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Christian mysticism during Early Christianity

Words: 2223 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31504181

hereas Origen did, to a certain degree, follow Clement's teachings, he introduced his own point-of-view in the matter and provided his followers with less information regarding Christian mysticism. This is most probably caused by his interest in teaching mainstream Christianity. He considered that it was easier for him to promote the religion this way, as the masses were presumably unable to understand mystical concepts if they did not know the difference between material Christianity and spiritual Christianity.

Origen feared that by employing a Gnostic approach at understanding religion, people would realize that it was not obligatory for them to consider Jesus Christ and His crucifixion. Origen believes that it is not that a Gnostic "denies or doubts the truth of the Gospel history, but he feels that events which only happened once can be of no importance, and regards the life, death, and resurrection of Christ as only one manifestation…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Chadwick, Henry Early Christian Thought and the Classical Tradition: Studies in Justin, Clement, and Origen (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984)

Horton, Michael S. "Hellenistic or Hebrew? Open Theism and Reformed Theological Method," Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 45.2 (2002)

Inge, William Ralph, Christian Mysticism: Considered in Eight Lectures Delivered before the University of Oxford (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1899)

Lardner Carmody, Denise and Carmody, John Tully, Mysticism: Holiness East and West (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996)
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Spirituality vs Religion in Western

Words: 315 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93020713

Buddhism requires intense study and meditation times, which is a very individual choice.

However, there were some aspects that parallel Christianity as a religion... The bhikkus, or very dedicated individual followers of this spiritual path, are analogous to Christianity's monks and nuns, studying spirituality on a very advanced level; the lay Buddhists are perhaps more like average religious followers, supporting and learning from the Bhikkus, living by a simple moral code (similar to the ten commandments) taught by the Bhikkus, but not taking the spirituality to the same level. In this sense, the Bhikkus are spiritualists, while the lay Buddhists are members of a Buddhist religion, if one were to try to apply Western terminology. Approaching Western concepts to Buddhism in this way may help to clarify some of the difficulty that students have in understanding the basic functionality of Buddhism and Buddhist practice.… [Read More]

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Christian Themes in Everyman Beowulf

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62954345

Beowulf experiences tough circumstances and because he does the right things, he emerges a hero and can live knowing he did the best he could. Here, responsibility leads to good works and, subsequently, a good life.

In "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight," we see Christian values displayed when Gawain accepts his responsibility in much the same way that Grendel does. hen examining the story of Sir Gawain, we cannot overlook the importance of chivalry, which is strongly associated with Christian ideals. Gawain maintain the knight's high ideals even when he under pressure. hen Gawain is traveling to the Green Chapel, he speaks with God, working out his own fear and uneasiness. The result of this conversation is a renewed sense of honor and a urgency to continue. Another example of how the poet intended Gawain to carry these ideals with him is in the pentangle, in which he describes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beowulf." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol I.M.H. Abrams, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 31-78.

Everyman." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol I.M.H. Abrams, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 347-67.

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 233-87.
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Christian-Based Ethics in Business Ethics Having Strong

Words: 1190 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11749189

Christian-Based Ethics in Business


Having strong ethics is vital to the success of an organization but often that component is bypassed in the name of profit. With a strong ethical foundation, an organization will perhaps face more obstacles but will also have a better opportunity for success and longevity. Society, particularly American society, has changed greatly within the past 50 years, and continues to evolve. And with those changes, value systems and the emphasis placed on them changes as well. At the same time, society has dealt with large technological advances. And of course, as knowledge and technology increase, new questions and situations arise to challenge society's morals and ethics. Inadvertent disclosure of information becomes more prevalent as more people become involved in document handling. And the more documents that are handled by more people, conflict of interest may arise, with the potential to threaten the organization.

Particularly in…… [Read More]


Bagley, C.E., & Savage, D.W. (2010). Managers and the Legal Environment. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Harmeling, S., Sarasvathy, S., & Freeman, R. (2009). Related debates in ethics and entrepreneurship: Values, opportunities, and contingency. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(3), 341-365. doi:10.1007/s10551-008-9713-4.

Lee, S. (2009). Guiding your small-business clients through the downturn maze. Journal of Financial Planning, 22(5), 24-29. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.

Madsen, A. (2009). Navigating tough conflict of interest situations. Nonprofit World, 27(1), 18-19. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
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Christian Counseling

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 59687970

Christian Counseling

The plight of Mr. And Mrs. J is troubling as there are many prominent presenting issues at an initial glance at their case. The most striking issue is the lack of affection these two people have for each other. The recent combining of families in this case is also very stark. While the situation is not dire, this relationship appears headed for doom and trouble if certain steps are not taken to remedy the situation.

The most dominant issue in this case appears to be the professional lives of these individuals. The modern family, as represented in this case, places much emphasis on work and career besides family. 60-hour work weeks for Mr. J. doesn't serve his families best emotional interests. The fact that Mrs. J feels she has to work as well also appears to violate God's laws in some antiquated ways. Overall there is a severe…… [Read More]


Brotto, L. (2009). The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Sexual Aversion Disorder. Archive of Sexual Behavior. APA 2009. Retrieved from
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Analyzing Mysticism and Spirituality Compare and Contrast Two Women

Words: 4276 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13339889

Mysticism and Spirituality Comparison of Two omen: Catherine of Sienna and Julian of Norwich

Spirituality and Mysticism

The relationship between mysticism and spiritualism is one question that often arises in the modern study on the concept of spirituality. In large terms, most modern estern techniques often treat mysticism and spirituality like synonyms. Spirituality means the exploration of the depth of human existence, the main purpose of life and the search for a more in-depth wisdom. Summarily, it is easier to understand spirituality when it is treated as the larger concept. Mysticism is only an aspect of Christian spirituality- a way of intensifying the spiritual path of Christianity. It is quite necessary to note that the significant role of mysticism and spirituality is quite ambiguous. Most Christian traditions like the estern Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox value most of these aspects greatly (Sheldrake 8-9).

Catherine of Sienna

Devotional Practices

Catherine, who…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, Prudence. "A History of Women Philosophers, Volume II." The Review of Metaphysics 44.3 (1991): 660-662.

Bernard, McGinn Julian of Norwich, "Revelations of Divine Love," in The Essential Writings of Christian Mysticism, ed. (New York: The Random House Publishing Group, 2006), 242.

Dickens, Andrea Janelle. Female Mystic: Great Women Thinkers of the Middle Ages. Vol. 60. IB Tauris, 2009

Fanning, Steven. Mystics of the Christian Tradition. New York: Routledge, 2006.
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Catholic Spirituality Cunningham L S &

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89795483

n our reflection of Jesus and the scriptures, we are given a doctrine by which to live and a narrative explaining why we should abide this doctrine.

Greeley, a.M. (2001). Sacred Place, Sacred Time, exc. From the Catholic magination. University of California Press.

n 2001, Andrew Greely published the Catholic magination and with it, the excerpt that we consider here. Entitled "Sacred Place, Sacred Time," this carries a similar theme to the work by Cunningham & Egan, making particular reference to the visible presence of God in the surrounding works and creations of the men who worship him. n a compelling description of the city of Koln, the Greely selection lays out the assessment that even in a secular context where survival has been a dominant theme through generations of warfare, spirituality is in stark evidence to the beholder.

Again, we see the them of God's presence in the accomplishments…… [Read More]

In 2001, Andrew Greely published the Catholic Imagination and with it, the excerpt that we consider here. Entitled "Sacred Place, Sacred Time," this carries a similar theme to the work by Cunningham & Egan, making particular reference to the visible presence of God in the surrounding works and creations of the men who worship him. In a compelling description of the city of Koln, the Greely selection lays out the assessment that even in a secular context where survival has been a dominant theme through generations of warfare, spirituality is in stark evidence to the beholder.

Again, we see the them of God's presence in the accomplishments of man. Greely asserts that cities throughout history and across the globe have manifested this visible spirituality as a symbol of their survival. Accordingly, the selection asserts that such cities "illustrate the key component of Catholic imagination -- sacrimentality, the presence of God in all creation. One cannot isolate the Dom from the history of its city. Koln is called 'the holy city' not because its people are particularly virtuous but because it witnesses the presence of God lurking everywhere in creation." (Greely, p. 24)

This assertion points to a critical theme in Greely's work, indeed in the Catholic faith at large. That is, even in contexts where adherents lead largely secular lives, the neighborhoods, communities and cities around them will provide self-perpetuating evidence of Catholicism's spiritual permeation.
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Judeo-Christian Spirit

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65990512

organized religion today has become an issue of controversy. Human intelligence and technology have developed to the point where it is difficult to find a spiritual foothold. This is perhaps why materialism has dominated the earlier part of the 20th century in the Western world. It is however interesting that there seems to be a return to spirituality during the first part of the 21st century. People have taken spiritual refuge in everything from the strangest new-age religions to the most traditional forms of Christianity. When considering the question of how Christianity particularly has changed then, there are many similarities and also differences between Christianity today and its earlier counterpart.

Firstly, the question of current and earlier Christianity is multi-faceted. Christianity as a religion, as I see it, has experienced several stages. The first stage occurred right after the death and resurrection of Christ. There was an extreme rise in…… [Read More]

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Being a Christian Today

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30717189

More Words and Deeds of Jesus
The festival of Tabernacles was a harvest feast, and John 7-8 takes place at the beginning, middle and end of the feast (Harrington, 2011). Throughout the festival, workers camped in the fields. In the beginning of John 7, Jesus is aware that the Jews want to kill him, so he avoids them. However, he does not stay away completely. In the middle of the festival, he enters into a discussion with the Jews because some of them want to know how He came to have such divine knowledge. In John 7:14-24, Christ explains to them that He knows because His knowledge comes from His father in heaven. He intimates that He has been sent to harvest souls for God the Father. In this sense, His time is like that of the festival of Tabernacles, which is also a harvest festival. Christ’s mission is…… [Read More]

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Christian After Taking the Course and Learning

Words: 1365 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45515629


After taking the course and learning a lot of different concepts, I have asked myself at least a 100 times, what does it mean to be a Christian? Does being a Christian mean just going to church on Sunday mornings? Or bible study on Wednesday nights, and then after that you take a break from being a Christian and go on a week vacation? I bring this up because I have seen this behavior more and more, particularly in close friends. Many people are going around wearing the "What Would Jesus Do?" bracelet on their wrists and wearing the Jesus shirts, nevertheless in my opinion where is the change process? Are these people living their lives like a Christian? Is there an obvious alteration in them after they have acknowledged Christ? With that said, I will address the following principles that I have learned throughout this course that have…… [Read More]

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Spirituality Influences the Works of

Words: 2588 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71476918

4, l. 1ff).

The narrator is a God-like figure sending a man of his flesh to the dry world; the Father/Son construct, as with Jesus Christ. Although the exact dates for most of these poems are uncertain or unknown, we do know Ferris has stated the poet used religious mythology without thought or conviction. However, in the final verse, Thomas calls for "flower, flower, the people's fusion"(v. 6, l.1). And that "all and all the dry world's couple" -- a strong peace theme (v. 5, l. 1). This serves to reinforce the Father/Son theme earlier in the poem. It is interesting to note, as well, that the people in the dry worlds are characterized by the Father/God as mechanical, toolbox, like figures (ribs of metal, synthetic blood (v. 4, 5-6) and love associated with violence (the bridal blade, the lover's mauling (v. 3, v. 5-6)). Is it possible they have…… [Read More]

Mondragon, B.C. (1997) Neurotic Poets: Dylan Thomas. Retrieved from :

Poetry: Dylan Thomas. N.D. Bedford-St. Martin's. Retrieved from http://www.
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Christian Counseling Theory

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61375719


Concise Summary of Theory

Christian counseling is usually rooted in both Biblical truths and in psychological research. In Telling Yourself the Truth and How to Help People Change, the authors discuss how to counsel from within a Christian theoretical perspective. Although these two books have different areas of focus, their core messages are the same: change is to be instigated by God and sustained in the light of Christ.

The authors view traditional psychological theories such as psychoanalysis as being helpful as starting points, but no longer relevant from either a scientific or a spiritual perspective. Therefore, Backus & Chapain (2000) and Adams (1986) infuse psychology with Christian concepts. Christian concepts, drawn directly from the Bible and its parables, can help the individual see his or her life in a new and more accurate light.

Specifically, How to Help People Change defines change within a Christian context, whereas Telling…… [Read More]


Adams, J.E. (1986). How to Help People Change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan.

Backus, W. & Chapain, M. (2000). Telling Yourself the Truth. Minneapolis: Bethany House.
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Christian Life While the Human

Words: 610 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28382446

Indeed, new evidence shows that religious and spiritual interventions can help when everything else has failed" (Elkins). Elkins puts his finger on the most intriguing fact, which is that spirituality produces benefits that are unseen but evident.

One of the most significant aspects of Christianity is prayer and scientists are beginning to realize that prayer has benefits that cannot always be seen. However, the benefits appear to be real. The power of prayer goes beyond words. Armstrong illiams states, "Prayer heals. So say thousands of Americans who use prayer to improve their health" (illiams). illiams' reports findings from a study conducted at Harvard Medical School in which 69% of 2000 individuals surveyed maintained that "prayer greatly improved their health" (illiams). There seems to be a connection with the minds, why people pray, and what people believe those words will do. Prayer is important because people have faith and believe that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Elkins, David. Spirituality. Psychology Today Online. Site Accessed May 22, 2008. 

Williams, Armstrong. Healing Benefits of Prayer. Online. Site Accessed May 22, 2008.
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Spirituality for Palliative Care Patients

Words: 1927 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17662541

It brought continuity to the process of dying, and a way to deal with critical issues in a way everyone could understand. it's holistic because it takes the process of dying, coordinates the patient's care, and brings resolution to things often left unstated. It allows the patient to have a degree of control. And it evaporates some of the high-tech coldness that can come between caregivers and patients."

The most significant area of spirituality and palliative care still unaddressed by researchers seem to be those identified by Cohen and Koenig: "the religious and spiritual needs of people of different religions, the positive and negative effects of religion and spirituality in palliative and end-of-life care, and the contributions that religious and spiritual institutions as well as health care professionals can make to such endeavors" (Cohen and Koenig


Currently, there is a widely held belief that spirituality is a valuable part…… [Read More]


Bogin, Rabbi S. (2000) Spiritual issues of palliative care. Nursing Homes, December. Retrieved 13 March 2005 from

Burnside, G. (1998) New paths in end-of-life care. Health Progress, May/Jun. Retrieved 13 March 2005 from

Cohen, a.B. And H.G. Koenig. (2002) Spirituality in palliative care. Geriatric Times 3(6). Retrieved 13 March 2005 from

Cole, B.V. (2001) Nursing care at the end of life. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care 37(3). Retrieved 13 March 2005 from
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Spirituality Religion and Palliative Care Nursing

Words: 919 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Chapter Paper #: 4374658

eligion and Spirituality

According to Ferrell & Coyle (2010), religion and spirituality both fall under the rubric of "experiencing transcendence," (p. 14). The difference between religion and spirituality is in the ways transcendence is codified. eligions offer specific languages and modes of discourse, whereas spirituality remains more nebulous because of the lack of the need to share or express ideas with others. eligion has a social function, and can even be conceived of as a means of social control. As a sociological phenomenon, religion serves a totally different purpose and function in a person's life. Spirituality is more of a psychological than a sociological phenomenon, but unlike religion, has no bearing on community. As Judy Labonte states in her blog post, spirituality is much "broader" than religion, and it is important that nurses working in palliative care be sensitive to the personal beliefs of people, even when those beliefs do…… [Read More]


Ferrell, B.R. & Coyle, N. (2010). Oxford Textbook of Palliative Nursing. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wolpe, D. (2013). Viewpoint: The limitations of being spiritual but not religions. Time. March 21, 2013. Retrieved online:
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spirituality mind body'spirit and transpersonal psychology

Words: 1264 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14949061

A: Integration of Mind/Body/Spirit
The integration of body, mind, and spirit can create harmony and healing. In fact, the integration of body, mind, and spirit can also take into account culture and ethnicity to provide holistic care. There is no one way to integrate body, mind, and spirit, but multiple modalities that each person can choose to use at different points to address their own needs. Some body-mind-spirit integration practices like yoga or tai chi can also be divorced from their religious and cultural contexts to provide all people with access to their benefits (Luskin, 2004). Although there is some evidence starting to emerge showing how these types of practices lead to measurable or at least observable outcomes in patients, it is important for healthcare practitioners to focus more on phenomenological approaches and qualitative methods than on the potentially futile quest for quantitative data proving the efficacy of practices like…… [Read More]

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spirituality and humanistic psychology individual

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51942395

Question 1

The individual’s experience and the personal construction of meaning are central to humanistic psychology. Theorists like Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow initially promoted this humanistic view of psychology, which was contrary to the prevailing tenets of behaviorism and psychoanalysis. Instead of focusing on past experiences and environmental variables, Rogers and Maslow focused on the person’s perceptions and intrinsic motivations (“What is Humanistic Psychology?” n.d.). Moreover, early theorists also negated the importance of experimental studies and other applications of the scientific method to psychological inquiry because these methods have a way of dehumanizing and devaluing personal experience (McLeod, 2015). Theorists like Rogers and Maslow found was more useful to apply qualitative methods that would allow the person to open up and share their thoughts, beliefs, experiences, and perceptions. Thus, the therapist and the client work together to discover ways of finding meaning in life experiences.

Carl Rogers promoted the…… [Read More]

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Gary R Collins Christian Counseling

Words: 8475 Length: 31 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22721258

Chistian counseling has become an impotant teatment modality fo a gowing numbe of health cae pactitiones and patients acoss the county in ecent yeas. Intoduced duing the ealy 1980s, Chistian counseling advocates integating eligious pactices and beliefs founded on eligious taditions with psychotheapeutic techniques to povide an optimal appoach to helping people cope with a wide ange of pesonal poblems and family issues. The pupose of this study is to povide a citical and systematic eview of the elevant liteatue in geneal and Gay R. Collins's book, Chistian Counseling: A Compehensive Guide (2007) in paticula, concening the oigins and tends in Chistian counseling and how this appoach can be used to povide the timely and essential inteventions that can help people bette cope with pesonal and family poblems. A summay of the eseach and impotant findings concening these issues ae pesented in the study's conclusion.

Table of Contents

1.0 Chapte…… [Read More]

references regarding prayer as a counseling intervention. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 35(4), 328-340.

West, W.S. (2004). Spiritual issues in therapy -- Relating experience to practice. Basingstoke:

Palgrave Macmillan.

Wood, G.D. & Ellis, R.C. (2003). Risk management practices of leading UK cost consultants. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 10(4), 254-262.
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Nursing - Spirituality Spirituality Prayer

Words: 1888 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89474224

In addition to lecture-based introduction to religious differences, video and/or live presentations from religious leaders and clergy from different faiths and role play exercises, the proposed implementation of training in this area should also include presentations from more experienced nurses who have already successfully negotiated the delicate issues involved.


Spiritual support undoubtedly provides measurable benefits in the hospital environment where it is well received by patients. In American society, religious pluralism requires the exercise of extreme sensitivity when it comes to offering patients spiritual support. While it is certainly possible to provide beneficial spiritual support such as prayer even where nurse and patient do not share the same religious beliefs, doing so dramatically increases the possibility of offending patients rather than benefiting them.

Maximizing the potential benefit of spiritual support while minimizing negative consequences requires vocational training designed to increase awareness of the full variety of religious belief systems…… [Read More]


Campbell CL, Reed-Ash C. (2007). "Keeping Faith." Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing. Vol. 9, No. 1.

Cavendish R, Konecny L, Krayuyak-Luis B, Lanza M. (2004). "Nurses Enhance Performance Through Prayer." Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 18, No. 1.

Galek K, Flannelly KJ, Vane a, Galek RM. (2005). "Assessing a Patient's Spiritual Needs: A Comprehensive Instrument." Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 19, No. 2. Grant D. (2004). "Spiritual Interventions: How, When, and Why Nurses Use Them."

Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 18, No. 1. Johnston-Taylor E. (2003). "Prayer's Clinical Issues and Implications." Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 17, No. 4. Nuss-Kotecki C. (2002). "Developing a Health Promotion Program for Faith-Based Communities." Holistic Nursing Practice. Vol. 16, No. 3.
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Role of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression

Words: 6318 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11568926

ole of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression

Over the last thirty years, one of the most interesting paradoxes in the study and treatment of depression has been that increased knowledge about the biomedical and genetic causes of the disease has been coupled with a renewed interest in the effect of religion and spirituality on human mental health and well-being. No matter how religion and spirituality are defined -- and many scholars and laypersons see no great distinctions between the two -- there are now hundreds of studies that demonstrate the beneficial effects of religion on both mental and physical health. Indeed, the more firmly held and intrinsic a person's religious convictions are, the more salutary the effect. eligious people are more optimistic, hopeful and trusting, and have more purpose and meaning in life than those with weak or no religious views. All of these qualities are of course lacking…… [Read More]


Ai, A..L. et al. (2005). "Prayer Coping, Positive Attitudes, and Cardiac Surgery" in Lee, A.V. Coping with Disease. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., pp. 23-64.

Auer, B. And J.A. Ang (2007). Torment of the Soul: Suicidal Depression and Spirituality. AuthorHouse.

Beck, A.T. And B.A. Alford (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatment. University of Pennsylvania Press.

Biebel, D.B. And H.G. Koenig (2010). New Light on Depression: Help, Hope and Answers for the Depressed and Those Who Love Them. Zondervan Publishing House.
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Social Shift from Religion to Spirituality

Words: 4137 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73048599

Religion and Spirituality in a Broad Sense

Spirituality and religion are two terms that have rather unstable, historically changing definitions, characterized by numerous implied and explicit theological considerations. Further, the general contention is that these definitions are either overly specific or overly generic. A more astonishing fact is, possibly, these researches' level of concurrence that spirituality represents a private, budding, personal and emotional sphere, whilst religion is more public, group-based and fairly stable. Interviews and questionnaire tools arising out of these definitions characteristically undertake measurements of the spirituality element by posing questions with regard to people's self-identity, psychological experiences, and psychological health. By contrast, the element of religion is measured using questions that relate to religious participation, events and undertakings, observance of community or religious code. (Bender 1).

The ideal approach to spirituality would be considering it as a means to know the divine. Individual means to do so are,…… [Read More]

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What Is the Difference Between Faith Theology Belief and Spirituality

Words: 1181 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14840510

faith, theology, belief, and spirituality?

hen considering the difference between belief, faith, theology, and spirituality, it is helpful to consider these terms in their commonly expressed linguistic forms, as they occur in our daily lives. In other words, in ordinary parlance, how does one usually use the words of belief, faith, theology, and spirituality? By examining such common usage, often one may find clues as to the subtle or not so subtle differences between the terms.

Take, for example, the notion of belief. I might say that I believe in evolution, that I believe that human beings evolved from primates. In other words, one can believe in a supposition that may or may not be correct that has nothing to do with conventional religious structures and institutions, or even, if one accepts fundamentalist interpretations of Genesis, goes against such religious suppositions. I might also say that I believe that my…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hodge, Charles (2002) Systematic Theology. Retrieved online in full text 25 Jan 2005 at

Hyperdictionary. (2005) "Spirituality." Online dictionary. Retrieved online in 25 Jan 2005 at
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Weblogs and Spirituality the Escalating

Words: 5256 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 74657869, which enable users to publish, categorize, and share their bookmarks


Enables users to create and edit the content of a Web site, leveraging the expertise of online users

Consumer Wikis enable users to comment on content, in addition to editing content

Wikipedia, a community Wiki encyclopedia, includes approximately 1.3 million English-language articles

Sources: (Bernoff, Li. 2008,

Figure 1:

Web 2.0 Explained

Inherent in the user dynamics of the map completed by O'eilly and Battelle are the catalyst of why social networking is such a fertile platform for spreading word of God's love and peace to the world. Ironically the foundations of social networking as defined by O'eilly and Battelle are identical to the needs that churches fulfill. The "architecture of participation" that is mentioned by O'eilly in his definition of Web 2.0 (Weinberger, 2007, 19) exactly parallels the needs that any church fulfill as well. In addition,…… [Read More]


Celeste Biever "When pastors swap the pulpit for the webcam." New Scientist, February 17, 2007, 24-25 (Accessed October 1, 2008).

Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. "Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web." MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1, 2008): 36-42. (Accessed October 2, 2008).

Kimberly Chopin "Finding communities: alternative viewpoints through weblogs and tagging." Journal of Documentation 64, no. 4 (July 1, 2008): 552-575. (Accessed October 1, 2008).

Aaron M. Cohen "Young, Single, and Spiritual." The Futurist 42, no. 4 (July 1, 2008): 16-17. (Accessed October 1, 2008).
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Role of Spirituality in the

Words: 1461 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 46853970

Histoy of the Poblem

Rachel Evans (2011) lists a numbe of nutitional theapies fo the teatment of depession, anging fom St. John's Wot to "dan zhi xiao yao, a taditional Chinese medicine." Altenative medicine has often been seen as a supplement to the teatment of depession in the past. Othe teatments have included the famous lobotomy technique designed by Potuguese neuologist Antonio Egas Moniz, who was awaded the Nobel Pize fo his technique. Moniz simply dilled and snipped "neve fibes unning fom the fontal lobes to the est of the bain" (Lene, 2005). And Kyziidis identifies seveal ways in which the ancient Geeks would appoach mental illness such as depession:

"Ciceo…believed that man could help with his own cue though philosophy" (p. 43). Even today thee ae numeous studies that still show how physicians ely on phamaceuticals to estoe balance in a patient suffeing fom depession: Pevention of depends upon…… [Read More]

references for religion/spirituality in treatment for anxiety and depression. Aging Mental Health 15(3), p. 334-43. Retrieved from 

Wyatt, R.J. (2001). Tantalizing Clues to Preventing Schizophrenia. The Dana

Foundation. Retrieved from
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Eating Disorders in Women from the Christian Point of View

Words: 3830 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94830349


Eating disorders are the number one cause of mortality among mental disorders. A significant portion of women in America suffer from eating disorders. This paper describes these disorders and identifies common, practical and theoretical approaches to eating disorders that are used by counselors, therapists and care givers to help women overcome their struggles. It discusses some of the causes of these disorders. Finally, it identifies the how the Christian perspective and faith-based interventions can be used to help women obtain a better, healthier, more positive, and more realistic image of womanhood to help them deal with the social and peer pressures, the unhealthy emotions, and the mental afflictions that can cause them to develop eating disorders. This paper concludes with the affirmation that the Christian perspective on healing can be an effective approach to helping women who suffer from eating disorders.

I. Introduction
a. Key facts and statistics…… [Read More]

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Action's Should Christians Take Regarding

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19267486

By only being interested in themselves, people fail to accomplish one of their main missions as Christians-that of discovering the Kingdom of God. People should not understand personal satisfaction as being equivalent to the greatest achievement. Christians should constantly be engaged in stepping in when they know that the circumstances require them to do so.

Protecting the environment does not mean that one would have to perform dehumanizing acts, but that the respective person should attempt to do as much as possible in order for them to assist nature.

Practically everyone comes across the topic of environmental protection at a certain point in their lives and it is up to them if they want to be a part of the movement. People need to understand that it is not themselves who should be the center of their interest, as they should also look into assisting others and the planet in…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Butman, Richard E. And Kruse, Sandra Johnston, "On Creating a Healthy Supervisory Environment: a Christian Relational and Developmental Perspective," Journal of Psychology and Christianity 26.4 (2007)

2. Cox, Thomas R. "Shinrin Bunkaron" to Kirisuto-kyo, " Environmental History 3.3 (1998)

3. Goss, Benjamin, "Proposing a Biblical Ethic for Environmentalism," The Christian and the Environment, March 1, 2007.

4. Gnanadason, Aruna, "Yes, Creator God Transform the Earth! The Earth as God's Body in an Age of Environmental Violence," The Ecumenical Review 57.2 (2005)
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Chadwick Henry Early Christian Thought

Words: 731 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 5704933

This did not seem to affect many that were truly committed however, to the Gnostic way of life.

sborn, E.F. The Philosophy of Clement of Alexandria (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1957)

According to sborn, the philosophy of Clement of Alexandria was that a person could not consider ration as a means to understanding God because God could only be understood through spirituality (p. 32). Clement wanted individuals to consider his work based on philosophical principles however, because they would have to delve into Gnosticism to understand his work from a realistic standpoint, and Clement was assuming that people would be Christians and not Gnostics. Clement wanted to promote Christianity but was looking at the deeper levels of spirituality which was something that required clarification. Further, Clement believed in the concept of a spiritual ladder individual's needed to climb to achieve positive results in their relationship with the divine. Clement's philosophy…… [Read More]

Osborn, E.F. The Philosophy of Clement of Alexandria (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1957)

According to Osborn, the philosophy of Clement of Alexandria was that a person could not consider ration as a means to understanding God because God could only be understood through spirituality (p. 32). Clement wanted individuals to consider his work based on philosophical principles however, because they would have to delve into Gnosticism to understand his work from a realistic standpoint, and Clement was assuming that people would be Christians and not Gnostics. Clement wanted to promote Christianity but was looking at the deeper levels of spirituality which was something that required clarification. Further, Clement believed in the concept of a spiritual ladder individual's needed to climb to achieve positive results in their relationship with the divine. Clement's philosophy takes on some Gnostic principles, allowing the reader to delve deeper into Christianity and allowing intriguing thoughts to shape their personality from those points. The work encourages praying verbal prayers during these times, as this focus on the importance of spiritual matter, which is something the aspiring Christian must focus on and learn the importance of.

According to Clement, a true gnostic is something that is able to reason and give a reasonable account of what they know in faith by giving summary and general form response of such matters (p. 118). Faith is an important concept to emphasize, and something that had to be combined with other Christian principles for true Christianity to prevail. One of the most important contributions of this work was the philosophy that knowledge and love could be combined to work together for the same common cause, a religious or gnostic cause whose purpose was the same, in promoting the common good of the people. Good was the end result of all works in which Christians engaged in, the common good of the people, because Christians and spirituality were inherently good by nature, this was an undisputed principle.
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Jesus' Teachings Prayer & Christian Life He

Words: 35411 Length: 109 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 95862373

Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life

"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]

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Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice True Psychology

Words: 19429 Length: 71 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 78576075

Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"

Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…… [Read More]


American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.

Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
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Theology and Psychology in Christian

Words: 2975 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21934053

(Paul, 2005) In fact, the AAPC survey found that African-Americans, devout evangelicals, people without a college degree, the elderly and people age 18 to 29 are most likely to fear that a professional counselor won't take their religious beliefs into serious consideration when treating them. (Paul, 2005)

People come to Christian counselors for two reasons," commented Randolph Sanders, executive director of the Christian Association for Psychological Studies, an association of Christians in mental health and behavioral sciences. "One is faith perspective; they want a therapist who resonates with their worldview. The second is moral ethics; they want a counselor who understands what guides their decisions." (Paul, 2005)

Christian counseling, more than secular counseling, has the ability to present a starkly positive viewpoint. In fact, the origins of Christian counseling were planted in the clergy, whom parishioners historically consulted about emotional and spiritual well-being and health.

According to Paul, The progenitors…… [Read More]


Tillich, Paul. 1951. Systematic Theology, vol. 1. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Friedman, Edwin. 1985. Generation to Generation: Family Process in Church and Synagogue. New York: Guilford Press.

Zikmund, Barbara, et al. 1988. Clergy Women: An Uphill Calling. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press.

Yust, Karen. 2002. "The Toddler and the Community," in Human Development and Faith, ed. Felicity Kelcourse. St. Louis: Chalice Press.
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Ruthven Both Muslim and Christian

Words: 980 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 3760756

Schneider argues that secular fundamentalism is a religion that adheres to a strict set of beliefs, mainly that "God should be strictly excluded from civil affairs" (para. 4). This view of secular fundamentalism shares little difference with the traditional fundamentalism, with the exception of two traits. Secular fundamentalists are not patriarchal, as they accept modern gender standards, and they desire the modern age of science rather than wanting to overturn it ("10 Traits of Fundamentalist Movements").

2. Adam Otto argues that every religion is an interpretation of the sacred, a "numinous phenomenon" that is at the heart of all spirituality. Otto's interpretation would accept that all religious are valid because they are all simply different interpretations of the same thing. Otto argues that the sacred is a mystery, overwhelming if one were to be in its presence, and is fascinating ("Theorists of Religion: Otto"). In the Christian religion, this is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ruthven, Malise. Fundamentalism: The Search For Meaning. Oxford: Oxford University

Press, 2004.

Schneider, Gary. "Secular Fundamentalism in America." News Bull n.d. The Reality

Check. 9 June 2009.
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Women's Spirituality and Women's Experience at Midlife

Words: 800 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 40317367

Gleanings: Readings at the Intersection of Culture and Faith

Women, Midlife, and Leadership.

In Gleanings: Readings at the Intersection of Culture and Faith, Catherine Wallace suggests that several factors in contemporary society combine to make midlife a pivotal period in the lives of women today, much more so than in previous generations. First, Wallace points out that increases in human health and life expectancy in the last century have added so much time to the average life span that it amounts to the equivalent of an entire second adulthood. For example, she recalls her thoughts at her son's college graduation that she is thirty years older than her son but that much younger than her mother, who is herself, active and vibrant in her eighties.

Second, Wallace argues that simultaneous social changes in the way that women are perceived and in the rights and norms that typically shape their adult…… [Read More]

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Protestant German Christian Church Around the Time of the Nazis

Words: 3304 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67648507

orld ar I and orld ar II, a great deal of interest has been paid to the German Christian Church and Movement. The focus of this discussion will be on the German Christian Church and movement, specifically the protestant Church (people's church), after I and through II and the Nazi movement. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate that the protestant German Christian church's ideology was not a product of Nazi orders or a response to Neo-Pagan influences, but in fact, was derivative of the post I culture of German.

Background Info

According to a book entitled Twisted Cross: the German Christian Movement in the Third Reich, the German Christian Movement was composed of Protestants, both clergy and lay people. The author asserts that people that were a part of this movement believed that Nazi Rule was a prime opportunity to spread Christian ideology.

Members of the movement believed…… [Read More]

Works Cited 

Baranowski, Shelley. "The 1933 German Protestant Church Elections: Machtpolitik or Accommodatlon?." Church History 49, no. 3 (1980): 298-315. 

Barnett, Victoria J. Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999. 

Barnett, Victoria. For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest against Hitler. New York: Oxford U.S., 1998.
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Dark Spirituality as a Symbol of Female

Words: 3949 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45179724

Dark Spirituality as a Symbol of Female Frustration:

Voodoo Gothic and the Mill on the Floss

George Eliot's The Mill On the Floss is arguably one of the most widely read novels of the Victorian period. Although many differ as to just why this is the case, one thing is clear -- what was once a rather straightforward tragic tale, tinged with the time's popular romantic/gothic influence, has become a bastion of feminist criticism. Although many readers, especially those contemporary to the work's publication, expressed strong disappointment with the fate of Maggie -- especially at the end of the novel, the advent of feminist criticism brought many readers to begin to strongly identify with the fate, and the message, George Eliot was trying to convey. (Jacobus 62) Maggie Tulliver's representation of the tragedy of intellectual womanhood mired in the doom of repressive Victorian society -- is particularly satisfying. For these…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ashton, Rosemary. "The Mill on the Floss: A Natural History." Twayne's Masterwork Studies. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co. 1990

Byatt, A.S. "The Placing of Steven Guest." Appendix, the Mill on the Floss, Middlesex, Blays Ltd., St. Printing; Penguin Classics. 1979

Carlisle, Janice. "The Mirror in the Mill on the Floss; Toward Reading of Autobiography Discourse." Studies in the Literary Imagination. Vol 23:Issue 2. [EBSCO] Masterfile

Eliot, George, Christ, Carol T. (ed.) The Mill on the Floss: the Norton Critical Edition. Berkley: University of California Press, 1994.
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Didache Offers Ancient Advice to Christians

Words: 1873 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81449932

History of Christianity -- "The Didache"

hen was the Didache written?

The Didache is also known as "The Teachings of the 12 Apostles," and it is dated as having been written around 50's, 60's, or perhaps 70's AD although those dates are not certain. Jonathan Draper in fact says the latest revision of the possible date that the document was written is 100 AD. Even though the date is not certain, what is certain is that The Didache does in fact consist of instructions about how to be a Christian, and the first six chapters of the book deal with lessons on what is expected of Christians. The second four chapters describe Christian ceremonies -- including the Christian way of fasting, of baptism, and of community -- and the last six chapters deal with the actual organization of the Christian Church.

The documents were found around 1873 (by Philotheos Bryennios)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crossan, John Dominic. The Birth of Christianity: Discovering what Happened in the Years

Immediately After the Execution of Jesus. New York: HarperCollins. 1998.

Draper, Jonathan. Gospel Perspectives, Volume 5. The Jesus Tradition Outside the Gospels,

Editor David Wenham. 1965.
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Father Joe Spirituality and the

Words: 1298 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22862633

Can one be funny, and still be sincere? Hendra, although convinced of the wrongness now of adultery, took refuge instead in insincerity. His crime was no longer of passion, although he committed many extramarital sexual transgressions. His main crime was more of a lack of passion or love for God's world, and the good and believable things of God's world. As noted by Abraham Herschel in the book Moral Grandeur and Spiritual Audacity on the subject of prayer, the "beginning of prayer is praise," while in Hendra's humor, the beginning of his wit was subversion and a lack of praise and prayerful attitude towards all things of the world, not simply the bad things. hen Abraham Herschel notes, "the power of worship is song. To worship is to join the cosmos in praising God," Hendra only raised his voice in song to parody, not to express anything positive, only to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hendra, Tony. Father Joe. New York: Random House, 2004.

Hershel, Abraham & Susanna. Moral Grandeur and Spiritual Audacity.
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What Specific Actions Should Christians Take Regarding the Environment and Its Preservation or Restoration

Words: 1825 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34900313

Environment: Toulmin Model Argument

To be environmental or not may not be a difficult question for Christian people, then again, for others it might be. However, when it comes to Christians and the Environment, the question is, should Christians be worried about the ecosystem? Spending time in the bible can clearly show Christians that they need to accept the obligation to be more active in caring for the environment for the reason that it is God's creation. If people believe, as Christians that they are God's workers, they should not have any part in helping destroying the earth. Any utilization of earth's resources need to upkeep the sustainability of such assets. If this is done would be to act in revolt against the objective of God in design and in a very real sense walk in insincerity in regards to the environment. With that said, this paper will argue specific…… [Read More]


Attfield, R. (2003). "Christian Attitudes to Nature.." Journal of the History of Ideas, 44(3), 369-86.

Berry, T. (2009.). The Christian Future and the Fate of the Earth. . New York City: Orbis.

Bianchi, E. C. (2009, March 8). The Ten Commandments of Ecological Spirituality. Retrieved from 

Gebara, I. (1999.). Longing for Running Water: Ecofeminism and Liberation. . Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.
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Lord's Prayer as the Model for Christian Prayer

Words: 2366 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18760056

Lord's Prayer as the Model for Christian Prayer

The Lord's Prayer is the principal Christian prayer that Jesus Christ taught his followers, saying, "Pray then in this way." The prayer appears in Matthew 6: 9-13 and Luke 11: 2-4, and summarizes Jesus' teaching and stresses the concern of honoring God before that of meeting one's own needs and also reveals Christ's sense of a filial relationship with God (Columbia Pp). After the Second Vatican Council, the Roman Catholic Church added a version of the doxology, 'For thine is the kingdom ..., ' to prayer when used in the Mass (Columbia Pp). The doxology was already current in Protestant liturgies, and is also present in some manuscripts of Matthew (Columbia Pp). The prayer is called Paternoster in Latin, it also occurs in the Didache, and the first three phrases of the prayer parallel the opening words of the ancient, Jewish Kaddish…… [Read More]

Work Cited

"Lord's Prayer." The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. 4/22/2004; Pp.

Remsen, Jim. "Parishioners take at fresh look at the Lord's Prayer.

Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service. 8/7/2002; Pp.

Christian, Graham. "The Prayer of Fire: Experiencing the Lord's Prayer."
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Why Christians Spread the Gospel to the World

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47610984


"Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn from me, for I am gentle and lowly in heart, and you will find rest for your souls…my yoke is easy, and my burden is light" (Matthew 11: 28-29).

Description: Understanding the path that it takes to become an evangelist is important out in front of any decision to follow that path. It is clear that in the book of Matthew, he is quoting what Jesus said in His desire to teach others. Christ made a promise to those who would become believers, to learn from Him, and he wasn't reluctant at all about telling prospective believers that he would give them spiritual rest, if only they would take the necessary steps towards becoming future participants in Christianity.

In John 20:31 -- "But these [scriptures with…… [Read More]

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Religion Entered the 18th Century and With

Words: 8434 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77108254

religion entered the 18th Century and with it a revival. The growth of the revival was overwhelming.More people attended church than in previous centuries. Churches from all denominations popped up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. Religious growth also spread throughout England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as "The Great Awakening" where people like Jarena Lee got her start preaching.

Evangelism, the epicenter of the movement, preached the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected, both grand and small by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word. The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, aptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.

In 1787…… [Read More]


Albanese, Catherine, and Stephen Stein, eds. Sisters of the Spirit: Three Black Women's Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century. Edited by William L. Andrews. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Bell, D.. "Allowed Irregularities: Women Preachers in the Early 19th-Century Maritimes" Acadiensis [Online], Volume 30 Number 2 (3 March 2001)

Brekus, Catherine A. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Ditmire, Susan. "Cape May County."  (accessed May 2, 2013). (primary source)
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Exegesis and Demonstrate What Is Needed in

Words: 1903 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4189422

exegesis and demonstrate what is needed in order to do a proper exegesis of a passage of scripture. In doing so name at least three different methods of scriptural criticism and explain how they assist in the exegetical task.

In a strictly definitional sense, according to the American Heritage Dictionary, to conduct an "exegesis" merely means to embark upon a critical explanation or analysis of a text. (American Heritage Dictionary, exegesis, 2000) However, this neutral term contains, within its innocent sounding syllables, contains a long history of contentiousness, regarding scriptural interpretation. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "exegesis" within the context of scriptural criticism is the branch of theology that investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred Scripture. (Catholic Encyclopedia, "exegesis," 2001) The true sense is not merely understood, even by the devout, as a unified study, however.

To conduct an appropriate exegesis one must first understand the literal meaning…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bokenkotter, Thomas. "The Creed: Faith Essentials for Catholics." From Catholic Update.

"Exegesis." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Fourth Edition. 2000.

"Exegesis." The Catholic Encyclopedia. 

Guinan. "Christian Spirituality"
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Baptism Debate

Words: 3309 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 22057499

Baptism Debate: An Examination of the Purpose and Merits of Baptism

There is no trick involved in entering the Kingdom of Heaven, but many theologians argue that there are some important steps that must be taken to help pave the way, including being baptized. Issues such as whether complete immersion is required or simply a token sprinkling, who is authorized to perform baptisms and even the fundamental purpose and merits of baptism, have all been the source of enormously divisive controversy within the Christian church for two millennia. To determine the facts, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning different views about the purpose and merits of baptism, and whether baptism is reserved for believers only or for infants as well. A discussion concerning what mode of baptism is biblical is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.…… [Read More]


Bryant, S.E. (2004, Winterr). "More Than a Symbol: The British Baptist Recovery of Baptismal

Sacramentalism." Baptist History and Heritage, 39(1), 120-123.

Cavendish, R. (1999). "Baptism." Man, Myth & Magic. New York: Marshall Cavendish

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Religion and the Crisis of the Self

Words: 767 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28402220

Secularization: The crisis as I see it

According to Kirwan (2012) the essential crisis in modern spirituality is the secular nature of modern political life, which demands a split between religious and civic existence. This is evident both on the right and on the left, although this is often framed as a liberal versus conservative issue. From a current sociological point-of-view, there seems to be increasing polarization both in politics and in religion. Conservatives complain about the need to provide birth control as part of company healthcare plans; inclusive concepts of marriage; and the teaching of evolution in schools. Liberal believers decry what they see as too much emphasis on material versus spiritual values in modern culture and policy. Despite the separation between church and state within the Constitution's Establishment Clause, people do not compartmentalize their religion away from their civic souls when entering the ballot box. ut Kirwan sees…… [Read More]


Kirwan, M. 2012. "Spirituality in politics." In The Bloomsbury Guide to Christian Spirituality.

Woods, Richard & Tyler, Peter (eds). Bloomsbury Press, London, pp.187-199.

Sweeney, James. 2008. "Revising secularization theory." The New Visibility of Religion: Studies

in Religion and Cultural Hermeneutics. Hoelzl, Michael and Ward, Graham (eds.) London: Continuum, pp. 5-29
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Persona Christi an Analysis of the Priesthood

Words: 5507 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24012181

Persona Christi

An Analysis of the Priesthood "in persona Christi" and "in nominee ecclesiae"

The questions that surround the functions of the priesthood and the diaconate today appear to be part and parcel of the greater uncertainty that surrounds ancient Church customs. This paper will attempt to analyze the meanings of the phrases "in persona Christi" and "in nomine ecclesiae" as they have reflected the functions of the ministers of the Church both in the past and in today. The conclusion of this research is that while the traditional Church maintained a clear definition (and reverent propriety regarding the mystery of the priestly aspect), today's Church is less sure of the role and function of the minister in relation to Church hierarchy and Church laity.

In Persona Christi

Historical Background: the Vestments

Pius XII's (1947) encyclical Mediator Dei describes for us the aspect of the priest in relation to Jesus…… [Read More]

Staley, V. (1894). The Catholic Religion. London, UK: Mowbray.

Tanner, N.P., ed. (1990). Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils. London: Sheed

and Ward.
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Creation Accounts of Genesis as

Words: 818 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54038056

Be sure to use Rahner's idea of anonymous Christianity.

Even devout Christians such as Dante envisioned an afterlife where righteous pagans would have a place of reward and peace. Karl Rahner even conceived of a kind of non-sacramental Christian spirituality for pagans and nonbelievers: by taking a view of the world that is fundamentally in line with Christianity, nonbelievers participate in the Christian tradition and can be saved. This solves the 'problem' of entire peoples and cultures being condemned to hell, simply because they are not officially Christian.

Q3. e stated that a Catholic approach to theology is essentially analogical or metaphorical. Using specific examples, explain what is meant by this assertion.

Catholics believe that the human world is analogous to the transcendent, spiritual world. Because of the Fall and Original Sin, the earth is a reflection of the creator God, but less perfect because it is inhabited by sinful…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Albl, Martin C. Reason. faith and tradition: Exploration in Catholic theology. St. Mary's Press,
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Examining Fruit of the Spirit

Words: 3025 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 11449755

Fruit of the Spirit by Trask and Goodall

This book examines how one can foster elements like true fulfillment in one's life, health in one's relationships and triumph over things like anxiety and conflict by simply allowing God's spirit to develop in one's heart by growing his fruit. The fruit described is of course just a metaphor and is one which invited an examination of the joy, peace, patience, kindness and other elements of the spirit which can help one examine what happens when one lives each day intimately connected with God. The writers of this book push one to foster an intimate relationship with Jesus so that loftier qualities like joy, peace, patience, kindness and other elements will be able to flourish and thrive within one. There needs to be a more passionate and revelatory examination at what happens to one's mental and emotional health when such a change…… [Read More]

Works Cited Christianity and Homophobia. 2013. web. 2014.

Culp-Ressler, T. Denying Women Abortion Access Increases Their Risk Of Falling Into Poverty. 13 November 2012. website. 2014.

Finer, L.B. Reasons U.S. Women Have Abortions: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives. 3 September 2005.

T.E., Trask. And W.I. Goodall. Fruit of the Spirit. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2000. book.
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Stained Glass Panel 1 Of

Words: 4052 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 92066556

As the light changes during the course of a day, the colors change as well; reds and yellows get more brilliant at noon, blues become brilliant as the light fades in the afternoon. All the while, the pictures tell important stories or symbolize truths. Light radiating through glass adds life, beauty, is transcendent, and spiritual connections become apparent.

The above rather elaborate description is cited at length in order to provide insight into the way that stained glass windows and ornamentation can evoke a spiritual and 'transcendent' quality that is particularly in keeping with a religious context such as a church. As referred to in the previous section, the use of stained glass is also strongly related to the Christian symbolism of light. As Web ( 2007) states, "A light philosophy ("God is light") was expressed, and it was thought that light reflected on earth is the closest we can…… [Read More]


Canterbury Cathedral, England [article online] ( accessed 8 December, 2009); available from 

Corbin Henry, Spiritual Body and Celestial Earth . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977.

Gorman Pete J., The Birth of an Art Form [article online] accessed 8 December, 1995; available from ;Internet" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Surrender to Love

Words: 1384 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 30844795

A practical book review of Surrender to Love - Expanded Edition (2015) by David G. Benner
Primary goal
The primary goal of counseling comes out through Benner’s definition of conversion and repentance. According to Benner, repentance is shunning the world and giving self to Jesus. On the other hand, the conversion is a life-long journey of change aiming to take the image of God (p. 71-73). The journey of conversion is a summation of the author’s goal in counseling, the transformation in the spiritual being to become Christlike. According to Benner, this journey requires selflessness, unforceful, effortless, and unpretentious love towards God (p. 73).
Development of problems and personal need
The problems and personal needs characteristic to man, according to Benner are as a result of the fact that humans have spurned the love by God to be what they commonly refer to as freedom (p. 27). Humans…… [Read More]

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Spiritual Formation Practical Lessons From

Words: 1548 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52880014

Coming to a tuly holistic undestanding of spiitual fomation would be essential to anyone titled "Diecto of Spiitual Fomation;" not simply being awae of but tuly encouaging the development of diffeent paths and appoaches to spiitual fomation would be an essential pat of the job desciption, and this will equie a geat deal of subsuming the ego and pesonal feelings. I would make a constant and ongoing attempt to see things fom the chuch membes' pespectives, tailoing my advice and guidance to allow thei development to continue along the lines of thei own pefeences and beliefs, athe than tying to dictate my own.


Spiitual fomation is an ongoing, life-long pocess. At one time, I envisioned a sot of plateau of leaning and undestanding; a point in my studies and pesonal development at which I could look aound me and detemine that I had come as fa as I was…… [Read More]

references and beliefs, rather than trying to dictate my own.


Spiritual formation is an ongoing, life-long process. At one time, I envisioned a sort of plateau of learning and understanding; a point in my studies and personal development at which I could look around me and determine that I had come as far as I was meant to, and developed into the person I was meant to be. The understanding of spiritual formation that I have obtained from Kenneth Boa's Conformed to His Image has allowed me to see that the "person I was meant to be" is in constant development, refinement, and growth. Making my path towards spiritual formation a conscious, life-long pursuit is the only "point" I hope to reach any longer.
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City of God Augustine

Words: 2968 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 78801469

Anselm also added the passion of repentance and the exhilaration of praise to the bare texts, involving the supplicant in an intensity of feeling and a deepening of understanding. In the intensity of sorrow for sin, he is the heir of Augustine of Hippo, and the language of the Confessions is very close to Anselm's self-revelation and repentance.

(McGinn, Meyendorff, and Ledercq 202)

So, in City of God the textual concepts from his earlier works became the stuff of reformative language that would apply itself not only to the personal but to how the person was meant to build upon the institutions that surrounded him, influenced him and in turn was influenced by him. Bernard of Clairvaux was a direct descendant of Augustine in his ideas. He strove to recreate the church not as a calling of finery and social stratification but of one that encompassed a monastic tradition of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abelard, Peter. Henry Adams Bellows trans., Historia Calamitatum the Story of My Misfortunes Online Fordham Medieval Sourcebook, 1922: Retrieved, Oct 12, 2008 at 

Augustine of Hippo. Henry Betterson trans, City of God. New York: Penguin Group. 2003.

Bernard of Clairvaux. David Burr trans, Apology Online Fordham Medieval Sourcebook, 1996: Retrieved, Nov 1, 2008 at 

Bonner, Gerald. St. Augustine of Hippo: Life and Controversies. London: Canterbury Press, 1986.
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Life of Pope Saint Leo

Words: 1711 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87923596

In conclusion, Saint Leo the Great has been called the first true oman Catholic Pope. His reign lasted twenty-one years, and they were some of the most influential years in Church history. Leo earned the title "Saint," and was named a Doctor of the Church as well. Saint Leo was one of the greatest Pope's to lead the Catholic Church, and he created doctrine and ideas that are still used today. He was a great theologian and writer, and had far-reaching ideas that helped define doctrine and unify the Catholic Church. He helped save ome from invaders and literally acted as the leader of ome when the Church split into an eastern and western movement. Saint Leo's feast day was celebrated on November 10, and is now celebrated on April 11 of the oman calendar.


Daniel-ops, H. (1959). The Church in the Dark Ages (Butler, a., Trans.). London J.M.…… [Read More]


Daniel-Rops, H. (1959). The Church in the Dark Ages (Butler, a., Trans.). London J.M. Dent & Sons.

Dunn, G.D. (2001). Divine impassibility and Christology in the Christmas homilies of Leo the Great. Theological Studies, 62(1), 71.

Jalland, T. (1941). The life and times of St. Leo the Great. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.

McGinn, B., Meyendorff, J., & Ledercq, J. (Eds.). (1985). Christian spirituality: Origins to the Twelfth Century. New York: Crossroad.
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Song of Songs While the

Words: 1184 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8219755

The Song also affirms, albeit, that humans consist of more than mere bodies.

Francis Landy (2007), University of Alberta, notes in his review of "Song of Songs," by Richard S. Hess, that Hess intentionally writes with his conservative audience in mind. "He assumes a context of married love for the Song, while recognizing that this is never made explicit: 'the erotic love of the couple does not lie outside the bounds of marriage but is integral to it" (Hess, quoted in Landy, ¶ 2). Hess resists direct sexual interpretations, for instance of 5:4-5 as a euphemistic description of intercourse, pointing out that "the whole point of the passage is the failure of the couple to reach and touch each other."

Tremper Longman (2001) points out in Song of Songs that, according to the Bible, the relationship between a husband and wife reflects the most intimate of all possible human relationships.…… [Read More]


Cunningham, Lawrence S. "Religion Booknotes (Letters to a Young Catholic, The

Church's Bible, The Song of Songs, Behind Closed Doors: A History of Papal Elections,

Dorothy Day: Portraits by Those Who Knew Her )" Commonweal Foundation. (2005).

HighBeam Research. 9 July 2009 .
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Acculturative Stress and Psychological Wellbeing of African Missionary Nuns Working in the USA

Words: 6281 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 41172358

acculturative stress of African Catholic Missionary Nuns (ACMN) serving in the United States. This chapter is divided into five parts. The first part explains the meaning of acculturation and adaptation experiences specific to missionaries. This part emphasizes (1) different perspectives from social and behavioral scientists examining the phenomenon of acculturation (2) different theoretical models describing the stages of acculturation (3) dissimilarities between immigrants and missionary immigrants and what makes the two unique. The second part of this chapter examines the emotional and psychological distress missionaries experience as a result of acculturative stress. The third part focuses on coping strategies and resilience of missionaries. The fourth part introduces the existing literature in the area of acculturative stress of missionaries, emphasizing on limited empirical research in this subject and the necessity for further research in this area of study.

Part One: Background and Overview

Different Social and Behavioral Scientific Perspectives Concerning Acculturation.…… [Read More]


Akomolafe, F. (2011, July). The sad tale of African immigrants in Europe. New African, 508, 94-


Andrews, L. (1999). Spiritual, family, and ministry satisfaction among missionaries. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 27(2), 107-118.

Arthur, L.B. (1999). Religion, dress and the body. New York: Berg.
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Reaching Out Nouwen H J M 1997

Words: 758 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50079409

" In other words, Nouwen writes the book to inspire his readers to work to reach the highest level of being: that of uniting with God. However, because everyone's individual spiritual journey is unique, Nouwen cannot tell one how this journey will take place, but only provide his ideas of what the roadmap should look like. In so doing, Nouwen writes an inspiring and intelligent look at the three most important things in life: relationships to one's self, relationships with others and the relationship one has with God.

I feel this book is complex yet helpful. If read not to find answers but instead to be challenged and to get one thinking about their own personal position in life as compared to others, the surrounding world, and God, then this book delivers beyond expectations. What I like most about Nouwen's theory is how he breaks up the ascension to God…… [Read More]

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Business Is Business Ethics Business

Words: 1358 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84412784

If the dignity of work is to be protected, then the basic rights of workers must be respected -- the right to productive work, to decent and fair wages, to the organization and joining of unions, to private property, and to economic initiative (Themes of Catholic Social Teaching)."

As it relates to the Christian business, this principle should encourage business owners to pay their employees a living wage. A living wage guarantees that an individual will be able to afford the basic necessities in life (i.e. food, clothing, shelter).

The living wage varies depending on the location but many jobs in America do not pay workers a living wage even when they have been working there for a substantial amount of time. As an aspect of business ethics, Christian business owners should evaluate the amount of pay that workers receive and make certain that it is a living wage. Paying…… [Read More]


Themes of Catholic Social Teaching. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved April 4, from; 

Vickers Mark R. (2005) Business Ethics and the HR Role: Past, Present, and Future. Human Resource Planning. Volume: 28 (1), p.26.
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Joint Commission to Determine the Spiritual Needs

Words: 1152 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93194028

Joint Commission

To determine the spiritual needs of patients and the impact it is having on their treatment options requires focusing on four different questions. These include:

What are the long-term effects of using spiritualism with modern medicine?

Is there some kind of balance that must be maintained during this process?

How can health care professionals incorporate these ideas into their overall philosophy of improving treatment options?

What are the possible drawbacks of using these solutions in conjunction with each other?

These different areas are important, as they will provide specific insights about the long-term effects of spirituality with modern medicine. It is at this point, when key insights can be used to enhance the quality of care patients are receiving.

Write a brief summary of your assessment findings

The different resources that were examined are illustrating how there are conflicting opinions about the best approaches for combining spirituality and…… [Read More]


Bradshaw, A. (1994). Lighting the Lamp: The spiritual dimension of nursing care. London: Scutari Press.

Draper P. (1998). The debates emerging from the literature surrounding the concept of spirituality as applied to nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 27 (4), pp. 683-691.

Hay, D. (2002). The spirituality of adults in Britain: recent research. Scottish Journal of Healthcare Chaplaincy. 5

(1), pp. 4-10.
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Age of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky

Words: 3115 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76205882

Compare and contrast their approaches to the question of faith.

One of the features of the age of Tolstoy and Dostoevsky was the emergence of philosophical and religious thoughts that promoted spirituality without religion. The tendency to reject organized religion in favor of personal spirituality or a direct relationship with God gained prominence at this age in ussia because of widespread disillusionment with the state-supported religion, corruption and hypocrisy of the official clergy. None perhaps popularized such spirituality in ussia more than Tolstoy and Dostoevsky. Both of these figures had a complicated relationship with the official Orthodox Christianity. Tolstoy was excommunicated by the Holy Synod of the ussian Patriarch in 1901. But while Dostoevsky's criticism of organized religion remained subtle and he emphasized the importance of faith, Tolstoy was scathing in his attacks on ussian Orthodox religion and at times he directly questioned the existence of God. Tolstoy was a…… [Read More]


Boot, a. (2009). God and man according to Tolstoy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Dostoyevsky, F., & Dostoyevsky, F. (1960). Notes from underground: And the grand inquisitor. New York: Dutton.

Jackson, R.L. (1993). Dialogues with Dostoevsky: The overwhelming questions. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Rancour-Laferriere, D. (2007). Tolstoy's quest for God. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
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Personhood an Interdisciplinary Look at the Individual

Words: 5434 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24383626

person within the Christian worldview. Specifically it will discuss technology, the environment, and the media as it relates to my personal Christian worldview. As noted in this course, understanding a worldview can help a person understand other people and all their roles in today's society. Today's culture is broad, and influenced by a variety of sources, from scientific to religious, and they combine to create a contemporary Christian worldview in others and myself. Personally, my worldview is one of balance between my Christian beliefs and scientific study and analysis, which may be fairly common for a modern Christian worldview.

First, it is necessary to define worldview and what it is. A worldview encompasses every aspect of life, so understanding it is crucial in decision-making and living life to the fullest. It is really a wide-ranging perception of the world around us, formed using a Christian viewpoint. In other words, it…… [Read More]


Editors. (2009). About us. Retrieved 22 June 2009 from the Evangelical Climate Initiative Web site: .

Gibson, T.S. (2004). Proposed levels of Christian spiritual maturity. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 32(4), 295+.

Holy Bible. New King James Version.

Schmeltekopf, D.D. & Vitanza, D.M. (Eds.). (2006). The future of Baptist higher education. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.
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Christ Psych Mat Review Mark

Words: 504 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48465531

How would one find the patience to persevere with the methods and practices recommended by the author here when the patient, despite their best conscious intentions and statements, does not really (at least initially) want to devote themselves to the necessary spiritual and psychological tasks necessary to achieve healing? As effective as the methods McMinn describes may be, there are doubtless many cases of extreme resistance in counseling; how can the counselor find a balance between a vigorous attempt to encourage true healing and development and the level of spiritual understanding and theological distance that is required in order to provide effective Christian counseling?


After having read this book, I will make a conscious effort to obtain a greater knowledge of scripture and the ways in which it can impact day-to-day life. While I felt I had a decent understanding of scripture before, the way in which the author…… [Read More]


McMinn, M. (1996). Psychology, Theology, and Spirituality in Christian Counseling.

Forest, VA: Tyndal House.