next. But, as an Iraqi citizen, the anticipation must be very frightening to say the least. It is hard not to wonder what the long-term effects will be for the citizens of Iraq. Other than the city of Baghdad, the average American citizen probably knows very little about the…
Aparisim, Ghosh. "Basra: A City Braces For Battles As U.S. Troops Mass Across The Border." Time 10 Feb. 2003: 64.
Bandow, Doug. "The Iraqi Question." The Washington Times 18 Jan. 2002.
Barrett, Greg. "Basra is Wasteland of Wars, Sanction, Saddam's Neglect." Gannett News Service 06 Feb. 2003.
Editors, et al. "Persian Gulf II: A War Too Soon." St. Louis Dispatch 26 Jan. 2003: B2.
The case study centers mainly on analyzing the symptoms of an unknown disease experienced by students at one of the universities in Central South Texas. The students were suffering from nausea, diarrhea and vomiting. The two students reported the food they had taken in one of the local pizzerias had caused the illness. Other analyses on the 23 students seek to investigate the illness whose symptoms are described in the study. In order to do this, tests on the existence of certain disease-causing agents such as Listeria, Vibrio, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, and Escherichia Coli will be undertaken. The presence or absence of these organisms will aid the identification of the disease ailing the students. Besides, the case study describes the locality of the university succinctly and a place where it gets its water services. Analytically, the case study relates the unknown illness that the students suffer from to…
Committee on Communicable Diseases Affecting Man, Food Subcommittee (1988). Procedures
to Investigate Foodborne Illness. Fourth Edition, Des Moines, Iowa: International Association of Milk, Food, and Environmental Sanitarians, Inc.
Community and Public Health Online. Epidemiological Case Study 1. Gastroenteritis at a
S. History, 2011).
Only after aggressive government intervention did the Dust Bowl conditions improve. The government, even before the drought was broken in 1939, was able to reduce soil erosion by 65% through the actions of the Civilian Conservation Corps, which planted 200 million trees to "break the wind, hold water in the soil, and hold the soil itself in place" ("Disasters: The 1930s," U.S. History, 2011). Farmers received instruction by the government on "soil conservation and anti-erosion techniques, including crop rotation, strip farming, contour plowing, terracing and other beneficial farming practices" ("Disasters: The 1930s," U.S. History, 2011). For the first time, the government took an interest not simply in preserving some of its land from development in the form of national parks, but gave counsel to farmers how to use the land.
The gap between the 'haves' and the 'have-nots,' already wide even before the Great Depression, grew into…
"Disasters: The 1930s." U.S. History. February 20, 2011
"The Great Depression: What happened and how it compares with today." The Great
Depression. February 20, 2011.
" Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .
Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Guillemin, J. "Germ arfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BT Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kellman, B. "Bioviolence: A Growing Threat." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 25-30. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Littlewood, J. "Biological eapons: Much Ado and Little Action." Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning & Policy 45(2) Apr 2007: p. 191-203. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of…
"Biological Weapon." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 22 Apr. 2009 .
Goldman, D. "The Generals and the Germs." Journal of Military History 73(2). Apr 2009: p. 531-569. Academic Search Complete. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Guillemin, J. "Germ Warfare Under the Microscope." Futurist 42(3) May/Jun 2008: p. 31. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Kelle, A. "Strengthening the Effectiveness of the BTW Control Regime -- Feasibility and Options." Contemporary Security Policy 24(2) Aug 2003: p. 95-132. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. April 22, 2009 .
Their entire procedure was completed in less than 28 minutes. The current H5N1 tests, on the toehr hand, occur around the space of 4 hours.
Their point-of-care tests are comprised of an instrument that has a disposable component and, by being low cost and rapid to use, is ideal for those countries that need it most and where, due to depleted resources, the influenza vaccine is unavailable. Resources for creating their point-of-care tests are inexpensive: a CD-ROM drive, a power supply, a spindle stepper motor for microfluidic actuation, and optics for fluorescence detection. Most countries can, with help from generous and more privileged others, come up with these requirements. Transport and storage related issues would need to be transfigured into the expense.
The authors provide an important and under mentioned perspective to treatment of H5N1 influenza by noting that countries that most need the vaccination and treatment are not…
In this way, the authors' contribution has global and far-reaching results and they have reason to believe that the microfluidic system described in their article can be "an attractive diagnostic platform, especially for decentralized environmental, biological, or medical testing" (p.4).
Pipper, J. et al. (2007) Catching bird flu in a droplet. Nature Medicine; (Technical Reports), 1- 5.
Correspondingly, it's cooler than normal in the Southeast and Southwest United States Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). Because the upper westerly winds are more vertical, the tropical North Atlantic has fewer hurricanes, while the eastern tropical North Pacific has more Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).
Sometimes, after ENSO's warm phase, ENSO's opposite, cold phase La Nina) occurs Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). This periodic every three to five years) phase has winter temperatures that are warmer than normal in the Southeast, and cooler than normal in the Northwest Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). ENSO's cold phase is currently happening, and expected to continue into 2012 Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). As a result, the Mississippi can continue to expect record droughts, while most of the South can expect more snowstorms Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2011)
In the last twenty…
(2007). Observations: Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change. In K. Trenberth, P. Jones, P. Ambenje, R. Bojariu, D. Easterling, A. Klein Tank, et al., S. Solomon, & M.M.D. Qin (Eds.), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project. (1998). What is an El Nino? Retrieved December 1, 2011, from El Nino Theme Page: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/el-nino-story.html
Yeh, S.-W., Kug, J.-S., Dewitte, B., Kwon, M.-H., Kirtman, B.P., & Jin, F.-F. (2009). El Nino in a changing climate. Nature, 511-514.
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
The Shabbat painting
Illustrated in a naive style devoid of perspective, with vibrant simplistic colors, Meyers seems to wish to convey the scene precisely as he viewed it when a child. The commentator notes that there is a symmetry to the room, and she may be right in that the shabbat table is centerpiece as though the whole atmosphere orbits around and reflects from the shabbat which indeed it does, Shabbos defining and transforming the entire day.
What is interesting is that the children are sitting around the table as though ready to eat while the mother seems to be blessing the candle. Most pictures of the era, and, indeed, customary in many contemporary homes is that the children stand by the side whilst the mother lights, and that this is done quite a while before actually eating the meal. This, at least, was the custom too in Apt…
Health and Social Justice Issue in Saharan Country
Mali occupies the fourth position among the poorest nations of the world. Mali is still plagued by a multitude of financial tribulations with an economy in shambles, the country's liability approximately equivalent to its GDP, at the mercy of the international donor groups, insufficient revenues of the state exchequer and pressure from various coterie groups voicing their demands. (Mali Human ights Practices: U.S. Department of State, 1994) However, at the same time it a nation that boasts of a rich and hoary tradition. It is popular as a country marked by its multihued varied populace and harmonic tunes. Currently, it is confronted with a massive menace like AIDS, Noma and a host of tropical diseases. Mali has the world's lowest adult literacy rate of less than 25%. The country's education system is inadequately formed, especially at the primary stage. A United Nations…
Condom Vending Machine. (March 01, 2004) "Mali, AIDS and Condoms" Initial Research Report. Retrieved at http://dtm.media.mit.edu/dtm/dtm04/projects/condom/archives/000145.html. Accessed on 11 July, 2004
Dao, S. (Jan 7-8, 2004) "HIV Treatment in Mali, PNLS/GAIA" AIDS Vaccine Conference, Bamako, Mali.
Johnston, Timothy; Faure, Sheila Dohoo; Raney, Laura. (June 1998) "The World Bank and the Health Sector in Mali" Report No. 18112.
Mahe A; Prual A; Konate M; Bobin P. (Sep-Oct, 1995) "Skin Diseases of Children in Mali: A Public Health Problem" Tropical Medical Hygiene. Volume: 89: No: 5; pp: 467-70
Response to Karl Popper’s The Logic of Scientific Discovery
How the Reading Has Affected What I Believe about the Nature of Science and What It Can Tell Us about the World
Popper (2005) rejects the notion that inductive reasoning can lead to the identification of universals, and he uses the white swan as an example: “no matter how many instances of white swans we may have observed, this does not justify the conclusion that all swans are white” (p. 4)—no, and nor should it. However, one could legitimately analyze the swan still further, identify its species and thus conclude that this species of swan is always going to be white. White is one of the characteristics of this type of swan—so why should it not be viewed as a universal characteristic of this specific species? Popper’s approach to the nature of science is rooted in the empirical analysis—in deduction rather…
. . The most sustained on record" whilst the American Indian: The First Victim (1972) maintained that American civilization had originated in "theft and murder" and "efforts toward . . . genocide."
In the Conquest of Paradise (1990), Sale condemned the British and American people for pursuing a genocidal program for more than four centuries (Lewy, 2004).
It was not only masssacre; epidemics were introduced by the White people too, one of which was smallpox that destroyed entire tribes at one go. Measles, influenza, syphilis, bubomic plague, typhus, and cholera were only a few of the other plagues that the "visitors" bequeathed to the inhabitants already living on this soil. Approximately 75 to 890% of the deaths of American Indians resulted from these pathogens.
There was forced relocation of Indian tribes. The removal of the Cherokee from their homeland in 1838 -- an experience that was later called the Trail…
Lewy, G. Were American Indians the Victims of Genocide? History News Network, 2004. Web. http://www.hnn.us/articles/7302.html
Stannard, D. American Holocaust USA: Oxford University Press, 1993
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
The chemical was found to turn on quorum sensing in V. fischeri, whereas it inhibited pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the slow-release was shown to be far more effective than by applying the chemical directly as an aqueous solution. Since quorum sensing is also important for pathogen establishment this application could be important for inhibiting pathogenic bacteria from colonization of internal medical devices.
In summary, the V. fischeri and squid symbiotic relationship is an important model host-bacteria system. Aspects of colonization of host-symbiont and host-pathogen have been shown, using the V. fisheri and squid model, to be the same. Therefore, understanding the mechanism and complex transcriptional regulatory systems of V. fischeri could lead to potential new therapies and pharmaceutical applications. Likewise, understanding the environmental factors necessary for successful host-bacteria interactions could lead to novel drug targets. In addition to being important in understanding other harmful host-bacteria relationships the V. fischeri and…
Breitbach, a.S., Broderick, a.H., Jewell, C.M., Gunasekaran, S., Lin, Q., Lynn, D.M., & Blackwell, H.E. 2010. Surface-mediated release of a synthetic small-molecule modulator of bacterial quorum sensing: Gradual release enhances activity. Chem Comm.
Chun, C.K, Troll, J.V., Koroleva, I., Brown, B., Manzella, L., Snir, E., Almabraz, H, Scheetz, T.E., Bonaldo, M.F., Casavant, T.L., Soares, M.B., Ruby, E.G., & McFall-Ngai, M.J. 2008. Effects of colonization, luminescence, and autoinducer on host transcription during development of the squid-vibrio association. PNAS 105(32): 11323-11328.
Lyell, N.L., Dunn, a.K., Bose, J.L., Stabb, E.V. 2010. Bright mutants of Vibrio fischeri ES114 reveal conditions and regulators that control bioluminescence and expression of the lux Operon. J. Bacteriol. 192(19): 5103-5114.
Murray, P.R., Rosenthal, K.S., Kobayashi, G.S., Pfaller, M.A. 1998. Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas. In M. Brown (Ed.), Medical Microbiology Third Edition (pp. 245-250). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
When they enter the gallbladder and lymphatic tissue they multiply in enormous numbers. It is when they re-enter the intestinal tract that the disease can be diagnosed from stool samples.
The first symptoms are usually headache, muscle pain and a fairly high fever. The problem is that these symptoms only occur about ten days after infection. It isn't until four to five days later that a rash occurs. The rash takes on the appearance of small, flat, red spots. A week after that those spots darken and look like bruises. If the disease has progressed this far, the patient begins to have short periods of unconsciousness, then the kidneys fail, a cough begins, and the rash turns to gangrene in the extremities. If no treatment has been given at this point, up to 50 per cent of patients die. It is possible to survive without treatment, with luck, but…
CBWInfo.com. "Typhoid Fever: essential data." 1999. cbwinfo.com. 18 February 2010 .
Encyclopedia of Health. "Typhoid Fever." Encyclopedia of Health, Volume 17. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2009. 1052.
National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. "Typhoid Fever." 24 October 2005. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 17 February 2010 .
Alien Nation is organized onto fifteen chapters, divided into three parts:
Part I: Truth: (2) the View from the Tenth Circle; (3) the Pincers; (4) How Did it Happen? (5) Why Did it Happen? (6) So What?
Part II: Consequences: (7) Immigration Has Consequences: Economics; (8) Immigration Has (More) Consequences: Economics II; (9) Immigration Has Consequences: Cultural, Social, Environmental...; (10) Immigration Has Consequences: Political Power; (11) Immigration Has Consequences: A Less Perfect Union; (12) Immigration Has Consequences: The War against the Nation-State; (13) Doing the ight Thing? The Morality of Immigration;
Part III: Shipwreck and Salvage: (14) What, Then, Is to Be Done? (15) Conclusion: The Bowels of Christ?
Brimelow commences his book by seeking the genesis of the immigration problem and finds that it is linked to the massacres conducted by totalitarian regimes. To better explain, the author of Alien Nation… believes that the rulers of the…
Brimelow, P., 1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, Random House
Lind, M., 1995, the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Fourth American Revolution, Simon & Schuster Adult Publishing Group
Reilly, J.J., the Next American Nation: The New Nationalism and the Forth American Republic, http://www.johnreilly.info/tna.htm last accessed on September 1, 2009
1995, Alien Nation: Common Sense about America's Immigration Disaster, National Vanguard Magazine, Edition of November-December, No. 115
Caring is not simply a demonstration of sympathy and empathy for an individual's particular situation, as focusing on such might impair the ability of the nurse to look at long and short-term health goals that could be uncomfortable but might realistically assist the patient to maintain a better quality of life in the near future. Caring for those who are limited in ability to do so themselves, children, soldiers, the poor and the elderly and this is the historical precedence of nursing in general. The text of this course stresses that the development of nursing, like many other caring professions had a great deal to do with the need to provide professional caring to those who were at risk, and lacking the family and economic connection that was the basis for the maintenance of health in earlier times.
Urbanization, war, immigration and the reduction of the numbers of extended families…
According to prisoners who job it was to remove the bodies and transport them to the crematoria afterwards, the screams started as soon as the pellets were deposited into the hole. They recount that the victims were usually arranged into a massive pyramid shape with the strongest and most desperate individuals near the top. Often, the walls would have to be cleaned in between uses to remove the blood left by fingers scraped bloody by people trying, in vain, to claw their way out of the rooms (Levin, 1993).
At the death camps, the strongest prisoners were used to perform the most disgusting work of removing dead bodies and operating the crematoria; this was their only alternative to being gassed or shot themselves. Camps without crematoria used large open burning pits similar to the execution pits employed before widespread use of gas chambers. Sometimes, a prisoner on such work details…
Guttenplan, D. (2001). The Holocaust on Trial. New York: W.W. Norton.
Kershaw, I. (2000). Hitler 1936-1945: Nemesis. New York: W.W. Norton.
Levin, N. (1993). The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933-
1945. New York: Schocken Books.
As to the climate, as a result of huge factory smokestacks belching out black smoke from the burning of coal, the atmosphere slowly began to change and severely affected rainfall patterns and created variations in the temperature of the air. This was the beginning of what we now call acid rain, a combination of water and carbon dioxide which slowly pollutes everything it comes in contact with, such as aboveground water sources (lakes, rivers and wells) and even the land itself in the form of run-off which eventually ends up in agricultural areas where food is grown and harvested.
With earth's landforms, the excavation and removal of coal in such places as England and the Eastern United States greatly devastated the natural landscape by leaving behind immense sections of land stripped bare and left wide open to further erosion by rain and wind. Since iron ore, copper and tin were…
Pursuing the Ideal Society." (2007). Ricoh. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.ricoh.com/environment/management/earth.html .
The Industrial Revolution and Its Environmental Impacts." (2007). Learning Space. Internet. Retrieved at http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource / view.php?id=94548.
Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
eezley, ill. "The Global Market from and to the Americas." University of Arizona (November 23, 2004), http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:uKRvc_4yeu4J:las.arizona.edu/outreach/complete_curriculum_units/taste_of_LA/Taste%2520of%2520LA%2520Handouts.pdf+%22columbian+exchange%22+food&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us.
Hodge, F. "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population Requiring Special Considerations." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 13 (1988), 83-104.
Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990.
Stannard, David E. American Holocaust. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Viola, Herman J. And Carolyn Margolis. Seeds of Change. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991.
David E. Stannard, American Holocaust (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992), 53.
Kirkpatrick Sale, the Conquest of Paradise (New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990), 34.
Herman J. Viola and Carolyn Margolis, Seeds of Change (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1991), 79.
Alfred W. Crosby, Ecological Imperialism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 197.
Viola and Margolis, 192.
F. Hodge, "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population…
Crosby, Alfred W. Ecological Imperialism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Beezley, Bill. "The Global Market from and to the Americas." University of Arizona (November 23, 2004), http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:uKRvc_4yeu4J:las.arizona.edu/outreach/complete_curriculum_units/taste_of_LA/Taste%2520of%2520LA%2520Handouts.pdf+%22columbian+exchange%22+food&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=us.
Hodge, F. "Disabled American Indians: A Special Population Requiring Special Considerations." American Indian Culture and Research Journal 13 (1988), 83-104.
Sale, Kirkpatrick. The Conquest of Paradise. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1990.
It was also discovered that the Moderates did not have sufficient representation in Congress. The Moderates were aware of Tilak's loyalty to the Congress but did not appreciate it. They even thoroughly resisted his entry and that of his friends to it. Tilak then cooperated with Annie esant in forming two home rule leagues, one in Maharashtra and the other in Madras. Their Lucknow Congress in 1916 healed the division. oth sides wanted to restore the old and honorable conditions. After agreeing on some membership conditions, the Moderates accepted the extremists. The Lucknow Congress honored and recognized Tilak as a the sole political hero of the time. The Moderates could have offered Tilak the presidency of the Congress but Tilak was known to have a pledge of self-denial. He withdrew his name from the 1907 Nagpur Congress and suggested that it be replaced by the name of Lala Laipat Rai.…
British Broadcasting Corporation. Mohandas Gandhi. Historic Figures. BBC.Co.Uk, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/gandhi_mohandas.shtml
Edidin, Peter. 1947: the End of the Raj. New York Times Upfront: the Scholastic, Inc., January 30, 2006
Indian National Congress. The Congress and the Freedom Movement. AICC, 2004. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at http://aicc.org.in/the_congress_and_the_freedom_movement.htm
Leathem, Rebecca. Mahatma Gandhi. Business Asia: First Charlton Communications Pty, Ltd., February 15, 1999
Without a public health system in place these elements were left in the street to be breathed in and walked through daily.
In addition there engineering advances that built large high rise slums that were quickly filled to capacity even though they offered no fresh water or waste disposal areas.
The 1870's became the decade for urban public health reform as Congress made the move to reorganize the Marine Hospital Service. It was also at that time the Surgeon General position was created and still exists today.
The Surgeon General was charged with overseeing public health issues and providing advice, guidelines and mandates as to how they would be best handled.
During the 1880's the movement toward public health moved away from the political arena and into the laboratories around the nation.
It was at this time scientists began to learn how to isolate disease producing organisms for communicable diseases.…
History Lesson: Contaminated Water Makes a Deadly Drink
Kathy Jesperson on Tap Editor (accessed 4-20-07)
Apostles of cleanliness (accessed 4-23-07)
However, these authors did emphasize their next major point that the problems of disease and general ill-health resulted in discussion of both medical and social opinions on how to solve these problems. Dowler's account of Bostonian health debate explains that the beginning of unified public health organizations began because there were so many conflicting opinions on how to solve emerging medical crisis of the city. hey are success and persuasive in their argumentation because they cite primary sources on the many conflicting opinions from differing sectors of society. Not only did doctors have an opinion on how to cure diseases, but politicians also interjected their opinions on the social issues that need to be resolved in order to prevent disease and promote public health (pg. 68). he strength the authors' rhetoric in these discussions is that they do not "tell" but "show" us the confusion of public health officials during…
The reason that this particular book is very respected and popular within the field of medical historiography is the ability to provide differing demographic perspectives on the same issues of public health. During the early to mid 1800s, the United States did not have a centralized governing public health body and as a result, the only way to provide a holistic understanding of how public health organizations began is to look not at one particular organization or region, but the vast growth of urban social systems to promote public health. The essence of this book is to provide a comprehensive understanding of how the social, political, economic and medical conditions of this particular era contributed to the growth of governmental and centralized responses to the growing crisis of disease control.
Although this book is successful in providing a very panoramic view of the growth of public health organizations, it is at times confusing because the editors present the essays in full without providing the circumstantial understanding of what each author discusses. This book would have been much more useful had the editors contributed an explanation and annotation of key concepts within each of these readings so that readers can easily understand key words and phrases that each author assumes are intelligible to their reader. However, the very fact that these works were collected together in one volume is extremely helpful to the overall understanding of medical history in this context. Therefore this book has successfully accomplished its mission and is a substantially enriching resource for the teaching of American medical and public health history.
Charles Rosenberg, advisory ed. Origins of Public Health in America: Selected Essays 1820-1855. New York, Arno Press and the New York Times, 1972.
176) it is also interesting that the legitimate first response to the dissolution of prohibition was to officially tax it and therefore gain legitimate revenue from a vice. It would not surprise any historian if the idea to tax vice's such as alcohol, which even today the government makes a great deal of money doing, was not born of the substantial success the early mafia made of making money from its illegal production, sale and distribution.
The Irish Mafia:
The Irish Mafia, though usually not thought of as the quintessential mafia "family" were no less influential in some areas that the Italian mafia, one reason for this had to do with the sheer numbers of Irish immigrants to the country following the Potato Famine 1847-1849, and the essential disenfranchisement they felt when they arrived. Having just lived through one of the most grueling of all events, likely to have lost…
Bernstein, L. (2002). The Greatest Menace: Organized Crime in Cold War America. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Block, a.A. (2002). Environmental Crime and Pollution: Wasteful Reflections. 61.
Greeley, a.M. (1972). That Most Distressful Nation: The Taming of the American Irish. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.
Greeley, a.M. (1981). The Rise to Money and Power. New York: Harper & Row.
Dallas Symphony Review
hat an absolute dual treat to attend the Dallas Symphony's "Tchaikovsky Night" at the Morton Myerson Symphony Center on March 31, 2011. Not only was I privileged to hear two great works, but as an added benefit, proceeds from the Tchaikovsky concerts will benefit Sendai, Dallas's International Friendship City in Japan (DSO Public Relations Office). The conductor for this concert was Jaap van Zweden, music director of the Dallas Symphony and several other European Orchestras (DSO Public Relations Office). Guest artist for this program, performing the Piano Concerto #1 is Olga Kern, Russian Classical pianist who, in June, 2001, received a Gold Medal in the Eleventh annual Van Cliburn International Piano Competition (Van Cliburn Foundation).
There was clearly a sense of excitement in the air that was almost palpable. hether this was from the anticipation of the stirring music to come or the posters and…
"About the Symphony Center." January 2011. City of Dallas Office of Cultural Affairs. April 2011 .
Brown, D. Tchaikovsky: The Man and His Music. New York: Pegasus Books, 2007.
Concerto #1. Perf. Leinsdorf/Rubenstein. 1963..
Criminal Justice Career
How will this new terminology and knowledge apply to a career in criminal justice?
Criminal justice is seen as the practices, system and the concerned government institutions that are focused on implementing social control, participating in crime mitigation and sanctioning the law violator by imposing penalties and rehabilitation programs. It covers the private sector, the pubic sector, NGOs, state and the local governments as well (Oregon Laws, 2007). To handle effectively such a wide spectrum of departments with professionals without a chance foe making the wrong interpretation of the law once needs to be well equipped with the legal terms.
How can not knowing the proper terminology affect you as you conduct criminal justice research?
When one lacks the proper terminology in the criminal justice, this can be a fundamental barrier in the execution of duty and definition of the offences committed as well as interpretation of…
Cambridge Dictionary Online (2011). Research: Definition. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/british/research_1
CDC (2011). Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.orau.gov/cdcynergy/demo/Content/phase05/phase05_step03_deeper_qualitative_and_quantitative.htm
Chris Williams, (2009). Scientific Research and Quantitative Research. Retrieved May 21, 2011
Business Culture Decision Making
Every research is centered on the need to make a decision and the need to make a decision in any organization sprouts from a dilemma that the particular organization may be in. Some of these dilemmas may be in the form of complains within the organization, controversy over pay, competitors introduction of a new form of operation or technology, some looming major commitment of resources and more of such issues can effectively prompt a research in an organization.
The bottom line is that research draws its origins from decision making. There must be a dilemma that dominates the course of the research in pursuit of specific information to enable a manager to set objectives, define the tasks, and obtain the best strategy for completion of some tasks. It is at this time that it can be concluded that the research always comes 'just- in -- time'…
Martin Shutleworth, (2008). Research Variables. Retrieved May 26, 2011 from http://www.experiment-resources.com/research-variables.html
University of Wisconsin Eau Claire, (2011). Generating A Research Hypothesis. Retrieved May
26, 2011 from http://people.uwec.edu/piercech/researchmethods/generating%20a%20research%20hypothesis/generating%20a%20research%20hypothesis%20index.htm
Primary mode of subsistence of the Maori culture, for example pastoralists, emerging agriculturalists, industrialists, agrarians states, horticulturalists and foragers has impact on different aspects of cultures. In New Zealand settlers were the cause of the primary mode of subsistence. New Zealand Maori's cultural identity tends to be varied and the census of 1991 showed that Maori are identifying themselves in diverse ways. The revelation of the census was that 511,947 were some ancestry of "Maori," there was claim by 433,080 to be "New Zealand Maori' ethnic group as well as ethnic group which has the smallest population of 321,396 saying to be from the "New Zealand Maori" ethnic group. The population of New Zealand Maori is 4 million. In this population, quite loose approximately number tend to be: 1 in 7 possesses Maori blood, 2 in 7 are Scots, 2 to 7 have English origin, 2 in 7…
d'Ardenne, P. & Mahtani, A. (1994). Transcultural Counselling in Action. London: Sage Publications Ltd.
Durie, M. (2004). Mauri Ora. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press
Lange. R. (1999). May The People Live. Auckland, N.Z.: Auckland University Press.
Orange, C. (1997). The Treaty of Waitangi. Wellington, N.Z. Bridget Williams Books Limited.
Between the Revolution and the Civil War: How will you teach about the 3 to 4 generations that lived between 1776 and 1861 differently? In other words, how have you come to understand this time period better than you did before?
Like most Americans, I had previously been under the general impression that the generations in between the War of Independence and the Civil War worked steadily to incorporate the fundamental liberties and values that the original Colonists pursued in seeking emancipation from the British royal crown in the first place. In particular, we have always learned that religious freedom and the right to practice religion freely and without fear of government intervention or persecution were fundamental tenets of the early American people. Similarly, the contemporary historical narrative dramatically downplays the degree to which the white Americans and the federal government exploited the Native Americans unfairly, in many respects, even…