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The society of the United States is, and has always been, one that is highly and heavily patriarchal. Males are the gender that is in charge and women are expected and indeed required to accept this as fact. Their gender necessitates submission and dominion by their male counterparts. omen who strive for power in this society are meant to feel as though they are somehow very wrong because they want something that is supposed to be allowed only to the opposite gender. A woman was always made subordinate to her husband. This is the case at the center of the marriage between Henry and Elisa Allen. Throughout their union, he has been the lead and she has followed him, like a proper dutiful housewife should. At the age of 35, she has little life to call her own; no children and no power in the union. All she has…… [Read More]
Chrysanthemums and Young Goodman rown
Nathaniel Hawthorne's 1835 short story "Young Goodman rown" and John Steinbeck's 1938 short story "The Chrysantemums" both deal with female purity and with how it can be easily tainted by temptation. Faith, the protagonist's wife in "Young Goodman rown" is initially shown advising the main character against performing immoralities. Similarly, Elisa, the central character in "The Chrysantemums," is presented in the first part of the story as an innocent country woman that is solely interested in her gardening. It is very probable that the two authors used women and their frailty as a main concept in their stories with the purpose of emphasizing more general ideas related to society and to how it can be influenced by matters that are seemingly unthreatening. oth women are somewhat stereotypical characters resembling women in the 1830s, and, respectively, in the 1930s.
Even though Hawthorne's story is meant to…… [Read More]
As Elisa expresses it, "When the night is dark -- why, the stars are sharp-pointed, and there's quiet. Why, you rise up and up! Every pointed star gets driven into your body. It's like that. Hot and sharp and -- lovely" (par. 73). The open night sky, in contrast to the lid of fog that sits on Elisa now, is felt as a release or a joining of energies, and the fulfillment of the anticipation now felt, and this scene puts Elisa at the height of her internal awareness.
She acknowledges this awareness explicitly when she tells her husband, "I'm strong…I never knew before how strong" (par. 93). A short time later, however, when she and her husband have passed the wagon on their way to dinner and she realizes that she will not really fulfill her desire or her potential in the wider world, she begins,: crying weakly --…… [Read More]
John Steinbeck's famed short story, "The Chrysanthemums," was published in Harper's Magazine in 1937. This story is quite vigorously argued to be Steinbeck's best short story, as well as a piece that outshines and does not belong to his remaining body of work. "The Chrysanthemums has been called John Steinbeck's best short fiction, and some rank it with the world's greatest short stories." (Haggstrom, Page 1) He wrote the story just a few years before the United States entered World War II. During this period in America, a great deal of the male population was occupied, mostly abroad, with military activities. Stateside, women picked up a great deal of the industrial and domestic slack while the men fought the second great war. Prior to this period, women lived the traditional experience of confinement, restriction, and social internment.
The Allen ranch in his short story is set Salinas Valley, California,…… [Read More]
In effect, he is throwing her away carelessly, just as he threw the flowers away on the side of the road. Therefore, they represent Elisa herself too, and the wants and dreams that have already died in her own life. She is not a happy person, she has many desires and dreams that are unfulfilled, and her husband really does not recognize that. The chrysanthemums are also a symbol of her longing for freedom and what might happen if she actually broke away. She gives the chrysanthemums their freedom when she shares them with the tinsmith. Steinbeck writes, "Her lips moved silently, forming the words 'Good-bye -- good-bye'" (Steinbeck), and this shows how much she cares about her flowers and the life they symbolize. The tinsmith just throws them away, and so he is saying that what she shared is not important. It was extremely important to her, and she…… [Read More]
Chrysanthemums" by John Steinbeck, and "Paul's Case" by Willa Cather. Specifically, it will discuss a thematic connection between the two stories. These two short stories highlight the themes of loneliness, unfulfilled desires, and dreams. Both main characters have dreams of something better that are never realized, and they live tragic and unfulfilled lives because of this. These stories might not seem related, but underneath two very different characters lays the same basic problem - a dreamer's soul that is unfulfilled and desperately unhappy with real life.
Themes in Two elated Short Stories
These two short stories seem totally unrelated at first glance, but underlying two very different characters is a common theme of dreams, unfulfilled desires, and loneliness. Paul in "Paul's Case" is a lonely and misunderstood boy whose only joys are the theatre and the arts. He loves to watch performances, it is the only time he feels entirely…… [Read More]
Chrysanthemums by John Steinbeck [...] theme of the story, and how it relates to the story's conflict and outcome. Steinbeck weaves the theme of loneliness and isolation throughout this touching story of a lonely woman and her unfulfilled life. The outcome of the story is as unemotional and removed as Elisa's life is, and so, it is clear her life will go on just as it has, she is not the type of woman to really strike out on her own.
In "The Chrysanthemums," Elisa Allen is a lonely and unfulfilled woman who has dreams of a far different life. She truly covets the tinker's independence and his power to simply pick up and move where he wants when he wants. She wistfully tells the tinker, "It must be nice,' she said. 'It must be very nice. I wish women could do such things'" (Steinbeck 182). This theme of loneliness…… [Read More]
At the same time, iesel suggests that the persistence of hope prevails, and that holding onto positive memories and traditions can help the human spirit conquer all the evil in the world. "The atch" is chosen as a passage in a high school literature book because doing so reflects the author's ultimate goal: illustrating how history repeats itself unless we remain vigilant and always cognizant of the past. To remind high school students of the holocaust is to encourage dialogue. The audience for "The atch" is universal.
3. Randall Jarrell's "The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner"
Jarrell's poem "The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner" uses symbolism and imagery to convey war and death. The poem juxtaposes images of birth and death, as he describes his "mother's sleep" and being "hunched in the belly" before discussing the "black flak" and his own death. Juxtaposition is also used with the…… [Read More]
"She relaxed limply in the seat. "Oh, no. No. I don't want to go. I'm sure I don't." Her face was turned away from him. "It will be enough if we can have wine. It will be plenty." She turned up her coat collar so he could not see that she was crying weakly -- like an old woman" (Steinbeck).
There are a number of fairly eminent points to be made about this quotation -- the first of which is that Allen's husband has taken her away from her source of power -- her garden. Away from that source, she is described by imagery that is rather enervating and in opposition to the vivacity she previously personified. The imagery of her sitting "limply" and weeping "weakly" is strongly contrasted with the images of her cutting through plants and powerfully gripping handfuls of earth -- which symbolizes the source of her…… [Read More]
" His use of alcohol only enforces his incapability to distinguish between what is real and what is memory. It seems as though every stop represents a moment in Ned's life that he chose to ignore, oblivious to the fact that it might interfere and disturb the course of life. He does not recognize what people are telling him, nor does he find himself on the same length with them, and he feels the journey has exhausted him more than he expected. As he finally reaches his home, he is bewildered not to find anything nor anyone there, as if the house were deserted. This is what constitutes the reality of the story, that Ned's life had been broken down by his incapacity to change his demeanor and to realize what was really going on. That people were reminding him of financial issues, that he seemed to like alcohol a…… [Read More]
Elisa Allen is the protagonist of John Steinbeck's short story “The Chrysanthemums,” and Louise Mallard is the protagonist of Kate Chopin's “The Story of An Hour.” Both Elisa and Louise are products of their social and historical contexts, particularly when it comes to gender norms. Elisa and Louise are passive protagonists, because patriarchy has stripped them of political agency. By creating passive protagonists in their respective short stories, Steinbeck and Chopin make powerful social commentary about the role of women in their private and public lives.
Both Elisa and Louise feel stuck in their marriage, but perceive liberation as impossible within the confines of their culture. In both short stories, nature symbolizes wasted potential. For example, Elisa is capable of so much more than gardening: "The chrysanthemum stems seemed too small and easy for her energy," (Steinbeck). Similarly, Louise realizes that she has wasted her life when she sees nature…… [Read More]
Both Elisa Allen and Goodman Brown suggest that sexual tension might be at the root of their conflict.
Allen arguably deals with her pain more constructively than Brown does. Brown becomes bitter as a result of the conflict he perceives in his heart. Moreover, Brown fails to ground himself in reality. Questioning whether or not the forest vision was real, Brown neglects to contemplate its value even as a dream. Learning that he does have longings to break free from the social conventions tying him down to the rigid and conformist Puritan society would have helped Brown come to terms with the Faith he does genuinely seek. Elisa cries but deep down knows that a simple dinner out with her husband is as much freedom as she can have while still savoring the joy of…… [Read More]
Bates to come home, there is a battle between light and dark, heat and cold. These are powerfully suggestive symbols of good and bad. Entering the scene, "the kitchen was small and full of firelight; red coals piled glowing up the chimney mouth. All the life of the room seemed in the white, warm hearth and the steel fender reflecting the red fire" (Lawrence). The fire is a good indicator of the anger that burned inside Elizabeth as she expected, once again, for her husband to be late. Later in the scene however, the fire began to go out and become a dull red. Annie, Elizabeth's daughter, describes it as "beautiful," and "full of little caves -- and it feels so nice, and you can fair smell it" (Lawrence). The fire has become a source of warmth and pleasantness, it is beautiful and it is good. As the coals struggle…… [Read More]
One of Wright's major works was Black Boy and one of the most poignant sections of that book was Chapter 12 in which Wright described the experiences of two southern black boys exploited by the "five dollar fight." Working for an optician in Memphis, Tennessee, the protagonist (Richard) hopes that his experiences with white people in Memphis will be better than in the small town of Jackson, Mississippi "The people of Memphis had an air of relative urbanity that took some of the sharpness off the attitude of whites toward Negroes & #8230;"
However, Richard finds that white people are just as exploitative and abusive of blacks in the big city as in small towns. Some of the white men where Richard works pay another black boy a quarter at a time to let them kick him in his rear end and even when white men seem to be nice…… [Read More]
Asian Museum Exhibit
The Museum of Asia and India (MIA) is proud to host the traveling exhibition of Art and Society in Japan and China: Floral epresentation through the Centuries. The exhibit will run for three months at the MIA before traveling to other venues across the globe in the two-year schedule. Museums in Amsterdam, Copenhagen, London, Madrid, Munich, New York, Nice, Oslo, Prague, San Francisco, Sydney, Toronto, and Zurich will play host to the special exhibit from November 2011 through May of 2012.
The exhibit provides glimpses into the impact of religion, philosophy, language, and culture on Asian art. With artistic grounding in writing as an art form, Chinese and Japanese art often includes the written word as a visual element in art. Often, the writing conveys a wise aphorism or a blessing that exists harmoniously with the subject of the art. The influence of Confucius in Asian art…… [Read More]
women are confined in society as depicted in the stories by Steinback, Joyce and Oates.
Stories set in the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century often depict women as being confined to the norms of society even while they struggle to be free. Authors of literary works may they be short or long stories have often presented these women as being frustrated with the status imposed upon them and show the problems they face in a patriarchal society. In John Steinback's Chrysanthemums for instance, the female character Elisa Allen has been portrayed as "a strong, capable woman kept from personal, social, and sexual fulfillment by the prevailing conception of a woman's role in a world dominated by men" (Steinback, 306). Her appearance, manner and speech all suggest that she is a woman frustrated with the male dominated world. Her husband forever reminds Elisa that she…… [Read More]
A. Elisa Allen is the protagonist of John Steinbeck’s short story “The Chrysanthemums.” Louise Mallard is the protagonist of Kate Chopin’s “The Story of An Hour.”
B. Both Elisa and Louise are products of their social and historical contexts, particularly when it comes to gender norms.
C. Elisa and Louise are passive protagonists, because patriarchy has stripped them of political agency.
Thesis: By creating passive protagonists in their respective short stories, Steinbeck and Chopin make powerful social commentary about the role of women in their private and public lives.
A. Topic Sentence: Both Elisa and Louise feel stuck in their marriage, but perceive liberation as impossible within the confines of their culture.
1. First concrete detail: Nature symbolizes wasted potential.
a. Elisa is capable of so much more than gardening: “The chrysanthemum stems seemed too small and easy for her energy,” (Steinbeck)
b. Louise receives her…… [Read More]
Moreover, it seems less than completely effective to urge people to make connections to each other because being self-centered really leads to a healthier community. Yes, keeping up our networks does help each one of us. But this does not seem to be the kind of inspirational call to a wider world that will transform the current problems in the nation.
elational, Not Instrumental Connections
Lawler, Thye, & Yoon argue that it is not simply sufficient to create the shell of the kinds of institutions that can encourage and support community. ather, we must consider the ways in which we can shift the connections between people and institutions and between institutions and institutions from being essentially instrumental to being more deeply relational.
This volume argues that there are fundamental social conditions under which transactional, purely instrumental ties to a group tend to become relational and expressive. We reframe the transactional-relational…… [Read More]
Disorder does not descend from Heaven,
It is the spawn of a woman. 10
Contemporaneous with relocating the capital from Edo to Tokyo was the drawing up of the 'Memorandum on Reform of the Imperial Palace' in which Article 1 states that the emperor would 'deign to hear about all political matters' in the front throne room adding that 'women are to be prohibited from entering the front throne room' 11.
Yoshii Tomozane, enior ecretary for Court Affairs peremptorily dismissed all court ladies, after which a rare few were reselected for appointment. In his dairy, he noted: 'this morning, the court ladies were dismissed in their entirety… the power of women already lasting for centuries has been erased in a single day. My delight knows no bounds." 12.
In this way the power of the 'hens' was removed from the 'Enlightened regime' of Meiji rule and suppressed throughout the country.…… [Read More]
They did not expect her to evolve into a ruler of any significance. They were wrong.
Catherine moved quickly to consolidate her power after taking the throne. She studied policy and reached out to consultants and political actors who would both aid her and prove trustworthy. She ruled with a lighter touch, perhaps, than her husband, but she was certainly no push-over. Alexander writes that "Her style of governance was cautiously consultative, pragmatic, and 'hands-on,' with a Germanic sense of duty and strong aversion to wasting time."
She had absolute power, but she acted with a certain reserve, at least initially, which belied the fact that she would eventually become known in history as a toughened despot. Perhaps this notion of Catherine the Great as a despot was introduced due to her later years when she seemed to indicate an unwillingness to allow her son to ascend the throne, or…… [Read More]
Lusnia characterizes this concept as the persistence of signs that foretell of one's "imperial destiny." (517) Namely, this refers to the adoption of personal signs and symbols with some likely connection to historical imperial iconography and suggesting the principles of strength, virility, valor and divinity. hether present or not throughout the life of the figure in question -- Augustus in this case -- the recurrence of certain specific images such as the laurel, retained within recurrent thematic contexts such as the Octavian 'garden,' would truly be intended to insist upon the hereditary and theological entitlement of Augustus to a seat atop the Roman Empire.
That unification, rebirth and flourishing growth would be themes of the Augustan rule should suggest to us that the images contained in Roman life and in the visual depiction of Roman life were not chosen in idle vanity. Instead, the must be a core psychological imperative…… [Read More]
Windows -- Bernice Morgan
One would think that waiting for death in the bitter cold of late winter is about as grim as a life can be. But when you are depressed and dirt poor, living in a ramshackle old house that leaks cold air, with a daughter-in-law in the house that you dislike intensely -- and who wants you out of the house whenever possible -- things are seriously awful. For Leah, who has vivid memories of how life used to be in Estonia, her misery is compounded by her confused mind. Author Morgan does a splendid job of portraying Leah's misery -- and the reality of Leah's life beyond Leah's twisted approach to what life she has left -- through three main themes and symbols: colors, sounds, and death. Also incorporated into the short story is Leah's total lack of motivation, her cynical view of the people around…… [Read More]
The tale of Chibana Shoichi's, the Okinawan supermarket owner, demonstrates how there is still a major segment of society that believes in the "emperor system," even in Okinawa. However, Field exposes how these people have been forced to conform with this system, though social pressure, threats, and even violence. But despite these obstacles, there are still people like Shoichi who will speak out against this system and its historical amnesia. However, this fight has only just begun and not all those who stand up against the system are successful. Mrs. Nakaya was unsuccessful in her attempt to stop the government from using her husband to reinforce a system that she felt was unjust and restricted her religious beliefs. The response by the government signifies how deeply ingrained into Japanese society is the "emperor system," and how many Japanese, including the Japanese Supreme Court, see no differentiation between tradition Shinto-based emperor…… [Read More]
Continued use of some anti-migraine drugs has been found to lead to what is known as "rebound headache," a condition marked by frequent and chronic headaches, especially in the early morning hours. The condition can be prevented if the patient takes the drugs only on a doctor's supervision and when taken only in minimal doses. Those suffering from frequent attacks may need preventive therapy (Robinson 1999).
There are alternative treatment modes aimed at preventing migraine (Robinson 1999). ecause it is often linked with food allergies and intolerances, the identification and elimination of the offending foods can contain or decrease the frequency of the attacks. Herbal therapy with the use of feverfew or chrysanthemum parthenium can work this way. iofeedback training may also help prevent some vascular changes when an attack begins by increasing the flow of blood to the extremities. The patient must put the lights down low, put his…… [Read More]
Backyards can be an expression of personal taste and creativity. An immaculately manicured lawn and garden expresses sophistication and neatness, while an unruly, unmowed yard replete with wildflowers can entail a free spirit. While it is important to not read too much into the state of a person's backyard, I am proud to admit that mine exists somewhere between these two extremes.
Exiting the back door, I step onto a patio enclosed by screens. A frothing Jacuzzi beckons, enveloping me with the scent of chlorine and the promise of relaxation. The cedar planks of wood beneath my feet trap warmth and comfort every step. I look up at the crawling, sprawling vines that cover the screened-in patio before opening the gate and stepping down onto the lawn.
Our backyard is large enough to frolic in: a great expanse of grass allows for lively games. A tremendous tree looms over the…… [Read More]
Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd right and Madeleine Vionnet. hat did this 19th century artist, architect, and fashion designer share in common? Very simply: They all incorporated Japanese techniques into their works of genius. hen Commodore Perry opened the doors to this Eastern country in 1853, an abundance of unique and influential styles of art rushed out and captured the imaginations of artists throughout the estern world. As author Emile Zola once said,
It is certain that our students painting with black bitumen, were surprised and enhanced by these horizons, these beautiful vibrating spots of the Japanese painters in watercolours. There was a simplicity of means and an intensity of effect which struck our young artists and then influenced them with a painting filled with air and light
This flow of Japanese artistic riches and influence continues to this day. Ask any graphic designers including those at alt Disney Company…… [Read More]
Computer Vision Syndrome
According to the Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is "A variety of problems related to prolonged viewing of a computer screen. Short-term effects include dry eyes, blurred vision, eye fatigue and excessive tearing. Long-term effects include migraines, cataracts and visual epilepsy. Some solutions are to keep reflections and glare to a minimum and to provide a non-fluorescent, uniform light source. Special lamps are available that maintain the proper light around the monitor and generate light at much higher frequencies than regular light bulbs"
With the ever increasing amount of time consumers are spending in front of their computer screens, this disability is considered on of the fastest growing work related health problems in the country today. For many Americans, the problem cannot be left behind at the office. Individuals come home, to spend time surfing the web, corresponding via email, and pursuing various computer-based entertainment…… [Read More]
Joseph eaves's book, Taking in a Game -- a History of Baseball in Asia, which was published in 2002. The book studies the growth of baseball in Asian countries and how it merged into their cultural and social fabric.
Joseph eaves reads like a newspaper account of some event and this is not some coincidence. eaves has been involved with sports journalism for almost three decades and has worked with newspapers and magazines of repute including United Press International, the Chicago Tribune, and eader's Digest. eaves is a well-known reporter with sound credentials. He was nominated for Pulitzer Prize four times for his realistic coverage of various issues including war and economy. He was also involved in teaching journalism from 1999 to 2001 at Northern Arizona University. The author has written more than one book on his favorite subject i.e. baseball and thus possesses indepth knowledge of the game and…… [Read More]
Medicinal cuisine is based on seasonal ingredients. Spring, summer, fall and winter have their own specific diets. The concept of seasonal ingredients means that we must be careful to adjust our diet to get the necessary nutrition to survive the season. Seasonal ingredients help strengthen our immune system and prevent and treat the diseases which most often occur during those seasons.
During the spring, the liver can cause the body to exhibit fatigue, eyestrain, headaches, dizziness and drowsiness.
The seasonal food ingredients for the spring are (Korean) wild chive, shepherd's purse, water parsley. And angelica tree sprout.
TCM ingredients for the spring are chuan xiong, dang gui, ju hua, gou qi zi, jie geng, ge gen, bo he, fu pen zi and raisin tree fruit.
In summer, the weather is hot and fruits get ripe. Our body heat is elevated and there is an additional risk of heart problems and…… [Read More]
Art and Death: The Chinese
Portraying death to children
In the preschool age, educators seldom broach the topic of death. However, some picture books for kids directly address death and related issues. Their current approach is worth utilizing as reference. Book presentations follow the steps: comprehending death with preschoolers' internal experiences, slowly probing into what death means in the eyes of preschoolers, and expanding on the subject by seeking the continuance of love. The above three elements serve as references for Chinese picture books with death as the central theme. Such books depict a child's world using children's language and culture-specific images. The concept of death is taught to students in the form of interesting stories, which portray children's pure world, characterized by curiosity and innocence. Adults are also deeply affected by their simplicity, love and care (Chen, 2012).
Thesis: Death has been incorporated, as a theme, into Chinese books,…… [Read More]
...these designers placed great significance on clothing inherited from the past, including Japanese farmers' clothes designed through necessity and adapted dyed textile and quilting from ancient Japan, which Japanese would not consider fashionable. These designers presented them to the fashion world, gave the opportunity for 'the neglected' to make their existence known, and transformed them into 'fashion'."(Kawamura, 2004, 125)
Kawakubo, Miyake and Yamamoto are considered as the designers who made these first steps towards a new fashion more concrete: "hile Kenzo is considered a pioneer among all Japanese designers, Kawakubo, Miyake and Yamamoto are the ones who created a new style characterized by monochromatic, asymmetrical and baggy looks."(Kawamura, 2004, 125) the asymmetrical and baggy look of their designs is clearly influenced by the loose form of the kimono. Sometimes, in Miyake's creations for example, the dresses are completely shapeless and have random holes that offer a certain freedom when wearing…… [Read More]
Mrs. Mallard's husband could have thought he was doing her a great kind kindness by "bending" her will to his. This quotation demonstrates the fact that even if Brent Mallard was on his best behavior, he still had a negative, oppressive effect upon his wife. With little legal recourse, Chopin is alluding to the fact that for many women, death -- of either the husband or the repressed woman -- is the only way out of such a situation.
Unfortunately for Mrs. Mallard, her weak heart was unable to sustain the shock of seeing her husband alive, after she had finally acclimated herself to the notion that she had finally been freed from his oppressive presence and will. She was strong enough to live with her husband's death, yet was not strong enough to live through the surprise of his continued life at the resumption of her former, oppressed state.…… [Read More]
Victorian Female Sexuality
Victorian Sexuality: George Bernard Shaw's Mrs. arren's Profession and Thomas Hardy's "The Ruined Maid"
omen in the Victorian era must have suffered enormously under the massive double standards and the shameful image of a woman who wanted to be on her own. It is clear from examining the literature of the period how much discrimination was placed on women in the era. George Bernard Shaw's Mrs. arren's Profession and Thomas Hardy's "The Ruined Maid" show the intense sexual and gender discrimination that women in the Victorian era had to endure and the extreme consequences that were reserved for them upon breaking such strict traditions on sexuality and love relationships; however, George Bernard Shaw does allow for a greater sense of freedom for his female characters as his work was written much later at the tail end of the Victorian era, as long as they avoid the contact…… [Read More]
Edga Allen Poe tale of pemeditated mude such as "The Cask of Amontillado," eades will immediately delight in the autho's skill at suspense. Like wandeing though dakened and ancient catacombs, eading "The Cask of Amontillado" stis the imagination and maintains tension thoughout its eeie passages. Deepe analysis lends insight into Poe's employment of vaious liteay techniques to impat this sense of the tale being a campfie ghost stoy. Poe's cleve use of iony, both damatic and vebal, contibutes to the shot stoy's suspenseful mood. The opening line of "The Cask of Amontillado" whispe Monteso's plan of evenge: "The thousand injuies of Fotunato I had bone as I best could, but when he ventued upon insult, I vowed evenge," (Poe,). Befoe any action occus, the eade is made awae of the intentions of the naato. This damatic display of iony allows the eade to fully engage and paticipate in the tale.…… [Read More]
Modernist literature refers to a literary period from the first half of the 20th century, one that reacted to the external influences of an increasingly industrialized society, and one that was becoming more and more globalized. This was a population of people who had been hardened and drained by two world wars. This was a population of people who were pondering the future of humanity, human existence, the human condition and their place in the world. When compared to the romantic period, modernism appears edgier and less serene. The romantic period had more of a focus on the natural world and the experience of being; modernism focused more on the inner self, seeing more of a decline and fraught fragmentation with the external world. From a literary perspective, the period meant a subversion of typical norms: modernist prose and poetry played with structure and form in ways that readers weren’t…… [Read More]