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Chronic Pain and Its Sequalea
The definition of chronic pain varies from pain that has lingered 6 months after onset of sensation to 12 months after onset of sensation. Chronic pain has long been an intriguing subject to researchers of pain because of its lingering, usually non-eradicable, presence with no visible marker, at times, that seems to be causing the pain. Chronic pain can be a puzzle and frustration to medical practitioners since, occasionally, determinants remain invisible and pain seems to be lingering for no foreseeable reason. Patients of this category, therefore, may often be thought of as fantasizing their feelings (in the attempt, perhaps, to gain attention) when, unfortunately, their pain is more real and aggravating to them than it is to their practitioners. This situation is compounded by the fact that psychological tests (specifically the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)) shows a correlation between neuroticism and chronic pain.…… [Read More]
diagnoses, pain is a common complaint among inpatients. In the U.S. alone, approximately 100 million patients experience chronic pain (Alaloul et al., 2015). Pain negatively affects numerous aspects of an individual's life, such as sleep, quality of life, and physical functioning. Pain is also associated with negative psychological outcomes like depression, extended hospitalization, and a huge economic burden. In the U.S., for instance, pain imposes an estimated cost of $635 billion on patients and the healthcare system as a whole (Alaloul et al., 2015). Ineffective management of pain can have a negative impact on patient satisfaction, underscoring the need for more effective interventions.
Effective pain management is particularly important in postpartum care, where the experience of pain is common (Eshkevari, Trout & Damore, 2013). However, the management of pain in postpartum care remains quite ineffective, with up to 20% of postpartum patients reporting dissatisfaction with pain management (Niemi-Murola et al.,…… [Read More]
chronic pain and resulting depression. Specifically, it will show the connection between chronic pain and depression, how it affects the person and the ones around them, what treatments are available, and ways to break the cycle.
BEAKING THE CYCLE OF CHONIC PAIN AND DEPESSION
There is always hope. Depression blinds us to that fact. If we can somehow hold on to our hope, just maybe we can find a way to get through"(Feinberg, 2002).
Depression - "Depression results when individuals forfeit their personal power. To overcome guilt, insecurity, and anxiety is to conquer frustration and to regain personal power" (Miletich, 1995, p. 1). "Depression is derived from 'deprimere,' a Latin word which means 'to press down'" (Miletich 1995, p. 26).
Chronic Pain - is defined as pain that lasts six or more months. Pain is any type of feeling or hurt that is annoying, hurtful, or causes discomfort. Chronic pain…… [Read More]
From the year 1999 to 2014, the number of prescription opioids in the USA quadrupled. However, even with such an increase, there was no evidence of a reduction of pain the patients experienced. Instead, the number of deaths that resulted from overdoses of opioids increased in the same ratio as the increase in prescription figures. The Center for Disease Control provides safety guidelines for the prescription of opioids for pain alleviation in persons aged 18 years and above, in settings outside medical care facilities such as palliative care centers, and end of life care points(CDC, 2016). This paper provides a summary of the CDC guidelines on the prescription of opioids for chronic pain relief and a regime plan for opioids as APRN.
Summary of main concepts
Determining when to start or proceed with opioids for chronic pain
1. Non-first line or routine chronic pain therapy Opioids
Chronic pain is…… [Read More]
Chronic musculoskeletal pain necessitates the maintenance of good extensibility in order for normal functioning to be enhanced. This enhancement results in improvements in strength, endurance, fitness, and psychological well-being (Law et al., 2009). Programs promoting the improvement of movement for people with chronic musculoskeletal pain usually include stretching components. Stretching helps to improve functioning through improved range of motion within joints, and therefore muscle extensibility (Law et al., 2009).
The study by Law et al. (2009) emphasized the importance of tolerance and extensibility for individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of the study, which was clearly outlined in the report, was to explore whether stretch affects either or both of these factors. The researchers hypothesized that individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain may respond to stretch differently than individuals who do not experience chronic pain. Further to this suggestion, the researchers suggest that individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain may show…… [Read More]
However, he questions the research that has been done in this area. First, he wonders whether the exercise is a placebo effect based on the anticipation of improvement. The second question is the acceptability of this treatment. Many CFS patients actively avoid exercise and many healthcare providers in fact recommend rest at all costs rather than a concern of relapse. However, the positive aspect of the CBT and the exercise is that it has the patients question their fears. In both cases, there is a psychotherapeutic affect that may be beneficial.
The use of antidepressants is another approach that has been suggested and studied. However, the results on this have also been mixed. As Demitrack (1996, p. 282) states, "At the present time, it is unrealistic to present medication as a sole treatment for this disease." It may be that medications could work in the short-term and provide enough symptomatic…… [Read More]
Chronic sorrow is a continuous, pervasive sadness and also permanent and intermittently intense. An individual often encounters loss experience because of their disability, relative or chronic illness (Isaksson, 2007, p. 18). Chronic sorrow as a concept was introduced by Olshansky (1962) while he was dealing with children with disability of various kinds and their parents or relatives. He noted that the children's parents showed what he referred to as a pervasive reaction of psychological nature to the predicament of parenting mentally defective children (Monsson, 2010, p.16).
Such grief, he observed, was not dissimilar to the type shown by parents that have lost a child. The parents of mentally defective children have it worse because their pain is a continuous one. This is why he referred to the concept as chronic sorrow (Monsson, 2010, p. 16). It has been thought that chronic sorrow entails experiencing intermittent spans of distress and pain,…… [Read More]
Combining these two methods is one effective strategy in mitigating pain in children (Cohen).
Additional strategies that involve both the patient and family are evident, particularly when dealing with chronic pain. Children sometimes internalize pain, believing that they must restrict their activity, particularly when parents worry and hesitate to allow them to be active. Parents see play as worsening of the situation or a relapse, contributing to an overprotectivness. This, in turn, reflects on the self-image of the child. In any case, experts recommend that parents not react in a negative way -- either by thinking the child is faking pain or becoming so overprotective that the child is a virtual prisoner. Instead, the psychological strategy should be to set realistic and evolving strategies so that there is not a continue pessimism regarding future health outcomes. This, for adolescents, is critical since there is also a self-esteem issue that goes…… [Read More]
Non-Cardiac Chest Pain
Background- Chest pain is one of the most common reasons people call for or visit the Emergency Room for help. Heart attack education has brought to light the urgency of seeking immediate medical treatment if one suspects they are having heart issues. However, chest pain does not always signal a heart attack, and may be totally unrelated to issues with the cardiovascular system. Often no clear reason for such pain presents itself during examination, but understanding the perception and pain experience can help medical professionals understand different experiences that lead to patient panic about chest pain (Jerlock, Gaston-Johansson, & Danielson, 2005). Typically, if chest pain is related to a cardiac issue it is usually associated with one of the following symptoms: 1) pressure, fullness or extreme tightness in the chest; 2) crushing or searing pain that radiates to the back, upward through the jaw, and especially through…… [Read More]
reduce the amount of pain perceived. Many people have the ability to reduce perceived pain through psychological thought and understanding. Not all people can handle their pain in this manner, but it can help many chronic pain patients deal with their illnesses and their constant pain.
One technique is using positive coping mechanisms to deal with the pain, and the psychologist may be able to work with the patient in developing these coping mechanisms. Experts note, "People who feel that they have a number of successful methods for coping with pain may suffer less than those who behave and feel helpless, hopeless, and demoralized" (Turk, Monarch & Williams, 2004, p. 222). If the patient has a history of coping well with other stressful events, then they may be a good candidate for using coping mechanisms. Some of these coping mechanisms include relaxation, pain medication, and psychological counseling to help increase…… [Read More]
Perception of Pain
Uses of Pain in nursing
Definitions of Pain from Dictionaries
Uses of Pain in psychology
Antecedents and Consequences
CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PECEPTION OF PAIN
The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of the perception of pain. The researcher purpose to clarify describe the characteristics of pain and recognize antecedents that effect the idea of pain and the likely outcomes of pain by utilizing Avant's and Walker (2005) theory of study. Also, a model case shows how pain is connected to these serious characteristics contrary case and a borderline case are shown to distinguish the perception of pain from other notions. Empirical referents show the current point-of-view of the perception of pain. (Akyol & Salmond, 2009)
Concept Analysis of Characteristics of Pain
The goal of this paper is to expand the understanding of the concept of…… [Read More]
43). The pain assessment guidelines set forth in this article will have an immediate effect on my first encounter with a patient, particularly if that patient is a chronic pain sufferer or end-of life patient. The sixth defined responsibility in the INPA is also of particular importance in regards to the information contained in this article; this is the responsibility to "evaluate with the patient/client the status of the goal achievement as a basis for reassessment" (INPA, 2007, p. 43). The evaluation of pain and the assessment of necessary and reasonable care in end-of-life patients is a complex task, as this article points out, so the implications of this article's information on this task of the registered nurse are huge.
Its affects on the practical nurse are similar, though heightened. Many of the basic responsibilities of the registered nurse and the practical nurse are the same; for instance, the language…… [Read More]
The changes in the age demographic of the U.S. As well as the need to reduce overall spending in health care are significant reasons why advanced practice and specialty provision practitioner's skill sets and demands have changed. It is for this reason as well as for patient efficacy that such a subspecialty should be offered at a postgraduate level to AAs. These advanced practice alternative providers can be successfully and efficiently trained to provide services at a significantly lower rate, creating a potential opportunity for more people to receive advanced pain management care in a broader setting. This could only improve outcomes for chronic pain sufferers and broaden the scope of opportunity for AAs and possibly other advanced practice alternative providers. As need continues to rise alternatives must be sought within the system to provide care to patients who will likely need pain management service in growing numbers in…… [Read More]
History of RSD
The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for "burning pain." He wrote that, "Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl." Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms…… [Read More]
Alternatives to Pain Medication
Given the growing concerns over opioid addictions in recent years and the potential for tolerance, clinicians continue to search for efficacious alternatives to convention pain medications (Moore & Anderson, 2016). Fortunately, a number of alternatives to conventional pan medication are readily available, including cannabis, yoga, hypnosis, mind-body meditation, therapeutic touch, herbal remedies, acupuncture, biofeedback, massage therapy, homeopathic practices (Tan & Craine, 2007) and aromatherapy (Esposito & Bystrek, 2014). To learn more about these alternatives, this paper provides an initial reference list of ten relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly sources concerning pain medication alternatives, followed by a description of clinical guidelines and an implementation plan for these alternatives. A discussion concerning the manner in which the implementation of the intervention should be tested is followed by an assessment of potential barriers and strategies intended to gain cooperation from individuals who will be implementing the change. Finally, a timeline…… [Read More]
A Caucasian Man with Hip Pain
Decision Point One
The patient presents physical, social, and psychological complications. He is experiencing pain in his hip but is considered to be an unsuitable candidate for a hip replacement because of his age. The initial diagnosis was torn cartilage but the patient has also been diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CPS). He previously worked as a machinist but has since been unemployed and has a conflicted relationship with his girlfriend who has accused him of being a junky. The patient does exhibit some symptoms of depression.
The patient has previously complained about the negative side effects of some of the drugs he has been given to address his pain symptoms, including constipation and sleepiness. Given this, the use of the tricyclic antidepressants like amitriptyline would seem counterproductive given that these drugs often produce similar side effects ("Amitriptyline," 2016). However, Savella…… [Read More]
Therefore, the research offers reliable data supporting the emerging medication.
The sample included 878 patients with low back pain or pain from osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Patients were randomly assigned to Tapentadol or control drug oxycodone and took their medications for 90 days Doses for Tapentadol were flexible with either 50 or 100 mg offered every 4 to 6 hours, up to a maximum of 600 mg/day. Instances of nausea, vomiting, and constipation were significantly lower in the Tapentadol group vs. The oxycodone group. Doses were flexible and mimicked real life administrations of the medications.
However, the control group was given 10 mg or 15 mg of oxycodone IR every four to six hours. The lack of standardization of doses and the flexible administration of the drugs compromise the reliability and validity of the study. Nurses should also take note that rates of other side-effects such as drowsiness…… [Read More]
feasible to measure pain because it is located in the thalamus. Is pain able to be measured objectively? Just as a blood pressure of 220/110 will give us some information about the cardiovascular system, assessing the peripheral pain pathway can help in the diagnosis and treatment of a patient's pain. Part of this paper will discuss the pain problem. People tend to view reports of pain with suspicion and disbelief. How is pain assessed at this time? Are there any objective markers of pain? How efficient are the current measurements of pain? Is the electromyography (EMG) test a good measurement of the nerve pain pathway? The pain pathway from the free nerve ending in the amydala hypothalamus will also be reviewed. The following section will discuss various instrumentations that currently exist, and how the pain sensory of the a-delta fibers can be measured. Another section will discuss the pathophysiology and…… [Read More]
Mindfulness Meditation Training on Experimentally Induced Pain" by Zeidan et al., (2010), published in the Journal of Pain, presents the results of research to investigate
The research addresses a gap in the research examining the benefit of meditation in attenuating pain symptoms. The research problem is clearly articulated, with the title clearly stating the content of the paper and the introduction expressing and justifying the issue. Past research has demonstrated that meditation programs, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBS) programs have been correlated with positive health outcomes, including pain attenuation. The most common form of program is the MBS. In the context of pain management the eight-week length of the program renders it difficult for some patients, such as suffers of chronic pain, as they may not have the ability, or the time, required to complete the course. The research undertaken by Zeidan et al. (2010) addresses this problem, implementing…… [Read More]
Pain and Suffering
Pain is an abstract and complex topic, which is influenced by a serious of psychological and environmental variables. We all have experienced pain although at varying intensities. Since the psychological factors play a great role in influencing how we perceive pain, therefore, it renders pain a highly subjective experience. esearchers have tried to differentiate between physical and mental pain (Campbell & Edwards 2012). In this essay, I describe physical pain from mental pain. I also show how various people respond to pain, contrast two different responses to pain. I also highlight how Asian culture compares with Hispanic culture in responding to pain.
Describe physical pain from mental or soul pain.
The two major types of pain can be classified as physical and mental. Since physical and mental pains are subjective, complex phenomenon, defining them seems to be a challenge. The International Association for the Study of Pain…… [Read More]
Reavey, P. (010). Spatial markings: Memory, agency and child sexual abuse. Memory Studies.
According to Reavey (010), a critical component of recovery from childhood sexual abuse is reasserting the victim's sense of agency and control over her own life. All too often it is common when treating survivors to encourage them to see themselves as passive victims. The focus of Reavey's text is the spatial component of memory: women experience the trauma of abuse again and again because of the parallels between their current physical situation and that of their past, abusive histories. Reavey suggests that viewing the self as constantly in flux and changing and creating a new narrative linking past and present in a more positive way is a far more helpful concept to instill over the course of therapy. One of the challenges many women experience in dealing with abuse is that it takes place in a…… [Read More]
Pilot Study of elationships Among Pain Characteristics
Mood Disturbances, and Acculturation in a Community
Sample of Chinese-American Patients With Cancer
Edrington, J., Sun, A., Wong, C., Dodd, M., Padilla, G., Paul, S., & Miaskowski, C.
This study is a pilot study to determine how level of acculturation and mood affect the intensity and functional aspects of pain in Chinese-American cancer patients. The purpose of the study is to determine if the pain perception of Chinese-American cancer patients is consistent with some past research on other ethnic groups (particularly Hispanic and African-Americans) that find that the level of acculturation is negatively related to the patients' self-reported pain intensity and the relief from pain associated with cancer. The researchers use the definition of acculturation as the process by which immigrants take on or embrace values, beliefs, customs, norms, and the lifestyle of the mainstream culture. Thus the Americanized the group is the…… [Read More]
The problems at the work place were detected over a long period of time and are a part of the history of development. The development of technology was very rapid which must also have brought in the needed changes in the workplace functions and norms. Unfortunately the basic structure of health protection came to be discussed only in the beginning of 1960s. The occupational medicine became a separate field of study since then and the occupational health service was born. The motto which the service wanted to achieve was an ergonomic system that could fit the job and the worker and simultaneously identify and eliminate health hazards. (Wilkinson, 50) There were many statues passed that created safety at the workplace. The greatest step in this regard was the OSHA regulations.
The OSHA act of 1970 was the single piece of legislation that gave an impetus to the work…… [Read More]
Disorders of the Veins and Arteries
Vein and artery disorders such as chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and frequently encountered by advanced practice nurses, making the need to understand the. epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of these conditions important. To this end, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a comparison of the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis and a description concerning how venous thrombosis is different from arterial thrombosis. In addition, an explanation concerning how the patient factor might impact the pathophysiology of CVI and DVT is followed by a description of how a clinician would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the selected factor. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these foregoing issues are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Chronic venous insufficiency
This condition typically involves an…… [Read More]
Chonic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML): Teatment Options
Patients suffeing fom chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) expeience ecuent infections, anemia, and thombocytopenia, signs and symptoms often manageable without pofessional help. Accodingly, patients often failed to seek medical cae until late in the disease couse and would have had a poo pognosis in the 20th centuy. Today, a numbe of effective teatments ae available, including the highly effective kinase inhibito imatinib. Kinase inhibitos suppess the activity of the fusion potein p210BCR-ABL, which is the poduct of a chomosomal tanslocation between chomosomes 9 and 22. Ove half of all CML patients will become symptom fee with the use of kinase inhibitos and live a long and poductive life, but a smalle pecentage will equie moe aggessive and iskie teatment appoaches, among which is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell tansplantation following high dose chemotheapy.
Chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a pogessive disease that impais…… [Read More]
Homeopathy for acute conditions is mainly focused on the symptoms being presented at that particular time. For chronic conditions homeopathy focuses on a larger set of symptoms and the characteristics of the person experiencing the symptoms. An acute condition is defined as a condition that comes on quickly and lasts for a short duration not more than several weeks. Acute conditions can be traced back to a situation. Chronic conditions are conditions that have persisted for long periods mostly throughout a person's life. The symptoms might be less severe than those of an acute condition, but they seriously affect an individual's quality of life. Acute conditions can be easily treated with homeopathy without the intervention of a professional homeopathic. This is because the condition is well known and it is easily established when it begun and what caused the condition (Haidvogl et al., 2007). The symptoms of an acute condition…… [Read More]
Acute Abdominal Pain -- Assessment
Nurses are very often the first medical aid providers that most patients see. In today's interprofessional healthcare set up, a nurse's approach in collecting a patient's history and diagnosing if the pain is acute or non-acute would assuredly help in providing the patient with appropriate treatment. It is therefore primary that nurses be fully equipped to diagnose the various ailments and start on the care to be provided. Nurses are also the first information gatherers and it is vital that they acquire the patient's past medical history. The importance of a structured approach in gathering this information is very vital as it forms the basis of analysis and also influences the care provided. Abdominal pain is one of the most common ailments that people complain of and seek medical care for. In most cases the pain's primary cause of pain may be ascertained almost immediately…… [Read More]
For example, in these procedures it is often difficult to open the patient's mouth wide enough for laryngoscopy and intubation, thus creating the possibility that cardiopulmonary changes may be present and the "probability o lesions in oesophagus, bowel, kindneys, skin and joints." This information would not be known if not for this study and its reported findings.
The study's conclusion is that the use of thoracic epidural anesthesia to sevoflurane based inhalation "may be a suitable technique for thoracic surgery in achalasia due to sclerodermic patients." The reason for this conclusion is that the study found that this procedure "can provide a smooth anesthesia course and a rapid recovery, with hemodynamic stability, and also having pain-free postoperatively." More so, the study found that providing anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade and non-intravenous opioids has "provided a shorter recovery time."
Clearly this specific case study has important and practical implications to the practice…… [Read More]
Thoracic Manipulation on Patients with Chronic Mechanical Neck Pain: A andomized Controlled Trial
The objective of this work in writing is to critique the study reported in the work of Lau, Chiu, and Lam (2011) entitled "The Effectiveness of Thoracic Manipulation on Patients with Chronic Mechanical neck pain -- A andomized Controlled Trial" reported in the Journal of Manual Therapy.
The aim of the study reported by Lau, Chiu, and Lam is stated to be assessment of the effectiveness of "thoracic manipulation (TM) on patients with chronic neck pain." (2011, p.141) Lifetime prevalence of neck pain is stated at 66.7% and 12-month prevalence at 53.6%. (Lau, Chiu, and Lam, 2011, p.141) Neck pain is expensive to treat in addition to the suffering of the individual and lost work time due to employee absenteeism. (Lau, Chiu, and Lam, 2011, paraphrased)
There is growing evidence, which has demonstrated that manipulation with exercise…… [Read More]
Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of the stress response has been implicated in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, hyporeactivity of the stress response has been associated with disorders such as atypical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, and obesity (Selhub, 2002).
It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. Stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different physical and physiological aliments. It is believed by many experts that people should take steps to decrease their stress levels in…… [Read More]
What's Gone Wrong?
CVI is generally an indication of blood stasis or venous reflux, most commonly valvular incompetence in the low-pressure superficial venous system. The inability of blood to return to the heart from the legs causes it to pool and clot. CVI generally occurs within the deep veins (Deep Vein Thrombosis), may also be related to varicose twisting, valve malformations or pelvic tumors.
Obesity, inactivity, pregnancy, smoking and extended periods of standing or sitting tend to be the activity factors of most importance. Women often present varicose veins; men DVT but this may be associated with delayed reporting. Type II Diabetes may also suggest different gender propensities. People over 50 predominately display indicators.
CVI results from damage caused to the veins, though clotting itself can precipitate vascular dilation. Varicose veins are often hereditary as may be valve defections which can result in venous reflux. Other…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been presented with a hypothetical situation where a forty-four-year-old patient has contracted scleroderma within her lung tissue. There are many implications to having this medical disorder and they are not limited to the medical realm. Indeed, this report will cover a number of these implications and byproducts including stereotyping by all of society including medical professionals, the overall predisposition for the disease, daily life of scleroderma, comorbidities that might exist or end up happing and social issues such finances, the environment and so forth. While there are a good number of things that can be done to mitigate, treat or even prevent scleroderma, there are a lot of implications that any scleroderma patient must face and it can be very difficult for the patient.
Scleroderma is rare but it can take on many forms. Indeed, while the patient in this…… [Read More]
Participants filled out a Short-Form McGill Questionnaire, an Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale, and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire in order to measure their levels of pain over the past few weeks. What the researchers found through statistical analysis was self-management strategies that reduced pain over time were most effective in the group that was exposed to guided imagery techniques. The level of guided imagery therapy was not itself significant, but more of the fact of whether or not it was present in the patient's therapy or not. This helps illustrate the effectiveness of guided imagery in managing long-term chronic pain when there are no fundamental cures present within traditional therapeutic practices. Pain management symptoms improved, but the symptoms overall remained. This shows that guided imagery is not a cure in and of itself, but rather an effective way to reduce and manage the pain that is present in chronic conditions like fibromyalgia.
Weydert,…… [Read More]
MacPherson, Thorpe, and Thomas (2006) reported an interesting qualitative study on the use of acupuncture in the treatment of low back pain. They report the results of a qualitative study nested within a large quantitative study (there were actually tow qualitative studies performed but the current study only addresses one of them). The quantitative study design was one of a large randomized controlled trial that compared acupuncture against typical general practitioner care. The study was carried out York between the years 1999 and 2003. The acupuncture treatment for the study was founded on the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) using six acupuncturists who all had a minimum of three years of post-qualification clinical experience. The acupuncturists were encouraged by the researchers to provide their typical treatment so that the study would evaluate the effect of routine care for lower back pain, each acupuncturist making meticulous notes of the aspects…… [Read More]
Psychological Interventions Chronic Pain
Medical science is increasingly aligning with a biopsychosocial treatment perspective that understands pain and symptoms as coming from multifaceted experience characterized by the complexity that is inherently human (oditi & obinson, 2011). Many vectors come together in this biopsychosocial perspective: the physicological and emotional state of the individual tend to dominate, garnering most of the medical attention these variables align with conventional medical and behavioral training (oditi & obinson, 2011). In addition, the influence of culture, ethnicity, and society on the interpretation of health and disease are important considerations (oditi & obinson, 2011). The literature on mind-body connection provides strong evidence of the impact that an individual's emotions can have on their behavior and, interestingly, provides findings that the reverse can also be true (oditi & obinson, 2011).
Chronic pain is considered to be an illness from a biopsychosocial perspective, and not a disease (oditi &…… [Read More]
FIBOMYALGIA OUTLINE and PAMPHLET
Introduction to Fibromyalgia
Symptoms of Fibromyalgia
Effects of the symptoms on the body.
isk factors and preventive steps.
Diagnosis and Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Therapeutic and diagnostic methods for fibromyalgia.
Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Having many physical and clinical symptoms, Fibromyalgia is a syndrome whose effects are felt in form of extreme musculoskeletal pain. It is believed that many environmental, genetic and biological factors are responsible for the start and progress of this infection although its etiology is undermined. In many industrialized countries, its rate of occurrence is 0.7-4.7% amongst the general population. It is incidentally seen more in women than men and the general female-to-male ratio being 9-1. Due to the diverse nature of its symptoms, those infected experience major difficulties adapting to their working environment, family or their life. It also subjects the sufferers to use consultative health services and social resources…… [Read More]
PICOT Question and its Significance
The PICOT question is: Does mindfulness meditation (I) reduce long-term risk factors and suicidal behaviors (O) among psychiatric patients (P) versus those who do not participate in the meditation programs (C)? This is of great significance to the nursing practice because psychiatric disorders are risk factors that cause an increase in the probability of a suicidal occurrence. As a result, it is imperative for psychiatric nurses to comprehend how to pinpoint such risk factors and institute a clinical practice setting that dissuades suicide. More importantly, nursing practice encompasses the execution of best practices for generating a clinical setting that diminishes risk such as mindfulness meditation.
Summary of Literature Review
The mindfulness meditation theory is deemed to the most prospective one in treating addictive disorder patients. The safety of these models is guaranteed if carried out in the framework of clinical studies. In recent periods, associated…… [Read More]
Apparently nurses, on the whole, are under-educated regarding the severity, etiology, ramifications, and other sequalea of chronic pain. A study conducted by Ferrel, McCaffery, and hiner (1991) discovered that lack of education of health care professionals, including nurses, is often cited as the cause for inadequate treatment for pain and for insufficient empathy in regards to chronic pain. Nurses (in this regard) often underestimate the severity and resilience of chronic pain and equate it with 'regular' pain, but by doing so, they lack sufficient empathy with patients and deal with the problem in a misguided fashion. Opoid analgesics, for instance, should be more frequently used as intervention. Instead, use of opiod analgesics is minimized due to fear of creating opoid addiction. Furthermore, cognitive therapy is one of the psychotherapeutic interventions that are relied on when, in fact, cognitive therapy has been shown to be ineffective with chronic pain.
Nurses receive…… [Read More]
Researchers used standard sleep questionnaires to assess sleep problems and characteristics in ADHD (n = 122) and non-ADHD (n = 105) comparison youths. They concluded that ADHD may be one of the consequence of nightmares but is not an outcome of it.
This study is valuable to my study in that it teaches me to be skeptical regarding differentiating between outcome and cause.
StRanjbaran, Z., Keefer, L., Farhadi, a., Stepanski, E., Sedghi, S. And Keshavarzian, a. (2007), Impact of sleep disturbances in inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 22: 1748 -- 1753.
Study showed that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have significant sleep disturbance even when their disease is not active. This problem might affect quality of life, gastrointestinal symptoms and coping ability, and might potentially increase or decrease disease severity. A self-administered, mail-in questionnaire package was sent to 205 subjects using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index…… [Read More]
Still, the concept of guided imagery tends to stray far from traditional methods of pain management. Pharmaceuticals have long been a major method of treatment for pain, but have resulted in major backlashes in regards to patients becoming addicted, especially in long-term and chronic cases of pain. If guided imagery could be a successful method, it may reduce pain or increase pain tolerance, without the threat of chemical dependence.
There are a number of benefits which are seen in the ongoing discourse today. As such, the expected improvements include things like drops in blood high blood pressure, lower heart rates, and reduction of chronic pain symptoms, lessoning of headache pain, and increasing overall pain tolerance (Cornelius, 2010). In situations were patients going into a major surgery were coached with guided imagery, it was "shown to decrease stress and anxiety before and after surgery," thus helping reduce additional pain issues during…… [Read More]
medical and ethical dilemmas, even if the activities were deemed technically legal or not questioned at the time. The fact that the studies sought to gain information from human subjects under unfair and undesirable circumstances means their results cannot be condoned and the findings cannot be accepted or used as viable study data. Each study directly crosses the line into scientific unacceptability in different ways; and while their underlying approaches raise interesting historical and philosophical questions -- that did not need to be tested to be debated -- there is no way to weed out the biases that contaminate the data.
This being said, it is generally safe to say that all of the studies were improper (unethical and/or illegal) at the time that they were being undertaken. This can be seen in the fact that in every instance the medical professionals involved were either directly or indirectly punished for…… [Read More]
Additionally, there may be patients that will be found to have the early symptoms of CKD, and those test results will be passed on to the individual patient.
All participants will be invited to learn more about CKD, and a one-night informational meeting will be conducted in which informational brochures will be passed out to the attendees, and will be discussed in detail. The attendees will also be provided the opportunity to give feedback (positive or negative) concerning their experiences with the early testing and how they view CKD from a current view as compared to their previous perceptions.
After all the data has been gathered and analyzed, a paper will be compiled that presents the results, along with a discussion of those results. It is hoped that the results will provide information to the medical community concerning how early testing and positive reinforcement can be effectively used during the…… [Read More]
Legalization of marijuana has been a controversial topic in the media as of lately. Completely legalizing marijuana would mean allowing just about anyone to have access to it -- of course with some government regulation. However, opponents of this process argue that the health detriments are enough to merit harsher punishments and the complete ban of this substance. Despite opposition to marijuana's legalization, there are many more benefits that need to be taken into consideration before rushing to any particular judgment. Marijuana should be legalized because it will bring a much needed boost to the economy, it has documented health benefits, and it is a safer drug than alcohol and cigarettes, which are already considered to be legal substances (ABC 20/20). In order for the welfare of all of the aforementioned entities to be established, marijuana needs to be legalized.
As of 2012, the states of Colorado and Washington have…… [Read More]
The objective of this study is to examine the condition of Fibromyalgia. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of current literature in this area of inquiry.
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome reported as common and one in which the individual has pain throughout their body as well as joint, muscle, tendon and soft tissue tenderness on a long-term basis.
Causes of Fibromyalgia
While the cause of Fibromyalgia is uncertain it has been linked to such as fatigue, problems sleeping, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Factors that are believed to be potential triggers of fibromyalgia include: (1) physical or emotional trauma; (2) abnormal responses to pain in areas of the brain; (3) disturbances in sleep; and (4) infection although no specific virus has been identified as being responsible for causing Fibromyalgia.
Occurrence of Fibromyalgia
Fibromyalgia is known to occur most in women ages 20 to 50 years of age.…… [Read More]
Sixteen American states currently allow doctors to prescribe an herbal remedy to their patients: cannabis. Herbal remedies are not typically viewed with suspicion, but cannabis has been illegal in the United States for several decades. Still technically an illegal drug, cannabis is not being sold legally in select medical dispensaries in the states that allow for its controlled use. The organization Pain Management of America outlines some of the most common conditions for which doctors prescribe cannabis. Those conditions range from seizures to muscle spasms to cancer and chronic pain (Pain Management of America). Although medical cannabis is a step in the right direction, ultimately the herb should be removed from its Schedule I classification in the Controlled Substances Act. Cannabis should be completely legal, giving American citizens the freedom to use, grow, and sell the plant.
"Dozens of peer-reviewed studies, prominent medical organizations, major government reports, and the use…… [Read More]
The quantitative approach, meanwhile, will make use of the survey method, focusing on three (3) segments each for males and females (criteria mentioned earlier in the preceding section).
The diary method is recommended because this will generate information that is insightful and in-depth, as it provides participants with an opportunity to express their thoughts and feelings without being conscious of the people who might be interviewing them or be with them, as what happens during an FGD.
Focus Group Discussion (FGD)
The FGDs will provide breadth of information about perceived pain. There will be twelve (12) mini-groups per segment, broken down into the following discussant types:
Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)
Adults (26-55 years old)
Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)
Adults (26-55 years old)
The survey method will make use of the multi-stage sampling, using once again the respondent criteria enumerated…… [Read More]
Today, self-inflicted pain is generally interpreted as a form of psychopathology, but within the mystical context, "pain unmakes the profane world with its corporeal attachments and leads the mystics away from the body to self-transcendence," thus pain and discipline elevates the individual into a world of deeper human community (Post). According to Glucklich, pain is even blotted out via a process in the brain known as gate-control that significantly alters biochemistry and consciousness, therefore "intentionally painful manipulations of the body could lead to states of self-transcendence or effacement" (Post).
Glucklich believes that today's society has lost the capacity to understand why and how pain could be valuable for mystics and members of religious communities, and even for humanity as a whole (Post). Historians of religion have long acknowledged the ubiquitous presence of intentionally painful rituals and practices, and have used this awareness as a key to understanding religious experiences (Post).…… [Read More]
5%, compared to 4.8% for males). (Chesney-Lind, 1998, p. 66)
The author also re-confirms the fact that data regarding of female inmate's indicate that as cited the passage of increased penalties for drug offenses has certainly been a major factor in this increase. Again, it is also important to see that implementation of these stricter sentencing reform initiatives which supposedly were devoted to reducing class and race disparities in male sentencing, pay very little attention to gender and the particular needs of women have been grievously overlooked. (Chesney-Lind, 1998; Aday, 2003)
The advent of mandatory sentencing schemes and strict punishment for drug offenses has been devastating to women. Many states have adopted harsh mandatory sentencing schemes. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which eliminated gender and family responsibility as factors for consideration at the time of sentencing, were adopted. (5) the policy of eliminating gender and family responsibility, combined with heightened penalties…… [Read More]
Complementary and Alternative Medicine and CISM in Diverse Populations
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as often referred to as integrated medicine. This term refers to therapies used to enhance health that fall outside the realm of conventional or "western" medical therapies. Southern Medical therapies are often limited to pharmaceutical drugs, surgery, and other interventions that directly affect the body. CAM therapies can simply refer to culturally-based medical practices that are not part of mainstream medicine in the United States. ecently, the trend is toward using CAM therapies along with evidence-based Western medical practices. This research will explore CAM interventions for diverse populations within the scope of the CISM plan.
CAM Interventions for prevention of Stress and esilience
One of the most widely accepted areas for the use of CAM interventions is in the area of stress reduction, depression, anxiety, chronic pain, and other conditions that are common symptoms…… [Read More]
Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) Systems
Complementary and alternative medicine systems are health care approaches that are characterized by a history of use or origins that are external to mainstream medicine or health care practices. These health care systems or approaches have lasted for centuries since different kinds of complementary and alternative medicines have been reported. According to the World Health Organization, different types of complementary and alternative medicines have acted as the basic health practice in developing countries and are increasingly used in countries with predominant conventional medicine (Kramlich, 2014, p.50). CAM therapies have become common in the recent past and are used for treating various conditions including chronic pain conditions. Actually, several CAM therapies and practice interventions such as acupuncture and massage therapy are increasingly used in chronic pain management.
Naturopathic medicine, which is also known as naturopathy or alternative medicine, is a term that is…… [Read More]
The study will also be important to those in the future, because scientists have not yet found ways to cure these chronic illnesses or correct some of these problems that are seen today, and therefore it stands to reason that there will be more people in the future who will have to face the same problems as those with chronic illnesses and traumatic injuries today.
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is relatively large, simply because there has been a great deal written about chronic illness and injuries from the perspective of the physician and from the perspective of the patient. Both sides are important, although the focus here will remain largely on the patient perspective. Because there are so many people today that suffer from a chronic illness or traumatic injury, much study has been done about these individuals. Despite these studies, however, not a lot…… [Read More]
One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.
Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…… [Read More]
Financial and Economic Impact of Worker's Compensation egulations And Compliance
The program and concept of Workers' Compensation might appear to be a product of a civilized society and the modern era, but nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, Workers' Compensation has essentially been around for as long as people have been completing task for payment of some form of another, because people have always been getting hurt in some way, on the job. "The history of compensation for bodily injury begins shortly after the advent of written history itself1. The Nippur Tablet No. 3191 from ancient Sumeria in the Fertile Crescent outlines the law of Ur-Nammu, king of the city-state of Ur. It dates to approximately 2050 B.C.2. The law of Ur provided monetary compensation for specific injury to workers' body parts, including fractures. The code of Hammurabi from 1750 B.C. provided a similar set of rewards…… [Read More]
Cannabis contains more than one hundred and twenty distinct chemical compounds known collectively as cannabinoids. One of those canabinoids is cannabidol, commonly abbreviated and referred to as CBD. While CBD has no psychoactive properties, it may be beneficial for treating specific medical conditions including chronic pain. CBD can be used orally or topically. In its topical form, CBD is typically added to a carrier oil. Topical applications of CBD oils include the management of pain due to arthritis and inflammation. Research continues to mount suggesting the additional benefits of oral administration of CBD to treat epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, and anxiety. Because CBD does not produce known side effects, euphoric or otherwise, it has also garnered attention for its relative safety especially vis-a-vis its sister compounds found in cannabis. CBD also presents tremendous opportunities for market-related growth in the budding international cannabis industry.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one…… [Read More]
Offered under the same roof are "consultative, diagnostic, and treatment services" which are stated to be provided "by board-certified practitioners in the fields of pulmonary medicine, otolarngology, family medicine and more." (2006)
Smith reports that the laboratories experiencing the most dramatic growth are two which are located the "farthest from the Hillsboro flagship" as they are located in two areas that were "formerly underserved." (2006) Smith additionally reports that the demand is stronger in the areas where the two fastest growing centers are located which supplies "plenty of fuel for expansion."
Smith states that the Sleep Health & Wellness NW is attempting to "fill a gap so that patients who previously were overlooked or not being reached or who fell through the cracks no longer are," she says. "We have no plans to open centers in areas where there are already quality sleep services programs. We only want to go…… [Read More]
When using open reduction of dorsal displaced fractures of the radius to restore congruency and extra-articular anatomy, the authors recommended the use of their double-plating method. This method is reliable in providing stable internal fixation and in allowing early function. It is, however, and as earlier mentioned, a demanding technique, as ot requires careful; attention to detail.
Carter, P.. And PR Stuart. The Sauva-Kapankji Procedure for Post-Traumatic Disorders of the Distal Radio-Ulnar Joint. Journal of one and Joint Surgery: ritish Editorial Society of one and Joint Surgery, September 2000
Only one surgeon performed all the operations on a total of 37 patients for pain on the ulnar side of the wrist and decreased rotation of the forearm. The authors reported that most of the tested patients were better after the operation, although a significant number had some pain. Relief from pain could not be guaranteed and that residual pain associated…… [Read More]
Ultimately, it may be the greatest measure of humanity that we recognize that the relevance of animal sentience in relation to our needs is not a function of their similarity to us or of our chosen relationships with them.
Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,
And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam
Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.
Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.
"Meta-Analysis Of Psychological Interventions For Chronic Low Back Pain."
Health Psychology, 2007 26 (1): 1-9.
Jensen, Maureen C.; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N.; Obuchowski, Nancy; Modic, Michael
T. Malkasian, Dennis, and Ross, Jeffrey S. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People without Back…… [Read More]
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…… [Read More]
Benchmark-esearch Critique and PICOT statement
This article is a research critique on the paper titled 'Home Telehealth for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis' by J. Franek. The research paper under review was published by the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series.
Although there isn't a direct statement that refers to Problem statement, there is a title that highlights the "Objective of the Analysis." There is an excerpt of the objectives below. The discussion in the objective statement is only centred on the evaluation steps. There is evidence in the literature that the effects of COPD were openly revealed as being core elements of the problem statement in the first place.
"For patients experiencing multiple comorbidities, it is essential to observe routine self-management support. Such support consists of the necessary education to enlighten parents to pick out the symptoms in good time. They will consequently manage their…… [Read More]
Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).
Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).
In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…… [Read More]