Chronic Disease Essays (Examples)

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Chronic Fatigue Is Normal Aspect

Words: 2091 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48201858

However, he questions the research that has been done in this area. First, he wonders whether the exercise is a placebo effect based on the anticipation of improvement. The second question is the acceptability of this treatment. Many CFS patients actively avoid exercise and many healthcare providers in fact recommend rest at all costs rather than a concern of relapse. However, the positive aspect of the CBT and the exercise is that it has the patients question their fears. In both cases, there is a psychotherapeutic affect that may be beneficial.

The use of antidepressants is another approach that has been suggested and studied. However, the results on this have also been mixed. As Demitrack (1996, p. 282) states, "At the present time, it is unrealistic to present medication as a sole treatment for this disease." It may be that medications could work in the short-term and provide enough symptomatic…… [Read More]

References

Center for Disease Control (2006, May 9). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Retrieved January 30, 2007  http://www.cdc.gov /cfs/cfsbasicfacts.htm.

Demitrack, M. And Abbey, S. (1996) (Eds) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. New York: Guilford Press.

Hyland, M.E. et. al. (2006) Letter to the Editor. The Lancet 367 (9522), 1573-1576

Komaroff, a., & Fagioli, L. (1996) Medial Assessment of Fatigue and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. In M. Demitrack and S. Abbey (Eds) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (pg. 154-181). New York: Guilford Press,.
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Chronic Fatigue

Words: 5257 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64165288

Chronic Fatigue in the Aviation Industry

Chronic Fatigue

Fatigue is the mental and/or physical state of being weak and tired. Mental and physical fatigue is different, but the two will often exist together. A person becomes mentally tired if they are physically exhausted for a long period. A person being unable to function physically at their normal levels manifests physical fatigue Jackson & Earl, 2006.

Mental fatigue will manifest itself by a sleepy feeling and inability to concentrate properly. In medical terminologies, fatigue is not a sign, but rather a symptom. This means that a person suffering from fatigue is able to feel and describe the condition. Experts have indicated that around 10% of people globally suffer from persistent tiredness at any one time. Females are more prone to persistent tiredness than males. It is not easy to define fatigue in humans because of its large variability of causes. The…… [Read More]

References

Avers, K., & Johnson, W.B. (2011). A review of Federal Aviation Administration fatigue research: Transitioning scientific results to the aviation industry. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 1(2), 87.

Bennett, S.A. (2003). Flight crew stress and fatigue in low-cost commercial air operations -- an appraisal. International journal of risk assessment and management, 4(2), 207-231.

Caldwell, J.A. (2003). Fatigue in aviation: A guide to staying awake at the stick. 110 Cherry Street: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

Caldwell, J.A. (2005). Fatigue in aviation. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 3(2), 85-96.
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Chronic Pain and Its Sequalea the Definition

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97033160

Chronic Pain and Its Sequalea

The definition of chronic pain varies from pain that has lingered 6 months after onset of sensation to 12 months after onset of sensation. Chronic pain has long been an intriguing subject to researchers of pain because of its lingering, usually non-eradicable, presence with no visible marker, at times, that seems to be causing the pain. Chronic pain can be a puzzle and frustration to medical practitioners since, occasionally, determinants remain invisible and pain seems to be lingering for no foreseeable reason. Patients of this category, therefore, may often be thought of as fantasizing their feelings (in the attempt, perhaps, to gain attention) when, unfortunately, their pain is more real and aggravating to them than it is to their practitioners. This situation is compounded by the fact that psychological tests (specifically the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)) shows a correlation between neuroticism and chronic pain.…… [Read More]

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Chronic Sorrow

Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98652633

Chronic sorrow is characterized by a constant grief in individuals who have lost a "perfect child." In this instance, a perfect child is relative to the individual. A perfect child, as referred to by the article is a child who, in the view of the parents, was exceptionally gifted and had a natural inclination to gravitate towards productive activities. Through the loss of this perfect child, a pervasive and recurrent form of grief persists in the individual. In addition to the common emotions of grief, individuals suffereing from Chronic sorrow also experience bouts of helplessness, frustration, and even fear. Chronic sorrow varies from a conventional form of grief in four main attributes.

There is a perception of sadness that has no end. The situations seems hopeless to the individual and as a result, it seems that the problem can not be resolved

The sorrow is cyclical and recurrent in nature.…… [Read More]

References

1) Burke, Mary L., Georgene Eakes, and Margaret A. Hainsworth. "Middle-range theory of chronic sorrow." Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship Summer 1998: 179+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Nov. 2011.

2) Thai nurses' experience of caring for persons who had a peaceful death in intensive care units. (2011) Nursing Science Quarterly, 24 (4), pp. 374-384
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Chronic Liver Disease With a Number of

Words: 1056 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10612941

Chronic Liver Disease

With a number of functions -- including detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of chemicals that are necessary for digestion -- the human liver is vital.

It is reddish brown and has four unequal sized lobes; usually weighs about 3.5 pounds and is the largest gland in the human body. It is located just below the diaphragm in the body's right upper abdominal quadrant.

The liver plays a major role in the body's metabolic processes as well -- glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, some hormone production.

The liver produces bile -- which is an alkaline compound that helps in digestion by changing fat (lipid) molecules to a more digestible format.

The liver's detoxification and synthesis of micronutrients are vital -- short-term liver dialysis is possible, but a person cannot exist without a functioning liver (Virtual Liver, 2008).

Cirrhosis of the Liver

Cirrhosis is the result…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Nutrition and Cirrhosis. (2010). HepCNet. Retrieved from:

Greenlee, H., et.al. (2007). "Clinical Applications of Silybum Marianum." Integrative

Cancer Therapies. 6(1): 158-65.

Huseini, H., et.al. (2006). "The Effects of Sulybum Marianum in the Treatment of Type II Diabetes." Phytotherapeutic Research. 20(1): 1036-39.
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Challenges and Management of Chronic and Terminal Illness

Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44141157

Management of Chronic and Terminal Illness

For people dealing with chronic or terminal illness, stress levels can be very high. While that is to be expected, high stress levels only make things worse. Accepting the inevitable is easier on a person's emotional well-being, but it may take some time to get to that point (Taylor, 2005). If a diagnosis is new, denial is often the first emotion the person faces. He or she does not want to believe the sickness or the severity of it. After denial, there are other stages that a person usually works through, including bargaining, anger, and depression, before acceptance finally sets in and the person is able to get on with life as much as possible. Chronic illnesses can include things like diabetes, kidney disease, heart disease, COPD, and other health problems (CDC, 2010). Many of these diseases are preventable, but they are not curable…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, G. (2004). The growing burden of chronic disease in America. Public Health Reports, 119.

CDC (2010). Chronic diseases and health promotion. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov /chronicdisease/overview/index.htm

Taylor, S.E. (2005). Health psychology (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill
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Pulmonary Rehab Program Chronic Lung

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13434437

he most common progressive chronic lung situations that would require the rehabilitation include interstitial lung disease, chest wall disease, bronchiectasis, and pre and post thoracic surgery. he fourth category of patients to offered pulmonary rehabilitation is those with recent exacerbation of COPD requiring hospitalization, without the anticipated recovery path, and whose functional baseline has changed significantly ("Service Specification," 2012).

he Problem:

Chronic lung diseases have developed to become one of the most common respiratory illnesses across the country. As the diseases have become one of the major reasons for hospitalizations of patients, they usually affect individuals at the age of 35 years and above despite of the fact that these individuals are usually not diagnosed until they are 50 years and above. he growth and rapid increase of chronic diseases is attributed to the tendency of many people with the disease not to get medical assistance. While the conditions continue…… [Read More]

The most common progressive respiratory disease is the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), which is a name that is also used to refer to a collection of lung diseases ("Introduction," 2012). The other common chronic lung diseases include emphysema, chronic bronchitis, chest wall disease, interstitial lung disease, chronic asthma, and obstructive airways disease. These chronic lung diseases usually involve a combination of three major factors i.e. airway diseases, lung circulation diseases, and lung tissue diseases. As the name suggests, the airway diseases affect the airways or tubes that transport oxygen and other gases to and from the lungs. In contrast, the lung tissues diseases affect the lung tissue structure through inflammation or scarring of the tissue. Lung circulation diseases affect the blood vessels in the lungs through scarring, clotting, or inflammation of these vessels. As a result, these diseases contribute to difficulties of the lungs to receive oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The severity of chronic lung diseases is basically dependent on the combination of these three conditions. However, most of the chronic lung diseases are attributed to the narrowing or blockage of the airways. For instance, emphysema, COPD, and chronic bronchitis are conditions that inhibit the ability of the tubes or airways to carry oxygen and other gases to and from the lungs. Generally, patients with chronic lung diseases such as COPD always have difficulties breathing because of airflow obstruction or narrowing of the airways.

As previously mentioned, these diseases account for a huge number of hospital emergency room visits and hospitalizations, although they are largely preventable. Despite being preventable, these diseases have become some of the major causes of death and key factors in the ever-increasing huge human and economic burden because of the tendency of patients to ignore their symptoms ('Emergency Department Support Fund Application," n.d). The major symptoms of these diseases include rising breathlessness, frequent chest infections, and constant cough with phlegm ("Introduction," 2012). The tendency to ignore these symptoms contributes to the many incidents of recidivism to acute care facilities.

The main cause of chronic lung diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is smoking. An individual enhances the risk of developing these diseases when he/she smokes more and for long periods of time. Smoking results in scarring that increases the risk of chronic lung diseases, through irritating or inflaming the lungs. The inflammation in turn results in permanent lung changes over many years. During this period, the walls of the tubes or airways thicken as more mucus is generated. In addition to making the lungs lose their normal elasticity, the damage or harm to the delicate walls of the air sacs in the lungs results in the development of emphysema. Moreover, the smaller airways or tubes become narrowed or scarred. The combination of these permanent changes to the lungs contributes to symptoms of cough, breathlessness, and phlegm linked to chronic obstructive pulmonary
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Is Obesity a Disease

Words: 2251 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32358508

Obesity a Disease?

Introduction, Background, and Definition

Persuade the scientists

Persuade the advocacy groups

Persuade the federal agencies

Persuade the insurance companies

Persuade the drug makers

Visual: Charts

Recommendations & Conclusions

Is Obesity a Disease?

hat is a disease? According to the Merriam-ebster Online Dictionary, the second two definitions of "disease" are "2: a condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning: SICKNESS, MALADY; 3: a harmful development (as in a social institution)" (Merriam-ebster OnLine, 2003). Definition number two describes how the being is personally affected by a disease, and definition number three describes how society as a whole is affected by a disease. It is recommended that the epidemic of obesity in America be given a disease status to confront this "harmful development" that "impairs normal functioning" in society.

By declaring obesity a disease, American society can face up…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Body Mass Index Charts. Partnership for Healthy Weight Management. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.consumer.gov/weightloss/bmi.htm.

Brownell, Kelly; Liebman, Bonnie. "The pressure to eat: why we're getting fatter." Nutrition Action Health Newsletter. July-August 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0813/n6_v25/21128354/p1/article.jhtml?term=.

Critser, Greg. "Let them eat fat." Harper's Magazine. March 2000. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1111/1798_300/60102141/p1/article.jhtml.

Knoll Pharmaceutical Company begins nationwide distribution of new anti-obesity agent, MERIDIA." Business Wire. February 12, 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0EIN/1998_Feb_12/20231879/p2/article.jhtml?term=
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HHS Initiative on Multiple Chronic Conditions

Words: 2941 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23254772

HHS Initiative on Multiple Chronic Conditions

Multiple chronic conditions (MCC) are significant challenges and obstacles to the health practitioners and citizens of the United States. The aim of the programs by the HHS includes prevention and management of multiple chronic conditions in the context of the United States. In the execution of its duties in accordance to the programs, HHS also offers an essential component in relation to leadership for the improvement of the health of the citizens of the United States with multiple chronic conditions.

Brief overview of the mission of the program

Multiple chronic conditions (MCC) are significant challenges and obstacles to the health practitioners and citizens of the United States. This relates to the role of the multiple chronic conditions on the health and development of the economy. In order to reduce the burden and suffering in relation to the aspect of multiple chronic conditions, the government…… [Read More]

References

Anand K. Parekh et al. (2011). Managing Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Strategic

Framework for Improving Health Outcomes and Quality of Life. Public Health Rep.

2011 Jul-Aug; 126(4): 460 -- 471.

How is HHS addressing Multiple Chronic Conditions?
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Public Awareness and Human Diseases

Words: 2069 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71634531



A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ahuja, Gitika, & Salahi, Lara. (11, February 2010). School nutrition program takes up obesity fight. Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/school-nutrition-program-takes-obesity-fight/story?id=9802468 

CausesofChildhoodObesity.org, Initials. (2010). Causes of childhood obesity. Retrieved from  http://causesofchildhoodobesity.org/ 

Facts about obesity in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov /pdf/facts_about_obesity_in_the_united_states.pdf

Mayo Clinic Staff, Initials. (2011, May 06). Risk factors. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=risk-factors
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Homeopathy for Acute vs Chronic Conditions

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64545442

Homeopathy for acute conditions is mainly focused on the symptoms being presented at that particular time. For chronic conditions homeopathy focuses on a larger set of symptoms and the characteristics of the person experiencing the symptoms. An acute condition is defined as a condition that comes on quickly and lasts for a short duration not more than several weeks. Acute conditions can be traced back to a situation. Chronic conditions are conditions that have persisted for long periods mostly throughout a person's life. The symptoms might be less severe than those of an acute condition, but they seriously affect an individual's quality of life. Acute conditions can be easily treated with homeopathy without the intervention of a professional homeopathic. This is because the condition is well known and it is easily established when it begun and what caused the condition (Haidvogl et al., 2007). The symptoms of an acute condition…… [Read More]

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Application of Chronic Sorrow Theory

Words: 2439 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96370577

Chronic Sorrow Theory

The term 'chronic sorrow' may be described as sadness of a persistent, periodically severe, increasing, and lasting nature. This condition may be triggered in a person because of ongoing loss, arising from personal chronic disease, a loved one's illness, or personal disability (Isaksson, 2007, p. 18). Olshansky (1962) first put forward the "chronic sorrow" concept when working with children suffering from physical or mental disabilities and members of their family (parents, siblings, etc.). The researcher noted that these children' parents exhibited a persistent psychological response to their experience of being the parents of a physically or mentally disabled child (Monsson, 2010, p. 16). Through inductive reasoning, the chronic sorrow theory -- a middle range model -- was developed, which was corroborated using both qualitative research and literature review. (Peterson & Bredow, 2013, p. 98)

The chronic sorrow theory helps create a framework to comprehend individuals' reactions to…… [Read More]

References

Azar, R. & Solomon, C. R. (2001). Coping Strategies of Parents Facing Child Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Paediatric Nursing, 16(6), 418-428. doi:10.1053/jpdn.2001.27878  http://www.mta.ca/pshl/docs/copingstrategiesparents.pdf 

Cousino, M. K. & Hazen, R. A. (2013). Parenting Stress among Caregivers of Children with Chronic Illness: A Systematic Review. Journal of Paediatric Psychology, doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jst049. http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/07/10/jpepsy.jst049.full

Eakes, G., Burke, M. L. & Hainsworth, M. A. (1998). Middle-Range theory of Chronic Sorrow. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 30(2), pp. 179(6).  http://www.psychodyssey.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Middle-range-theory-of-chronic-sorrow.pdf 

Isaksson, A-K. (2007). Chronic Sorrow and Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Orebro Studies in Caring Sciences 12.  http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:137348/FULLTEXT01.pdf&sa=U&ei=mRpOU-_jNoHdtAaX_IHADQ&ved=0CEIQFjAH&usg=AFQjCNEOnPREJrlQluN534bq57kX56S8oQ
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The Book Addict and Disease Model

Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90425930

Addict, Michael Stein uses a case study approach to exhibit, analyze, and discuss addiction in general and how addiction impacts the lives of individuals specifically. The author takes into account psychological trauma, psycho-social issues, and other situational variables but ultimately ascribes to the disease model of addiction. Stein concludes from his case study with Lucy that substance abuse is a disease just as heart disease is but does not provide any substantial evidence backing up this claim. In fact, Stein (2010) simply calls addiction "the disease of wanting more," which is hardly a scientific assessment of substance abuse (p. 25). If the disease model were supported by the literature, there would be clear outlines of disease etiology and the neurobiological pathways upon which it works. In fact, the disease model has not received unequivocal research support. Although popular and politically effective in terms of freeing up funding for addiction treatment,…… [Read More]

References Not Cited

Lilienfeld, S.O., Lynn, S.J. & Lohr, J.M. (2015). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. New York: The Guilford Press.

Rasmussen, S. (2013). A management model for a chronic disease called addiction. APHA 275427. Retrieved online: https://apha.confex.com/apha/141am/webprogram/Paper275427.html

Volkow, N.D., Koob, G.F. & McLellan, T. (2016). Neurobiologic advances from the brain disease model of addiction. The New England Journal of Medicine 2016(374), 363-371.
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Health Transitions More Disease or Sustained Health

Words: 6545 Length: 24 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90103490

There are no deductibles and no user fees nor limits to contributions on the plan. There are also no restrictions on services to be used and no premiums to pay for basic care coverage other than taxes, a far cry from the high deductibles, co-pays and other fees associated with health care in the United States.

Key to this point is the idea that Canadian health care costs less because a large portion of it is publicly financed. The author's note that since Canada adopted their universal healthcare system the Canadian Health Act has implemented a policy of public administration which keeps the cost of health care spending lower and maintains the government's ability to provide health care services to the entire population. The authors argue that public administration is a more optimal choice for keeping health care expenditures down because administration is inexpensive.

U.S. hospitals keep more details of…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, Hugh; Armstrong, Pat; Fegan, P. (1998). "The Best Solution: Questions and Answers on the Canadian Health Care System." Washington Monthly, Vol. 30, Issue 6, p. 8

Clark, Cal & Mceldowney, Rene. (2000). "The Performance of National Health Care Systems: A "Good News, Bad News" Finding for Reform Possibilities." Policy Studies Review, Vol. 17, Issue 4, p. 133

Grubaugh, S.G. & Santerre, R.E. (1994). "Comparing the Performance of Health Care Systems: An Alternative Approach." Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 60, Issue 4, p. 1030

Martens, Pim. (200). "Health Transitions in a Globalising World: Towards More Disease or Sustained Health?" Futures, Vol. 34, Issue 7, p. 635+
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Treating Scleroderma as Chronic Condition

Words: 2702 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67965648

Scleroderma Patient

Scleroderma

The author of this report has been presented with a hypothetical situation where a forty-four-year-old patient has contracted scleroderma within her lung tissue. There are many implications to having this medical disorder and they are not limited to the medical realm. Indeed, this report will cover a number of these implications and byproducts including stereotyping by all of society including medical professionals, the overall predisposition for the disease, daily life of scleroderma, comorbidities that might exist or end up happing and social issues such finances, the environment and so forth. While there are a good number of things that can be done to mitigate, treat or even prevent scleroderma, there are a lot of implications that any scleroderma patient must face and it can be very difficult for the patient.

Analysis

Scleroderma is rare but it can take on many forms. Indeed, while the patient in this…… [Read More]

References

IDA. (2014). Don't Judge by Appearances - Invisible Disabilities Association - IDA. Invisible Disabilities Association - IDA. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from  https://invisibledisabilities.org/ida-books-pamphlets/accessibleparking/dontjudgebyappearances/ 

Joachim, G. & Acorn, S. (2003). Life with a rare chronic disease: the scleroderma experience. - PubMed - NCBI. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12787233

Mayo. (2016). Overview - Scleroderma - Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/scleroderma/home/ovc-20206014

Military.com. (2016). Navy Vet Says She Got Apology Note after Parking in Vets-Only Space. Military.com. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from http://www.military.com/daily-news/2016/06/22/navy-vet-says-she-got-apology-note-parking-in-vets-only-space.html
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Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Deep Venous Thrombosis

Words: 871 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26526903

Disorders of the Veins and Arteries

Vein and artery disorders such as chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and frequently encountered by advanced practice nurses, making the need to understand the. epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of these conditions important. To this end, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a comparison of the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis and a description concerning how venous thrombosis is different from arterial thrombosis. In addition, an explanation concerning how the patient factor might impact the pathophysiology of CVI and DVT is followed by a description of how a clinician would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the selected factor. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these foregoing issues are presented in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

Chronic venous insufficiency

This condition typically involves an…… [Read More]

References

Jaff, M. R. & Weinberg, I. (2014, September 22). Postthrombotic syndrome: A scientific statement calling for more data. American Heart Association. Retrieved from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/.

Other names for deep vein thrombosis. (2016). National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/.

Venous insufficiency. (2016). National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://www. nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000203.htm.

Weigand, T. (2002, October). Deep venous thrombosis and airline travel. Defense Counsel Journal, 69(4), 523-525.
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Curing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

Words: 1661 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43631899

Chonic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML): Teatment Options

Patients suffeing fom chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) expeience ecuent infections, anemia, and thombocytopenia, signs and symptoms often manageable without pofessional help. Accodingly, patients often failed to seek medical cae until late in the disease couse and would have had a poo pognosis in the 20th centuy. Today, a numbe of effective teatments ae available, including the highly effective kinase inhibito imatinib. Kinase inhibitos suppess the activity of the fusion potein p210BCR-ABL, which is the poduct of a chomosomal tanslocation between chomosomes 9 and 22. Ove half of all CML patients will become symptom fee with the use of kinase inhibitos and live a long and poductive life, but a smalle pecentage will equie moe aggessive and iskie teatment appoaches, among which is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell tansplantation following high dose chemotheapy.

Intoduction

CML Etiology

Chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a pogessive disease that impais…… [Read More]

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managing coronary heart disease

Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41343563

Chronic Illness: Coronary Heart Disease

Outline of Coronary Heart Disease

The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) has been on the increase of late across the globe and this disease, alongside stroke have been the top causes of death in many countries like Australia (Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, 2017). There have been cases of people succumbing to complications occasioned by the CHD hence the need for any medic or clinician to fully furnish themselves with the CHD and the causes and effects as well as how it can be managed.

CHD is a disuse characterized by the development of a waxy substance called plaque building up in the inner walls of the coronary arteries. These are the arteries responsible for supplying oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles. The buildup of plaque on the inner walls of the arteries results into atherosclerosis and this takes many years to pile up to harmful…… [Read More]

References

Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, (2017). Heart disease and stroke are the top two causes of death -- and among the leading causes of disability -- in Australia. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from  https://baker.edu.au/health-hub/fact-sheets/cardiovascular-disease?gclid=Cj0KEQjwt6fHBRDtm9O8xPPHq4gBEiQAdxotvNmN_YV05am6ts6wLgbbEPubE3I2Z6wwGSNl0AaycX0aAnFy8P8HAQ 

Cleveland Clinic, (2017). Coronary Artery Disease Symptoms. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/cad-symptoms

Mayo Clinic, (2017). Coronary Heart Disease: Symptoms and Causes. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/dxc-20165314

Southern Cross, (2017). Coronary heart disease - causes, symptoms, prevention. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from  https://www.southerncross.co.nz/group/medical-library/coronary-heart-disease-causes-symptoms-prevention
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Unique Preventable Disease

Words: 2104 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26553310

FIBOMYALGIA OUTLINE and PAMPHLET

Introduction to Fibromyalgia

Symptoms of Fibromyalgia

Effects of the symptoms on the body.

isk factors and preventive steps.

(1) Demographics.

Diagnosis and Treatment for fibromyalgia.

Therapeutic and diagnostic methods for fibromyalgia.

Prognosis.

Treatment for fibromyalgia.

Fibromyalgia

Having many physical and clinical symptoms, Fibromyalgia is a syndrome whose effects are felt in form of extreme musculoskeletal pain. It is believed that many environmental, genetic and biological factors are responsible for the start and progress of this infection although its etiology is undermined. In many industrialized countries, its rate of occurrence is 0.7-4.7% amongst the general population. It is incidentally seen more in women than men and the general female-to-male ratio being 9-1. Due to the diverse nature of its symptoms, those infected experience major difficulties adapting to their working environment, family or their life. It also subjects the sufferers to use consultative health services and social resources…… [Read More]

References

Arthritis and Fibromyalgia.Plos ONE, 9(2), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088740

Derrer, David, T.,2014, understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, webmdmd,2014,understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/fibromyalgia/understanding-fibromyalgia-symptoms.

Fibromyalgia | University of Maryland Medical Center http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/fibromyalgia#ixzz3HSyCkaXF

KengenTraska, T., Rutledge, D., Mouttapa, M., Weiss, J., & Aquino, J. (2012). Strategies used for managing symptoms by women with fibromyalgia. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 21(5/6), 626-635. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03501.x
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Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers This

Words: 3638 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50753050

Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers

This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included.

It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show that even farming can cause allergies. osenman (2012) in viewing "respiratory hazards that farmers and family members" argues that the grains that can be "contaminated with fungi, bacteria or microbial toxins; pesticides; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuels; and irritant gases such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia." This may lead to occupational asthma and the allergens in such cases could be grain dust, cow dander, cow urine, egg yolk proteins, alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, meal worm, poultry mites, fungi,…… [Read More]

References

Attfield, Michael D; Hodous, Thomas K. (1992) "Pulmonary Function of U.S. Coal Miners

Related to Dust Exposure Estimates" Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, vol. 145, no. 3, pp: 605-609.

Baumgartner, Kathy B; Samet, Jonathan M; Coultas, David B; Stidley, Christine A; et al.

(1999) "Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Multicenter Case-Control Study" American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 4, pp: 307-315.
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Knowing More About Alcoholic Liver Disease

Words: 1658 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32626090

Alcoholic Liver Disease

CAUSES AND IMPACT

Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact

Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bruha, R., et al. (2009). Alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 110 # 3m Prague Medical Report:

PubMed Central. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655694 

EASL (2012). EASL clinical practical guidelines: management of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 51 # 1, Journal of Hepatology: European Association for the Study of the liver. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.easl.eu/assets/application/files/5e1b5512fb2cabb_file.pdf

Frazier, T.H. (2011). Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 4 # 1, Therapeutic
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Paget's Disease

Words: 1856 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9221986

Paget's Disease Of Bone

James Paget, 1877

Paget's disease of bone

general information about disease

Etiology:

genetic causes

viral causes

Effects of disease

skeletal

spinal

neurological

Diagnosis of Disease

radiographic examinations

laboratory tests

Treatment and Prognosis for patient

bisphosphonates

calcitonin

disease can be treated but not cured.

Paget's Disease of Bone

In 1877, Sir James Paget first described a disease that he had identified in a small number of patients who had been described as "having overly large heads and enlarged or deformed extremities with a higher likelihood of fracture." (Chaffins) hile Paget believed that this disease was a relatively new one, archaeological studies have since found evidence of it in skeletons from the first century A.D., as well as from the Medieval period. "Paget's disease of bone (PDB), also called osteitis deformans, "is a nonmalignant disease of bone that causes accelerated and abnormal bone remodeling." (Chaffins) In other words,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chaffins, Julie A. "Paget disease of bone." Radiologic Technology 79.1 (2007): 27+.

Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.

Cundy, Tim, and Brya Matthews. "Paget's disease of bone." Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 4.6 (2009): 651+. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Feb.

2012.
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Polycystic Kidney Disease

Words: 1202 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68003192

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited disorder distinguished by the growth of lots of cysts in the kidneys ("Polycystic Kidney Disease" 1). In the majority of cases, this genetic disease is passed down through families as an autosomal dominant trait. If a parent is the carrier of the gene, there is a fifty percent chance for the children to develop the disorder ("Polycystic Kidney Disease").

The kidneys are two organs. Each kidney is about the size of a fist and is found in a human being's abdomen (upper part) towards the back. Extra fluid and wastes present in the blood are filtered by kidneys forming urine as a result. Kidneys also help in the regulation of amounts of certain essential substances in the body. When cysts are formed in the kidneys, they are full of fluid. The normal structure of the kidneys thus becomes greatly enlarged due to the…… [Read More]

References

"Polycystic Kidney Disease." NIDDK. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d. Web. 4 Jan 2013. .

"Polycystic kidney disease." National Center for Biotechnology Information. A.D.A.M., Inc., 20 Sept. 2011. Web. 5 Jan. 2013.
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

Words: 2543 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51889587

Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem

Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.

This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…… [Read More]

references for fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertility and Sterility, 81(5), 1344-1350.

Sweet, R.L. (2011). Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inftammatory Disease. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011(561909), 1-13.

Tepper, N.K., Steenland, M.W., Gaffield, M.E., Marchbanks, P.A., & Curtis, K.M. (2013). Retention of intrauterine devices in women who acquire pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Contraception, 5(87), 655-60. Retrieved from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23040135
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Parkinson's Disease

Words: 2857 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4012884

Perampanel Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Therapy as Interventions for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

Clinicians and researchers have been constantly searching for more information on how to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This paper's aim is to outline three types of therapy that qualify as valid attempts, namely pharmacologically-oriented perampanel endeavors, cognitive behaviour therapy or CBT, and finally, physical therapy. The present paper will review the relevant research pertaining to these three forms of treatment, in terms of effectiveness, validity, safety, and other filters, before suggesting how one approach might be the most effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

The first clinical signs of the degenerative neurological disorder named Parkinson's disease appear only at such time as approximately 60-80% of the dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra has already degenerated. Data from across the European continent indicated that about 1.8 of 100 inhabitants over the age…… [Read More]

References

Christofoletti, G., Beinotti, F., Borges, G., Damasceno, B.P. (2010). PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPROVES THE BALANCE OF PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 16(S1), S58. doi: 10.1016/2Fs1353-8020-2810-2970204-2

Cole, K., & Vaughan, F.L. (2005) The feasibility of using cognitive behaviour therapy for depression associated with Parkinson's disease: A literature review. Parkinson and Related Disorders, 11, 269-276. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.03.002

Eggert, K., Squillacote, D., Barone, P., Dodel, R., Katzenschlager, R., Emre, M., . . . Oertel, W. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Perampanel in Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. Movement Disorders, 25(7), 896-905. doi: 10.1002/mds.22974

Ellis, T., Goede, C.J., Feldman, R.G., Wolters, E.C., Kwakkel, G., Wagenaar, R.C. (2005). Efficacy of a Physical Therapy Program in Patients With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(4), 626-632. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.08.008
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Chagas Disease Is One of

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13558440

cruzi is included in the waste of the insect vectors and gets entrance into its mammalian hosts by way of infection. This method of spread is different than that of the two species of African trypanosomes that cause human illness, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which are conveyed by means of the saliva of their vectors, and with the device by which the nonpathogenic trypanosome found in the Americas, Trypanosoma rangeli, is passed on to its mammalian hosts. As with other vermin that contaminate both mammalian and insect hosts, the life cycle of T. cruzi is multifaceted. The T. cruzi life cycle is made up of three major developmental types. Epimastigotes are an extracellular and non-infective appearance of the parasite found in the midgut of insect vectors, where they increase by binary fission (Kirchhoff, 2009).

There are two advances to healing when treating Chagas, both of which can…… [Read More]

References

Chagas Disease. (2009). Retrieved November 7, 2010, from CDC Web site:

 http://www.cdc.gov /chagas/gen_info/detailed.html

Chagas Disease. (2010). Retrieved November 7, 2010, from Medline Plus Web site:

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/chagasdisease.html
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Cirrohsis Liver Disease Cirrhosis When

Words: 1409 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10116018

Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1.5-3:1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1.5% of deaths from cirrhosis is mostly found in females and ethanol-related cirrhosis is greatly found in males. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per 100,000 males aged from 65-74 years and at 26.7 per 100,000 women of the age group from 75-84 years. (Cirrhosis: (www.emedicine.com)

Diagnosis and Imaging Modalities:

Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound. Against this…… [Read More]

References

Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.gutdoc.org/Cirrohis.htm

Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/000255.html

Cirrhosis Treatment. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://health.allrefer.com/health/cirrhosis-treatment.html

Digestive System Organs. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/ImagePages/8710.html
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Rosacea Is a Skin Disease That Affects

Words: 1122 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52763424

Rosacea is a skin disease that affects millions of people. The chief cause of rosacea is still unclear and hence all treatment is based on a preventive basis rather than a curative one. The management of this chronic condition is made easier by a combination of different therapies, which includes oral antibiotics, topical gel and latest laser treatments.

Rosacea is one of the chronic skin diseases which affects an astounding 13 million people in the United States alone. Initially characterized by reddening of the face, the disease may gradually develop eruptions on the face giving a totally distorted look. While we are aware that some external factors like food and temperature trigger a flushing we still don't have a clue as to what is the root cause of Rosacea. Apart from the damaging effects on the skin, in a majority of the cases the disease also affects the eyes in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fred Wilson "Laser Offers relief in diminishing Rosacea," July 1st, 2002 http://www.dermatologytimes.com/dermatologytimes/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=24834

2) Jonathan Wilkin, "Standard Classification of Rosacea" "A Special report,"

Journal of American Academy of dermatology" April 2002, Vol 46

3) Designed by "Simon Darken," "What is Rosacea," Accessed on 27th February 2003,  http://www.about-rosacea.com/overview.htm
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Gerd Gastroesophageal Reflux Diseases

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46372376

Gastroesophageal eflux Disease (GED)

Etiology

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GED) can be caused by a number of different medical conditions. People suffering from obesity are more likely to develop GED, and given the obesity epidemic in the United States and other western countries this explains why the prevalence of GED approaches 20% in these countries. Pregnant women, smokers, diabetics, asthmatics, and anyone who suffers from slow digesting also have an increased risk of developing this disease.

Some people may suffer from genetic or medical conditions that predispose them to developing GED. A hiatal hernia results when the upper portion of the stomach pushes up into the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach, the esophagus, and if the hernia is severe enough then GED may develop. Schleroderma is a rare, progressive disease that causes the skin and other connective tissues to harden, which may interfere with the proper functioning of…… [Read More]

References

Lacy, Brian E., Weiser, Kirsten, Chertoff, Jocelyn, Fass, Ronnie, Pandolfino, John E., Richter, Joel E. et al. (2010). The diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease. American Journal of Medicine, 123, 583-592.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011). GERD. MayoClinic.com. Retrieved 29 Mar. 2011 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/gerd/DS00967.

GERD
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Foodborne Illness Foodborne Diseases and

Words: 1547 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84939334

(De Leon, 2010)

Finally, in recent years there has been a call for more stringent regulatory measured to be put in place in order to prevent this category of disease. Many experts refer to outdated laws and policies that are not successful in detecting and prevent problems along the entire food production process (Jessen). They also refer to restricted and inadequate legal tools to check the spread of the diseases. There is therefore a need not only to update present legislation but also for organizations and individuals to be become more aware of the need to prevent this type of disease from occurring.

eferences

De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. etrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html

Definition of Foodborne disease. etrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). etrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf

Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. etrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFEDnTPpuZO8D2blQ

Foodborne Illness.…… [Read More]

References

De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html

Definition of Foodborne disease. Retrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). Retrieved from  http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf 

Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. Retrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCRFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFERDnTPpuZO8D2blQ

Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/foodborneillness.html
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Communicable Disease Epidemiology Has Been

Words: 2112 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97185279

Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:

narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).

The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…… [Read More]

References

ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site:  http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention 

CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Web site:  http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/aboutDHAP.htm

HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
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Alzheimer's Disease The Onset as

Words: 3283 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31971086

What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).

Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions

There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…… [Read More]

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.

Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002

Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
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Detection of the Borna Disease Virus Relating

Words: 6358 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80489172

detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.

The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]

Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]

Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…… [Read More]

bibliography. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. 44, 147-184.

3.Staeheli, P., Sauder, C. Schwemmle, M. et al.,[2000]. Epidemiology of Borna disease virus, J Gen Virol 81: 2123-2135

4.Author not available, [2003] Diagnostic Methods In Virology, accessed at  http://virology-online.com/general/Tests.htm 

5. Nakamura, K., Takahashi, H., Shoya, Y., Nakaya, T., Watanabe, M., Tomonaga, K., Iwahashi, K., Ameno, K., Momiyama, N., Taniyama, H., Sata, T., Kurata, T., de la Torre, J.C. & Ikuta, K. [2000]. Isolation of Borna disease virus from human brain. Journal of Virology 74, 4601-4611.

6. Zimmermann, W., Durrwald, R. & Ludwig, H. (1994). Detection of Borna disease virus RNA in naturally infected animals by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 46, 133-143
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Native Societies and Disease Numerous Reports From

Words: 2339 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7428035

Native Societies and Disease

Numerous reports from European traders, missionaries, soldiers and explorers in the 16th and 17th Centuries reveal the same information about the devastating effect smallpox and other epidemic diseases had on the aboriginal populations of the Americas. Europeans were colonizing Africa and Asia at the same time, but "on no other continent in historic times has a combined disease and Construct phenomenon led to the collapse of an entire indigenous population."[footnoteRef:1] In 1492, Native Americans were one-fifth to one-sixth of the global population, but their numbers never came close to equaling that again after all the great epidemics that struck them in waves. Unlike China and India, where smallpox, plague, typhus, measles and influenza already existed, and therefore the local populations had more immunity and greatly outnumbered the European colonizers, aboriginal American societies routinely suffered mortality rates of 80 or 90%. Some forms of smallpox, such as…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hackett, Paul. "A Very Remarkable Sickness": Epidemics in the Petit Nord, 1670 to 1846. (University of Manitoba Press, 2002).

Trigger, Bruce G. Natives and Newcomers: Canada's "Heroic Age" Revisited (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1985).

Warrick, Garry A., "European Infections, Disease and Depopulation of the Wendat-Tionotate (Huron-Petun)" in Jordan F. Kerber (ed) Archaeology of the Iroquois: Selected Readings and Research Sources (Syracuse University Press, 2007), pp. 269-86.

Watts, Sheldon. Epidemics and History: Disease, Power and Imperialism (Yale University Press, 1997).
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Diabetic Vascular Disease

Words: 1945 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3201728

Diabetic Vascular Disease state caused by the deficiency of a chemical in the body called insulin which is a hormone is called Diabetes. There are two forms of diabetes. In the type-one diabetes no insulin is formed and people require insulin injections for existence. This was once thought it would affect only children, but now it can occur at any age. The type2 diabetes is due to the resistance of the body towards the effects of insulin. This also includes insulin which is insufficient. ut in this type there is some amount of insulin produced. In both the types the blood glucose levels is increased. When compared to people without diabetes, people with diabetes are prone to certain problems. These problems occur in the nerves (neuropathy), kidney (nephropathy) and eye (retinopathy). These people are prone to early heart attacks and stroked due to the hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). With…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Diabetes Basics-About Diabetics," Retrieved from www.orthop.washington.edu/faculty/Hirsch/diabetesAccessed on March 3, 2004

Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research" retrieved from www.medstv.unimelb.edu.au/Research/DCVDR/. Accessed on March 3, 2004

Haptoglobin: A major susceptibility gene for diabetic vascular complications," retrieved from www.pulsus.com/europe/07_02/szaf_ed.htm. Accessed on March 3, 2004

Pathophysiology of Diabetes" retrieved at http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/diabetes/manual/DMOverview.pdf. Accessed on March 3, 2004
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Addison's Disease Is Basically an

Words: 802 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33535669



Treatment of Addison's disease involves addressing the hormone deficiency using "replacement dose." [NIH] The drugs that are used as replacements for cortisol functions are known as glucocorticoids. Hydrocortisone or Dexamethasone or Prednisone is the drugs of choice. Since blood levels of Hydrocortisone can be directly measured it is an excellent choice for treatment and it makes drug dosage adjustment very easy. [Sarah aker] Patients with Aldosterone deficiency are treated with fludrocortisone (Florinef). Inside the human body the secretion of cortisol is affected by stress. More cortisol is secreted during stress, fever, vomiting, etc. Therefore during periods of stress or physical ailments patients may require additional dosages of cortisol therapy. During sick days it is therefore necessary to consult with the physician, as a higher dose of cortisol therapy is essential. "Sick day rules" are different from normal days for glucocortisoid treatment dosage. Also, if the patient suffers from severe vomiting…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) NIDDK, 'Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease', Accessed March 24th 2010, available at, http://endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/addison/addison.htm#treatment

2) AAFP, 'Addison's disease: What is Addison's disease', Accessed March 24th 2010, Available at, http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/common/hormone/910.printerview.html

3) NIH, 'Managing Adrenaline Insufficiency', Accessed Mar 25th 2010 available online at,  http://www.cc.nih.gov/ccc/patient_education/pepubs/mngadrins.pdf 

4) Mark Rosenberg, M.D., 'A stress related Disease you should know about', Accessed Mar 25th 2010, available at, http://ezinearticles.com/?A-Stress-Related-Disease-You-Should-Know-About&id=1189301
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Addison's Disease

Words: 521 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76749008

Addison's Disease

Etiology

Addison's disease is a chronic disorder of the adrenal cortex resulting in decreased production of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens. There is increased secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. Histologic examination of adrenal glands from patients with autoimmune adrenal insufficiency reveals fibrosis with a mononuclear cell infiltrate, plasma cells, and rare germinal centers. The most common cause of primary adrenal insufficiency in developed countries is autoimmunity (70% to 90%), with tuberculosis the second most common cause (10% to 20%). Addison disease can be present in 3 clinical forms: part of syndromes termed APS-1 and autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 (APS-2) and as an isolated disease. Adrenal autoantibodies are generally of the IgG class, and less frequently of the IgA and the IgM class. Antibodies directed against antigens other than P450 cytochrome enzymes have been found in some patients with isolated Addison's disease. Another study found…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lovas K, Husebye E.S. (2008) Replacement therapy for Addison's disease: recent developments. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 17(4): 497-509.

Martorell, P.M., Roep, B.O., Smit, J.W.A. (2002) Autoimmunity in Addison's Disease. The Netherlands Journal of Medicine. 60: 269.

Michels, A. & Eisenbarth G. (2010) Immunologic Endocrine Disorders. J Aller Clin. Immun 125: S226.
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Kidney Disease Children Although Kidney

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31929749

Acute kidney diseases can be severe in the short-term but once treated, the kidney functions return to normal (National Institutes of Health). Hemolytic uremic syndrome and Nephrotic syndrome are acute kidney diseases affecting children. Most acute kidney diseases are caused by trauma, injury, or poisoning.

Chronic conditions include deformed kidneys that are due to birth defects, the hereditary disease polycystic kidney disease (PKD), Glomerular diseases, and Systemic diseases (National Institutes of Health). Birth defects and hereditary conditions are the most common causes of chronic kidney diseases in children under the age of four. Genetic factors are indicated in kidney diseases that develop later in childhood. Among adolescents who develop kidney diseases, glomerular diseases are the most common culprits. Glomerular diseases "attack the individual filtering units in the kidney," which causes blood and protein to leak into the urine," (National Institutes of Health).

Once diagnosed, kidney diseases can respond to a…… [Read More]

References

"Kidney Diseases in Childhood." Kids Health. Retrieved Mar 7, 2010 from http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/kidney/kidney_diseases_childhood.html

National Institutes of Health. "Kidney and Urologic Diseases Home Kidney and Urologic Diseases Clearinghouse. 2006. Retrieved Mar 7, 2010 from http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/childkidneydiseases/overview/index.htm

"Some causes of kidney disease in children." DaVita. Retrieved Mar 7, 2010 from http://www.davita.com/kidney-disease/c/219

"When Your Child Has a Chronic Kidney Disease." Kids Health. Retrieved Mar 7, 2010 from http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/kidney/chronic_kidney_disease.html
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Educational Brochure or Handout on Chronic Venous Insufficiency

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76824882

Pathophysiology

What's Gone Wrong?

CVI is generally an indication of blood stasis or venous reflux, most commonly valvular incompetence in the low-pressure superficial venous system. The inability of blood to return to the heart from the legs causes it to pool and clot. CVI generally occurs within the deep veins (Deep Vein Thrombosis), may also be related to varicose twisting, valve malformations or pelvic tumors.

isk Factors

Obesity, inactivity, pregnancy, smoking and extended periods of standing or sitting tend to be the activity factors of most importance. Women often present varicose veins; men DVT but this may be associated with delayed reporting. Type II Diabetes may also suggest different gender propensities. People over 50 predominately display indicators.

Etiology

CVI results from damage caused to the veins, though clotting itself can precipitate vascular dilation. Varicose veins are often hereditary as may be valve defections which can result in venous reflux. Other…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Collins, L.M. (2012). Taking blood pressure in both arms may find silent heart disease. Viewable:  http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700220373/Taking-blood-pressue-in-both-arms-may-find-silent-heart-disease.html 

Weiss, R. (2012). Venus Insufficiency. Medscape Reference. Viewable at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1085412-overview.

CVI

CV You
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Pulmonary Sarcoidosis Is a Sometimes-Lethal Disease Affecting

Words: 1618 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24372280

Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a sometimes-lethal disease affecting primarily the lungs and thoracic lymphatic system, and its hallmark feature is noncaseating granulomas in multiple tissues and organs (Hoang and Nguyen, 2010, p. 36; American Thoracic Society, 1999, p. 736). Over 90% of all sufferers have pulmonary involvement, but granulomas are frequently found in other organs and tissues, including the skin, eyes, liver, spleen, parotid glands, central nervous system, muscles, bones, and genitourinary tract (Hoang and Nguyen, 2010, p. 36). When death does result, it is typically due to pulmonary fibrosis. What follows is a review of pulmonary sarcoidosis from a clinical perspective.

Causes and isk Factors

The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, but research into the nature of the resulting granulomas suggests immune dysregulation in genetically susceptible individuals is the primary causative factor (American Thoracic Society, 1999, p. 738-740). The genetic contribution appears to be significant, as evidenced by an…… [Read More]

References

American Thoracic Society. (1999). Statement on Sarcoidosis. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 160, 736-755.

American Lung Association. (2010). State of lung disease in diverse communities 2010. Lung.org. Retrieved 5 Mar. 2012 from http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/publications/lung-disease-data/solddc_2010.pdf.

Baughman, Robert P., Lower, Elyse E., and du Bois, Roland M. (2003). Sarcoidosis. Lancet, 361, 1111-1118.

Drent, Marjolein, De Vries, Jolanda, Lenters, Merinke, Lamers, Rob J. s., Rothkranz-Kos, Snjezana, Wouters, Emiel F.M. et al. (2003). Sarcoidosis: Assessment of disease severity using HRCT. European Radiology, 13, 2462-2471.
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Dealing With Heart Disease

Words: 539 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93378314

patient most likely manifest hypervolemia?

A patient would most likely develop hypervolemia through eating sodium-based foods, from blood transfusions, medications and diagnostic contrast dyes. (Silverstein, 2006)

What blood pressure, central venous pressure, and arterial pressure would be indicative of hypervolemia?

Any individual who is suffering from hypervolemia would have higher levels of blood (160 / 100), central venous (179 / 109) and arterial pressure (180 / 110). (Silverstein, 2006)

How would a nurse recognize that a hypovolemic patient had received adequate volume replacement?

The way a nurse would recognize a hypovolemic condition is to look for swelling in the legs and arms. At the same time, there will be an increase in the patient's weight. When there is adequate replacement, these levels will come down dramatically. (Silverstein, 2006)

How do neurohormonal mechanisms contribute to the development of heart failure?

Neurohumoral adaptations are impacting the systemic pressure through vasoconstriction. This leads…… [Read More]

References

Silverstein, A. (2006). Heart Disease. Minneapolis, MN: 21st Century Books.
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pelvic Inflammation

Words: 994 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8358589

There are no diagnostic procedures that can specifically identify PID. However physicians rely on a number of symptoms that can be correlated in the diagnosis of PID. Diagnosis will begin with the physical examination of the abdomen. lood test is undertaken and in general there is an observed increase in the white blood cells. Around 50% of patients with PID have WC level greater than 10,000 and high ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate).[

Stephanie Abbuhl] DNA testing, fluorescent antibody testing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests can be used on cervical samples to identify the possibility of Chlamydial PID, while cervical samples collected on a medium of Thayer-Martin agar is used to identify gonorrheal infections. Ultrasound and laparoscopy tests are also indicated as they reveal inflammations and pelvic abscesses. However it is not possible to sufficiently examine the fallopian tube using laparoscopy hence diagnosis is not all that straight forward when the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease," Accessed on Nov 27th 2004, http://www.niaid.nih.gov/factsheets/stdpid.htm

Stephanie Abbuhl, "Pelvic Inflammatory Disease," Accessed on Nov 27th 2004, http://www.emedicine.com/EMERG/topic410.htm

3) Zandt, Shirley Van, "Pelvic Pain in Women," Clinical Reviews, 9/1/2000

4) Famolare, Nancy E. "Teaching and communication strategies: working with the hospitalized adolescent with pelvic inflammatory disease,"
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Alzheimer's Immunology Alzheimer's Disease Ad

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53581507

After 13 months, the rats begin to show signs of dementia including reduced cognitive ability and memory impairment (McGill University, 2010).

Amyloid B. immunotherapy

Past research

Past research on the effects of active or passive a? immunization on a? buildup and AD progression provided evidence that such immunization "protects against the progressive loss of synaptophysin in the hippocampal molecular layer and frontal neocortex of a transgenic mouse model of AD" (Buttini & al, 2005). This provided further support for the amyloid hypothesis.

Current research

Since the discovery of a? immunotherapy effectiveness in the treatment of AD in mice, the AN1792 a? vaccine was developed and tested on humans (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). Unfortunately, clinical trials were discontinued when around 6% of the subjects developed meningoencephalitis (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). However, since some subjects showed improvements in a? plaque clearance, several new a? immunotherapies have been developed and are currently undergoing…… [Read More]

References

Basi, G., & al, e. (2010). Amyloid precursor protein selective gamma-secretase inhibitors for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, 2 (36).

Buttini, M., & al, e. (2005). Amyloid Immunotherapy Prevents Synaptic Degeneration in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25 (40), 9096-9101.

Ganguly, R., & al, e. (2005). Effect of Moringa Oleifera in Experimental Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Role of Antioxidants. Annals of Neurosciences, 12, 33-37.

Herrup, K. (2010). Reimagining Alzheimer's Disease -- an Age-Based Hypothesis. The Journal of Neuroscienc5y7e, 30 (50), 16755-16762.
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Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn

Words: 2311 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51187925

History of Pediatric Hemolytic Monitoring

Retrospect to the career of physician, Dr. James A. olff I and his early progress in treatment of Rh hemolytic disease as described in Pochedly (1984), looks at the development of interest in hematology in European field hospitals during orld ar II. After the war period, the transformation of olff's research in this area was advanced by research conducted during a pediatric residency at the Boston Children's Hospital, between 1945 and 1947. During his tenure at Children's he was engaged with Dr. Louis Diamond in his seminal investigation on treatment of erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion.

Collaborative efforts with Drs. Diamond and Farber focused on preliminary clinical trials of aminopterin for the treatment of acute leukemia, of which olff was in observation. Instrumental to the development of the concept of treating erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion; collaborative in the area of pathophysiology of disease where…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Al-Eisa, A. And Al-Hajeri, M. Hemolytic uremic syndrome in Kuwaiti Arab children. Pediatric Nephrology 16.12 (2001): 1093-1098.

Blouin, P. et al. Syndrome d'Evans: etude retrospective de la societe d'hematologie et d'immunologie pediatrique (36 cas). Archives De Pediatrie: Organe Officiel De La Societe Francaise De Pediatrie 12.11 (2005): 1600-1607.

Feldman, S.D. And Tauber, A.I. Sickle Cell Anemia: Reexamining the First "Molecular Disease." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 71.4 (1997) 623-650

Friedmann, A.M. et al. Fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a child due to warm-reactive immunoglobulin M. antibody. Journal Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: Official Journal Of The American Society Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 20.5 (1998): 502-505.
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Addressing Despondency in Chronic Care

Words: 528 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80650080

Heart Disease

A sense of futility and deep despondency are the primary drivers of the patient's approach to his self-care. These emotions are mirrored by his wife, and further complicated by the exhausting circumstances of being a primary caregiver to a depressed and declining patient. It is doubtful that either the patient or his wife are getting enough sleep, eating well -- within the dietary restrictions -- or following a healthy regimen of moderate exercise. The pattern of behaviors described and observed indicate that both the patient and his wife are overwhelmed by difficulties of managing the disease and the centrality of the disease in their life.

To address head-on the emotional fatigue and hopelessness that the couple face, it is imperative to provide examples of other patients and their spouses who have or are successfully dealing with the same disease at a comparable level of severity. Examples must show…… [Read More]

References

Diseases and Conditions: Heart Failure. Mayo Clinic. Retreived from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-failure/basics/definition/con-2002

Hoyt, R.E. & Bowling, L.S. (2001, April 15). American Family Physician, 63(8), 1593-1599. Retrieved from  http://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0415/p1593.pdf 

[Type text]
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Breaking the Cycle of Chronic Pain and Depression

Words: 1778 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76236090

chronic pain and resulting depression. Specifically, it will show the connection between chronic pain and depression, how it affects the person and the ones around them, what treatments are available, and ways to break the cycle.

BEAKING THE CYCLE OF CHONIC PAIN AND DEPESSION

There is always hope. Depression blinds us to that fact. If we can somehow hold on to our hope, just maybe we can find a way to get through"(Feinberg, 2002).

Depression - "Depression results when individuals forfeit their personal power. To overcome guilt, insecurity, and anxiety is to conquer frustration and to regain personal power" (Miletich, 1995, p. 1). "Depression is derived from 'deprimere,' a Latin word which means 'to press down'" (Miletich 1995, p. 26).

Chronic Pain - is defined as pain that lasts six or more months. Pain is any type of feeling or hurt that is annoying, hurtful, or causes discomfort. Chronic pain…… [Read More]

References

Block, A.R. (1996). Presurgical Psychological Screening in Chronic Pain Syndromes: A Guide for the Behavioral Health Practitioner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Fineberg, Andrew. (2002). Andrew's Depression Page. Retrieved November 12, 2002, Personal Web site: http://www.blarg.net/~charlatn/depression/Depression.html

Kleinman, A. (1988). The Illness Narratives: Suffering, Healing, and the Human Condition. New York: Basic Books.

Miletich, John J., compiler. (1995). Depression: A Multimedia Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
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Hyperglycemia Chronic Hyperglycemia Management and

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96850340

"A step backward -- or is it forward?" Diabetes Care, 31, 1093-1096.

Huan-Cheng C., Yue-Cune C., Su-Mei, L., Mei-Fang, C., Mei-Ching, H., & Chin-Lin, P. et al. (2007). The effectiveness of hospital-based diabetes case management: an example from a northern Taiwan regional hospital. Journal of Nursing esearch, 15, 296-309.

Khamaisi, M., az, I. (2006). Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes: the role of proteik kinase c. Vascular Disease Prevention, 3, 305-312.

Loganathan, ., Searls, Y.M., Smirnova, I.V., & Stehno-Bittel, L. (2006). Exercise-induced benefits in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Physical Therapy eviews, (11), 77-89.

Ohman-Strickland, P.A., Orzano, a.J., Hudson, S.V., Solberg, L.I., DiCiccio-Bloom, B., & O'Malley, D. et al. (2008). Quality of diabetes care in family medicine practices: influence of nurse-practitioners and physician's assistants. Annals of Family Medicine, 6, 14-22.

Ohshiro, Y., Takasu, N. (2007). ole of protein kinase c-? activation in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes, 24(3), 61-64.

Sharma, S., Kulkarni, S.K., &…… [Read More]

References

Balagopal, P., Kamalamma, N., Patel, T.G., & Misra, R. (2008). "A community-based diabetes prevention and management education program in a rural village in india." Diabetes Care, 31, 1097-1104.

Bloomgarden, Z.T. (2007). Screening for and managing diabetic retinopathy: current approaches. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 64(S), S8-S14.

Chang, K., Davis, R., Birt, J., Castelluccio, P., Woodbridge, P., & Marrero, D. (2007). Nurse practioner-based diabetes care management. Disease Management & Health Outcomes, 15, 377-385.

Davis, S., Asch-Goodkin, J. (2007). Heart failure risk climbs with use of glitazones. Geriatrics, 62(9), 11-11.
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Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Conduct a

Words: 4252 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80809171

ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov.

Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.

The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.

3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:

Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;

Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;

Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hubacher, D., R. Lara-Ricalde, D.J. Taylor, F. Guerra-Infante and R. Guzman-Rodriguez. (2001). "Use of copper intrauterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. New England Journal of Medicine 345: 561-67 in Mckay at 259.

Klein, Rupert and Barbel Knauper. (2003). "The Role of Cognitive Avoidance of STIs for Discussing Safer Sex Practices and for Condom Use Consistency." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12(3-4): 137-138.

Macdonald, Noni E. And Robert Brunham. (1997). "The Effects of Undetected and Untreated Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Ectopic Pregnancy in Canada." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 6(2): 161.

Mcglynn, Elizabeth a., Eve a. Kerr, Cheryl L. Damberg and Steven M. Asch. Quality of Care for Women: A Review of Selected Clinical Conditions and Quality Indicators. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000.
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Harmful Health Effects of Chronic

Words: 2208 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57971802

"The IOM report recognized the therapeutic benefits of medical marijuana and urged that marijuana be made available to individual patients while research continued on the development of new drugs developed from marijuana" (Zeese).

Conclusion

In conclusion, there are two schools of thought on this issue. One view sees very little difference in terms of health implication between marijuana and cigarette smoking. However, there is some resistance to the idea that marijuana is as unhealthy or as dangerous as cigarettes. This had led to the notion that marijuana is less harmful to the user than tobacco. However, many reports and studies tend to stress that while the effects of each substance on the individual differ, in the long - term both have negative effects that should be emphasized. (Vlahov et al., 2004)

While there is a strong case for the benefits of marijuana in certain instances and for certain conditions, this…… [Read More]

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98432636

Bock, a.W. (2000). The Politics of Medical Marijuana. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks.

Executive Summary: Institute of Medicine (1999). Retrieved July 3, 2008, from http://www.nap.edu/html/marimed/es.html

Fact Sheet Cigarette Smoking-Related Mortality. (2006) Retrieved July 3, 2008, at  http://www.cdc.gov /tobacco/data_statistics/factsheets/cig_smoking_mort.htm

Gieringer D. (1994) Marijuana Health Mythology.
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Pulmonary Disease and Exercise

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62739349

Pulmonary Disease and Exercise

Exercise may benefit pulmonary patients in a variety of ways. Pulmonary patients however face many unique challenges to exercising that other disease patients do not.

Pulmonary disease may affect the lungs and in a variety of manners. The condition includes respiratory disorders such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary hypertension. In the article "Comparison of Specific Expiratory, Inspiratory, and Combined Muscle Training Programs in COPD" from Chest Journal, Dr. Weiner and his colleagues explore the idea that weakness within the respiratory muscles may actually contribute to shortness of breathe, which in turn may limit the ability of patients with this disorder to exercise regularly at a significant pace (Weiner, 2003). In a second article, "Comparison of Effects of Strength Endurance Training in Patients with COPD, from the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical care, Francisco Ortega and colleagues examined the effects of different exercise modalities as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Weiner, Paltiel, MD; Magadle, Rasmi, MD; Beckerman, Marinalla MD., Weiner,

Margalit PhD and Berar-Yanay, Noa, MD. "Comparison of Specific Expiratory, Inspiratory, and Combined Muscle Training Programs in COPD" Chest. 2003;124:1357-1364 Retrieved from, http://www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/124/4/1357

Ortega, Francisco. Toral, Javier. Cejudo, Pilar, Villagomez, Rafael. Sanchez, Hildegard.

Castillo, Jose and Montemayor, Teodoro. Comparison of Effects of Strength and Endurance Training in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care MedicineVol 166. pp. 669-674, 2002. Retrieved from, http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/166/5/669
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Scleroderma a Chronic Systemic Disease

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21116072

For example, in these procedures it is often difficult to open the patient's mouth wide enough for laryngoscopy and intubation, thus creating the possibility that cardiopulmonary changes may be present and the "probability o lesions in oesophagus, bowel, kindneys, skin and joints." This information would not be known if not for this study and its reported findings.

The study's conclusion is that the use of thoracic epidural anesthesia to sevoflurane based inhalation "may be a suitable technique for thoracic surgery in achalasia due to sclerodermic patients." The reason for this conclusion is that the study found that this procedure "can provide a smooth anesthesia course and a rapid recovery, with hemodynamic stability, and also having pain-free postoperatively." More so, the study found that providing anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade and non-intravenous opioids has "provided a shorter recovery time."

Clearly this specific case study has important and practical implications to the practice…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Erol, Demet Dogan, M.D. (2006): "Thoracic Epidural Blockade in an Elderly with Achalasia Due to Scleroderma for Thoractomy, Esophageal Myotomy and Cystotomy-Capitonnage. The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology. Vol. 11, Number 1.