Characteristics Of Pain Research Paper

Length: 10 pages Sources: 1+ Subject: Psychology Type: Research Paper Paper: #75487730 Related Topics: Colon Cancer, Alice Walker, Gerontology, Giver

Excerpt from Research Paper :

¶ … Perception of Pain Uses of Pain in nursing

Definitions of Pain from Dictionaries

Uses of Pain in psychology

Defining attributes

Model case

Related Case

Contrary Case

Antecedents and Consequences


The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of the perception of pain. The researcher purpose to clarify describe the characteristics of pain and recognize antecedents that effect the idea of pain and the likely outcomes of pain by utilizing Avant's and Walker (2005) theory of study. Also, a model case shows how pain is connected to these serious characteristics contrary case and a borderline case are shown to distinguish the perception of pain from other notions. Empirical referents show the current point-of-view of the perception of pain. (Akyol & Salmond, 2009)

Concept Analysis of Characteristics of Pain


The goal of this paper is to expand the understanding of the concept of the perception of pain. The researchers intention is to illuminate the essential characteristics of the perception of pain and pinpoint precursors that effect the awareness of pain and the likely results of pain by using Avant's and Walker (1995)theory study. A model case reveals how pain is attached to these significant characteristics. A contrary case and a borderline case are displayed so as to differentiate the perception of pain from other perceptions. Also, the Empirical referents show the present the current viewpoint of the perception of pain (Chan & Hadjistavropoulos, 2012). Pain is looked at as being the most recurrent nursing analysis and the most common issue for which patients in the clinical setting search for aid (Eggermont & Leveille, 2009). Mostly, pain is said to respond to a repulsive, distressful and a feeling that is uncomfortable. Several research has shown that pain that is constant will have some type of an influence on the quality of life of the individual, cause bodily and emotional effects, effect family, as well as increase the charges for health care, the separate and civilization (Akyol & Salmond, 2009). Therefore, pain is a severe matter in the health care society the last three decades, in addition to pain experiences, pain measurement, result of pain and the list goes on and on. Present investigation makes the points that pain might not be controlled all the way even with the help of pharmacologic rehabilitations and with the state-of-the-art technology and (Chan & Hadjistavropoulos, 2012). Beyer (2000) decided that 90% of the children she interrogated who has sickle cell illness had reasonable to austere pain. It appears all the labors of academics still cannot sufficiently release children's pain. Also, children still go through the pain. Those that are health care providers' usually lack the knowledge of pain management and this has been documented as one of the vital motives for this breach (Hester & Foster, 1993).


The goal for utilizing using concept analysis is to differentiate among the describing qualities of a concept and its inappropriate attributes. It is a procedure of figuring out the parallels and dissimilarities among concepts.

Uses of Pain in nursing

To recognize what pain is, general and detailed health care definitions are utilized in order to discover basic information in regards to pain. The utilization of pain from a basic and specialized dictionary, a moral standpoint, a theoretical view of pain, and the usage of the concept in sociology and professional arenas are likewise obtainable Medical usages for pain.

Definitions of Pain from Dictionaries

Merriam-Webster Online: Dictionary and Thesaurus (MWO) was utilized to look into the general definition of pain because the MWO consist of the etymology of the word. Pain is well-defined in the MWO as (a) the feeling which one feels when they are being hurt (in mind or body); (b) distress, anguish, the reverse of liking; (c) in precisely physical and extrasensory senses: physical suffering; psychological suffering, misfortune, unhappiness, grief; (d) trouble as occupied for the achievement of something hard. Pain was in the beginning well-defined as loss or suffering imposed for a


On the other hand, this definition of pain was recognized in use merely from 1300 AD to 1900 AD. Further research shows that Pain is seldom connected to reprimand or crime. In PubMed Health medical encyclopedia from the U.S. National Library of Medicine (2007), pain is described as "a feeling of suffering, or agony, which is normally caused by being stimulated of particular nerve endings. Its resolve is primarily protective, it acts as a cautioning that tissues are being injured and persuades the suffer to remove or remove from the resource" (p. 2000). Uses of Pain in psychology

The sociological point-of-view of pain highlights pain in cultural legacy. Pain experience consists of not only pain consciousness and involuntary reply however but likewise certain related feeling states. Kehlet & Woolf, (2006) had this belief that the cultural and social designs of the individual have important effects on the pain experience. He utilized pain anticipation and pain approval to articulate the person's attitude toward pain. However, these attitudes are considered knowledgeable in part from siblings, parents, and peer groups of the person's society. Each person is projected to adapt to this pattern of attitude. Kehlet and Woolf highlighted pain response more than responses. These pain replies are more on emotive and developmental levels. Nevertheless, how persons respond to pain likewise depend on particular social circumstances and their culture upbringing.

Defining attributes

Describing attributes is to list the features that are related with a perception of pain. Any concept analysis will be composed of beyond one defining attribute; nevertheless, one needs to figure out which attributes are suitable for the goal of exploration of the concept (Eggermont & Leveille, 2009). Founded on this acceptance, the critical attributes of the perception of pain consist of: (a) repulsive and distressful experiences starting from physical feeling and having both negative and positive senses for a person; (b) experience of a human being; (c) a state of feeling in both responsiveness and also the emotion (spoken), and behavioral modules; (d) bodily and mental responses to the motivation; (e) function of pain, including protective and warning signs; (f) pain responses are learned and influenced by character, surroundings, passions, social and culture.

Model case

A model case will be able to show all kinds of attributes in regards to the concepts and should be viewed as a paradigmatic sample. It likewise shows the qualities of the concept (Rathmell & Ballantyne, 2006). The following example shows a model situation for the perception of pain. Mr. C. is a 45-year-old single Mexican male who was diagnosed with Kidney cancer more than a few years ago. In recent times, his tumor was discovered to be enflamed and his physician suggested that he have surgery which would consist of nephrectomy. When he was put in the hospital for the surgery to take out the tumor, Janice was the nursing student who given to him to make sure he was in good hands. When Janice went to Mr. C's bedside, she discovered Mr. C lying on his left side curled up in a fetus position. He had his arms clutched to his chest. His eye appeared to faint and he looked very tired. Mr. C closed his eyes when Janice started conversing to him, but was extremely accommodating. Mr. M's blood heart rate and blood pressure were slightly elevated.

Mr. C mentioned to Alice that he was feeling pain and then pointed to the lower right stomach section. So immediately Janice gave Mr. C pain prescriptions. Three hours later, Janice asked Mr. C how he was feeling and Mr. C replied, "I am feeling much better, thank you." Mr. C. hesitated for a few seconds and whispered, "I had Blood in the urine and was feeling very tired. I felt like my health was poor. Cancer was something that I was completely worried about, so I went to the hospital and had them to check it out. I was then diagnosed with kidney cancer (did not say a word for a minute). My family had poor health for generations. My father died of colon cancer and my brother died of throat cancer. There is nobody left in the family but me. I was diagnosed with cancer also." He took a deep breath grew and continued, "I grew up living in fear that I was next, and eventually I just accepted this fact. It is better that I am not wedded; or else, I would be a liability to my wife and my children which would probably make everybody unhappy."

Related Case

It is clear that the borderline case encompasses some of the same precarious characteristics of the main concept but not necessarily all of them talked about. Or the borderline case could have most of the standards but could possibly differ considerably in one of them (Gelinas & Puntillo, 2004). The following example gives a glimpse of a borderline case. Mr. C is a 64-year-old Mexican man who was a…

Sources Used in Documents:


Akyol, O., Karayurt, O., & Salmond, S. (2009). Experiences of pain and satisfaction with pain management in patients undergoing total knee replacement. Orthopedic Nursing, 28(2), 79-85.

Chan, S., Hadjistavropoulos, T., Carleton, R.N., & Hadjistavropoulos, H. (2012). Predicting adjustment to chronic pain in older adults. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 44(3), 192-199.

Eggermont, L.H.P., Bean, J.F., Guralnik, J.M., & Leveille, S.G. (2009). Comparing pain severity vs. pain location in the MOBILIZE Boston study: Chronic pain and lower extremity function*. The Journals of Gerontology, 64A (7), 763-70.

Gelinas, C., Fortier, M., Viens, C., Fillion, L., & Puntillo, K. (2004). PAIN ASSESSMENT AND Management IN CRITICALLY ILL INTUBATED PATIENTS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY. American Journal of Critical Care, 13(2), 126-35.

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