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Chronic Pain Essays (Examples)

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Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain Necessitates the Maintenance of
Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 39044434
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Chronic musculoskeletal pain necessitates the maintenance of good extensibility in order for normal functioning to be enhanced. This enhancement results in improvements in strength, endurance, fitness, and psychological well-being (Law et al., 2009). Programs promoting the improvement of movement for people with chronic musculoskeletal pain usually include stretching components. Stretching helps to improve functioning through improved range of motion within joints, and therefore muscle extensibility (Law et al., 2009).

The study by Law et al. (2009) emphasized the importance of tolerance and extensibility for individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of the study, which was clearly outlined in the report, was to explore whether stretch affects either or both of these factors. The researchers hypothesized that individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain may respond to stretch differently than individuals who do not experience chronic pain. Further to this suggestion, the researchers suggest that individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain may show…

References

Law, R.Y., Harvey, L.A., Nicholas, M.K., Tonkin, L., De Sousa, M., Finniss, D.G. (2009). Stretch exercises increase tolerance to stretch in patieints with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a randomized controlled trial. Physical Therapy, 89(10), 1016-26.

Chronic Fatigue Is Normal Aspect
Words: 2091 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48201858
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However, he questions the research that has been done in this area. First, he wonders whether the exercise is a placebo effect based on the anticipation of improvement. The second question is the acceptability of this treatment. Many CFS patients actively avoid exercise and many healthcare providers in fact recommend rest at all costs rather than a concern of relapse. However, the positive aspect of the CBT and the exercise is that it has the patients question their fears. In both cases, there is a psychotherapeutic affect that may be beneficial.

The use of antidepressants is another approach that has been suggested and studied. However, the results on this have also been mixed. As Demitrack (1996, p. 282) states, "At the present time, it is unrealistic to present medication as a sole treatment for this disease." It may be that medications could work in the short-term and provide enough symptomatic…

References

Center for Disease Control (2006, May 9). Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Retrieved January 30, 2007  http://www.cdc.gov/cfs/cfsbasicfacts.htm .

Demitrack, M. And Abbey, S. (1996) (Eds) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. New York: Guilford Press.

Hyland, M.E. et. al. (2006) Letter to the Editor. The Lancet 367 (9522), 1573-1576

Komaroff, a., & Fagioli, L. (1996) Medial Assessment of Fatigue and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. In M. Demitrack and S. Abbey (Eds) Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (pg. 154-181). New York: Guilford Press,.

Chronic Sorrow
Words: 1631 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67060671
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Chronic sorrow is a continuous, pervasive sadness and also permanent and intermittently intense. An individual often encounters loss experience because of their disability, relative or chronic illness (Isaksson, 2007, p. 18). Chronic sorrow as a concept was introduced by Olshansky (1962) while he was dealing with children with disability of various kinds and their parents or relatives. He noted that the children's parents showed what he referred to as a pervasive reaction of psychological nature to the predicament of parenting mentally defective children (Monsson, 2010, p.16).

Such grief, he observed, was not dissimilar to the type shown by parents that have lost a child. The parents of mentally defective children have it worse because their pain is a continuous one. This is why he referred to the concept as chronic sorrow (Monsson, 2010, p. 16). It has been thought that chronic sorrow entails experiencing intermittent spans of distress and pain,…

References

Ahlstrom, G. I. (2007). Experiencing Loss and Chronic Sorrow in Persons with Severe Chronic Illness. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16 (3A), 76-83.  https://www.researchgate.net/publication/6313596_Experiencing_loss_and_chronic_sorrow_in_persons_with_severe_chronic_illness 

Borkon, D. A. (2008). Is Chronic Sorrow Present in Maternal Caregivers of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disordered Children? Adlerian Counselling and Psychotherapy.  http://alfredadler.edu/sites/default/files/Borkon%20MP%202009.pdf 

Dozier, B. (2015). Application of Middle-Range Theory. Professional Practices in Nursing. Wordpress.com.  https://barbradozier.wordpress.com/2015/07/03/application-of-middle-range-theory/ 

Eakes, G., Burke, M. L. & Hainsworth, M. A. (1998). Middle-Range theory of Chronic Sorrow. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 30(2), pp. 179(6).  http://www.psychodyssey.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Middle-range-theory-of-chronic-sorrow.pdf

Online Pediatric Pain Assessment Pain
Words: 2462 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31301863
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Combining these two methods is one effective strategy in mitigating pain in children (Cohen).

Additional strategies that involve both the patient and family are evident, particularly when dealing with chronic pain. Children sometimes internalize pain, believing that they must restrict their activity, particularly when parents worry and hesitate to allow them to be active. Parents see play as worsening of the situation or a relapse, contributing to an overprotectivness. This, in turn, reflects on the self-image of the child. In any case, experts recommend that parents not react in a negative way -- either by thinking the child is faking pain or becoming so overprotective that the child is a virtual prisoner. Instead, the psychological strategy should be to set realistic and evolving strategies so that there is not a continue pessimism regarding future health outcomes. This, for adolescents, is critical since there is also a self-esteem issue that goes…

REFERENCES

The Handbook of Chronic Pain. (2007). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Handbook of Pediatric Chronic Pain. (2011). New York: Springer.

Carter, B., & Threlkeld, M. (2012). Psychosocial perspectives in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain. Pediatric Rheumatology, 10(15), 1-11. Retrieved January 2013, from Pediatric Rheumatology:  http://www.ped-rheum.com/content/pdf/1546-0096-10-15.pdf 

Christie, D., & Wilson, C. (2005). CBT in Pediatric and Adolescent Health. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 8(4), 241-47.

Non-Cardiac Chest Pain Background- Chest Pain Is
Words: 1987 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 97434616
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Non-Cardiac Chest Pain

Background- Chest pain is one of the most common reasons people call for or visit the Emergency Room for help. Heart attack education has brought to light the urgency of seeking immediate medical treatment if one suspects they are having heart issues. However, chest pain does not always signal a heart attack, and may be totally unrelated to issues with the cardiovascular system. Often no clear reason for such pain presents itself during examination, but understanding the perception and pain experience can help medical professionals understand different experiences that lead to patient panic about chest pain (Jerlock, Gaston-Johansson, & Danielson, 2005). Typically, if chest pain is related to a cardiac issue it is usually associated with one of the following symptoms: 1) pressure, fullness or extreme tightness in the chest; 2) crushing or searing pain that radiates to the back, upward through the jaw, and especially through…

Works Cited

Unexplained Chest Pain Can be Due To Stress. (2009, February 9). Retrieved from Science Daily:  http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090209094551.htm 

Cunha, J. (2011, March). Chest Pain - Overview, Causes, Symptoms. Retrieved from eMedicineHealth:  http://www.emedicinehealth.com/chest_pain/article_em.htm 

Hershcovici, T., Navarro-Rodriguez, T., & Fass, R. (2011). Non-Cardiac Chest Pain: An Update. CML Gastroenterology, 30(2), 37-54.

Jerlock, M., Gaston-Johansson, F., & Danielson, E. (2005). Living with unexplained chest pain. Issues in Clinical Nursing, 14(2), 956-64.

Reducing Perceived Pain
Words: 699 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16567756
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reduce the amount of pain perceived. Many people have the ability to reduce perceived pain through psychological thought and understanding. Not all people can handle their pain in this manner, but it can help many chronic pain patients deal with their illnesses and their constant pain.

One technique is using positive coping mechanisms to deal with the pain, and the psychologist may be able to work with the patient in developing these coping mechanisms. Experts note, "People who feel that they have a number of successful methods for coping with pain may suffer less than those who behave and feel helpless, hopeless, and demoralized" (Turk, Monarch & Williams, 2004, p. 222). If the patient has a history of coping well with other stressful events, then they may be a good candidate for using coping mechanisms. Some of these coping mechanisms include relaxation, pain medication, and psychological counseling to help increase…

References

Bruehl, S., & Chung, O.Y. (2004). Chapter 9 Psychological interventions for acute pain. In Pain: Psychological perspectives, Hadjistavropoulos, T. & Craig, K.D. (Eds.) (pp. 245-264). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved October 13, 2005, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& ; d=104331529

Turk, D.C., Monarch, E.S., & Williams, A.D. (2004). Chapter 8 Assessment of chronic pain sufferers. In Pain: Psychological perspectives, Hadjistavropoulos, T. & Craig, K.D. (Eds.) (pp. 209-239). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved October 13, 2005, from Questia database:

Characteristics of Pain
Words: 3205 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 75487730
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Perception of Pain

Uses of Pain in nursing

Definitions of Pain from Dictionaries

Uses of Pain in psychology

Defining attributes

Model case

elated Case

Contrary Case

Antecedents and Consequences

CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PECEPTION OF PAIN

The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of the perception of pain. The researcher purpose to clarify describe the characteristics of pain and recognize antecedents that effect the idea of pain and the likely outcomes of pain by utilizing Avant's and Walker (2005) theory of study. Also, a model case shows how pain is connected to these serious characteristics contrary case and a borderline case are shown to distinguish the perception of pain from other notions. Empirical referents show the current point-of-view of the perception of pain. (Akyol & Salmond, 2009)

Concept Analysis of Characteristics of Pain

Introduction

The goal of this paper is to expand the understanding of the concept of…

References:

Akyol, O., Karayurt, O., & Salmond, S. (2009). Experiences of pain and satisfaction with pain management in patients undergoing total knee replacement. Orthopedic Nursing, 28(2), 79-85.

Chan, S., Hadjistavropoulos, T., Carleton, R.N., & Hadjistavropoulos, H. (2012). Predicting adjustment to chronic pain in older adults. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 44(3), 192-199.

Eggermont, L.H.P., Bean, J.F., Guralnik, J.M., & Leveille, S.G. (2009). Comparing pain severity vs. pain location in the MOBILIZE Boston study: Chronic pain and lower extremity function*. The Journals of Gerontology, 64A (7), 763-70.

Gelinas, C., Fortier, M., Viens, C., Fillion, L., & Puntillo, K. (2004). PAIN ASSESSMENT AND Management IN CRITICALLY ILL INTUBATED PATIENTS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY. American Journal of Critical Care, 13(2), 126-35.

Learning Pain Assessment and Management
Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 15955736
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43). The pain assessment guidelines set forth in this article will have an immediate effect on my first encounter with a patient, particularly if that patient is a chronic pain sufferer or end-of life patient. The sixth defined responsibility in the INPA is also of particular importance in regards to the information contained in this article; this is the responsibility to "evaluate with the patient/client the status of the goal achievement as a basis for reassessment" (INPA, 2007, p. 43). The evaluation of pain and the assessment of necessary and reasonable care in end-of-life patients is a complex task, as this article points out, so the implications of this article's information on this task of the registered nurse are huge.

Its affects on the practical nurse are similar, though heightened. Many of the basic responsibilities of the registered nurse and the practical nurse are the same; for instance, the language…

References

Indiana Code and Indiana Administrative Code. (2007). Indiana nurse practice act.

Sherman, D., Matzo, M., Pace, J. & R. Virani. (2004). "Learning pain assessment and management: A goal of the end-of-life nursing education consortium." The journal of continuing education in nursing, 35 (3), pp. 107-120.

Subspecialty Postgrad Pain as Most
Words: 1837 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47490390
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Conclusion:

The changes in the age demographic of the U.S. As well as the need to reduce overall spending in health care are significant reasons why advanced practice and specialty provision practitioner's skill sets and demands have changed. It is for this reason as well as for patient efficacy that such a subspecialty should be offered at a postgraduate level to AAs. These advanced practice alternative providers can be successfully and efficiently trained to provide services at a significantly lower rate, creating a potential opportunity for more people to receive advanced pain management care in a broader setting. This could only improve outcomes for chronic pain sufferers and broaden the scope of opportunity for AAs and possibly other advanced practice alternative providers. As need continues to rise alternatives must be sought within the system to provide care to patients who will likely need pain management service in growing numbers in…

References

American Board of Pain Medicine Website. Retrieved February, 21, 2008 at  http://www.abpm.org/ 

Bandlow, D. (1995). M.D. Monopoly: How Nurses Can Help Relieve Spiraling Health-Care Costs. Policy Review, (74), 89.

Block, a.R., Kremer, E.F., & Fernandez, E. (Eds.). (1999). Handbook of Pain Syndromes: Biopsychosocial Perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Block, a.R. (1996). Presurgical Psychological Screening in Chronic Pain Syndromes: A Guide for the Behavioral Health Practitioner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Rsd Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy AKA CRPS or Complex Regional Pain Syndrome CRPS
Words: 4914 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18797249
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History of RSD

The history and the discovery of RSD (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Syndrome and its symptoms have typically been associated with wars. While there is no doubt that RSD from physical stress and injury existed earlier, it was left up to war physicians to assign pathology to it. Silas Weir Mitchell, an army doctor during the Civil War, described the symptoms of "burning pain" left in soldiers long after the bullets have been removed. He attributed these residual and long lasting pains to major nerve injury. Weir was the first to call RSD causalgia (currently, specifically known as CRPS-2), which is Greek for "burning pain." He wrote that, "Under such torments, the temper changes, the most amiable grow irritable, the soldier becomes a coward, and the strongest man is scarcely less nervous than the most hysterical girl." Weir accurately reflected the symptoms. (PARC, 2004). Mitchell accurately described the symptoms…

Bibliography

Allen, G., Galer, B.S., & Schwartz, L. (1999). Epidemiology of complex regional pain syndrome: a retrospective chart review of 134 patients. Pain, 80(3), 539-544.

Aronoff, G.M., Harden, N., Stanton-Hicks, M., Dorto, A.J., Ensalada, L.H., Klimek, E.H., Mandel, S., & Williams, J.M. (2002). American Academy of Disability Evaluating Physicians (AADEP) Position Paper: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (RSD): Impairment and Disability Issues. Pain Med, 3(3), 274-288.

Bakewell, S. (1995). The Autonomic Nervous System. Update in Anesthesia, 6(5), 1.

Barolat, G., Schwartzman, R., & Woo, R. (1989). Epidural spinal cord stimulation in the management of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg, 53(1), 29-39.

Complementary and Alternative Pain Management Methods
Words: 1134 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24829910
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Alternatives to Pain Medication

Given the growing concerns over opioid addictions in recent years and the potential for tolerance, clinicians continue to search for efficacious alternatives to convention pain medications (Moore & Anderson, 2016). Fortunately, a number of alternatives to conventional pan medication are readily available, including cannabis, yoga, hypnosis, mind-body meditation, therapeutic touch, herbal remedies, acupuncture, biofeedback, massage therapy, homeopathic practices (Tan & Craine, 2007) and aromatherapy (Esposito & Bystrek, 2014). To learn more about these alternatives, this paper provides an initial reference list of ten relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly sources concerning pain medication alternatives, followed by a description of clinical guidelines and an implementation plan for these alternatives. A discussion concerning the manner in which the implementation of the intervention should be tested is followed by an assessment of potential barriers and strategies intended to gain cooperation from individuals who will be implementing the change. Finally, a timeline…

References

Clinical practice guidelines. (2016). U.S. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Retrieved from  https://nccih.nih.gov/health/providers/clinicalpractice.htm .

Levin, R. F. & Feldman, H. R. (2006). Teaching evidence-based practice in nursing: A guide for academic and clinical settings. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Moore, B. A. & Anderson, D. (2016, Janury). Stepped care model for pain management and quality of pain care in long-term opioid therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 53(1), 137-141.

Pain management guidelines. (2016). U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved from  https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/9744 ?.

Treating a Patient with Hip Pain
Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 78269697
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HIP PAIN

A Caucasian Man with Hip Pain

Decision Point One

The patient presents physical, social, and psychological complications. He is experiencing pain in his hip but is considered to be an unsuitable candidate for a hip replacement because of his age. The initial diagnosis was torn cartilage but the patient has also been diagnosed with complex regional pain syndrome (CPS). He previously worked as a machinist but has since been unemployed and has a conflicted relationship with his girlfriend who has accused him of being a junky. The patient does exhibit some symptoms of depression.

The patient has previously complained about the negative side effects of some of the drugs he has been given to address his pain symptoms, including constipation and sleepiness. Given this, the use of the tricyclic antidepressants like amitriptyline would seem counterproductive given that these drugs often produce similar side effects ("Amitriptyline," 2016). However, Savella…

References

Amitriptyline. (2016). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from:

 http://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/amitriptyline-oral-route/side-effects/drg-20072061 

FAQs. (2017). Biofreeze. Retrieved from:  http://www.biofreeze.com/faqs 

Lidocaine. (2017). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved from:

Tapentadol IR for Acute Pain
Words: 536 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 89930672
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Therefore, the research offers reliable data supporting the emerging medication.

The sample included 878 patients with low back pain or pain from osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. Patients were randomly assigned to Tapentadol or control drug oxycodone and took their medications for 90 days Doses for Tapentadol were flexible with either 50 or 100 mg offered every 4 to 6 hours, up to a maximum of 600 mg/day. Instances of nausea, vomiting, and constipation were significantly lower in the Tapentadol group vs. The oxycodone group. Doses were flexible and mimicked real life administrations of the medications.

However, the control group was given 10 mg or 15 mg of oxycodone IR every four to six hours. The lack of standardization of doses and the flexible administration of the drugs compromise the reliability and validity of the study. Nurses should also take note that rates of other side-effects such as drowsiness…

Small Nerve Pain Fibers in Pain Assessment
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58160352
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feasible to measure pain because it is located in the thalamus. Is pain able to be measured objectively? Just as a blood pressure of 220/110 will give us some information about the cardiovascular system, assessing the peripheral pain pathway can help in the diagnosis and treatment of a patient's pain. Part of this paper will discuss the pain problem. People tend to view reports of pain with suspicion and disbelief. How is pain assessed at this time? Are there any objective markers of pain? How efficient are the current measurements of pain? Is the electromyography (EMG) test a good measurement of the nerve pain pathway? The pain pathway from the free nerve ending in the amydala hypothalamus will also be reviewed. The following section will discuss various instrumentations that currently exist, and how the pain sensory of the a-delta fibers can be measured. Another section will discuss the pathophysiology and…

National Institute of Health data supports that 40% of patients seeking medical consultation do so because they are experiencing pain. Most of these cases are neck and low back ones. The problem faced by physicians is determining whether the pain is real, imagined or is being magnified to procure a prescription for medication. Since pain is considered subjective, without any objective method to quantify it, the physician is in a position where he must rely on his/her evaluation of indirect findings and belief in the patient's veracity to determine if the problem is real, imagined or if the patient is magnifying the symptoms in order to obtain pain medication. Since there are usually little objective concomitant findings, the physician is left in a position where he either does or does not believes the patient. What is a physician to do?

"Chronic pain poses significant challenges in the lives of many people. At the root of many of these challenges are the behavior patterns pain naturally coordinates. For example, in some cases, attempts to control, reduce, or cure pain through medication, medical procedures, or lifestyle changes can prove unsuccessful, and can dominate all other potential goals. The experience of chronic pain also includes other discouraging, painful, or unwanted psychological experiences, such as thoughts, feelings, and memories. Attempts to control or reduce some of these psychological experiences also can prove unsuccessful and even harmful, further reducing quality of life" (Thompson M, 2011).

An important question any pain physician needs to address is how to properly evaluate spinal pain. How would a physician know if someone is symptom magnifying? Please note that symptom magnification should not be confused with the term "malingering," which is defined as the deliberate

Benefit of Mindfulness on Pain Attenuation
Words: 1203 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 66941530
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Mindfulness Meditation Training on Experimentally Induced Pain" by Zeidan et al., (2010), published in the Journal of Pain, presents the results of research to investigate

The research addresses a gap in the research examining the benefit of meditation in attenuating pain symptoms. The research problem is clearly articulated, with the title clearly stating the content of the paper and the introduction expressing and justifying the issue. Past research has demonstrated that meditation programs, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBS) programs have been correlated with positive health outcomes, including pain attenuation. The most common form of program is the MBS. In the context of pain management the eight-week length of the program renders it difficult for some patients, such as suffers of chronic pain, as they may not have the ability, or the time, required to complete the course. The research undertaken by Zeidan et al. (2010) addresses this problem, implementing…

Reference

Zeidan, Fadel, Gordon, Nakia S., Merchant, Junaid, Goolkasian, Paula, (2010), The Effects of Brief Mindfulness Meditation Training on Experimentally Induced Pain, The Journal of Pain, 11(3), 199-209

How people Cope up with Mental Pain
Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82053448
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Pain and Suffering

Pain is an abstract and complex topic, which is influenced by a serious of psychological and environmental variables. We all have experienced pain although at varying intensities. Since the psychological factors play a great role in influencing how we perceive pain, therefore, it renders pain a highly subjective experience. esearchers have tried to differentiate between physical and mental pain (Campbell & Edwards 2012). In this essay, I describe physical pain from mental pain. I also show how various people respond to pain, contrast two different responses to pain. I also highlight how Asian culture compares with Hispanic culture in responding to pain.

Describe physical pain from mental or soul pain.

The two major types of pain can be classified as physical and mental. Since physical and mental pains are subjective, complex phenomenon, defining them seems to be a challenge. The International Association for the Study of Pain…

References

Campbell C. M & Edwards, R. R. (2012). Ethnic Differences in Pain and Pain Management. Pain Management. Vol. 2(3): 219 -- 230.

Edwards RR, Moric M, Husfeldt B, Buvanendran A, & Ivankovich O. (2005). Ethnic Similarities and Differences in the Chronic Pain Experience: A Comparison of African-American, Hispanic, and White Patients. Pain Medicine. Vol. 6(1):88-98.

Memory Pain and Trauma
Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 82016030
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Reavey, P. (010). Spatial markings: Memory, agency and child sexual abuse. Memory Studies.

According to Reavey (010), a critical component of recovery from childhood sexual abuse is reasserting the victim's sense of agency and control over her own life. All too often it is common when treating survivors to encourage them to see themselves as passive victims. The focus of Reavey's text is the spatial component of memory: women experience the trauma of abuse again and again because of the parallels between their current physical situation and that of their past, abusive histories. Reavey suggests that viewing the self as constantly in flux and changing and creating a new narrative linking past and present in a more positive way is a far more helpful concept to instill over the course of therapy. One of the challenges many women experience in dealing with abuse is that it takes place in a…

2011 4: 23.

According to Burton (2011), although pain is undeniably a 'real' thing, memories of pain can cause the actual, somatic trauma to linger long after the physical condition has passed. She cites one woman who was 'tricked' using a mirror to realize that she no longer was experiencing pain in one of her hands due to repetitive stress injury. "Mirror therapy illustrates the radical account of corporeal memory that is now current in the biomedical sciences, in which the body is a complex amalgam of fleshy reality and cerebral projection -- images and reality have merged, and the brain has the capacity to 're-member' its physiological attitudes" (Burton 2011: 30). Although Burton acknowledges that there is often a great deal of mistrust of biological sciences as reductive amongst humanities scholars, she suggests that the treatment of chronic pain can be useful as a study of the intersection of personal experience and medicine. Chronic pain is ill-understood by the medical community and often notoriously difficult to treat. Analyzing how memory can cause pain to be stored in the body and how tricking one's memory can release it shows how humanities-based understandings of medicine can prove useful for the biological sciences.

Pain is all too often negated or dismissed: rather Burton suggests an empathetic understanding of its causality and a holistic approach to pain treatment. Burton's article provides a starting point for many other treatments which try to address the intersection of pain and memory. Massage, yoga, and other forms of general exercise all encourage participants to construct a new concept of themselves through the reengineering of the body and a reconfiguration of the relationship of the individual to his or her physicality in the past, present, and future.

Pilot Study of Relationships Among Pain Characteristics
Words: 1552 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 49759320
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Pilot Study of elationships Among Pain Characteristics

Mood Disturbances, and Acculturation in a Community

Sample of Chinese-American Patients With Cancer

Edrington, J., Sun, A., Wong, C., Dodd, M., Padilla, G., Paul, S., & Miaskowski, C.

This study is a pilot study to determine how level of acculturation and mood affect the intensity and functional aspects of pain in Chinese-American cancer patients. The purpose of the study is to determine if the pain perception of Chinese-American cancer patients is consistent with some past research on other ethnic groups (particularly Hispanic and African-Americans) that find that the level of acculturation is negatively related to the patients' self-reported pain intensity and the relief from pain associated with cancer. The researchers use the definition of acculturation as the process by which immigrants take on or embrace values, beliefs, customs, norms, and the lifestyle of the mainstream culture. Thus the Americanized the group is the…

References

Bates, M.S., Edwards, W.T., & Anderson, K.O. (1993). Ethnocultural influences on variation in chronic pain perception. Pain, 52, 101-112.

Edrington, J., Sun, A., Wong, C., Dodd, M., Padilla, G., Paul, S., & Miaskowski, C. (2010). A pilot study of relationships among pain characteristics, mood disturbances, and acculturation in a community sample of Chinese-American patients with cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum, 37 (2), 172-181.

Gregory, R.J. (2011). Psychological Testing: History, Principles, and Applications (Sixth Edition). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Koyama, T., McHaffie, J.G., Laurienti, P.J., & Coghill, R.C. (2005). The subjective experience of pain: Where expectations become reality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102, 12950-12955.

Pain and Spinal Disorder at
Words: 3131 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72284695
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The problems at the work place were detected over a long period of time and are a part of the history of development. The development of technology was very rapid which must also have brought in the needed changes in the workplace functions and norms. Unfortunately the basic structure of health protection came to be discussed only in the beginning of 1960s. The occupational medicine became a separate field of study since then and the occupational health service was born. The motto which the service wanted to achieve was an ergonomic system that could fit the job and the worker and simultaneously identify and eliminate health hazards. (Wilkinson, 50) There were many statues passed that created safety at the workplace. The greatest step in this regard was the OSHA regulations.

OSHA Implications

The OSHA act of 1970 was the single piece of legislation that gave an impetus to the work…

Reference:

N.A. Comparative table of pain distribution. ( http://www.aans.org/education/journal/neurosurgical/may98/4-5-p1/8204f3.GIF )

References

Charlton, Samuel G; O'brien, Thomas G. Handbook of Human Factors Testing and Evaluation. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Mahwah, NJ. 2002.

Harrington, Lisa. H. The Safety Zone.  http://www.inboundlogistics.com/articles/features/0506_feature01.shtml

Chronic Venous Insufficiency and Deep Venous Thrombosis
Words: 871 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26526903
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Disorders of the Veins and Arteries

Vein and artery disorders such as chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and frequently encountered by advanced practice nurses, making the need to understand the. epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation of these conditions important. To this end, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a comparison of the pathophysiology of chronic venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis and a description concerning how venous thrombosis is different from arterial thrombosis. In addition, an explanation concerning how the patient factor might impact the pathophysiology of CVI and DVT is followed by a description of how a clinician would diagnose and prescribe treatment of these disorders for a patient based on the selected factor. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these foregoing issues are presented in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

Chronic venous insufficiency

This condition typically involves an…

References

Jaff, M. R. & Weinberg, I. (2014, September 22). Postthrombotic syndrome: A scientific statement calling for more data. American Heart Association. Retrieved from  http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/ .

Other names for deep vein thrombosis. (2016). National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Retrieved from  http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ .

Venous insufficiency. (2016). National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://www. nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000203.htm.

Weigand, T. (2002, October). Deep venous thrombosis and airline travel. Defense Counsel Journal, 69(4), 523-525.

Curing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia
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Chonic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML): Teatment Options

Patients suffeing fom chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) expeience ecuent infections, anemia, and thombocytopenia, signs and symptoms often manageable without pofessional help. Accodingly, patients often failed to seek medical cae until late in the disease couse and would have had a poo pognosis in the 20th centuy. Today, a numbe of effective teatments ae available, including the highly effective kinase inhibito imatinib. Kinase inhibitos suppess the activity of the fusion potein p210BCR-ABL, which is the poduct of a chomosomal tanslocation between chomosomes 9 and 22. Ove half of all CML patients will become symptom fee with the use of kinase inhibitos and live a long and poductive life, but a smalle pecentage will equie moe aggessive and iskie teatment appoaches, among which is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell tansplantation following high dose chemotheapy.

Intoduction

CML Etiology

Chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a pogessive disease that impais…

Homeopathy for Acute vs Chronic Conditions
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Homeopathy for acute conditions is mainly focused on the symptoms being presented at that particular time. For chronic conditions homeopathy focuses on a larger set of symptoms and the characteristics of the person experiencing the symptoms. An acute condition is defined as a condition that comes on quickly and lasts for a short duration not more than several weeks. Acute conditions can be traced back to a situation. Chronic conditions are conditions that have persisted for long periods mostly throughout a person's life. The symptoms might be less severe than those of an acute condition, but they seriously affect an individual's quality of life. Acute conditions can be easily treated with homeopathy without the intervention of a professional homeopathic. This is because the condition is well known and it is easily established when it begun and what caused the condition (Haidvogl et al., 2007). The symptoms of an acute condition…

Scleroderma a Chronic Systemic Disease
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For example, in these procedures it is often difficult to open the patient's mouth wide enough for laryngoscopy and intubation, thus creating the possibility that cardiopulmonary changes may be present and the "probability o lesions in oesophagus, bowel, kindneys, skin and joints." This information would not be known if not for this study and its reported findings.

The study's conclusion is that the use of thoracic epidural anesthesia to sevoflurane based inhalation "may be a suitable technique for thoracic surgery in achalasia due to sclerodermic patients." The reason for this conclusion is that the study found that this procedure "can provide a smooth anesthesia course and a rapid recovery, with hemodynamic stability, and also having pain-free postoperatively." More so, the study found that providing anesthesia without neuromuscular blockade and non-intravenous opioids has "provided a shorter recovery time."

Clearly this specific case study has important and practical implications to the practice…

Bibliography

Erol, Demet Dogan, M.D. (2006): "Thoracic Epidural Blockade in an Elderly with Achalasia Due to Scleroderma for Thoractomy, Esophageal Myotomy and Cystotomy-Capitonnage. The Internet Journal of Anesthesiology. Vol. 11, Number 1.

Physiological Effects of Chronic Stress
Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31344353
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Continuous production of cortisol may also decrease the availability of tryptophan, the precursor for serotonin, resulting in depression, other mood disorders, and changes in appetite and sleep. Hyperactivity of the stress response has been implicated in the pathophysiology of melancholic depression, anxiety, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, substance abuse, eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, and cardiovascular disease. Conversely, hyporeactivity of the stress response has been associated with disorders such as atypical depression, chronic fatigue syndrome, hypothyroidism, and obesity (Selhub, 2002).

It has been shown that there is a definite connection between chronic stress and physical and psychological responses in the body. Stress in small amounts is fine, but chronic stress over a long extended period of time has been shown to manifest itself in a number of different physical and physiological aliments. It is believed by many experts that people should take steps to decrease their stress levels in…

References

Dennis, Barbara. (2004). Interrupt the stress cycle. Natural Health. 34(9), p. 70-75.

Innes, Kim E., Vincent, Heather K. And Taylor, Ann Gill. (2007). Chronic Stress and Insulin

Resistance -- Related Indices of Cardiovascular Disease Risk, Part 2: A Potential Role for Mind- Body Therapies. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 13(5), p44-51.

Rosch, Paul J. (2007). Stress and the Gut: Mind over Matter? Health & Stress. 11, p. 1-4.

Educational Brochure or Handout on Chronic Venous Insufficiency
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Pathophysiology

What's Gone Wrong?

CVI is generally an indication of blood stasis or venous reflux, most commonly valvular incompetence in the low-pressure superficial venous system. The inability of blood to return to the heart from the legs causes it to pool and clot. CVI generally occurs within the deep veins (Deep Vein Thrombosis), may also be related to varicose twisting, valve malformations or pelvic tumors.

isk Factors

Obesity, inactivity, pregnancy, smoking and extended periods of standing or sitting tend to be the activity factors of most importance. Women often present varicose veins; men DVT but this may be associated with delayed reporting. Type II Diabetes may also suggest different gender propensities. People over 50 predominately display indicators.

Etiology

CVI results from damage caused to the veins, though clotting itself can precipitate vascular dilation. Varicose veins are often hereditary as may be valve defections which can result in venous reflux. Other…

REFERENCES

Collins, L.M. (2012). Taking blood pressure in both arms may find silent heart disease. Viewable:  http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700220373/Taking-blood-pressue-in-both-arms-may-find-silent-heart-disease.html 

Weiss, R. (2012). Venus Insufficiency. Medscape Reference. Viewable at  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1085412-overview .

CVI

CV You

Treating Scleroderma as Chronic Condition
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Scleroderma Patient

Scleroderma

The author of this report has been presented with a hypothetical situation where a forty-four-year-old patient has contracted scleroderma within her lung tissue. There are many implications to having this medical disorder and they are not limited to the medical realm. Indeed, this report will cover a number of these implications and byproducts including stereotyping by all of society including medical professionals, the overall predisposition for the disease, daily life of scleroderma, comorbidities that might exist or end up happing and social issues such finances, the environment and so forth. While there are a good number of things that can be done to mitigate, treat or even prevent scleroderma, there are a lot of implications that any scleroderma patient must face and it can be very difficult for the patient.

Analysis

Scleroderma is rare but it can take on many forms. Indeed, while the patient in this…

References

IDA. (2014). Don't Judge by Appearances - Invisible Disabilities Association - IDA. Invisible Disabilities Association - IDA. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from  https://invisibledisabilities.org/ida-books-pamphlets/accessibleparking/dontjudgebyappearances/ 

Joachim, G. & Acorn, S. (2003). Life with a rare chronic disease: the scleroderma experience. - PubMed - NCBI. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 4 July 2016, from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /pubmed' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Imagery Literature Review Guided Imagery
Words: 1189 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 38369494
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Participants filled out a Short-Form McGill Questionnaire, an Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale, and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire in order to measure their levels of pain over the past few weeks. What the researchers found through statistical analysis was self-management strategies that reduced pain over time were most effective in the group that was exposed to guided imagery techniques. The level of guided imagery therapy was not itself significant, but more of the fact of whether or not it was present in the patient's therapy or not. This helps illustrate the effectiveness of guided imagery in managing long-term chronic pain when there are no fundamental cures present within traditional therapeutic practices. Pain management symptoms improved, but the symptoms overall remained. This shows that guided imagery is not a cure in and of itself, but rather an effective way to reduce and manage the pain that is present in chronic conditions like fibromyalgia.

Weydert,…

References

Ferrell, Betty R., et al. "Pain management for elderly patients with cancer at home." CANCER-PHILADELPHIA- 74 (1994): 2139-2139.

Menzies, V., Taylor, a.G., & Bourguignon, C. (2006). Effects of guided imagery on outcomes of pain, functional status, and self-efficacy in persons diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(1), 23-30.

Weydert, J.A., Shapiro, D.E., Acra, S.A., Monheim, C.J., Chambers, a.S., & Ball, T.M. (2006). Evaluation of guided imagery as treatment for recurrent abdominal pain in children: a randomized controlled trial. BMC pediatrics, 6(1), 29.

Macpherson Thorpe and Thomas 2006 Reported an
Words: 2481 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 58109216
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MacPherson, Thorpe, and Thomas (2006) reported an interesting qualitative study on the use of acupuncture in the treatment of low back pain. They report the results of a qualitative study nested within a large quantitative study (there were actually tow qualitative studies performed but the current study only addresses one of them). The quantitative study design was one of a large randomized controlled trial that compared acupuncture against typical general practitioner care. The study was carried out York between the years 1999 and 2003. The acupuncture treatment for the study was founded on the principles of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) using six acupuncturists who all had a minimum of three years of post-qualification clinical experience. The acupuncturists were encouraged by the researchers to provide their typical treatment so that the study would evaluate the effect of routine care for lower back pain, each acupuncturist making meticulous notes of the aspects…

References

Campbell, A. (2006). Point specificity of acupuncture in the light of recent myofascial pain.

Acupuncture Medicine, 24(3), 118-122.

MacPherson, H., Thorpe, L., & Thomas, K. (2006). Beyond needling therapeutic processes in acupuncture care: A qualitative study nested within a low-back pain trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 12, 873-880.

Efficacy of Unexpected Interventions
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Psychological Interventions Chronic Pain

Medical science is increasingly aligning with a biopsychosocial treatment perspective that understands pain and symptoms as coming from multifaceted experience characterized by the complexity that is inherently human (oditi & obinson, 2011). Many vectors come together in this biopsychosocial perspective: the physicological and emotional state of the individual tend to dominate, garnering most of the medical attention these variables align with conventional medical and behavioral training (oditi & obinson, 2011). In addition, the influence of culture, ethnicity, and society on the interpretation of health and disease are important considerations (oditi & obinson, 2011). The literature on mind-body connection provides strong evidence of the impact that an individual's emotions can have on their behavior and, interestingly, provides findings that the reverse can also be true (oditi & obinson, 2011).

Chronic pain is considered to be an illness from a biopsychosocial perspective, and not a disease (oditi &…

References

Bishop, S.R. (2002). What Do We Really Know About Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64:71-84.Bishop, (2002).

Elkins, G., Jensen, M.P., & Patterson, D.R. (2007). Hypnotherapy for the Management of Chronic Pain. Int J. Clin Exp Hypn, 55(3):275-287.

Guzman, J., Esmail, R., Karjalainen, K., Malmivaara, A., Irvin, E. & Bombardier, C. (2007). Multidisciplinary bio-psycho-social rehabilitation for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2.

Goossens, M.E.J.B., Vlaeyen, J.W.S., Hidding, A., Kole-Snijders, A. & Evers, S.M.A.A. (2005). Treatment Expectancy Affects the Outcome of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in Chronic Pain. Clinical Journal of Pain, 21(1): 18-26.Kjellgren, A., Bood, S.A., Axelsson, K., Norlander, T. & Saatcioglu, F. (2007). Wellness through a comprehensive yogic breathing program -- a controlled pilot trial. BMC Complimentary and Alternative Medicine, 19, 7: 43.

Unique Preventable Disease
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FIBOMYALGIA OUTLINE and PAMPHLET

Introduction to Fibromyalgia

Symptoms of Fibromyalgia

Effects of the symptoms on the body.

isk factors and preventive steps.

(1) Demographics.

Diagnosis and Treatment for fibromyalgia.

Therapeutic and diagnostic methods for fibromyalgia.

Prognosis.

Treatment for fibromyalgia.

Fibromyalgia

Having many physical and clinical symptoms, Fibromyalgia is a syndrome whose effects are felt in form of extreme musculoskeletal pain. It is believed that many environmental, genetic and biological factors are responsible for the start and progress of this infection although its etiology is undermined. In many industrialized countries, its rate of occurrence is 0.7-4.7% amongst the general population. It is incidentally seen more in women than men and the general female-to-male ratio being 9-1. Due to the diverse nature of its symptoms, those infected experience major difficulties adapting to their working environment, family or their life. It also subjects the sufferers to use consultative health services and social resources…

References

Arthritis and Fibromyalgia.Plos ONE, 9(2), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088740

Derrer, David, T.,2014, understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, webmdmd,2014,understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, retrieved from  http://www.webmd.com/fibromyalgia/understanding-fibromyalgia-symptoms .

Fibromyalgia | University of Maryland Medical Center  http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/fibromyalgia#ixzz3HSyCkaXF 

KengenTraska, T., Rutledge, D., Mouttapa, M., Weiss, J., & Aquino, J. (2012). Strategies used for managing symptoms by women with fibromyalgia. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 21(5/6), 626-635. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03501.x

Nursing Mindfulness and its impact
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PICOT Question and its Significance

The PICOT question is: Does mindfulness meditation (I) reduce long-term risk factors and suicidal behaviors (O) among psychiatric patients (P) versus those who do not participate in the meditation programs (C)? This is of great significance to the nursing practice because psychiatric disorders are risk factors that cause an increase in the probability of a suicidal occurrence. As a result, it is imperative for psychiatric nurses to comprehend how to pinpoint such risk factors and institute a clinical practice setting that dissuades suicide. More importantly, nursing practice encompasses the execution of best practices for generating a clinical setting that diminishes risk such as mindfulness meditation.

Summary of Literature Review

The mindfulness meditation theory is deemed to the most prospective one in treating addictive disorder patients. The safety of these models is guaranteed if carried out in the framework of clinical studies. In recent periods, associated…

Apparently Nurses on the Whole Are Under-Educated
Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 94318043
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Apparently nurses, on the whole, are under-educated regarding the severity, etiology, ramifications, and other sequalea of chronic pain. A study conducted by Ferrel, McCaffery, and hiner (1991) discovered that lack of education of health care professionals, including nurses, is often cited as the cause for inadequate treatment for pain and for insufficient empathy in regards to chronic pain. Nurses (in this regard) often underestimate the severity and resilience of chronic pain and equate it with 'regular' pain, but by doing so, they lack sufficient empathy with patients and deal with the problem in a misguided fashion. Opoid analgesics, for instance, should be more frequently used as intervention. Instead, use of opiod analgesics is minimized due to fear of creating opoid addiction. Furthermore, cognitive therapy is one of the psychotherapeutic interventions that are relied on when, in fact, cognitive therapy has been shown to be ineffective with chronic pain.

Nurses receive…

References

Ferrel, B.R., McCaffery, M., & Rhiner, M. (1991) Pain and addiction: An urgent need for change in nursing education. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 7, 117-124

Thienhaus, O. & Cole, B.E. (2002). Classification of pain. In Weiner, R.S.. Pain management: A practical guide for clinicians (6 ed.). USA: American Academy of Pain Management

Cukrowicz Kelly C Otamendi Ainhoa
Words: 982 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 80571701
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Researchers used standard sleep questionnaires to assess sleep problems and characteristics in ADHD (n = 122) and non-ADHD (n = 105) comparison youths. They concluded that ADHD may be one of the consequence of nightmares but is not an outcome of it.

This study is valuable to my study in that it teaches me to be skeptical regarding differentiating between outcome and cause.

4.

StRanjbaran, Z., Keefer, L., Farhadi, a., Stepanski, E., Sedghi, S. And Keshavarzian, a. (2007), Impact of sleep disturbances in inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 22: 1748 -- 1753.

Study showed that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients have significant sleep disturbance even when their disease is not active. This problem might affect quality of life, gastrointestinal symptoms and coping ability, and might potentially increase or decrease disease severity. A self-administered, mail-in questionnaire package was sent to 205 subjects using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index…

Medical and Ethical Dilemmas Even if the
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medical and ethical dilemmas, even if the activities were deemed technically legal or not questioned at the time. The fact that the studies sought to gain information from human subjects under unfair and undesirable circumstances means their results cannot be condoned and the findings cannot be accepted or used as viable study data. Each study directly crosses the line into scientific unacceptability in different ways; and while their underlying approaches raise interesting historical and philosophical questions -- that did not need to be tested to be debated -- there is no way to weed out the biases that contaminate the data.

This being said, it is generally safe to say that all of the studies were improper (unethical and/or illegal) at the time that they were being undertaken. This can be seen in the fact that in every instance the medical professionals involved were either directly or indirectly punished for…

REFERENCES

Consumer Reports (2007). "Off-Label" Drug Use, Shopper's Guide. Downloadable at  http://www.consumerreports.org/health/resources/pdf/best-buy-drugs/money-saving-guides/english/Off-Label-FINAL.pdf .

Pain Management of America (2011). Chronic Pain Treatment and Management with Medical Marijuana. Viewable at http://www.medicalmarijuana.net/uses-and-treatments/chronic-pain/.

SOURCES OF STUDIES

Jewish Chronic Disease:  http://johnmueller.org/Problems/Cancer.html

CKD Interventions
Words: 1973 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81754485
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Additionally, there may be patients that will be found to have the early symptoms of CKD, and those test results will be passed on to the individual patient.

All participants will be invited to learn more about CKD, and a one-night informational meeting will be conducted in which informational brochures will be passed out to the attendees, and will be discussed in detail. The attendees will also be provided the opportunity to give feedback (positive or negative) concerning their experiences with the early testing and how they view CKD from a current view as compared to their previous perceptions.

After all the data has been gathered and analyzed, a paper will be compiled that presents the results, along with a discussion of those results. It is hoped that the results will provide information to the medical community concerning how early testing and positive reinforcement can be effectively used during the…

Works Cited

Drabble, S.J.; O'Cathain, A.; Thomas, K.J.; Rudolph, A.; Hewison, J.; (2014) Describing qualitative research undertaken with randomized controlled trials in grant proposals: A documentary analysis, BMC Medical Research Methodology, Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 1 -- 17

Jansen, D.L.; Heijmans, M.; Rijken, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Grootendorst, D.C.; Dekker, F.W.; Boeschoten, E.W.; Kaptein, A.A.; Groenewegen, P.P.; (2013) Illness perceptions and treatment perceptions of patients with chronic kidney disease: Different phases, different perceptions? British Journal of Health Psychology, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp. 244 -- 262

Kokonvei, G.; Urban, R.; Reinhardt, M.; Jozan, A.; Demetrovics, Z.; (2014) The difficulties in emotion regulation scale: Factor structure in chronic pain patients, Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 70, Issue 6, pp. 589-600

Lewis, R.; (2013) An overview of chronic kidney disease in older people, Nursing Older People, Vol. 25, Issue 10, pp. 31 -- 38

For the Legalization of Marijuana
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Legalization of marijuana has been a controversial topic in the media as of lately. Completely legalizing marijuana would mean allowing just about anyone to have access to it -- of course with some government regulation. However, opponents of this process argue that the health detriments are enough to merit harsher punishments and the complete ban of this substance. Despite opposition to marijuana's legalization, there are many more benefits that need to be taken into consideration before rushing to any particular judgment. Marijuana should be legalized because it will bring a much needed boost to the economy, it has documented health benefits, and it is a safer drug than alcohol and cigarettes, which are already considered to be legal substances (ABC 20/20). In order for the welfare of all of the aforementioned entities to be established, marijuana needs to be legalized.

As of 2012, the states of Colorado and Washington have…

References:

ABC 20/20. "Should Marijuana Be Legalized?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 27 Aug. 0000. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Astaiza, Randy. "All The Reasons Pot Is Good For You." Business Insider: Science. Business Insider, 08 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Ferner, Matt. "Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized: 'Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol' Campaign Discusses Why Pot Prohibition Has Been A Failure." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 28 Aug. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Robesonian.com. "Legalization of Marijuana Paying off." The Robesonian - Legalization of Marijuana Paying off. The Robesonian, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 01 May 2013. .

Fibromyalgia the Objective of This Study Is
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Fibromyalgia

The objective of this study is to examine the condition of Fibromyalgia. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of current literature in this area of inquiry.

Fibromyalgia is a syndrome reported as common and one in which the individual has pain throughout their body as well as joint, muscle, tendon and soft tissue tenderness on a long-term basis.

Causes of Fibromyalgia

While the cause of Fibromyalgia is uncertain it has been linked to such as fatigue, problems sleeping, headaches, anxiety, and depression. Factors that are believed to be potential triggers of fibromyalgia include: (1) physical or emotional trauma; (2) abnormal responses to pain in areas of the brain; (3) disturbances in sleep; and (4) infection although no specific virus has been identified as being responsible for causing Fibromyalgia.

Occurrence of Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia is known to occur most in women ages 20 to 50 years of age.…

Bibliography

Demirbad, B. And Erci, B. (2012) The Effects of Sleep and Touch Therapy on Symptoms of Fibromyalgia and Depression. Iran J. Public Health. 2012;41(11):44-53. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /pubmed' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Sixteen American States Currently Allow Doctors to
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Sixteen American states currently allow doctors to prescribe an herbal remedy to their patients: cannabis. Herbal remedies are not typically viewed with suspicion, but cannabis has been illegal in the United States for several decades. Still technically an illegal drug, cannabis is not being sold legally in select medical dispensaries in the states that allow for its controlled use. The organization Pain Management of America outlines some of the most common conditions for which doctors prescribe cannabis. Those conditions range from seizures to muscle spasms to cancer and chronic pain (Pain Management of America). Although medical cannabis is a step in the right direction, ultimately the herb should be removed from its Schedule I classification in the Controlled Substances Act. Cannabis should be completely legal, giving American citizens the freedom to use, grow, and sell the plant.

"Dozens of peer-reviewed studies, prominent medical organizations, major government reports, and the use…

Works Cited

Havel, Vaclav. The Power of the Powerless. Palach, 1995.

Joy, Janet E., Watson, Stanley J. And Benson, John A. "Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base." Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press, 1999. Retrieved online:  http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/ sourcefiles/IOM_Report.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Gender Differences in the Perception
Words: 2001 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 84171848
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The quantitative approach, meanwhile, will make use of the survey method, focusing on three (3) segments each for males and females (criteria mentioned earlier in the preceding section).

Diary Method

The diary method is recommended because this will generate information that is insightful and in-depth, as it provides participants with an opportunity to express their thoughts and feelings without being conscious of the people who might be interviewing them or be with them, as what happens during an FGD.

Focus Group Discussion (FGD)

The FGDs will provide breadth of information about perceived pain. There will be twelve (12) mini-groups per segment, broken down into the following discussant types:

Group Type

Age group

Males

Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)

Adults (26-55 years old)

Females

Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)

Adults (26-55 years old)

Survey

The survey method will make use of the multi-stage sampling, using once again the respondent criteria enumerated…

Bibliography

Babl, F. (2008). "Procedural pain and distress in young children as perceived by medical and nursing staff." Pediatric Anesthesia, Vol. 18.

Carlson, K. (2000). "Using distraction to reduce reported pain, fear, and behavioral distress in children and adolescents: a multisite study." JSPN, Vol. 5, No. 2.

Hama, a. (2004). "Sex differences in pain perception: a biological perspective." Mankind Quarterly, Vol. XLIV, Nos. 3 & 4.

Ibid., (2000). "Racial differences in pain perception: a biological basis." Mankind Quarterly, Vol. XLI, No. 1.

Spiritual Experiences According to Ariel
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Today, self-inflicted pain is generally interpreted as a form of psychopathology, but within the mystical context, "pain unmakes the profane world with its corporeal attachments and leads the mystics away from the body to self-transcendence," thus pain and discipline elevates the individual into a world of deeper human community (Post). According to Glucklich, pain is even blotted out via a process in the brain known as gate-control that significantly alters biochemistry and consciousness, therefore "intentionally painful manipulations of the body could lead to states of self-transcendence or effacement" (Post).

Glucklich believes that today's society has lost the capacity to understand why and how pain could be valuable for mystics and members of religious communities, and even for humanity as a whole (Post). Historians of religion have long acknowledged the ubiquitous presence of intentionally painful rituals and practices, and have used this awareness as a key to understanding religious experiences (Post).…

Works Cited

Hansen, Suzy. "Sacred Pain." Retrieved December 12, 2006 at http://archive.salon.com/books/int/2001/11/26/glucklich/index.html?source=rss

Pazola, Ron. "Sacred ground: what Native Americans believe." U.S. Catholic.

February 1, 1994. Retrieved December 12, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Post, Stephen G. "Sacred Pain: Hurting the Body for the Sake of the Soul." First Things:

Women at Five State Prison
Words: 10602 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80834550
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5%, compared to 4.8% for males). (Chesney-Lind, 1998, p. 66)

The author also re-confirms the fact that data regarding of female inmate's indicate that as cited the passage of increased penalties for drug offenses has certainly been a major factor in this increase. Again, it is also important to see that implementation of these stricter sentencing reform initiatives which supposedly were devoted to reducing class and race disparities in male sentencing, pay very little attention to gender and the particular needs of women have been grievously overlooked. (Chesney-Lind, 1998; Aday, 2003)

The advent of mandatory sentencing schemes and strict punishment for drug offenses has been devastating to women. Many states have adopted harsh mandatory sentencing schemes. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines, which eliminated gender and family responsibility as factors for consideration at the time of sentencing, were adopted. (5) the policy of eliminating gender and family responsibility, combined with heightened penalties…

Critical Incident Stress Management CISM
Words: 1464 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 97335938
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Cave Paintings

Complementary and Alternative Medicine and CISM in Diverse Populations

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as often referred to as integrated medicine. This term refers to therapies used to enhance health that fall outside the realm of conventional or "western" medical therapies. Southern Medical therapies are often limited to pharmaceutical drugs, surgery, and other interventions that directly affect the body. CAM therapies can simply refer to culturally-based medical practices that are not part of mainstream medicine in the United States. ecently, the trend is toward using CAM therapies along with evidence-based Western medical practices. This research will explore CAM interventions for diverse populations within the scope of the CISM plan.

CAM Interventions for prevention of Stress and esilience

One of the most widely accepted areas for the use of CAM interventions is in the area of stress reduction, depression, anxiety, chronic pain, and other conditions that are common symptoms…

References

Ahn, A., Ngo-Metzger, Q., & Legedza, A. et al. (2006). Complementary and Alternative Medical

Therapy Use Among Chinese and Vietnamese Americans: Prevalence, Associated Factors, and Effects of Patient -- Clinician Communication. American Journal of Public Health. 96 (2), 647-653.

GoodTherapy.org (2011). Complimentary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Retrieved from  http://www.goodtherapy.org/complementary-alternative-medicine.html 

Kutch, M. (2010). Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Treating Mental Health Disorders. Retrieved from  http://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/ir/bitstream/1840.16/6044/1/etd.pdf

Use of Naturopathic Practice Interventions and Therapy
Words: 2761 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19204539
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Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) Systems

Complementary and alternative medicine systems are health care approaches that are characterized by a history of use or origins that are external to mainstream medicine or health care practices. These health care systems or approaches have lasted for centuries since different kinds of complementary and alternative medicines have been reported. According to the World Health Organization, different types of complementary and alternative medicines have acted as the basic health practice in developing countries and are increasingly used in countries with predominant conventional medicine (Kramlich, 2014, p.50). CAM therapies have become common in the recent past and are used for treating various conditions including chronic pain conditions. Actually, several CAM therapies and practice interventions such as acupuncture and massage therapy are increasingly used in chronic pain management.

Naturopathic Medicine

Naturopathic medicine, which is also known as naturopathy or alternative medicine, is a term that is…

References

"History of Naturopathic Medicine." (n.d.). North Carolina Association of Naturopathic Physicians. Retrieved August 17, 2015, from  http://ncanp.com/about-ncanp/history-of-naturopathic-medicine/ 

Kramlich, D. (2014, December). Introduction to Complementary, Alternative, and Traditional Therapies. Critical Care Nurse, 34(6), 50-56.

Pongparadee et. al. (2012, August). Current Considerations for the Management of Musculoskeletal Pain in Asian Countries: A Special Focus on Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors and Non-steroid Anti-inflammatory Drugs. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases,15(4), 341-347.

Schulenburg, J. (2015). Considerations for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Interventions for Pain. AORN Journal, 101(3), 319-326.

People Help Themselves An Interdisciplinary
Words: 12988 Length: 47 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 92004923
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The study will also be important to those in the future, because scientists have not yet found ways to cure these chronic illnesses or correct some of these problems that are seen today, and therefore it stands to reason that there will be more people in the future who will have to face the same problems as those with chronic illnesses and traumatic injuries today.

Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is relatively large, simply because there has been a great deal written about chronic illness and injuries from the perspective of the physician and from the perspective of the patient. Both sides are important, although the focus here will remain largely on the patient perspective. Because there are so many people today that suffer from a chronic illness or traumatic injury, much study has been done about these individuals. Despite these studies, however, not a lot…

References

Anderson, B.L. (2002). Biobehavioral Outcomes Following Psychological Interventions for Cancer Patients. Journal of Counsulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(3), 590-610.

Brannon, L., & Fiest, J. (2004). Health Psychology: Vol.. An Introduction to Behavior and Health (Fifth ed.) Belmont CA: Thompson/Wadsworth.

DiMatteo, M. (2004). Social Support and Patient Adherence to Medical treatment: A Meta- analysis. Health Psychology, 23(2), 207-218.

Eitel, P., Hatchett, L., Friend, R., Griffin, K.W., & Wadhwa, N.K. (1995). Burden of Self-Care in Seriously Ill Patients Impact on Adjustment. Health Psychology, 14(5), 457-463.

Fibromyalgia One Might Consider Fibromyalgia to Be
Words: 6457 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37868620
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Fibromyalgia

One might consider fibromyalgia to be one of the most confounding conditions around today. It is debilitating. It results in several quality of life issues. The confounding aspect of this condition is that it is difficult to diagnose. It is also difficult to treat. Most treatment modalities today recourse to treating one or more specific symptoms -- but there is no treatment that can comprehensively treat all the symptoms. (NIAMS, 2004) More holistic treatment modes however, are being researched, explored and considered. Fibromyalgia often presents symptoms of other diseases. Essentially therefore, fibromyalgia is characterized by widespread pain that cannot be localized to any part of the body. It is also associated with fatigue and other specific (though not necessarily widespread) symptoms that will be discussed later in this work.

Fibromyalgia syndrome is often referred to in its abbreviation FMS. Some of the symptoms (though not all) enjoy significant overlap…

Bibliography

Adiguzel, O., Kaptanoglu, E., Turgut, B., & Nacitarhan, V. (2004). The possible effect of clinical recovery on regional cerebral blood flow deficits in fibromyalgia: a prospective study with semiquantitative SPECT. South Med J, 97, 7, 651-655

Baldry, P. (1993). Complementary medicine. The practice of acupuncture needs tighter safeguards. Bmj, 307, 6899, 326

Baumgartner, E., Finckh, A., Cedraschi, C., & Vischer, T.L. (2002). A six-year prospective study of a cohort of patients with fibromyalgia. Ann Rheum Dis, 61, 7, 644-645

Bennet, Robert. (2000). The Scientific Basis for Understanding Pain in Fibromyalgia. Myalgia.com. Retrieved August 21, 2004, from the World Wide Web:  http://www.myalgia.com/Scientific%20basis.htm

Financial and Economic Impact of Worker's Compensation
Words: 4773 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27687898
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Financial and Economic Impact of Worker's Compensation egulations And Compliance

The program and concept of Workers' Compensation might appear to be a product of a civilized society and the modern era, but nothing could be further from the truth. In fact, Workers' Compensation has essentially been around for as long as people have been completing task for payment of some form of another, because people have always been getting hurt in some way, on the job. "The history of compensation for bodily injury begins shortly after the advent of written history itself1. The Nippur Tablet No. 3191 from ancient Sumeria in the Fertile Crescent outlines the law of Ur-Nammu, king of the city-state of Ur. It dates to approximately 2050 B.C.2. The law of Ur provided monetary compensation for specific injury to workers' body parts, including fractures. The code of Hammurabi from 1750 B.C. provided a similar set of rewards…

References

Benyamin, R., Buenaventura,, . R., Datta, S., & Adlaka, R. (2008). Opioid Complications and Side Effects. Pain Physician, S106-S111.

Boggs, C. (2008, July 29). Workers' Compensation History: The Great Tradeoff! Retrieved from mynewmarkets.com:  http://www.mynewmarkets.com/articles/91833/workers-compensation-history-the-great-tradeoff 

Ceniceros, R. (2012, December 12). State reduces workers comp opioid prescriptions. Retrieved from Businessinsurance.com:  http://www.businessinsurance.com/article/99999999/NEWS080102/399999826 

Eley, L. (n.d.). FEDERAL AGENCY HELPS COAL MINERS DETECT BLACK LUNG DISEASE. Retrieved from Denversworkerscompensationattorney.com:  http://www.denverworkerscompensationattorney.com/2011/03/federal-agency-helps-coal-miners-detect-black-lung-disease.shtml

The CBD Oil Craze
Words: 2758 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array
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Abstract
Cannabis contains more than one hundred and twenty distinct chemical compounds known collectively as cannabinoids. One of those canabinoids is cannabidol, commonly abbreviated and referred to as CBD. While CBD has no psychoactive properties, it may be beneficial for treating specific medical conditions including chronic pain. CBD can be used orally or topically. In its topical form, CBD is typically added to a carrier oil. Topical applications of CBD oils include the management of pain due to arthritis and inflammation. Research continues to mount suggesting the additional benefits of oral administration of CBD to treat epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, and anxiety. Because CBD does not produce known side effects, euphoric or otherwise, it has also garnered attention for its relative safety especially vis-a-vis its sister compounds found in cannabis. CBD also presents tremendous opportunities for market-related growth in the budding international cannabis industry.
Introduction
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one…

Business Plan for a Sleep
Words: 8375 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 84888867
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Offered under the same roof are "consultative, diagnostic, and treatment services" which are stated to be provided "by board-certified practitioners in the fields of pulmonary medicine, otolarngology, family medicine and more." (2006)

Smith reports that the laboratories experiencing the most dramatic growth are two which are located the "farthest from the Hillsboro flagship" as they are located in two areas that were "formerly underserved." (2006) Smith additionally reports that the demand is stronger in the areas where the two fastest growing centers are located which supplies "plenty of fuel for expansion."

Smith states that the Sleep Health & Wellness NW is attempting to "fill a gap so that patients who previously were overlooked or not being reached or who fell through the cracks no longer are," she says. "We have no plans to open centers in areas where there are already quality sleep services programs. We only want to go…

References

Inspiration! Sleep Study Results & Analysis (2006) Q&a with Ron Richard, senior vice president of strategic marketing initiatives at ResMed HME Business April 2006. Online at  http://www.hme-business.com/articles/55305/ 

Johnson, Duane, PhD (2008) Are you Really Managing Your Sleep Lab? The Business of Sleep. Focus Journal May/June 2008. Online at  http://www.foocus.com/pdfs/Articles/MayJune08/Duane.pdf 

Kay DC, Pickworth WB, Neider GL. Morphine-like insomnia from heroin in nondependent human addicts. Br J. Clin Pharmacol. 1981;11(2):159-169

MacFarlene, James (2009) the Painful Pursuit of Sleep. Sleep Review Journal Jan/Feb 2009. Online available at  http://www.sleepreviewmag.com/issues/articles/2009-01_07.asp

Carpal Instability Is Any Mal-Alignment
Words: 5543 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72024643
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When using open reduction of dorsal displaced fractures of the radius to restore congruency and extra-articular anatomy, the authors recommended the use of their double-plating method. This method is reliable in providing stable internal fixation and in allowing early function. It is, however, and as earlier mentioned, a demanding technique, as ot requires careful; attention to detail.

Carter, P.. And PR Stuart. The Sauva-Kapankji Procedure for Post-Traumatic Disorders of the Distal Radio-Ulnar Joint. Journal of one and Joint Surgery: ritish Editorial Society of one and Joint Surgery, September 2000

Only one surgeon performed all the operations on a total of 37 patients for pain on the ulnar side of the wrist and decreased rotation of the forearm. The authors reported that most of the tested patients were better after the operation, although a significant number had some pain. Relief from pain could not be guaranteed and that residual pain associated…

Bibliography

Atkinson, Larry S. et al. Scapholunate Dissociation. American Family Physician: American Academy of Family Physicians, June 1994

Berdia, Sunjay and Shin, Alexander Y. Carpal Ligament Instability. Orthopedic Surgery. WebMD. eMedicine.Com, Inc., November 22, 2005.

Bozentka, David J. Scapholunate Instability. UPOJ. Vol 12, Spring 1999

Carter, P.B. And PR Stuart. The Sauva-Kapankji Procedure for Post-Traumatic Disorders of the Distal Radio-Ulnar Joint. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery: British Editorial Society of Bone and Joint Surgery, September 2000

Psychological Factors in Health Traditional
Words: 1772 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80328946
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Ultimately, it may be the greatest measure of humanity that we recognize that the relevance of animal sentience in relation to our needs is not a function of their similarity to us or of our chosen relationships with them.

orks Cited

Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam

Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.

Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.

"Meta-Analysis Of Psychological Interventions For Chronic Low Back Pain."

Health Psychology, 2007 26 (1): 1-9.

Jensen, Maureen C.; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N.; Obuchowski, Nancy; Modic, Michael

T. Malkasian, Dennis, and Ross, Jeffrey S. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People without Back…

Works Cited

Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,

And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam

Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.

Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.

Globalization and Innovations in Telecommunications
Words: 18188 Length: 66 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 2190458
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Chapter 2:

Review of Related Literature

Chapter Introduction

This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.

Hypnosis

In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…

bibliography. (2010).  http://science.jrank.org  / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.

Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.

Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.

Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.

Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.

Health care and care techniques
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Benchmark-esearch Critique and PICOT statement

This article is a research critique on the paper titled 'Home Telehealth for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis' by J. Franek. The research paper under review was published by the Ontario Health Technology Assessment Series.

Although there isn't a direct statement that refers to Problem statement, there is a title that highlights the "Objective of the Analysis." There is an excerpt of the objectives below. The discussion in the objective statement is only centred on the evaluation steps. There is evidence in the literature that the effects of COPD were openly revealed as being core elements of the problem statement in the first place.

"For patients experiencing multiple comorbidities, it is essential to observe routine self-management support. Such support consists of the necessary education to enlighten parents to pick out the symptoms in good time. They will consequently manage their…

References

Bernocchi, P., Scalveni, S., Galli, T., Volterani, M., & Vitacca, M. (2016). A multidisciplinary telehealth program in patients with combined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic heart failure: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials.

Brown, J. (2014). Improving care for COPD. North East Quality Observatory System.

Irzarry, R., Peng, R., & Leek, J. (2013, August 28). Evidence-based Data Analysis: Treading a New Path for Reproducible Research. Retrieved from Simply Statistics:  http://simplystatistics.org/2013/08/28/evidence-based-data-analysis-treading-a-new-path-for-reproducible-research-part-2/ 

Riva, J., Malik, K., Burnie, S., Endicott, A., & Busse, J. (2012). What is your research question? An introduction to the PICOT format for clinicians. Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association, 167-171.

Drug Usage the Use Drugs
Words: 4084 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41436016
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Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).

Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).

In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…

Works Cited

Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Goldman, Erik. (2005 July 01). Genetic tests could improve future drug abuse treatment. Family Practice News. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Heroin Addiction Cuts Across All Social Boundaries, Caron Foundation Study Reports.

TBI and PTSD
Words: 2919 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87152391
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Anthropologist working with the VA

Definitions / Interests / Key Problems and Issues

Previous Work Performed by Anthropologists in this Area

The Employment Situation, Current Salaries and Opportunities for Advancement

ibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles

Relevant professional organizations, ethics statements and newsletters

Names / locations of PAs and others working in the content area locally and elsewhere.

Relevant Laws and Regulations

Relevant international / domestic organizations, private and public

Other helpful information you think about on your own

The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had a dramatic impact on the way someone sees themselves and the world around them. This is because many veterans have been forced to serve multiple tours and are still dealing with the lasting experiences from them. Two of primary injuries most are suffering from are post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TI). Anthropologists are seeking to understand the…

Bibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles.

2014. Summary. BLS. Electronic document,  http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/anthropologists-and-archeologists.htm . accessed April 3, 2012

Driscoll Patricia

2010. Hidden Battles on Unseen Fronts. Drexel Hill: Casemate.

Elliot Marta

Charcot-Marie Tooth Syndrome Definition and
Words: 2666 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66269973
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In the third trimester of pregnancy, caution must be taken concerning congestive heart failure, hypertension and decreased renal and hepatic function, interstitial nephritis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia and renal papillary necrosis, anticoagulation abnormalities, leucopenia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. The use of Celecoxib is aimed primarily at suppressing pain and inflammatory stimuli, but it may contribute to NSAID gastrointestinal toxicity. The lowest possible dose of celecoxib should be prescribed and taken. On the whole, NSAIDs can mask the usual signs of infection, therefore, caution must be taken in the presence of existing controlled infection. The physician should investigate symptoms and signs, which suggest liver dysfunction or abnormal liver lab results.

On September 30, 2004, Merck and Company voluntarily withdrew rofecoxib from the American and world markets because of its association with an increase in cardiovascular incidence (Keldaya 2005). A major Food and Drug Administration study linked the medication to a three-fold rise in the…

Bibliography

Avicena. (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Disease Targets. Avicena Group. http://www.avidenagroup.com/disease_targets/neuromuscular/cmt_php?print=on

Kedlaya, D. (2005). Charcot-Marie=Tooth Syndrome. eMedicine.com, Inc. http://www.emedicine.com/arthoped/topic43.ht

National Center for Biotechnology Information (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Genes and Diseases. U.S. National Library of Medicine.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /books/bv_fcgi?call=bv.view.ShowSection&rid=gnd.section.197

National Human Genome Researc Institute. (2004). Learning About Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. National Institutes of Health.  http://www.genome.gov/11009201

Interstitial Cystitis IC treatment using CAM Modalities
Words: 6757 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54434974
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Abstract
The prevalence of interstitial cystitis (IC) has seen different treatment methods that have been aimed at reducing the level of pain and ensuring that the patients are comfortable. However, the continued failure of most of the conventional methods to treat the condition has necessitated physicians to recommend complementary and alternative methods of managing the condition. An analysis of the complementary and alternative methods (CAM) modalities is therefore, critical in understanding the different conceptual attributes that are significant in addressing the problem. IC is a condition that is characterized by chronic pain or discomfort in the bladder and the surrounding pelvic region. It differs depending on the pain, frequency or both pain and frequency. The condition affects the patient and in some cases may lead to stress since it impacts the work-life, family and sexual enjoyment for the women. In most cases there are different methods of managing the condition…