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Bloom's Taxonomy Education Nursing Education
Bloom's Taxonomy of learning and its use in nursing education:
Bloom's taxonomy of learning suggests that there are different levels of mastery when a student first confronts a topic. There are also three domains of learning: cognitive, which pertains to mental skills of the acquisition of knowledge; affective, which relates to emotional growth; and the psychomotor domain which pertains to physical skills (Clark, 2015, "Original cognitive"). This taxonomy is not only applicable to students learning in the classroom but also to patients. Nurses can act as teachers, particularly for patients and their families managing chronic disease who must assume many of the healthcare-related tasks performed by nurses in hospital settings.
On a cognitive level, according to Bloom, on the level from simplest to most complex there are the following levels of learning, as located on a hierarchy. The first, knowledge, refers to conveying…
Clark, D. (2015). Bloom's taxonomy: The affective domain. Retrieved from:
Clark, D. (2015). Bloom's taxonomy: The original cognitive domain. Retrieved from:
Chronic Disease on Patients Life
Managing chronic disease
Among the common chronic diseases that we have is asthma. Asthma is a disease that tends to be of airways and characterized by variable as well as ever occurring symptoms bronchospam, and reversible airflow obstruction. Some of its major symptoms include chest tightness, coughing, shortness of breath and wheezing. Cause of asthma has been associated with combination of environmental and genetic factors. How it is diagnosed depends on the spirometry, response to therapy over time, and the pattern of symptoms. This paper is based on the interview done towards children who were suffering from asthma in trying to describe these patients experience while living with asthma and what impact it has on their life.
My interview was carried out among children who were suffering from Asthma. They had different stories on the way they realized or came to discover that they were…
Economic stagnation and poverty are important consequences and causes of chronic diseases in the middle and low-income countries. Approximately ninety percent of all chronic disease deaths happen in the middle or low-income countries. People in these nations develop diseases at a tender age, die sooner, and suffer longer than those in high income nations. Chronic diseases like obesity have a major economic impact on people and families: it is a major cause of poverty and hinders national economic development. The major causes of diabetes are well-known and are same globally. It is possible to control and prevent obesity through a range of interventions, most of which are inexpensive and highly cost-effective to implement. This study takes an in-depth look at diabetes, as a chronic disease and evaluates ways to address this issue through the application of chronic disease models and frameworks. In addition, it will consider the impact…
Gerstein, H.C., & Haynes, R.B. (2011). Evidence-based diabetes care. Hamilton, Ont: BC Decker.
Morewitz, S.J. (2006). Chronic diseases and health care: New trends in diabetes, arthritis, osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, low back pain, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. New York, NY: Springer.
Nici, L., & ZuWallack, R.L. (2012). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Co-morbidities and systemic consequences. New York: Humana Press.
Unger, J. (2013). Diabetes management in primary care. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
In the long-term treatment of asthma, the administration of inhaled corticosteroids is often useful in inhibiting the attacks from getting worse to the level of requiring emergency treatments. Among the various permanent treatment methods available for asthma, ICS has been proven to provide the best results in asthma patients regardless of age. It is the prevalent preliminary treatment approach for recurring asthma in juvenile patients. The first dosage of ICS-Rx can be considered as a preventive measure due to the fact that in the course of the therapy, it indicates a change in the level of disease acuteness, persistence of symptoms, and the setting off of a requirement for daily treatment of inflammation. Factors responsible for visits to the ED within a short while after the first administration of ICS-Rx include: recurrent contact with external triggering factors, inaccurate knowledge of the level of severity on the part of the parents,…
Bostock-Cox, B. (2014). COPD: treatment and prevention of acute exacerbations. Practice Nurse, 44(10), 20.
Gershwin, M. E., & Albertson, T. E. (2011). Bronchial asthma: A guide for practical understanding and treatment. New York: Springer.
Gullotta, T. P., Blau, G. M., & Ramos, J. M. (2017). Handbook of childhood behavioral issues: evidence-based approaches to prevention and treatment. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group.
Heffner, J. E. (1996). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Ethical Considerations of Care. CLINICAL PULMONARY MEDICINE, 3, 1-8.
Mapel, D. W., & Roberts, M. H. (2014). Management of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with Combination Inhaled Corticosteroids and Long-Acting ?-Agonists: A Review of Comparative Effectiveness Research. Drugs, 74(7), 737–755. http://doi.org/10.1007/s40265-014-0214-8
McKeage, K. (2015). Tiotropium Respimat: A Review of Its Use in Asthma Poorly Controlled with Inhaled Corticosteroids and Long-Acting ?-Adrenergic Agonists. Drugs, 75(7), 809-816. doi:10.1007/s40265-015-0393-y
Rust, G., Zhang, S., Holloway, K., & Tyler-Hill, Y. (2015). Timing of Emergency Department Visits for Childhood Asthma after Initial Inhaled Corticosteroid Use. Population Health Management, 18(1), 54-60. doi:10.1089/pop.2013.0126
The New York Times. (2013). COPD In-Depth Report. Retrieved August 01, 2017, from http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease/print.html
obesity is related to other chronic diseases like diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The literature gathered has also indicated that there has been a reduction of obesity and overweight, which has made them less of a health goal. The researchers have established that majority of research concentrates on individuals and little research has been conducted to examine family members. This research has noted that there are people who express concern in regards to their weight, and they make attempts to reduce their food intake. This factor did not lead to any decrease in the prevalence of obesity which is still increasing. Using data from other findings the researchers have identified the need to target obesity strategies directly to the populations that are at risk. They have also noted that family units are vital, and this is why they opted to conduct their research based on family units and not individuals.
A Lluch, B.H., L Mejean and G. Siest,. (2000). Dietary intakes, eating style and overweight. International Journal of Obesity, 24(11), 1493-1499.
Boynton, P.M. (2004). Administering, analysing, and reporting your questionnaire. [Article]. BMJ: British Medical Journal (International Edition), 328(7452), 1372-1375.
Generic Drugs in Prevention of Chronic Disease
The cost of healthcare -- including the cost of health insurance -- in the United States has gone up exponentially over the last few years. And when it comes to healthcare for those suffering from chronic diseases, the cost is often more than the patient can afford. But the use of generic drugs could reduce those costs and bring the overall cost of caring for a person with a chronic disease down to a more acceptable level. This paper will review available literature on the subject of generic drug costs and will address the need for doctors to recommend generics.
Generic Drug Costs
According to an article in the journal Health Affairs, chronic disease accounts for "the overwhelming majority of U.S. healthcare costs" (Shrank, et al., 2011, p. 1351). Shrank explains that managing patients with chronic diseases is often done using "pharmacologic therapy,"…
Beran, Mary Sue, Laouri, Marianne, Suttorp, Marika, and Brook, Robert. (2007). Medication
Costs: The Role Physicians Play with Their Senior Patients. Journal of the American
Geriatrics Society, 55(1), 102-107.
Rodin, Holly A., Heaton, Alan H., Wilson, Amy R., Garrett, Nancy A. And Plocher, David W.
There have been plenty of studies about the benefits of the wonderful art of Tai Chi. One important one examined the effect of Tai Chi on four chronic conditions -- cancer, osteoarthritis, heart failure, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study was conducted by Yi-Wen Chen, Michael A Hunt, Kristin L. Campbell, Kortni Peill, W Darlene Reid and it was published in 2015 in the ritish Journal of Sports Medicine.[footnoteRef:1] [1: Yi-Wen Chen et al. "The effect of Tai Chi on four chronic conditions -- cancer, osteoarthritis, heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analyses." ritish Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 6, no. 8 (2015): e0112987. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2014-094388]
Tai Chi is an ancient Chinese practice that focuses on the harmony of the Yin and Yang; as such, it is a martial art that showcases meditative and slow movements to calm the nervous system and…
Chen, Yi-Wen et al. "The effect of Tai Chi on four chronic conditions -- cancer, osteoarthritis, heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analyses." British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 6, no. 8 (2015): e0112987. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2014-094388
Health Issues for Mrs. A
It seems as if Mrs. A, who states that she has been suffering from both menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea, is presenting classic symptoms and signs of anemia due to blood loss. Blood loss which has been taking place over a long period of time is also a classic symptom of anemia and she is also feeling fatigued and light-headed when she is golfing. Considering all the above signs, it is likely that Mrs. A can be diagnosed with anemia especially considering that she has also consistently and constantly been taking aspirin over the last twelve years which can result in ulcers and gastritis (ebMD, 2014) and lead to chronic bleeding, another sign of anemia. An early study (Hotz-Behofsits et al., 2003) concluded that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) "cause intestinal ulcers" (p. 367) which can also be a contributing factor leading to anemia. The case study on…
Denton, W.H.; Carmody, T.J.; Rush, A.J.; Thase, M.E.; Trivedi, M.H.; Arnow, B.A. & Keller, M.B.; (2010) Dyadic discord at baseline is associated with lack of remission in the acute treatment of chronic depression. Psychological Medicine: A Journal of Research in Psychiatry and the Allied Sciences, 40(3), p. 415 -- 424.
Dilated Cardiomyopathies (2000) New England Journal of Medicine, 342, p. 1077-1084
Hotz-Behofsits, C.M.; Walley, M.J.M.; Simpson, R. & Bjarnason, I.T.; (2003) Cox-1, Cox-2 and the topical effect in NSAID-induced enteropathy, Inflammopharmacology, 11(4-6) p 363-370
Ford, J.; (2013) Red blood cell morphology, International Journal of Laboratory Hematology, Vol. 35, Issue 3, pp. 351 -- 357
Chronic disease is a growing problem in countries like the United States. Couple this with the high costs of healthcare and it makes a storm of problems for those seeking treatment and help with handling chronic disease. Common chronic diseases that become more and more prevalent each year are diseases like multiple sclerosis and diabetes. Diabetes is a notoriously expensive chronic illness to manage. Patients often experience complications from the disease like vision loss, high blood pressure, heart disease, and amputation (Institute of Medicine (U.S.), 2012). That is why diabetes must be managed and prevented.
Type II diabetes for example is often acquired through poor diet choices and leading a sedentary life (Institute of Medicine (U.S.), 2012). If people manage to identify and self-regulate these decisions and choose healthy alternatives and commit to more daily exercise, it can have a profound impact on the prevalence of chronic disease. There are…
However, he questions the research that has been done in this area. First, he wonders whether the exercise is a placebo effect based on the anticipation of improvement. The second question is the acceptability of this treatment. Many CFS patients actively avoid exercise and many healthcare providers in fact recommend rest at all costs rather than a concern of relapse. However, the positive aspect of the CBT and the exercise is that it has the patients question their fears. In both cases, there is a psychotherapeutic affect that may be beneficial.
The use of antidepressants is another approach that has been suggested and studied. However, the results on this have also been mixed. As Demitrack (1996, p. 282) states, "At the present time, it is unrealistic to present medication as a sole treatment for this disease." It may be that medications could work in the short-term and provide enough symptomatic…
Center for Disease Control (2006, May 9). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Retrieved January 30, 2007 http://www.cdc.gov /cfs/cfsbasicfacts.htm.
Demitrack, M. And Abbey, S. (1996) (Eds) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. New York: Guilford Press.
Hyland, M.E. et. al. (2006) Letter to the Editor. The Lancet 367 (9522), 1573-1576
Komaroff, a., & Fagioli, L. (1996) Medial Assessment of Fatigue and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. In M. Demitrack and S. Abbey (Eds) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (pg. 154-181). New York: Guilford Press,.
Chronic Fatigue in the Aviation Industry
Fatigue is the mental and/or physical state of being weak and tired. Mental and physical fatigue is different, but the two will often exist together. A person becomes mentally tired if they are physically exhausted for a long period. A person being unable to function physically at their normal levels manifests physical fatigue Jackson & Earl, 2006.
Mental fatigue will manifest itself by a sleepy feeling and inability to concentrate properly. In medical terminologies, fatigue is not a sign, but rather a symptom. This means that a person suffering from fatigue is able to feel and describe the condition. Experts have indicated that around 10% of people globally suffer from persistent tiredness at any one time. Females are more prone to persistent tiredness than males. It is not easy to define fatigue in humans because of its large variability of causes. The…
Avers, K., & Johnson, W.B. (2011). A review of Federal Aviation Administration fatigue research: Transitioning scientific results to the aviation industry. Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, 1(2), 87.
Bennett, S.A. (2003). Flight crew stress and fatigue in low-cost commercial air operations -- an appraisal. International journal of risk assessment and management, 4(2), 207-231.
Caldwell, J.A. (2003). Fatigue in aviation: A guide to staying awake at the stick. 110 Cherry Street: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Caldwell, J.A. (2005). Fatigue in aviation. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, 3(2), 85-96.
Chronic sorrow is characterized by a constant grief in individuals who have lost a "perfect child." In this instance, a perfect child is relative to the individual. A perfect child, as referred to by the article is a child who, in the view of the parents, was exceptionally gifted and had a natural inclination to gravitate towards productive activities. Through the loss of this perfect child, a pervasive and recurrent form of grief persists in the individual. In addition to the common emotions of grief, individuals suffereing from Chronic sorrow also experience bouts of helplessness, frustration, and even fear. Chronic sorrow varies from a conventional form of grief in four main attributes.
There is a perception of sadness that has no end. The situations seems hopeless to the individual and as a result, it seems that the problem can not be resolved
The sorrow is cyclical and recurrent in nature.…
1) Burke, Mary L., Georgene Eakes, and Margaret A. Hainsworth. "Middle-range theory of chronic sorrow." Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship Summer 1998: 179+. Academic OneFile. Web. 7 Nov. 2011.
2) Thai nurses' experience of caring for persons who had a peaceful death in intensive care units. (2011) Nursing Science Quarterly, 24 (4), pp. 374-384
Chronic Liver Disease
With a number of functions -- including detoxification, protein synthesis, and the production of chemicals that are necessary for digestion -- the human liver is vital.
It is reddish brown and has four unequal sized lobes; usually weighs about 3.5 pounds and is the largest gland in the human body. It is located just below the diaphragm in the body's right upper abdominal quadrant.
The liver plays a major role in the body's metabolic processes as well -- glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells, some hormone production.
The liver produces bile -- which is an alkaline compound that helps in digestion by changing fat (lipid) molecules to a more digestible format.
The liver's detoxification and synthesis of micronutrients are vital -- short-term liver dialysis is possible, but a person cannot exist without a functioning liver (Virtual Liver, 2008).
Cirrhosis of the Liver
Cirrhosis is the result…
Nutrition and Cirrhosis. (2010). HepCNet. Retrieved from:
Greenlee, H., et.al. (2007). "Clinical Applications of Silybum Marianum." Integrative
Cancer Therapies. 6(1): 158-65.
Huseini, H., et.al. (2006). "The Effects of Sulybum Marianum in the Treatment of Type II Diabetes." Phytotherapeutic Research. 20(1): 1036-39.
he most common progressive chronic lung situations that would require the rehabilitation include interstitial lung disease, chest wall disease, bronchiectasis, and pre and post thoracic surgery. he fourth category of patients to offered pulmonary rehabilitation is those with recent exacerbation of COPD requiring hospitalization, without the anticipated recovery path, and whose functional baseline has changed significantly ("Service Specification," 2012).
Chronic lung diseases have developed to become one of the most common respiratory illnesses across the country. As the diseases have become one of the major reasons for hospitalizations of patients, they usually affect individuals at the age of 35 years and above despite of the fact that these individuals are usually not diagnosed until they are 50 years and above. he growth and rapid increase of chronic diseases is attributed to the tendency of many people with the disease not to get medical assistance. While the conditions continue…
The most common progressive respiratory disease is the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), which is a name that is also used to refer to a collection of lung diseases ("Introduction," 2012). The other common chronic lung diseases include emphysema, chronic bronchitis, chest wall disease, interstitial lung disease, chronic asthma, and obstructive airways disease. These chronic lung diseases usually involve a combination of three major factors i.e. airway diseases, lung circulation diseases, and lung tissue diseases. As the name suggests, the airway diseases affect the airways or tubes that transport oxygen and other gases to and from the lungs. In contrast, the lung tissues diseases affect the lung tissue structure through inflammation or scarring of the tissue. Lung circulation diseases affect the blood vessels in the lungs through scarring, clotting, or inflammation of these vessels. As a result, these diseases contribute to difficulties of the lungs to receive oxygen and release carbon dioxide. The severity of chronic lung diseases is basically dependent on the combination of these three conditions. However, most of the chronic lung diseases are attributed to the narrowing or blockage of the airways. For instance, emphysema, COPD, and chronic bronchitis are conditions that inhibit the ability of the tubes or airways to carry oxygen and other gases to and from the lungs. Generally, patients with chronic lung diseases such as COPD always have difficulties breathing because of airflow obstruction or narrowing of the airways.
As previously mentioned, these diseases account for a huge number of hospital emergency room visits and hospitalizations, although they are largely preventable. Despite being preventable, these diseases have become some of the major causes of death and key factors in the ever-increasing huge human and economic burden because of the tendency of patients to ignore their symptoms ('Emergency Department Support Fund Application," n.d). The major symptoms of these diseases include rising breathlessness, frequent chest infections, and constant cough with phlegm ("Introduction," 2012). The tendency to ignore these symptoms contributes to the many incidents of recidivism to acute care facilities.
The main cause of chronic lung diseases, especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is smoking. An individual enhances the risk of developing these diseases when he/she smokes more and for long periods of time. Smoking results in scarring that increases the risk of chronic lung diseases, through irritating or inflaming the lungs. The inflammation in turn results in permanent lung changes over many years. During this period, the walls of the tubes or airways thicken as more mucus is generated. In addition to making the lungs lose their normal elasticity, the damage or harm to the delicate walls of the air sacs in the lungs results in the development of emphysema. Moreover, the smaller airways or tubes become narrowed or scarred. The combination of these permanent changes to the lungs contributes to symptoms of cough, breathlessness, and phlegm linked to chronic obstructive pulmonary
Obesity a Disease?
Introduction, Background, and Definition
Persuade the scientists
Persuade the advocacy groups
Persuade the federal agencies
Persuade the insurance companies
Persuade the drug makers
Recommendations & Conclusions
Is Obesity a Disease?
hat is a disease? According to the Merriam-ebster Online Dictionary, the second two definitions of "disease" are "2: a condition of the living animal or plant body or of one of its parts that impairs normal functioning: SICKNESS, MALADY; 3: a harmful development (as in a social institution)" (Merriam-ebster OnLine, 2003). Definition number two describes how the being is personally affected by a disease, and definition number three describes how society as a whole is affected by a disease. It is recommended that the epidemic of obesity in America be given a disease status to confront this "harmful development" that "impairs normal functioning" in society.
By declaring obesity a disease, American society can face up…
Body Mass Index Charts. Partnership for Healthy Weight Management. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.consumer.gov/weightloss/bmi.htm .
Brownell, Kelly; Liebman, Bonnie. "The pressure to eat: why we're getting fatter." Nutrition Action Health Newsletter. July-August 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0813/n6_v25/21128354/p1/article.jhtml?term= .
Critser, Greg. "Let them eat fat." Harper's Magazine. March 2000. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1111/1798_300/60102141/p1/article.jhtml .
Knoll Pharmaceutical Company begins nationwide distribution of new anti-obesity agent, MERIDIA." Business Wire. February 12, 1998. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on November 25, 2003, at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0EIN/1998_Feb_12/20231879/p2/article.jhtml?term=
HHS Initiative on Multiple Chronic Conditions
Multiple chronic conditions (MCC) are significant challenges and obstacles to the health practitioners and citizens of the United States. The aim of the programs by the HHS includes prevention and management of multiple chronic conditions in the context of the United States. In the execution of its duties in accordance to the programs, HHS also offers an essential component in relation to leadership for the improvement of the health of the citizens of the United States with multiple chronic conditions.
Brief overview of the mission of the program
Multiple chronic conditions (MCC) are significant challenges and obstacles to the health practitioners and citizens of the United States. This relates to the role of the multiple chronic conditions on the health and development of the economy. In order to reduce the burden and suffering in relation to the aspect of multiple chronic conditions, the government…
Anand K. Parekh et al. (2011). Managing Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Strategic
Framework for Improving Health Outcomes and Quality of Life. Public Health Rep.
2011 Jul-Aug; 126(4): 460 -- 471.
How is HHS addressing Multiple Chronic Conditions?
A way to better distribute the information that is being taught in the classrooms is also through the community so that the changes are also effecting the parents to the students, as a change on their part as well would be helpful in the battle against obesity. It would be useful to initially target pamphlets, an informational booth or table at grocery stores, where the foundation of the problem lies. It would be effective if information is given before families go grocery shopping so they are more conscious of the items that they are purchasing. Furthermore, information should also be initially presented on TVs, in newspapers and magazines and other mediums that would likely be used in the more low-key and sedentary setting in order to galvanize individuals to get outside. Once outside, in order to sustain the physical activity, it would be nice to have water and juice at…
Ahuja, Gitika, & Salahi, Lara. (11, February 2010). School nutrition program takes up obesity fight. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/OnCall/school-nutrition-program-takes-obesity-fight/story?id=9802468
CausesofChildhoodObesity.org, Initials. (2010). Causes of childhood obesity. Retrieved from http://causesofchildhoodobesity.org/
Facts about obesity in the United States. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /pdf/facts_about_obesity_in_the_united_states.pdf
Mayo Clinic Staff, Initials. (2011, May 06). Risk factors. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/obesity/DS00314/DSECTION=risk-factors
Homeopathy for acute conditions is mainly focused on the symptoms being presented at that particular time. For chronic conditions homeopathy focuses on a larger set of symptoms and the characteristics of the person experiencing the symptoms. An acute condition is defined as a condition that comes on quickly and lasts for a short duration not more than several weeks. Acute conditions can be traced back to a situation. Chronic conditions are conditions that have persisted for long periods mostly throughout a person's life. The symptoms might be less severe than those of an acute condition, but they seriously affect an individual's quality of life. Acute conditions can be easily treated with homeopathy without the intervention of a professional homeopathic. This is because the condition is well known and it is easily established when it begun and what caused the condition (Haidvogl et al., 2007). The symptoms of an acute condition…
Chronic Sorrow Theory
The term 'chronic sorrow' may be described as sadness of a persistent, periodically severe, increasing, and lasting nature. This condition may be triggered in a person because of ongoing loss, arising from personal chronic disease, a loved one's illness, or personal disability (Isaksson, 2007, p. 18). Olshansky (1962) first put forward the "chronic sorrow" concept when working with children suffering from physical or mental disabilities and members of their family (parents, siblings, etc.). The researcher noted that these children' parents exhibited a persistent psychological response to their experience of being the parents of a physically or mentally disabled child (Monsson, 2010, p. 16). Through inductive reasoning, the chronic sorrow theory -- a middle range model -- was developed, which was corroborated using both qualitative research and literature review. (Peterson & Bredow, 2013, p. 98)
The chronic sorrow theory helps create a framework to comprehend individuals' reactions to…
Azar, R. & Solomon, C. R. (2001). Coping Strategies of Parents Facing Child Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Paediatric Nursing, 16(6), 418-428. doi:10.1053/jpdn.2001.27878 http://www.mta.ca/pshl/docs/copingstrategiesparents.pdf
Cousino, M. K. & Hazen, R. A. (2013). Parenting Stress among Caregivers of Children with Chronic Illness: A Systematic Review. Journal of Paediatric Psychology, doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jst049. http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/07/10/jpepsy.jst049.full
Eakes, G., Burke, M. L. & Hainsworth, M. A. (1998). Middle-Range theory of Chronic Sorrow. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 30(2), pp. 179(6). http://www.psychodyssey.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Middle-range-theory-of-chronic-sorrow.pdf
Isaksson, A-K. (2007). Chronic Sorrow and Quality of Life in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Orebro Studies in Caring Sciences 12. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:137348/FULLTEXT01.pdf&sa=U&ei=mRpOU-_jNoHdtAaX_IHADQ&ved=0CEIQFjAH&usg=AFQjCNEOnPREJrlQluN534bq57kX56S8oQ
Addict, Michael Stein uses a case study approach to exhibit, analyze, and discuss addiction in general and how addiction impacts the lives of individuals specifically. The author takes into account psychological trauma, psycho-social issues, and other situational variables but ultimately ascribes to the disease model of addiction. Stein concludes from his case study with Lucy that substance abuse is a disease just as heart disease is but does not provide any substantial evidence backing up this claim. In fact, Stein (2010) simply calls addiction "the disease of wanting more," which is hardly a scientific assessment of substance abuse (p. 25). If the disease model were supported by the literature, there would be clear outlines of disease etiology and the neurobiological pathways upon which it works. In fact, the disease model has not received unequivocal research support. Although popular and politically effective in terms of freeing up funding for addiction treatment,…
References Not Cited
Lilienfeld, S.O., Lynn, S.J. & Lohr, J.M. (2015). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. New York: The Guilford Press.
Rasmussen, S. (2013). A management model for a chronic disease called addiction. APHA 275427. Retrieved online: https://apha.confex.com/apha/141am/webprogram/Paper275427.html
Volkow, N.D., Koob, G.F. & McLellan, T. (2016). Neurobiologic advances from the brain disease model of addiction. The New England Journal of Medicine 2016(374), 363-371.
There are no deductibles and no user fees nor limits to contributions on the plan. There are also no restrictions on services to be used and no premiums to pay for basic care coverage other than taxes, a far cry from the high deductibles, co-pays and other fees associated with health care in the United States.
Key to this point is the idea that Canadian health care costs less because a large portion of it is publicly financed. The author's note that since Canada adopted their universal healthcare system the Canadian Health Act has implemented a policy of public administration which keeps the cost of health care spending lower and maintains the government's ability to provide health care services to the entire population. The authors argue that public administration is a more optimal choice for keeping health care expenditures down because administration is inexpensive.
U.S. hospitals keep more details of…
Armstrong, Hugh; Armstrong, Pat; Fegan, P. (1998). "The Best Solution: Questions and Answers on the Canadian Health Care System." Washington Monthly, Vol. 30, Issue 6, p. 8
Clark, Cal & Mceldowney, Rene. (2000). "The Performance of National Health Care Systems: A "Good News, Bad News" Finding for Reform Possibilities." Policy Studies Review, Vol. 17, Issue 4, p. 133
Grubaugh, S.G. & Santerre, R.E. (1994). "Comparing the Performance of Health Care Systems: An Alternative Approach." Southern Economic Journal, Vol. 60, Issue 4, p. 1030
Martens, Pim. (200). "Health Transitions in a Globalising World: Towards More Disease or Sustained Health?" Futures, Vol. 34, Issue 7, p. 635+
The author of this report has been presented with a hypothetical situation where a forty-four-year-old patient has contracted scleroderma within her lung tissue. There are many implications to having this medical disorder and they are not limited to the medical realm. Indeed, this report will cover a number of these implications and byproducts including stereotyping by all of society including medical professionals, the overall predisposition for the disease, daily life of scleroderma, comorbidities that might exist or end up happing and social issues such finances, the environment and so forth. While there are a good number of things that can be done to mitigate, treat or even prevent scleroderma, there are a lot of implications that any scleroderma patient must face and it can be very difficult for the patient.
Scleroderma is rare but it can take on many forms. Indeed, while the patient in this…
IDA. (2014). Don't Judge by Appearances - Invisible Disabilities Association - IDA. Invisible Disabilities Association - IDA. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from https://invisibledisabilities.org/ida-books-pamphlets/accessibleparking/dontjudgebyappearances/
Joachim, G. & Acorn, S. (2003). Life with a rare chronic disease: the scleroderma experience. - PubMed - NCBI. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12787233
Mayo. (2016). Overview - Scleroderma - Mayo Clinic. Mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/scleroderma/home/ovc-20206014
Military.com. (2016). Navy Vet Says She Got Apology Note after Parking in Vets-Only Space. Military.com. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from http://www.military.com/daily-news/2016/06/22/navy-vet-says-she-got-apology-note-parking-in-vets-only-space.html
Disorders of the Veins and Arteries
Vein and artery disorders such as chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and frequently encountered by advanced practice nurses, making the need to understand the. epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of these conditions important. To this end, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a comparison of the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis and a description concerning how venous thrombosis is different from arterial thrombosis. In addition, an explanation concerning how the patient factor might impact the pathophysiology of CVI and DVT is followed by a description of how a clinician would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the selected factor. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these foregoing issues are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Chronic venous insufficiency
This condition typically involves an…
Jaff, M. R. & Weinberg, I. (2014, September 22). Postthrombotic syndrome: A scientific statement calling for more data. American Heart Association. Retrieved from http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/ .
Other names for deep vein thrombosis. (2016). National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ .
Venous insufficiency. (2016). National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://www. nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000203.htm.
Weigand, T. (2002, October). Deep venous thrombosis and airline travel. Defense Counsel Journal, 69(4), 523-525.
Chonic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML): Teatment Options
Patients suffeing fom chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) expeience ecuent infections, anemia, and thombocytopenia, signs and symptoms often manageable without pofessional help. Accodingly, patients often failed to seek medical cae until late in the disease couse and would have had a poo pognosis in the 20th centuy. Today, a numbe of effective teatments ae available, including the highly effective kinase inhibito imatinib. Kinase inhibitos suppess the activity of the fusion potein p210BCR-ABL, which is the poduct of a chomosomal tanslocation between chomosomes 9 and 22. Ove half of all CML patients will become symptom fee with the use of kinase inhibitos and live a long and poductive life, but a smalle pecentage will equie moe aggessive and iskie teatment appoaches, among which is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell tansplantation following high dose chemotheapy.
Chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a pogessive disease that impais…
Chronic Illness: Coronary Heart Disease
Outline of Coronary Heart Disease
The Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) has been on the increase of late across the globe and this disease, alongside stroke have been the top causes of death in many countries like Australia (Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, 2017). There have been cases of people succumbing to complications occasioned by the CHD hence the need for any medic or clinician to fully furnish themselves with the CHD and the causes and effects as well as how it can be managed.
CHD is a disuse characterized by the development of a waxy substance called plaque building up in the inner walls of the coronary arteries. These are the arteries responsible for supplying oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscles. The buildup of plaque on the inner walls of the arteries results into atherosclerosis and this takes many years to pile up to harmful…
Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, (2017). Heart disease and stroke are the top two causes of death -- and among the leading causes of disability -- in Australia. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from https://baker.edu.au/health-hub/fact-sheets/cardiovascular-disease?gclid=Cj0KEQjwt6fHBRDtm9O8xPPHq4gBEiQAdxotvNmN_YV05am6ts6wLgbbEPubE3I2Z6wwGSNl0AaycX0aAnFy8P8HAQ
Cleveland Clinic, (2017). Coronary Artery Disease Symptoms. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/cad-symptoms
Mayo Clinic, (2017). Coronary Heart Disease: Symptoms and Causes. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronary-artery-disease/symptoms-causes/dxc-20165314
Southern Cross, (2017). Coronary heart disease - causes, symptoms, prevention. Retrieved April 9, 2017 from https://www.southerncross.co.nz/group/medical-library/coronary-heart-disease-causes-symptoms-prevention
FIBOMYALGIA OUTLINE and PAMPHLET
Introduction to Fibromyalgia
Symptoms of Fibromyalgia
Effects of the symptoms on the body.
isk factors and preventive steps.
Diagnosis and Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Therapeutic and diagnostic methods for fibromyalgia.
Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Having many physical and clinical symptoms, Fibromyalgia is a syndrome whose effects are felt in form of extreme musculoskeletal pain. It is believed that many environmental, genetic and biological factors are responsible for the start and progress of this infection although its etiology is undermined. In many industrialized countries, its rate of occurrence is 0.7-4.7% amongst the general population. It is incidentally seen more in women than men and the general female-to-male ratio being 9-1. Due to the diverse nature of its symptoms, those infected experience major difficulties adapting to their working environment, family or their life. It also subjects the sufferers to use consultative health services and social resources…
Arthritis and Fibromyalgia.Plos ONE, 9(2), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088740
Derrer, David, T.,2014, understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, webmdmd,2014,understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/fibromyalgia/understanding-fibromyalgia-symptoms .
Fibromyalgia | University of Maryland Medical Center http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/fibromyalgia#ixzz3HSyCkaXF
KengenTraska, T., Rutledge, D., Mouttapa, M., Weiss, J., & Aquino, J. (2012). Strategies used for managing symptoms by women with fibromyalgia. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 21(5/6), 626-635. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03501.x
Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers
This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included.
It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show that even farming can cause allergies. osenman (2012) in viewing "respiratory hazards that farmers and family members" argues that the grains that can be "contaminated with fungi, bacteria or microbial toxins; pesticides; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuels; and irritant gases such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia." This may lead to occupational asthma and the allergens in such cases could be grain dust, cow dander, cow urine, egg yolk proteins, alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, meal worm, poultry mites, fungi,…
Attfield, Michael D; Hodous, Thomas K. (1992) "Pulmonary Function of U.S. Coal Miners
Related to Dust Exposure Estimates" Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, vol. 145, no. 3, pp: 605-609.
Baumgartner, Kathy B; Samet, Jonathan M; Coultas, David B; Stidley, Christine A; et al.
(1999) "Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Multicenter Case-Control Study" American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 4, pp: 307-315.
Alcoholic Liver Disease
CAUSES AND IMPACT
Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact
Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…
Bruha, R., et al. (2009). Alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 110 # 3m Prague Medical Report:
PubMed Central. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655694
EASL (2012). EASL clinical practical guidelines: management of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 51 # 1, Journal of Hepatology: European Association for the Study of the liver. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.easl.eu/assets/application/files/5e1b5512fb2cabb_file.pdf
Frazier, T.H. (2011). Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 4 # 1, Therapeutic
Paget's Disease Of Bone
James Paget, 1877
Paget's disease of bone
general information about disease
Effects of disease
Diagnosis of Disease
Treatment and Prognosis for patient
disease can be treated but not cured.
Paget's Disease of Bone
In 1877, Sir James Paget first described a disease that he had identified in a small number of patients who had been described as "having overly large heads and enlarged or deformed extremities with a higher likelihood of fracture." (Chaffins) hile Paget believed that this disease was a relatively new one, archaeological studies have since found evidence of it in skeletons from the first century A.D., as well as from the Medieval period. "Paget's disease of bone (PDB), also called osteitis deformans, "is a nonmalignant disease of bone that causes accelerated and abnormal bone remodeling." (Chaffins) In other words,…
Chaffins, Julie A. "Paget disease of bone." Radiologic Technology 79.1 (2007): 27+.
Academic OneFile. Web. 19 Feb. 2012.
Cundy, Tim, and Brya Matthews. "Paget's disease of bone." Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism 4.6 (2009): 651+. Academic OneFile. Web. 21 Feb.
Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem
Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.
This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…
references for fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertility and Sterility, 81(5), 1344-1350.
Sweet, R.L. (2011). Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inftammatory Disease. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011(561909), 1-13.
Tepper, N.K., Steenland, M.W., Gaffield, M.E., Marchbanks, P.A., & Curtis, K.M. (2013). Retention of intrauterine devices in women who acquire pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Contraception, 5(87), 655-60. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23040135
Perampanel Therapy, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Physical Therapy as Interventions for the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
Clinicians and researchers have been constantly searching for more information on how to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. This paper's aim is to outline three types of therapy that qualify as valid attempts, namely pharmacologically-oriented perampanel endeavors, cognitive behaviour therapy or CBT, and finally, physical therapy. The present paper will review the relevant research pertaining to these three forms of treatment, in terms of effectiveness, validity, safety, and other filters, before suggesting how one approach might be the most effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.
The first clinical signs of the degenerative neurological disorder named Parkinson's disease appear only at such time as approximately 60-80% of the dopamine-producing cells of the substantia nigra has already degenerated. Data from across the European continent indicated that about 1.8 of 100 inhabitants over the age…
Christofoletti, G., Beinotti, F., Borges, G., Damasceno, B.P. (2010). PHYSICAL THERAPY IMPROVES THE BALANCE OF PATIENTS WITH PARKINSON'S DISEASE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders, 16(S1), S58. doi: 10.1016/2Fs1353-8020-2810-2970204-2
Cole, K., & Vaughan, F.L. (2005) The feasibility of using cognitive behaviour therapy for depression associated with Parkinson's disease: A literature review. Parkinson and Related Disorders, 11, 269-276. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.03.002
Eggert, K., Squillacote, D., Barone, P., Dodel, R., Katzenschlager, R., Emre, M., . . . Oertel, W. (2010). Safety and Efficacy of Perampanel in Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. Movement Disorders, 25(7), 896-905. doi: 10.1002/mds.22974
Ellis, T., Goede, C.J., Feldman, R.G., Wolters, E.C., Kwakkel, G., Wagenaar, R.C. (2005). Efficacy of a Physical Therapy Program in Patients With Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(4), 626-632. doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2004.08.008
cruzi is included in the waste of the insect vectors and gets entrance into its mammalian hosts by way of infection. This method of spread is different than that of the two species of African trypanosomes that cause human illness, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which are conveyed by means of the saliva of their vectors, and with the device by which the nonpathogenic trypanosome found in the Americas, Trypanosoma rangeli, is passed on to its mammalian hosts. As with other vermin that contaminate both mammalian and insect hosts, the life cycle of T. cruzi is multifaceted. The T. cruzi life cycle is made up of three major developmental types. Epimastigotes are an extracellular and non-infective appearance of the parasite found in the midgut of insect vectors, where they increase by binary fission (Kirchhoff, 2009).
There are two advances to healing when treating Chagas, both of which can…
Chagas Disease. (2009). Retrieved November 7, 2010, from CDC Web site:
Chagas Disease. (2010). Retrieved November 7, 2010, from Medline Plus Web site:
Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1.5-3:1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1.5% of deaths from cirrhosis is mostly found in females and ethanol-related cirrhosis is greatly found in males. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per 100,000 males aged from 65-74 years and at 26.7 per 100,000 women of the age group from 75-84 years. (Cirrhosis: (www.emedicine.com)
Diagnosis and Imaging Modalities:
Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound. Against this…
Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.gutdoc.org/Cirrohis.htm
Cirrhosis. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/000255.html
Cirrhosis Treatment. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://health.allrefer.com/health/cirrhosis-treatment.html
Digestive System Organs. Retrieved October 7, 2005, from the World Wide Web http://www.healthcentral.com/ency/408/ImagePages/8710.html
Rosacea is a skin disease that affects millions of people. The chief cause of rosacea is still unclear and hence all treatment is based on a preventive basis rather than a curative one. The management of this chronic condition is made easier by a combination of different therapies, which includes oral antibiotics, topical gel and latest laser treatments.
Rosacea is one of the chronic skin diseases which affects an astounding 13 million people in the United States alone. Initially characterized by reddening of the face, the disease may gradually develop eruptions on the face giving a totally distorted look. While we are aware that some external factors like food and temperature trigger a flushing we still don't have a clue as to what is the root cause of Rosacea. Apart from the damaging effects on the skin, in a majority of the cases the disease also affects the eyes in…
Fred Wilson "Laser Offers relief in diminishing Rosacea," July 1st, 2002 http://www.dermatologytimes.com/dermatologytimes/article/articleDetail.jsp?id=24834
2) Jonathan Wilkin, "Standard Classification of Rosacea" "A Special report,"
Journal of American Academy of dermatology" April 2002, Vol 46
3) Designed by "Simon Darken," "What is Rosacea," Accessed on 27th February 2003, http://www.about-rosacea.com/overview.htm
What is worth noting here is the fact that behavior disturbances, ranging in severity from repeated questioning to physical violence, are common (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
It is unclear whether Alzheimer's disease represents a single entity or several variants. Some experts believe that there are distinct subtypes of Alzheimer's disease, such as Lewy body disease (in which the signs of Parkinson's disease, visual hallucinations or alterations in alertness or attention, or all of these symptoms, are conspicuous) and frontotemporal dementia (in which disinhibition, misconduct or apathy, or all of these signs, are prominent). The well-established risk factors for Alzheimer's disease are age, a family history of the disease and Down syndrome (National Institute of Mental Health, 1989).
Confusions about Alzheimer's Disease and the Need for Alternative Actions
There have been numerous studies conducted in relation to Alzheimer's disease. At the same time, there are a number of reports…
U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Summary, Confused Minds, Burdened Families: Finding Help for People with Alzheimer's and Other Dementias, OTA-BA-404, Washington, DC: Supt. Of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1990.
Vickrey, Peg Gray-. Advances in Alzheimer's Disease. Nursing: Springhouse Corporation, 2002
Whitehouse PJ. Genesis of Alzheimer's disease. Neurology 1997;48(5 Suppl 7):S2-7.
detection of the Borna disease virus relating them to the epidemiology.
The first cases of Borna disease were descried in the 17-19th century in Southern Germany. It was discovered to e a fatal disease affecting the neurological systems of horses and sheep, (Ludwig et al., 1985; Durrwald, 1993) causing ehavioral and neurological symptoms. It was proven to e caused y a 2003]
Today it is eing realized that the scope of the disease is not limited to just a few countries as was previously elieved ut encompassed the world. Also it was realized that far from affecting just horses and sheep as was originally thought virus, the Borna Disease Virus (BDV) in the early 1900's y Zwick and his team in Giessen Germany. [Author not availale, it in fact affected other animals and even human eings.[Staeheli, Sauder; Schwemmle, et al., 2000]
Research into the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the BDV…
bibliography. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B. 44, 147-184.
3.Staeheli, P., Sauder, C. Schwemmle, M. et al.,. Epidemiology of Borna disease virus, J Gen Virol 81: 2123-2135
4.Author not available,  Diagnostic Methods In Virology, accessed at http://virology-online.com/general/Tests.htm
5. Nakamura, K., Takahashi, H., Shoya, Y., Nakaya, T., Watanabe, M., Tomonaga, K., Iwahashi, K., Ameno, K., Momiyama, N., Taniyama, H., Sata, T., Kurata, T., de la Torre, J.C. & Ikuta, K. . Isolation of Borna disease virus from human brain. Journal of Virology 74, 4601-4611.
6. Zimmermann, W., Durrwald, R. & Ludwig, H. (1994). Detection of Borna disease virus RNA in naturally infected animals by a nested polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 46, 133-143
(De Leon, 2010)
Finally, in recent years there has been a call for more stringent regulatory measured to be put in place in order to prevent this category of disease. Many experts refer to outdated laws and policies that are not successful in detecting and prevent problems along the entire food production process (Jessen). They also refer to restricted and inadequate legal tools to check the spread of the diseases. There is therefore a need not only to update present legislation but also for organizations and individuals to be become more aware of the need to prevent this type of disease from occurring.
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. etrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. etrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). etrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. etrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFEDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
De Leon D. ( 2010) Start at the Store: 7 Ways to Prevent Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.foodsafety.gov/blog/7ways.html
Definition of Foodborne disease. Retrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=25399Focus on Epidemiology. Houston Health (2001). Retrieved from http://www.houstontx.gov/health/HoustonHealth/winter01.pdf
Foodborne diseases take heavy toll on public health. Retrieved from http://www.google.co.za/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=18&ved=0CDgQFjAHOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fbioniche.com%2Fnewsroom_factsheet.cfm&ei=SJ7ITMX1LdDCswako7iPDg&usg=AFQjCNESQAvUohGiQZZN1L1TCRFwwl-DYQ&sig2=bnOdvFERDnTPpuZO8D2blQ
Foodborne Illness. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/foodborneillness.html
Using condoms is also an excellent prevention activity that can also be used (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
Potential obstacles to HIV prevention activities taking place in clinical settings often include:
narrow formations of medical care and the role of physicians or health care providers in HIV prevention, a provider's discomfort with discussing human sexuality and illicit drug use and their attitudes towards persons with HIV or AIDS along with constraints on time and resources, and the vagueness of HIV prevention messages (Primary and Secondary HIV Prevention, 2008).
The very nature of HIV transmission involves behaviors that are not readily discussed in American society. It is important for health care providers to become comfortable discussing sexual and substance-use activities with their patients. They need to create an environment of trust for patients so their risk behaviors can be discussed. It is important to assure the patient of the confidential…
ABCs of Aids Prevention - Presentation Transcript. (2009). Retrieved September 3, 2009, from Slideshare Web site: http://www.slideshare.net/drsujnanendra/ab-cs-of-aids-prevention
CDC Responds to HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Web site: http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/aboutDHAP.htm
HIV / AIDS. (2009). Retrieved September 4, 2009, from MayClinic Web site:
Diabetic Vascular Disease state caused by the deficiency of a chemical in the body called insulin which is a hormone is called Diabetes. There are two forms of diabetes. In the type-one diabetes no insulin is formed and people require insulin injections for existence. This was once thought it would affect only children, but now it can occur at any age. The type2 diabetes is due to the resistance of the body towards the effects of insulin. This also includes insulin which is insufficient. ut in this type there is some amount of insulin produced. In both the types the blood glucose levels is increased. When compared to people without diabetes, people with diabetes are prone to certain problems. These problems occur in the nerves (neuropathy), kidney (nephropathy) and eye (retinopathy). These people are prone to early heart attacks and stroked due to the hardening of the arteries (arteriosclerosis). With…
Diabetes Basics-About Diabetics," Retrieved from www.orthop.washington.edu/faculty/Hirsch/diabetesAccessed on March 3, 2004
Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research" retrieved from www.medstv.unimelb.edu.au/Research/DCVDR/. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Haptoglobin: A major susceptibility gene for diabetic vascular complications," retrieved from www.pulsus.com/europe/07_02/szaf_ed.htm. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Pathophysiology of Diabetes" retrieved at http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/diabetes/manual/DMOverview.pdf. Accessed on March 3, 2004
Treatment of Addison's disease involves addressing the hormone deficiency using "replacement dose." [NIH] The drugs that are used as replacements for cortisol functions are known as glucocorticoids. Hydrocortisone or Dexamethasone or Prednisone is the drugs of choice. Since blood levels of Hydrocortisone can be directly measured it is an excellent choice for treatment and it makes drug dosage adjustment very easy. [Sarah aker] Patients with Aldosterone deficiency are treated with fludrocortisone (Florinef). Inside the human body the secretion of cortisol is affected by stress. More cortisol is secreted during stress, fever, vomiting, etc. Therefore during periods of stress or physical ailments patients may require additional dosages of cortisol therapy. During sick days it is therefore necessary to consult with the physician, as a higher dose of cortisol therapy is essential. "Sick day rules" are different from normal days for glucocortisoid treatment dosage. Also, if the patient suffers from severe vomiting…
1) NIDDK, 'Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease', Accessed March 24th 2010, available at, http://endocrine.niddk.nih.gov/pubs/addison/addison.htm#treatment
2) AAFP, 'Addison's disease: What is Addison's disease', Accessed March 24th 2010, Available at, http://familydoctor.org/online/famdocen/home/common/hormone/910.printerview.html
3) NIH, 'Managing Adrenaline Insufficiency', Accessed Mar 25th 2010 available online at, http://www.cc.nih.gov/ccc/patient_education/pepubs/mngadrins.pdf
4) Mark Rosenberg, M.D., 'A stress related Disease you should know about', Accessed Mar 25th 2010, available at, http://ezinearticles.com/?A-Stress-Related-Disease-You-Should-Know-About&id=1189301
Native Societies and Disease
Numerous reports from European traders, missionaries, soldiers and explorers in the 16th and 17th Centuries reveal the same information about the devastating effect smallpox and other epidemic diseases had on the aboriginal populations of the Americas. Europeans were colonizing Africa and Asia at the same time, but "on no other continent in historic times has a combined disease and Construct phenomenon led to the collapse of an entire indigenous population."[footnoteRef:1] In 1492, Native Americans were one-fifth to one-sixth of the global population, but their numbers never came close to equaling that again after all the great epidemics that struck them in waves. Unlike China and India, where smallpox, plague, typhus, measles and influenza already existed, and therefore the local populations had more immunity and greatly outnumbered the European colonizers, aboriginal American societies routinely suffered mortality rates of 80 or 90%. Some forms of smallpox, such as…
Hackett, Paul. "A Very Remarkable Sickness": Epidemics in the Petit Nord, 1670 to 1846. (University of Manitoba Press, 2002).
Trigger, Bruce G. Natives and Newcomers: Canada's "Heroic Age" Revisited (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1985).
Warrick, Garry A., "European Infections, Disease and Depopulation of the Wendat-Tionotate (Huron-Petun)" in Jordan F. Kerber (ed) Archaeology of the Iroquois: Selected Readings and Research Sources (Syracuse University Press, 2007), pp. 269-86.
Watts, Sheldon. Epidemics and History: Disease, Power and Imperialism (Yale University Press, 1997).
Addison's disease is a chronic disorder of the adrenal cortex resulting in decreased production of glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and androgens. There is increased secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary gland. Histologic examination of adrenal glands from patients with autoimmune adrenal insufficiency reveals fibrosis with a mononuclear cell infiltrate, plasma cells, and rare germinal centers. The most common cause of primary adrenal insufficiency in developed countries is autoimmunity (70% to 90%), with tuberculosis the second most common cause (10% to 20%). Addison disease can be present in 3 clinical forms: part of syndromes termed APS-1 and autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 (APS-2) and as an isolated disease. Adrenal autoantibodies are generally of the IgG class, and less frequently of the IgA and the IgM class. Antibodies directed against antigens other than P450 cytochrome enzymes have been found in some patients with isolated Addison's disease. Another study found…
Lovas K, Husebye E.S. (2008) Replacement therapy for Addison's disease: recent developments. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 17(4): 497-509.
Martorell, P.M., Roep, B.O., Smit, J.W.A. (2002) Autoimmunity in Addison's Disease. The Netherlands Journal of Medicine. 60: 269.
Michels, A. & Eisenbarth G. (2010) Immunologic Endocrine Disorders. J Aller Clin. Immun 125: S226.
What's Gone Wrong?
CVI is generally an indication of blood stasis or venous reflux, most commonly valvular incompetence in the low-pressure superficial venous system. The inability of blood to return to the heart from the legs causes it to pool and clot. CVI generally occurs within the deep veins (Deep Vein Thrombosis), may also be related to varicose twisting, valve malformations or pelvic tumors.
Obesity, inactivity, pregnancy, smoking and extended periods of standing or sitting tend to be the activity factors of most importance. Women often present varicose veins; men DVT but this may be associated with delayed reporting. Type II Diabetes may also suggest different gender propensities. People over 50 predominately display indicators.
CVI results from damage caused to the veins, though clotting itself can precipitate vascular dilation. Varicose veins are often hereditary as may be valve defections which can result in venous reflux. Other…
Collins, L.M. (2012). Taking blood pressure in both arms may find silent heart disease. Viewable: http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700220373/Taking-blood-pressue-in-both-arms-may-find-silent-heart-disease.html
Weiss, R. (2012). Venus Insufficiency. Medscape Reference. Viewable at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1085412-overview .
Sarcoidosis is a sometimes-lethal disease affecting primarily the lungs and thoracic lymphatic system, and its hallmark feature is noncaseating granulomas in multiple tissues and organs (Hoang and Nguyen, 2010, p. 36; American Thoracic Society, 1999, p. 736). Over 90% of all sufferers have pulmonary involvement, but granulomas are frequently found in other organs and tissues, including the skin, eyes, liver, spleen, parotid glands, central nervous system, muscles, bones, and genitourinary tract (Hoang and Nguyen, 2010, p. 36). When death does result, it is typically due to pulmonary fibrosis. What follows is a review of pulmonary sarcoidosis from a clinical perspective.
Causes and isk Factors
The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, but research into the nature of the resulting granulomas suggests immune dysregulation in genetically susceptible individuals is the primary causative factor (American Thoracic Society, 1999, p. 738-740). The genetic contribution appears to be significant, as evidenced by an…
American Thoracic Society. (1999). Statement on Sarcoidosis. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine, 160, 736-755.
American Lung Association. (2010). State of lung disease in diverse communities 2010. Lung.org. Retrieved 5 Mar. 2012 from http://www.lung.org/assets/documents/publications/lung-disease-data/solddc_2010.pdf .
Baughman, Robert P., Lower, Elyse E., and du Bois, Roland M. (2003). Sarcoidosis. Lancet, 361, 1111-1118.
Drent, Marjolein, De Vries, Jolanda, Lenters, Merinke, Lamers, Rob J. s., Rothkranz-Kos, Snjezana, Wouters, Emiel F.M. et al. (2003). Sarcoidosis: Assessment of disease severity using HRCT. European Radiology, 13, 2462-2471.
patient most likely manifest hypervolemia?
A patient would most likely develop hypervolemia through eating sodium-based foods, from blood transfusions, medications and diagnostic contrast dyes. (Silverstein, 2006)
What blood pressure, central venous pressure, and arterial pressure would be indicative of hypervolemia?
Any individual who is suffering from hypervolemia would have higher levels of blood (160 / 100), central venous (179 / 109) and arterial pressure (180 / 110). (Silverstein, 2006)
How would a nurse recognize that a hypovolemic patient had received adequate volume replacement?
The way a nurse would recognize a hypovolemic condition is to look for swelling in the legs and arms. At the same time, there will be an increase in the patient's weight. When there is adequate replacement, these levels will come down dramatically. (Silverstein, 2006)
How do neurohormonal mechanisms contribute to the development of heart failure?
Neurohumoral adaptations are impacting the systemic pressure through vasoconstriction. This leads…
Silverstein, A. (2006). Heart Disease. Minneapolis, MN: 21st Century Books.
After 13 months, the rats begin to show signs of dementia including reduced cognitive ability and memory impairment (McGill University, 2010).
Amyloid B. immunotherapy
Past research on the effects of active or passive a? immunization on a? buildup and AD progression provided evidence that such immunization "protects against the progressive loss of synaptophysin in the hippocampal molecular layer and frontal neocortex of a transgenic mouse model of AD" (Buttini & al, 2005). This provided further support for the amyloid hypothesis.
Since the discovery of a? immunotherapy effectiveness in the treatment of AD in mice, the AN1792 a? vaccine was developed and tested on humans (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). Unfortunately, clinical trials were discontinued when around 6% of the subjects developed meningoencephalitis (Lemere & Masliah, 2010). However, since some subjects showed improvements in a? plaque clearance, several new a? immunotherapies have been developed and are currently undergoing…
Basi, G., & al, e. (2010). Amyloid precursor protein selective gamma-secretase inhibitors for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, 2 (36).
Buttini, M., & al, e. (2005). Amyloid Immunotherapy Prevents Synaptic Degeneration in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. The Journal of Neuroscience, 25 (40), 9096-9101.
Ganguly, R., & al, e. (2005). Effect of Moringa Oleifera in Experimental Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Role of Antioxidants. Annals of Neurosciences, 12, 33-37.
Herrup, K. (2010). Reimagining Alzheimer's Disease -- an Age-Based Hypothesis. The Journal of Neuroscienc5y7e, 30 (50), 16755-16762.
History of Pediatric Hemolytic Monitoring
Retrospect to the career of physician, Dr. James A. olff I and his early progress in treatment of Rh hemolytic disease as described in Pochedly (1984), looks at the development of interest in hematology in European field hospitals during orld ar II. After the war period, the transformation of olff's research in this area was advanced by research conducted during a pediatric residency at the Boston Children's Hospital, between 1945 and 1947. During his tenure at Children's he was engaged with Dr. Louis Diamond in his seminal investigation on treatment of erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion.
Collaborative efforts with Drs. Diamond and Farber focused on preliminary clinical trials of aminopterin for the treatment of acute leukemia, of which olff was in observation. Instrumental to the development of the concept of treating erythroblastosis fetalis by exchange transfusion; collaborative in the area of pathophysiology of disease where…
Al-Eisa, A. And Al-Hajeri, M. Hemolytic uremic syndrome in Kuwaiti Arab children. Pediatric Nephrology 16.12 (2001): 1093-1098.
Blouin, P. et al. Syndrome d'Evans: etude retrospective de la societe d'hematologie et d'immunologie pediatrique (36 cas). Archives De Pediatrie: Organe Officiel De La Societe Francaise De Pediatrie 12.11 (2005): 1600-1607.
Feldman, S.D. And Tauber, A.I. Sickle Cell Anemia: Reexamining the First "Molecular Disease." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 71.4 (1997) 623-650
Friedmann, A.M. et al. Fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a child due to warm-reactive immunoglobulin M. antibody. Journal Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology: Official Journal Of The American Society Of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 20.5 (1998): 502-505.
A sense of futility and deep despondency are the primary drivers of the patient's approach to his self-care. These emotions are mirrored by his wife, and further complicated by the exhausting circumstances of being a primary caregiver to a depressed and declining patient. It is doubtful that either the patient or his wife are getting enough sleep, eating well -- within the dietary restrictions -- or following a healthy regimen of moderate exercise. The pattern of behaviors described and observed indicate that both the patient and his wife are overwhelmed by difficulties of managing the disease and the centrality of the disease in their life.
To address head-on the emotional fatigue and hopelessness that the couple face, it is imperative to provide examples of other patients and their spouses who have or are successfully dealing with the same disease at a comparable level of severity. Examples must show…
Diseases and Conditions: Heart Failure. Mayo Clinic. Retreived from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heart-failure/basics/definition/con-2002
Hoyt, R.E. & Bowling, L.S. (2001, April 15). American Family Physician, 63(8), 1593-1599. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0415/p1593.pdf
"A step backward -- or is it forward?" Diabetes Care, 31, 1093-1096.
Huan-Cheng C., Yue-Cune C., Su-Mei, L., Mei-Fang, C., Mei-Ching, H., & Chin-Lin, P. et al. (2007). The effectiveness of hospital-based diabetes case management: an example from a northern Taiwan regional hospital. Journal of Nursing esearch, 15, 296-309.
Khamaisi, M., az, I. (2006). Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes: the role of proteik kinase c. Vascular Disease Prevention, 3, 305-312.
Loganathan, ., Searls, Y.M., Smirnova, I.V., & Stehno-Bittel, L. (2006). Exercise-induced benefits in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Physical Therapy eviews, (11), 77-89.
Ohman-Strickland, P.A., Orzano, a.J., Hudson, S.V., Solberg, L.I., DiCiccio-Bloom, B., & O'Malley, D. et al. (2008). Quality of diabetes care in family medicine practices: influence of nurse-practitioners and physician's assistants. Annals of Family Medicine, 6, 14-22.
Ohshiro, Y., Takasu, N. (2007). ole of protein kinase c-? activation in diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes, 24(3), 61-64.
Sharma, S., Kulkarni, S.K., &…
Balagopal, P., Kamalamma, N., Patel, T.G., & Misra, R. (2008). "A community-based diabetes prevention and management education program in a rural village in india." Diabetes Care, 31, 1097-1104.
Bloomgarden, Z.T. (2007). Screening for and managing diabetic retinopathy: current approaches. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 64(S), S8-S14.
Chang, K., Davis, R., Birt, J., Castelluccio, P., Woodbridge, P., & Marrero, D. (2007). Nurse practioner-based diabetes care management. Disease Management & Health Outcomes, 15, 377-385.
Davis, S., Asch-Goodkin, J. (2007). Heart failure risk climbs with use of glitazones. Geriatrics, 62(9), 11-11.
ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov.
Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.
The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.
3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:
Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;
Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;
Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…
Hubacher, D., R. Lara-Ricalde, D.J. Taylor, F. Guerra-Infante and R. Guzman-Rodriguez. (2001). "Use of copper intrauterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. New England Journal of Medicine 345: 561-67 in Mckay at 259.
Klein, Rupert and Barbel Knauper. (2003). "The Role of Cognitive Avoidance of STIs for Discussing Safer Sex Practices and for Condom Use Consistency." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12(3-4): 137-138.
Macdonald, Noni E. And Robert Brunham. (1997). "The Effects of Undetected and Untreated Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Ectopic Pregnancy in Canada." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 6(2): 161.
Mcglynn, Elizabeth a., Eve a. Kerr, Cheryl L. Damberg and Steven M. Asch. Quality of Care for Women: A Review of Selected Clinical Conditions and Quality Indicators. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000.
"The IOM report recognized the therapeutic benefits of medical marijuana and urged that marijuana be made available to individual patients while research continued on the development of new drugs developed from marijuana" (Zeese).
In conclusion, there are two schools of thought on this issue. One view sees very little difference in terms of health implication between marijuana and cigarette smoking. However, there is some resistance to the idea that marijuana is as unhealthy or as dangerous as cigarettes. This had led to the notion that marijuana is less harmful to the user than tobacco. However, many reports and studies tend to stress that while the effects of each substance on the individual differ, in the long - term both have negative effects that should be emphasized. (Vlahov et al., 2004)
While there is a strong case for the benefits of marijuana in certain instances and for certain conditions, this…
Bock, a.W. (2000). The Politics of Medical Marijuana. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks.
Executive Summary: Institute of Medicine (1999). Retrieved July 3, 2008, from http://www.nap.edu/html/marimed/es.html
Fact Sheet Cigarette Smoking-Related Mortality. (2006) Retrieved July 3, 2008, at http://www.cdc.gov /tobacco/data_statistics/factsheets/cig_smoking_mort.htm
Gieringer D. (1994) Marijuana Health Mythology.
Pulmonary Disease and Exercise
Exercise may benefit pulmonary patients in a variety of ways. Pulmonary patients however face many unique challenges to exercising that other disease patients do not.
Pulmonary disease may affect the lungs and in a variety of manners. The condition includes respiratory disorders such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis and pulmonary hypertension. In the article "Comparison of Specific Expiratory, Inspiratory, and Combined Muscle Training Programs in COPD" from Chest Journal, Dr. Weiner and his colleagues explore the idea that weakness within the respiratory muscles may actually contribute to shortness of breathe, which in turn may limit the ability of patients with this disorder to exercise regularly at a significant pace (Weiner, 2003). In a second article, "Comparison of Effects of Strength Endurance Training in Patients with COPD, from the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical care, Francisco Ortega and colleagues examined the effects of different exercise modalities as…
Weiner, Paltiel, MD; Magadle, Rasmi, MD; Beckerman, Marinalla MD., Weiner,
Margalit PhD and Berar-Yanay, Noa, MD. "Comparison of Specific Expiratory, Inspiratory, and Combined Muscle Training Programs in COPD" Chest. 2003;124:1357-1364 Retrieved from, http://www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/124/4/1357
Ortega, Francisco. Toral, Javier. Cejudo, Pilar, Villagomez, Rafael. Sanchez, Hildegard.
Castillo, Jose and Montemayor, Teodoro. Comparison of Effects of Strength and Endurance Training in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care MedicineVol 166. pp. 669-674, 2002. Retrieved from, http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/166/5/669
For example, in these procedures it is often difficult to open the patient's mouth wide enough for laryngoscopy and intubation, thus creating the possibility that cardiopulmonary changes may be present and the "probability o lesions in oesophagus, bowel, kindneys, skin and joints." This information would not be known if not for this study and its reported findings.
The study's conclusion is that the use of thoracic epidural anesthesia to sevoflurane based inhalation "may be a suitable technique for thoracic surgery in achalasia due to sclerodermic patients." The reason for this conclusion is that the study found that this procedure "can provide a smooth anesthesia course and a rapid recovery, with hemodynamic stability, and also having pain-free postoperatively." More so, the study found that providing anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade and non-intravenous opioids has "provided a shorter recovery time."
Clearly this specific case study has important and practical implications to the practice…
Erol, Demet Dogan, M.D. (2006): "Thoracic Epidural Blockade in an Elderly with Achalasia Due to Scleroderma for Thoractomy, Esophageal Myotomy and Cystotomy-Capitonnage. The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology. Vol. 11, Number 1.
The research results will demonstrate that alcoholism is a disease and support this notion with overwhelming evidence.
In short, alcoholism is a major problem for all countries across the world. Alcoholism destroys lives and tears many families apart. The purpose of this argumentative research paper is to demonstrate with supporting evidence that alcoholism is a disease and not a social stigma.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. eb. 9 June 2011.
Organization, orld Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. eb. 10 June 2011.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
Organization, World Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 10 June 2011.
"Survey: people still unsure whether alcoholism is disease or moral weakness." Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly 17.40 (2005): 1-5. Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
hen an heart needs more oxygen, such in times of exercise, stress or pharmacological stimuli, blood flow is increased to fulfill this demand. However, the physiological narrowing of arteries due to plaque build up found in coronary disease restricts blood flow to the heart, especially in times of when an increase in myocardial oxygen is needed. These restrictions mean a lessened CFR for the individual, which can lead to coronary ischemia, cardiac infarction, and several other dangerous effects. This physiological change in the coronary system, through the build up of plaque, occurs for several reasons. Lack of physical activity and poor nutrition, with the consumption of certain fats and cholesterols, can facilitate plaque build up. High blood pressure, obesity, depression, and anxiety are also contributing factors (Pazoki, Nabiour, Seyednezami, and Imami).
There are different treatment options for coronary artery disease. Two treatment clinical options include lifestyle modification and revascularization. Lifestyle…
Kern, Morton, Amir Lerman, Jan-Willen Bech, Bernard De Bruyne, Eric Eeckhout, William Fearon, Stuart Higano, Michael Lim, and Martjin Meuwissen. "Physiological Assessment of Coronary Artery Disease in the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory ." American Heart Association Journal 114 (2006): 1321-1341. American Heart Association. Web. 16 Nov. 2010.
Pazoki, Raha, Iraj Nabipour, Nasrin Seyednezami, and Seyed Reza Imami. "Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)." BMC Public Health 7 (2007): 216-220. Print.
Rub, M., Cremer, J., Krian, a., Meinertz, T., Werdan, K., & Zerkowski, H. "Different Treatment Options in Chronic Coronary Artery Disease." Deutschs Arzteblatt International 106.15 (10 Apr 2009): 253-261.
Shirato, Susan, and Beth Ann Swan. "Women and Cardiovascular Disease: An Evidentiary Review." MedSurg Nursing 19.5 (2010): 282-306. Print.
The impact of stress on physical health has been fairly well documented, with emerging research detailing possible pathways or mechanisms of action. Such research has a tremendous impact on disease prevention strategies and best practices in healthcare. One of the areas revealing the strongest connection between stress and physical health is cardiology, with a strong correlation between environmental, psychological, and psychosocial stress and the etiology or exacerbation of heart disease. The following five articles provide an overview of recent research into the link between stress and cardiovascular disease.
Cohen, B.E., Edmondson, D. & Kronish, I.M. (2015). State of the art review. American Journal of Hypertension 28(11): 1295-1302.
Stress contributes to the etiology of cardiovascular disease, even in patients who had previously shown no other risk factors. Chronic stress—whether exposure to daily life stressors over time or the chronic stress associated with posttraumatic stress disorder—may be particularly damaging to heart health.…
Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of the stress response has been implicated in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, hyporeactivity of the stress response has been associated with disorders such as atypical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, and obesity (Selhub, 2002).
It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. Stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different physical and physiological aliments. It is believed by many experts that people should take steps to decrease their stress levels in…
Dennis, Barbara. (2004). Interrupt the stress cycle. Natural Health. 34(9), p. 70-75.
Innes, Kim E., Vincent, Heather K. And Taylor, Ann Gill. (2007). Chronic Stress and Insulin
Resistance -- Related Indices of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Part 2: A Potential Role for Mind- Body Therapies. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 13(5), p44-51.
Rosch, Paul J. (2007). Stress and the Gut: Mind over Matter? Health & Stress. 11, p. 1-4.
Sociological and Therapeutic Implications of the Brain Disease
Inspiration for professionals who authored the account on chronic brain illnesses came from findings on drugs' impacts on the human brain. The assurance that strong anti-addiction medicines can be found appeared great. The budding scientific branch, addiction biology, implies that addiction --a condition which starts off with the clear, intentional decision to have a go at drugs, spiraling quickly down to an irrepressible, involuntary state --would now be considered seriously, and forever, as an ailment. Using this knowledge, authors hoped to sensitize lawmakers as well as the society to drug-addicts' needs, including improved coverage of private insurance and public treatment access. The agenda also included moderating of puritanical outlooks and smoothing of penal law enforcement. The neuro-centric approach supports unjustified optimism with regard to pharmaceutical treatments, overrating the requirement of professional aid. Conditions characteristically remitted in young adulthood are branded as "chronic."…
Clark, M. (2011).Conceptualizing addiction: How useful is the construct. International Journal of Humanities & Social Science, 1(13), 55-64.
Deviance and Addiction. (n.d.). Retrieved November 17, 2015, from http://alcoholrehab.com/addiction-articles/deviance-and-addiction/
GOODE, E. (2011, March 19). THE SOCIOLOGY OF DRUG USE. Retrieved November 17, 2015, from https://edge.sagepub.com/system/files/Ballantine5e_6.2SK_0.pdf
May, C. (2001).Pathology, Identity and the Social Construction of Alcohol Dependence Sociology 35, 385-40.
What the Tick? Tick Born Diseases in America
Part predator, part parasite, the tick is considered by many as America’s most harmful bug. Living in humid and overgrown areas, these critters make rural America more prone to acquiring the various diseases these ticks carry. From Lyme disease to Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, ticks are the proliferators of zoonotic diseases in North America (Edlow, 2004). These diseases do not have vaccines and are difficult to manage once the person is infected. This essay will cover tick-borne diseases, why they became such a major issue in recent times, existing treatment for the infections, and predictions of epidemics.
There are 20+ tick borne diseases in the U.S.A. Of the most reported, Lyme disease infects an estimated 300,000 people annually (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Health and Medicine Division, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, 2016). In fact,…
Lyme Disease and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
This text will concern itself with Lyme disease and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In so doing, it will not only give the description and epidemiology of the concerns, but also the etiology and prevention strategies. Further, diagnosis as well as treatment options and prognosis will be highlighted.
1. Lyme Disease
Description and Etiology
Described as an illness that is often debilitating, Lyme disease, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- CDC (2018) points out, “is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.” It is important to note that in addition to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, blacklegged ticks are capable of transmitting what are commonly referred to as coinfections, i.e. a variety of other disease-causing parasites as well as viruses and bacteria. Those living in wooded areas have a high likelihood…