Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Scholars such as Gerhard Ruhbach argue that Eusebius was not even a political theologian as some have argued. Instead they assert that "Eusebius had no interest in politics for its own sake; his orientation to political developments was exclusively theological and ecclesiastical. Ruhbach found that Eusebius's attitude toward God's involvement in history was fundamentally shaped by the Bible, in particular, the Old Testament (Hollerich, 1990)."
This discussion has carefully discussed the accuracy of Eusebius's account of Church history. This review has revealed that Eusebius was a scholar who had a deep affection for the church. e found that although his writings are often believed to be disjointed and incoherent, his account can be received as accurate. e can also conclude that Eusebius was merely a man sharing his view of church history based on the Old Testament and his experiences. The accuracy of his account is no more problematic…
Schaff, Philip, and Henry Wace
Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church: Second Series. Trans.. Vol. 1. New York: Christian Literature Co., 1890.
Hollerich Michael J. Religion and Politics in the Writings of Eusebius: Reassessing the First "Court Theologian." Church History. Volume: 59. Issue: 3. Page Number: 309. 1990.
ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…
Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.
Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian
Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,
Great Awakening: The eginning of Evangelicalism
The evangelicals started a new movement in the 1950s called new evangelicalism with a basis on human experiences that downplayed the role of doctrine and turned back on external church relations which in a way made it hard to differentiate evangelicalism from the mainstream Christendom. This movement has experienced several transformations since the Reformation from pietistic evangelism, fundamentalist evangelism, and classic evangelism to the more modern form known as evangelistic fundamentalism. Within the movement, the emergent church is increasingly growing to influence the postmodern culture. y advocating for diversity and pluralism, postmodernism in no way lays claim to any absolute principles in the new cultural dispensation. And so the new church primarily focuses on the younger generation. y attempting to reverse the church to the practices of the middle ages, it can only be possible to take a critical look at the spokespeople because…
1 Pettegrew, Larry D. "Evangelicism, Paradigms, and the Emerging Church." The Master's Seminary Journal, 2006: pp 159-175.
2 Gary Dorrien, The Remaking of Evangelical Theology (Louisville, Ky.: Westminster/John Knox, 1998) pp 2-3.
3 Clark Pinnock, Most Moved Mover (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001) p 110.
4 Minkema, Kenneth J. "Jonathan Edwards in the Twentieth Century." Journal of the evangelical theological society, 2004: pp 659-87.
Churches and Black Community
The role played by Black fraternal organizations in the creation of a much bigger "social network" that was very important for the Black communities in the North was hugely significant. The Black church was just as significant in the North as were the churches in the South. Besides the emotional input achieved by the Black churches, they were also cultural, political and social centers. They supported glee clubs and choral groups and protested against slavery and temperance (Pessen 46).
Northern free Blacks were much better placed to make significant advancements in their own lives both economically and education wise than their counterparts in the South. hile the ones in the South were fighting for more freedom, the Northern Blacks had more liberties and were gaining from them in the form of educational attainment and personal empowerment. During the period, Black education was largely ignored by the…
Pessen, Edward. Jacksonian America: Society, Personality, and Politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1985. Print.
Hamilton, Shirley. "African-American Women Roles In The Baptist Church: Equality Within the National Baptist Convention, USA." (2009).
"Women's History." Chicago Metro: History Education Center. Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
"The Black Church: a Brief History. "The Black Church," a Brief History.Web. 16 Sept. 2015.
The degree to which a state could develop a sense of solidarity revolving around homogenous factors contributed to the development of a centralized government in certain countries and the lack thereof in others. Homogenous factors can be found in areas of race, nationality, and in religion in particular, all of which contributes to a sense of a national identity that a centralized authority of government both represents and reinforces. The influence of Catholic Christianity, which was widely based upon the Holy Roman Empire, had the effect of organizing certain countries in Europe under similar forms of authority which were, of course, manifest in a central branch of government. Due to the fact that Christianity as it is widely practiced today, spanned from the authority of the Roman Empire in Italy, the Italian country has frequently had this influence as a centralizing agency upon it government (although it should be noted…
An integrated system was used in buildings where columns, pilasters, and entablatures came together as support. Arches were also used in building churches and other such structures. Semi-circular or segmental vaults were used which were mostly without ribs. In this era domes were not only used in churches but they were also used in building secular structures. Doors and windows usually had square lintels in the buildings of the era. Cravings and decorations also became prominent part of the structures taking their inspiration from the classic structures. Though Florence was the place where renaissance started but Italy embraced renaissance and effects of classic architecture as opposed to Gothic architecture. enaissance style further gave way to baroque style in the 17th-century. The Georgian style became notable in the 18th-century while the 19th century was given over to the classic revival and the Gothic revival.
Though our current architecture is derived…
Architecture History'. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org
It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .
The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…
History Of Corrections
Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what…
Johnson, R. 2002. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
King, R., and M. Mauer. 2002. State Sentencing and Corrections Policy in an Era of Fiscal Restraint. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.
King, D., 2011. Changes In Community Corrections: Implications For Staff And Programs. Available at: http://aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/proceedings/11/king.pdf
Lin, A.C. 2000. Reform in the Making: The Implementation of Social Policy in Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
History of Crime and Punishment in Europe 17C-18C
This paper traces the history crime and punishment in Europe. It looks at the influences of that time the social and philosophical movements and how they affected the whole evolution of treatment of crime and the thought behind punishment. The paper details about the neoclassical period its forbearers and how they regarded the issue of crime and punishment and their assumptions regarding the problem.
Crime is as old as civilization itself and where you find groups of people, you will consistently find some shape of criminal activity. You will also find punishment. The criminal has always been seen as undermining the values and, even, the very fabric of the society she or he deceives. Accordingly, those found out or found culpable have often been dealt with unsympathetically. Again, the Jewish Mythology will spring to the Western mind with its mantra of an…
Andrews Richard Mowery. 1994. Law, Magistracy and Crime in Old Regime Paris, 1735-1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dictionary of the History of Ideas. 1973-4. 5 vols. Edited by Philip D. Wiener New York: Scribners
Gatrell, V.A.C., Bruce Lenman and Geoffrey Parker eds. 1980.Crime and the Law. The Social History of Crime in Western Europe since 1500. London: Europa.
Garland, David. 1985. Punishment and Welfare: In History of Penal Strategies. Aldershot: Gower. GOLDMANN Lucien. 1973. The Philosophy of the Enlightenment. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
" However, as strange as these ideas may be to a modern reader or historian, that is all the more reason to demand the rigorous perspective demanded by Cohen. If objectivity is impossible, then looking at historical events from as many interpretations as possible provides a potential solution.
Cohen's embrace of folklore, and of piecing together a patchwork quilt of perspectives is useful in unpacking the influence of people outside of the ruling class, and exposing hidden influences upon Chinese history in terms of the impact of the religion of ordinary people, particularly women, denied an education or access to the centers of power. However, even for a historian outside of the field of East sian studies, Cohen's ideas are useful in terms of how to approach history, particularly historical events that have become especially fraught with meaning in modern culture, beyond their immediate impact. Cohen is most sure-footed when…
At times, while reading about some of the Boxer's actions and beliefs, particularly in terms of their point-of-view of ritual purity, such a perspective can be difficult to assume. "The bandits passed the word around that, just as they were setting fire to the church in question, some woman from across the way had come out of her home and spilled dirty water. Their magic was therefore destroyed, and the misfortune extended [beyond the church]. On the basis of this [explanation], the families whose homes had been burned down didn't resent the Boxer bandits; they all cursed the woman." However, as strange as these ideas may be to a modern reader or historian, that is all the more reason to demand the rigorous perspective demanded by Cohen. If objectivity is impossible, then looking at historical events from as many interpretations as possible provides a potential solution.
Cohen's embrace of folklore, and of piecing together a patchwork quilt of perspectives is useful in unpacking the influence of people outside of the ruling class, and exposing hidden influences upon Chinese history in terms of the impact of the religion of ordinary people, particularly women, denied an education or access to the centers of power. However, even for a historian outside of the field of East Asian studies, Cohen's ideas are useful in terms of how to approach history, particularly historical events that have become especially fraught with meaning in modern culture, beyond their immediate impact. Cohen is most sure-footed when navigating the territory of the recent past, where there are more concrete documents for him to deal with, in terms of how the Boxers were viewed, but his approach could be applied to events of the even farther, as well as the more recent past.
Paul Cohen, "History in Three Keys," (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), p.3
History Of the Media in America
Media America, a History
Media incorporates mediums such as advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and now -- the Internet. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it was only in the 1920s that people began to actually talk about 'the media,' and a generation later, in the 1950s, of a 'communication revolution,' however, the art of oral and written communication was actually quite important in ancient Greece and ome. It was studied in the Middle Ages, and with greater enthusiasm in the enaissance.
Until Johannes Gutenberg invention of the moveable type in 1450, information was spread primarily orally. That is, it was town criers, ministers from the pulpit, and bartenders who disseminated information or news. "Town criers, for example, broadcast royal edicts, police regulations, and important community events, such as births, marriages of princes, war news, and treaties of peace or alliance."
Less than a…
Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American
Independence. Oxford University Press, 2005.
Briggs, Asa. Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity; 3rd
It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.
Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).
The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…
These Gods subjugated humans in a way that never happened in other primitive river-valley cultures yet seemed to follow a political will as the concept evolved. This finally culminates in the marriage between the God of Above, Nergal, lord of Summer, Growth and Heat; and the Goodness of the Below, Ereshkigal, queen of the underworld, inter, the Cold, and of Death. e now have opposites, attracted, and yet polarized in deed, action, and even interpretation (Messadie, 1996, 90-7).
This conception then seems to flow mythologically out of the Middle East into other cultures; we have the trickster, the shadow, the evil one, and even the unknown. However, considering the geographical location of the Abrahamic religions, it is logical that there would be a cross-over from the archetype that would manifest itself within these religious traditions.
Satan in Judaism -- in traditional Judaic thought, there is no conception of the Devil…
Jews Believe in the Satan, and Not in the Devil. (2003, March). Retrieved November 2010, from What Jews Believe: http://whatjewsbelieve.org/explanation7.html
Anderson, W. (2010). Dante the Maker. Brooklyn, NY: S4N Books.
Bowker, J. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Catchpool, D. (2002). The Koran vs. Genesis. Creation, 24(2), 46-51.
The asylum automatically granted under the Swiss constitution was denied for those seeking it for religious reasons. y 1942, only 9,150 foreign Jews were legally resident in Switzerland, an increase of just 980 since 1931. It was the Swiss government that requested the German government to help it identify Jews by stamping all Jewish passports with a prominent letter "J," following the Nuremberg acts in 1935. "y 1942, acting at the behest of Switzerland's establishment and the majority of its people, its authoritarian police apparatus was dedicated to keeping the country 'pure' and to saving it from being 'overrun with Jews'." Until 1942, the working Jewish community in Switzerland was forced by the government to support Jewish refugees.
The other side of the German interest in Switzerland's banks was related to the business of Germany and the looting of conquered countries. y 1941, Germany had exhausted all of its foreign…
Bazyler, Michael J. Holocaust Justice: The Battle for Restitution in America's Courts. New York: New York University Press, 2003.
Borowiec, Andrew. "World's leaders gather in Geneva." The Washington Times. http://washingtontimes.com/world/20-5793r.htm .
Bower, Tom. Nazi Gold. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
Clarke, William. "Nazi Gold: The Role of the Central Banks - Where Does the Blame Lie?" Central Banking, Volume VIII Number 1. Summer 1997. April 22, 2005. http://www.bigeye.com/nazigold.htm .
History Of Human Services
When the Kalamazoo Foundation began in 1925, the welfare state in the U.S. was minimal, and on the federal level almost nonexistent. Problems of poverty, hunger, racism, unemployment, and inadequate education were largely left to the start and local levels to be dealt with by private charities and religious organizations. This only changed with the expansion of the federal safety net during the New Deal of the 1930s and the Great Society of the 1960s, although it has been contracting again over the last thirty years. During the Progressive Era of 1900-20 and into the next decade, civic-minded philanthropists and capitalists often took the lead in dealing with the social and economic problems of urban, industrial America, among them Dr. W.E. Upjohn, founder of Upjohn Pharmaceuticals. In addition to donating the first $1,000 in stock to establish the Kalamazoo Foundation, Upjohn also founded Bronson Methodist Hospital,…
Kalamazoo Community Foundation (2011). The Lifeline Initiative.
Miller-Adams, M. (2009). The Power of a Promise: Education and Economic Revival in Kalamazoo. W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
Rakstis, T.J. (1967). "Grass Roots Philanthropy." The Rotarian, March 1967, pp. 34-37.
History Of Communication Timeline
TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION
(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)
First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.
Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."
First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."
St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.
Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.
At this time, African-Americans were not allowed to enroll in this institution Autherine only stayed for three days not because she could not cope with the education, but because her life was in danger. Majority of the white students protested because of her presence. There is also the George allace incident that has also been mentioned bringing the University of Alabama into the limelight.
The university is also well-known for its prowess in football which was initiated in 1892 in the institution. Football in the University of Alabama is on a professional level ranked next to clubs in the league (Brad, 3). Many students receive football scholarships thus providing career opportunities to the students not only through education.
Alabama has been at the centre stage of civil rights activities involving fight against segregation, and providing inspirational individuals who will forever be celebrated like Reverend Martin Luther King and Rosa…
Alabama . Infoplease. 2005. 18 Oct. 2010.
Brad, Jason. Alabama Is No. 1 in Preseason Poll. New York Times
Oct. 18, 2010: 3
ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their own freight services, and on page 2 the author of this article notes that in time the major passenger airlines began offering freight forwarding service and that pretty well eliminated the need for a whole fleet of airline companies that just forwarded freight (Siddiqi). Only Flying Tiger stayed aloft as a strictly air freight company until the 1980s when Federal Express entered the picture. More on FedEx later in this paper.
The Literature -- the History of ir Freight Transportation -- Berlin ir Lift
When the long, bloody war was over it was time for the winning llies to divide up the territory that once was Nazi Germany, the negotiated, agreed-upon divisions gave the llies (U.S., Britain, and France) the Western…
April 20, 2012, from http://www.centennialofflight.gov.
Wilde, Robert. (2005). Berlin Blockade / Berlin Airlift. About.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012,
From http://europeanhistory.about.com .
(Kleiner, 2010, pg. 360)
While Giotto's Christ Entering Jerusalem, is a depiction of Christ entering the Jerusalem. In this situation, he is trying to instill a sense of history and righteousness by showing Christ entering one of the holiest cities in Christianity. At the same time, he is embracing the same kind of basic painting style that was most commonly used during the time. This is important, because it shows how Giotto is taking more a historical approach about various events that are occurring. ("Christ Entering Jerusalem," 2009)
When you compare the two works side by side, it is clear that the 13th century ible is telling a story about how everyone should be acting within society, by highlighting how the King is viewed in same light as other religious symbols. While Christ Entering Jerusalem is showing a historical approach, based upon past events (giving everyone a sense of respect…
Christ Entering Jerusalem. (2009). Art Work Today. Retrieved from: http://artworktoday.blogspot.com/2009/04/christ-entering-jerusalem-by-giotto.html
Michael Angelo's David. (2010). Turismo. Retrieved from: http://www.turismo.intoscana.it/allthingstuscany/tuscanyarts/michelangelo-david-facts/
Pieter Bruegel. (2010). Met Museum. Retrieved from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/brue/hd_brue.htm
Dobson, R. (2000). Weighing of Souls. Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages (pg. 1540). New York, NY: Routledge.
The ideal self is the person, someone feels they should be and will model their behavior, based upon this image. The real self is the side of your personality that friends and family know well. This creates a conflict in the individual called self-actualization, as the person will attempt to live up to the image of their ideal self. Where, these perceptions will affect the self-image of the individual throughout their life. (Gentile, 2008)
Evelyn Hooker conducted the first scientific experiment on male homosexuality. Where, she would survey both heterosexuals and homosexuals, to determine if homosexuals have trouble adjusting to various social circumstances. The effects of the survey were: homosexuals have no difference in adjusting to social situations in comparison with heterosexuals. As a result, this information would help to provide a research methodology that would be used in the future, to understand homosexual behavior. (Gentile, 2008)
Gentile, B. (2008). Foundation of Psychological Thought. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
History Of Social Psychology
According to Kruglanski and Stroebe (2012) social psychology is defined as the scientific study of how a person's feelings, behaviors, and thoughts are influenced by the implied, imagined, or real presence of other people. Social psychology will analyze various social topics including social perception, behavior leadership, conformity, prejudice, nonverbal behavior, and aggression. It attempts to understand a person's behavior in a social context. Therefore, social psychology will look at human behavior as other people and the social setting that this occurs shape it. Social psychologists will deal with the factors that lead a person to behave in a given way in front of others, and it looks at the conditions in which some behaviors and feelings will occur. Social psychology is a young field that began in the 20th century. Around 90% of all social psychologists are believed to be alive. The early influencers of this…
Baumeister, R.F., & Finkel, E.J. (2010). Advanced social psychology: The state of the science. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
Fiske, S.T., Gilbert, D.T., & Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 2). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Kruglanski, A.W., & Stroebe, W. (2012). Handbook of the history of social psychology. Church Rd, Hove: Psychology Press.
After some ineffective negotiating with the police both Sandro and a passenger on board of the bus get killed.
The main concept of the movie revolves around the unjust system; the blind Brazilian authorities that single-handedly create criminals by neglecting and aggressing most of the poor people instead of creating ways of improving their lives.
Favela Rising" is yet another motion picture intended to expose the truth concerning the Latin-American slums. The action again takes place in Rio de Janeiro, but the intriguing part about the film is that it is a documentary which tells the story of Anderson Sa, a former drug dealer from the Vigario Geral district.
Anderson had been living in a favela in Rio de Janeiro when he heard that his brother has been accidentally shot in the middle of a gang war. Just as the characters in the previous movies and in Carolina's book, Anderson…
De Jesus, Carolina Maria, and St. Clair David. Child of the Dark. Signet Classic, 2003.
Bus 174. Dir. Jose Padilha. 2002.
City of God. Dir. Fernando Meirelles. Miramax, Buena Vista International. 2002.
Favela Rising. Dir. Matt Mochary, Jeff Zimbalist. HBO/Cinemax. 2005.
Staircase ramps which are comprised of steep and narrow steps that lead up one face of the pyramid were more in use at that time with evidence found at the Sinki, Meidum, Giza, Abu Ghurob, and Lisht pyramids respectively (Heizer).
A third ramp variation was the spiral ramp, found in use during the nineteenth dynasty and was, as its name suggests, comprised of a ramp covering all faces of the pyramids leading towards the top. Reversing ramps zigzag up one face of a pyramid at a time and would not be used in the construction of step pyramids, while lastly interior ramps that have been found within the pyramids of Sahura, Nyuserra, Neferifijata, Abusir, and Pepi II (Heizer, Shaw).
Ancient Greek architecture exists mainly in surviving temples that survive in large numbers even today and is tied into Roman and Hellenistic periods which borrowed heavily from the Greeks.…
Ackerman, J.S. "Architectural Practice in the Italian Renaissance." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (1954): 3-11.
Alchermes, Joseph. "Spolia in Roman Cities of the Late Empire: Legislative Rationales and Architectural Reuse." Dumbarton Oaks Paper (1994): 167-178.
Allen, Rob. "Variations of the Arch: Post -- and lintel, Corbelled Arch, Arch, Vault, Cross-Vault Module." 11 August 2009. Civilization Collection. 5 April 2010 .
Anderson, James. "Anachronism in the Roman Architecture of Gaul: The Date of the Maison Carree at Nimes." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians (2001): 68-79.
" (Turkstra, 2008)
VII. CHURCH & LAOR ALLIANCE ENDS
The alliance between labour and the church began to notably weaken and in 1921 the printers' strike in Toronto "was the final blow that ended the alliance between the churches and labour." (Turkstra, 2008) Turkstra states that this conflict centered around the Methodist ook Room and the refusal of the superintendent S.W. Fallis to agree to the demand of workers for a 44-hour workweek. This strike is stated to have caused "irreparable damage to the alliance between labour and the churches..." (Turkstra, 2008) the labour leaders had been willing to engage with the churches prior to the war because."..a complete rejection of the churches might have alienated potential supports. Also they would have recognized that church bodies and ministers were important models in the community and an alliance, therefore, would help put pressure on the government to pass legislation that was…
Leir, Mark (2003) the Strike as Political Protest. Online available at http://www.sfu.ca/labour/HEU,%20The%20Strike%20as%20Political%20Protest5.pdf
Turkstra, Melissa, Constructing a Labour Gospel: Labour and Religion in Early 20th-Century Ontario. Labour/Le Travail.57 (2006): 53 pars. 12 Aug. 2008 http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/llt/57/turkstra.html
Palmer, Bryan D. (2003) What's Law Got to do With it? Historical Considerations on Class Struggle, Boundaries of Constraint, and Capitalist Authority? Canadian Research Chair 2003. Online available at http://www.ohlj.ca/archive/articles/41_23_palmer.pdf
" (Rouillard, 1987) There was a desire to "humanize the economy" based on the value of work being "more important than capital since the individual had to take priority over the accumulation of goods." (Rouillard, 1987)
VIII. LIERAL HUMANISM & ECONOMIC PLANNING
In 1958 this liberal humanism of the CTCC "manifested itself in a new theme that appeared...economic planning." (Rouillard, 1987) Abuses of the system were corrected by the intervention of the state even though it was symbolic intervention only and it even "further directed the economy toward satisfying the real needs of individuals." (Rouillard, 1987) the CTCC gradually became nondenominational over the years and finally in 1960 the CTCC dropped 'Catholic' from its title and "all direct references to the Church's social doctrine." (Rouillard, 1987)
IX. ETHNICALLY SUMERGED SPLIT LAOUR MARKET
The work of Calliste entitled: "Sleeping Car Porters in Canada: An Ethnically Submerged Split Labour Market" (1987) states…
Calliste, Agnes (1987) Sleeping Car Porters in Canada: An Ethnically Submerged Split Labour Market. Canadian Ethnic Studies. 1987 Canadian Ethnic Studies Association.
Gindin, Sam (1987) Globalization, Nationalism, and Internationalism (1987) the Modern Era (1960-1990).
Iacovetta, Franca (1987) From Contadina to Workers: Southern Italian Immigrant Working Women in Toronto, 1947-1962. The Modern Era. (1960-1990)
McDowell, Laurel Sefton (1987)the Formation of the Canadian Industrial Relations System During World War Two. Labour/Le Travail 1987 Memorial University of Newfoundland.
They displayed great knowledge of architecture, and their building style had been noteworthy.
As the Roman Empire began to take shape, Romans built several wonderful architectural structures for their time. They built city walls, fortifications, temples, bridges, and pavements. Most of the structures were built using large stones which were gently cut. Romans are also among the first nations in the world to have built a functional sewer system. Their remaining of their architectural structures withstood the passing of millennia and survived till today. Christian churches and even apartments buildings were built over Roman temples and other public buildings with some of them, like the Theater of Marcellus being functional even today.
1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "orld Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.
2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,…
1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.
2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,
H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill, 1963.
Talbot Hamlin. "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1940.
The earliest divisions of the temple still standing are the barque chapels, just in the rear the first pylon. They were constructed by Hatshepsut, and appropriated by Tuthmosis III. The central division of the temple, the colonnade and the sun court were constructed by Amenhotep III, and a later on addition by Rameses II, who constructed the entry pylon, and the two obelisks connected the Hatshepsut structures with the core temple. To the back of the temple are chapels constructed by Tuthmosis III, and Alexander. During the Roman age, the temple and its environment were a legionary fortress and the residence of the Roman government in the region (Johnson, 1988).
There was a girdle wall constructed around the temple that was made up of self-sufficient massifs of sun-dried brick adjoining at their ends, constructed of courses set on a triple arrangement that ran concave horizontal concave. The gate through which…
"Ancient Babylonia - the Ishtar Gate."n.d., viewed 14 November 2010,
"Ancient Egypt Brought to Life With Virtual Model of Historic Temple Complex." 2009, viewed 14 November 2010,
"Babylon and the Ishtar Gate." 2010, viewed 14 November,
Andrews, Mark. 2010. "Luxor Temple of Thebes in Egypt," viewed 14 November 2010,
"y the end of the 1980s many departments had set up detailed procedures to ensure equality and had employed full-time and specialist staff to promote and pursue such policies." (Heidensohn, 1995, p. 60)
The number of females in law enforcement was to increase rapidly and in 1986 about 9 per cent of U.S. officers were female. (Adler 1990) One of the key issues that had to be overcome was the concern about women policemen on patrol. In 1968 "Indianapolis sent two women out on patrol... ut the decision of Washington, DC to deploy eighty-six women on patrol in 1972, and to evaluate their performance, is perhaps the best-known example." LOCH P, and ANDERSON D., et al. 1973)
With these advances of women's rights and the continual evidence of female ability and accomplishment in the field of law enforcement, women were able to apply for all specialist posts in the Unites…
ADLER Z. (1990), a Fairer Cop, U.S. Police Record on Equal Opportunities, Wainwright Trust Study Tour Report No. 1 (Wainwright Trust: London).
BLOCH P., and ANDERSON D., et al. (1973), Policewomen on Patrol: Major Findings: First Report, (Police Foundation: Washington, DC)
Baksys G. Montrose names first woman as police chief. Retrieved 16 December from Daily Gate City. http://www.dailygate.com/articles/2004/11/17/news/news2.txt
FEINMAN C. (1986), Women in the Criminal Justice system (2nd edn., Praeger: New York).
History of German cuisine is one that links diet with culture and region: food ever follows function in the history of the Germanic people. hether due to region, custom, or contact with others, the German culture has seen a distinct cuisine emerge from its heritage and history. Historical events are responsible for bringing about certain fare. For instance, because of the scarcity of cream in Germany in the Middle Ages, bread was used as a binding ingredient in sauces, and baking itself served a culture significance for Germans throughout the centuries (from the use of bread in Christianity to the pagan heritage use of bread) culminating in the special decorative braiding and twisting of the dough (as seen in Bavarian pretzels) designed as a special treat. In other cases, geography is important in the cuisine that developed in particular regions (the ales in the North for example). This paper will…
Davidson, Alan. National and Regional Styles of Cookery. UK: Prospect Books, 1981.
Heinzelmann, Ursula. Beyond Bratwurst: A History of Food in Germany. UK:
Reaktion Books, 2014. Print.
Julius Caesar stood at the commencement of the Roman empire, so did Constantine stand at the end of the Roman empire. Remarkably, there are still the historical landmarks that helped define the contemporary Christianity and its spread in the earlier decades. In Rome, the Milvian Bridgestill stands over the murky waters of Tiber River, it is upon these grounds that the battle that would be a critical milestone in the unfolding of European and Christian civilization. The factual records that were written almost 1700 years ago are still accessible in the libraries and the information on Constantine can still be objectively analyzed and used to tell the expansion trend of the early church and the relationship that there is between Christianity and the state.
Constantine rule and the influence on the church expansion
Historically, Diocletian, who was the last great prosecutor of the church managed to reform the administration of…
In 1846, Young led the church to the Great Salt Lake in Utah, where they established Salt Lake City, yet tensions continued between the settlers and the Federal Government (Church Pp). The Edmunds Act of 1882 countered the Mormon's practice of polygamy, a practice that had prevented Utah being recognized as a state (Church Pp). In 1890 a revelation from God changed church beliefs and practices when the fourth Church president, ilford oodruff, issued the Great Accommodation, which basically banned plural marriages and in 1896, Utah became a state (Church Pp).
During the 20th century, the Church maintained a dominant role in Utah and as of mid-2001, the Governor and all Federal senators, representatives and members of the Supreme Court are all Mormon (Church Pp). During the 1970's the Church received political and economic pressure concerning its institutionalized racism, which prevented males of black ancestry from ordination, thus, the Church…
The History of the Church. http://www.lds.org/churchhistory/history
Church History. http://www.religioustolerance.org/lds_hist.htm
Latter-day Saints, Church of Jesus Christ of. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition;
Articles on the History of Christianity
Christopher J. Haas' article "Imperial Religious Policy and Valerian's Persecution of the Church, A.D. 257 -- 260" was published within the scholarly journal Church History in 1983, and the author focuses his attention on the persecution of Christians by the Roman Emperor Valerian. According to Haas, one of the most compelling aspects of Valerian's persecution of Christians was the sudden shift in his official religious policy in the year 257 A.D. Haas asks in the article, "prior to that time the church was largely undisturbed, but the years 257 -- 258 witnessed a series of increasingly severe imperial edicts directed against Christianity. What prompted this sudden reversal of imperial religious policy in 257?,"1 and it is this question which forms the foundation of his subsequent scholarly inquiry. y reading this article, one learns that Valerian actually launched his campaign of persecution against Christians in…
Evans, Gary. "Christological Errors: Then and Now." Affirmation and Critique, July (2008): 35-
Haas, Christopher J. "Imperial Religious Policy and Valerian's Persecution of the Church, AD
257-260." Church History 52 (1983): 133-144.
Christ Book Critique
Everett Ferguson's book Church History, Volume One: from Christ to Pre-Reformation explores the relationship between the church and secular historical events. Since the inception of the Christian religion, those in positions of leadership have utilized the faith in the religion to extend power to the followers, often coming into conflict with secular leaders such as kings and queens. The book covers an extended period of time and deals thoroughly with the various struggles of the Christian religion and specifically the Catholic Church. The book also explains the writing of the Christian Bible and explains the ways that the religion spread until it eventually became the most influential belief practice in the western world. In the text, the author makes several arguments regarding this dynamic which deal with specific periods in Christian history including the first rise of Christianity in the waning Roman Empire, the growth of the…
Everett Ferguson, Church History, Volume One: from Christ to Pre-Reformation: The Rise and Growth of the Church in its Cultural, Intellectual, and Political Context. (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005)
orld ar I and orld ar II, a great deal of interest has been paid to the German Christian Church and Movement. The focus of this discussion will be on the German Christian Church and movement, specifically the protestant Church (people's church), after I and through II and the Nazi movement. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate that the protestant German Christian church's ideology was not a product of Nazi orders or a response to Neo-Pagan influences, but in fact, was derivative of the post I culture of German.
According to a book entitled Twisted Cross: the German Christian Movement in the Third Reich, the German Christian Movement was composed of Protestants, both clergy and lay people. The author asserts that people that were a part of this movement believed that Nazi Rule was a prime opportunity to spread Christian ideology.
Members of the movement believed…
Baranowski, Shelley. "The 1933 German Protestant Church Elections: Machtpolitik or Accommodatlon?." Church History 49, no. 3 (1980): 298-315.
Such movements, however, had a way of becoming victims of their own success, as Niebuhr argued. Insofar as they spoke to popular aspirations and needs, they attracted large followings, necessitating new structures and hierarchies. The sharp critiques of social injustice became muffled as devotees percolated up into the respectable classes. Enthusiasm waned, leaving liturgy and ritual to provide what spontaneity and spirit no longer could. Sects became churches. (Campbell 36)
Campbell syas that Methodism especially illustrates this idea beacsue this movement always possessed something of a divided soul:
On one hand, the early esleyan movement was an extraordinarily decentralized affair, that invested authority in an army of itinerant ministers and lay preachers, many with little formal religious training. On the other hand, Methodism retained a strong episcopal center that reigned supreme on questions of doctrine and discipline, finance, and ministerial appointment. The stresses implicit in this situation first became apparent…
AME Church Elects More Women Bishops." The Christian Century, Volume 121, Issue 15 (July 27, 2004), 18-19.
Black Methodist Churches Moving toward Union." The Christian Century, Volume 117, Issue 19 (June 21, 2000), 676.
Campbell, James T. Songs of Zion: The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States and South Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Carroll, Bert E. The Routledge Historial Atlas of Religion in America. New York: Routledge, 2000.
The ancient cities of ome and Florence are layered ones. If one has the chance to walk the streets of these cities it is clearly that the they have had far more than the nine lives of the feline: Layer upon layer of human life and human ingenuity is displayed in the many different styles that line the streets. While we may tend to think of ome and Florence as the classical city that they once were (and of which they still bears many elements) they are also in many ways Gothic cities, for some of the cities' finest examples of architecture date from the Gothic period. This paper examines two particular Gothic churches - Santa Maria Maggiore in ome and the church of S. Maria del Fiore in Florence is no exception. Each church is examined for the combination of specific historical forces and styles, the building…
Brown, Peter. "A Dark Age Crisis." English Historical Review 88 (1973), 1-34.
Cameron, Averil. "The Virgin's Robe: An Episode in the History of Seventh-Century Constantinople." Byzantion 49 (1979), 42-56.
Croddy, S. "Gothic Architecture and Scholastic Philosophy." The British Journal of Aesthetics 39 (3), 263-272.
Davis, Michael, Science, Technology, and Gothic Architecture. Avista 8 (2) (1994/95), 3-6. http://www.area.fi.cnr.it/bivi/eng/schede/Toscana/Firenze/17cattedrale.htm
Haas, Christopher. "Imperial Religious Policy and Valerian's Persecution of the Church,
257-260." Church History, vol. 52, no. 2 (June 1983): 133-144.
In this article, Haas discusses the persecutions of the Early Church under the emperor Valerian and identifies the main motive for Valerian's sudden persecution of Christians as being religious in nature. It was, according to Haas, a direct attack from the pagan Roman Emperor on the Christian religion in an effort to shore up "certain related social aims" of the Roman government at this time.[footnoteRef:1] Haas also compares Valerian's attitude and actions towards Christians to his predecessor's and examines why there was a severe shift away from relative tolerance to severe persecution. The result of Valerian's attack on Christians, which lasted more than 3 years, was the brutal martyrdom of many Christians, later revered as saints by the Church. It was a very difficult period for Christians, who were…
Billings, Bradley. "At the Age of 12: The Boy Jesus in the Temple (Luke 2:41-52), the Emperor Augustus, and the Social Setting of the Third Gospel." Journal of Theological Studies, 60(1): 70-89.
Haas, Christopher. "Imperial Religious Policy and Valerian's Persecution of the Church,
A.D. 257-260." Church History, vol. 52, no. 2 (June 1983): 133-144.
Lienhard, Joseph. "The 'Arian' Controversy: Some Categories Reconsidered."
Evangelization is the mission of the Church. How is this expressed in your current parish/church community?
Evangelizing is the primary goal of the church: “Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,” (Matthew 28:19). “God’s salvific will is universal,” but it is also expressed through the Church (Galvin). The Church is the necessary human vehicle that transports and transmits the Word of God.
My current community is diverse but faithful. While there are differing opinions on the shape of evangelism, most believers would firmly agree that evangelism is one of the core functions of the Church. After all, we are entrusted with the duty of inspiring others to find Jesus, to retain their faith during times of spiritual crisis or doubt, and to deliver wayward souls to the peace they may find in…
Jewish history was promoted by the scribes or the Levites in early Jewish history and later on the popular educator and teachers promoted learning of the scriptures within the Jewish people so that history would be preserved however, at the time Christianity emerged this factor influenced the ancient writings in terms of how this history was related.
Some of Jewish history is so ancient that it has only been related by word of mouth however, there are writings which support history as it is told of the Jewish people. Furthermore, Christianity's emergence affected the form in which some of these ancient writings were reproduced and even the forms of recorded history characterized as genuine and credible Jewish history.
In the initiative of attempting to understand Jewish history, it is necessary to understand the varying influences upon the recorded history of the Jewish people and it is most particularly to…
Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) The Miracle of Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.
Fisher, Eugene J. (2008) Jewish-Christian Relations 1989-1993. International Council of Christians and Jews. A Bibliographic Update. Online available at http://www.jcrelations.net/en/?id=809#Biblical%20Studies:%20Jewish%20and%20Christian
Dubnow, S.M. (2005) Jewish History. Plain Label Books. ISBN:1603031006 http://books.google.com/books?id=zdQY_pHP0FYC&dq=jewish+history&pg=PP1&ots=DDVycu70fB&source=citation&sig=r6dn9cM2TswSod-OTzjaFHqQE6Q&hl=en&prev=http://www.google.com/search?sourceid=gmail&q=Jewish+History&sa=X&oi=print&ct=result&cd=1&cad=bottom-3results#PPA20,M1
Spiro, Rabbi Ken (2007) Why Study History. Crash Course in Jewish History. Jewish Literacy. Aish. 2007.
Christianity has obviously made its make on mankind. However, the early Christians, coming from different religions, cults, and worldviews before the emperor Constantine converted the empire, would have experienced this transitions at varying levels from revolutionary to marginally different. This analysis proposes that a member of the oman society such as the Vestal Virgins saw a dramatic and revolutionary change in their daily lives. However, by contrast, not all members would have perceived the transformation as dramatically. For example, a devotee of the cult of the sun might have found rituals such as Christmas entirely familiar and consistent with previously held beliefs. This analysis proposes that although the introduction of Christianity was a dramatic change for the whole of oman, the differences were not felt by all demographics equally.
Of all the different groups that would have taken a welcoming to the conversion to Christianity in the…
Kahlos, M. (2012). Pagan-Christian Debates Over the Interpretation of Texts in Late Antiquity. The Classical World, 525-545.
Nothaft, C. (2012). The Origins of the Christmas Date: Some Recent Trends in Historical Research. Church History, 903-911.
Parker, H. (2004). Why Were the Vestals Virgins? Or the Chastity of Women and the Safety of the Roman State. American Journal of Philology, 563-601.
Pedroni, L. (2011). The Sun without Rays and the Eclipse of 272. Journal of Late Antiquity, 116-123.
history slavery North Atlantic British colonies United States
Observations egarding Slavery
One of the primary methods of resistance for people of African descent who existed in servitude in the North Atlantic British colonies and in the United States was rebellion. Although far from occurring frequently, armed, violent revolt from chattel slaves helped to shape the history of their descendants in these locations. One of the most notorious of these uprisings was known as the Southampton Insurrection led by Nat Turner in Virginia's Southampton County in August of 1831. The effect of Turner's armed insurrection, and those of others in the Southern United States and in other North Atlantic British colonies can be evidenced in the amended legislature which ultimately influenced the future and perception of both slaves and former slaves for several years to come.
Turner's 1831 rebellion was just the latest in the lengthy list of historical uprisings slaves…
Dr. Thomas C., Parramore (1998). Trial Separation: Murfreesboro, North Carolina and the Civil War. Murfreesboro, North Carolina: Murfreesboro Historical Association, Inc.. p. 10
"Nat Turner's Rebellion," Africans in America, PBS.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html
Aptheker, H. (1943). American Negro Slave Revolts. 5th edition. New York, NY: International Publishers.
Cullen, Joseph P. "Bacon's Rebellion," American History Illustrated, Dec 1968, Vol. 3 Issue 8, p.4
history western civilization a book called THE MAKING OF THE WEST.
Joan of Arc
Prior to becoming made into a saint in the early part of the 20th century, Joan of Arc was one of the primary causes of France's many victories in the Hundred Years War. The woman, who only lived to be 19 before she was eventually burned to death after being captured by the British, helped liberate many parts of France from British occupation during a relatively brief period of time, all of which took place during the 1420's prior to her death. Joan told several members of the French population that she was divinely inspired by visions from God to help her defeat the British and reclaim France's territory. With some dissent from France's military leaders, she was able to play an influential role in the Siege at Orleans, which was largely proceeded by several months'…
Black Africans helped the Portuguese and the Spanish when they were on their exploration of the America. During the 16th century, some of the explorers who were of black origin went ahead to settle within the Valley of Mississippi as well as in areas that came to be known as New Mexico and South Carolina. However, Esteban was the most celebrated black explorer of the, who followed the Southwest route in the 1530s. Blacks in the United State and their uninterrupted history can be traced from 1619; this was after 20 Africans were landed within the English colony of Virginia. Though these blacks were by then not slaves, they served as servants who were bound to an employer for a limited number of years as it was to most of the white settlers. By 1660s bigger numbers of Africans were taken to the English colonies. By 1790, the…
Greene, Meg. Slave Young, Slave Long: The American Slave Experience. Minneapolis, Minn.: Lerner Publications Co., c1999.
Haskins, James. Bound for America: The Forced Migration of Africans to the New World. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, 1999.
Lisa Vox, (2012). The Start of Slavery in North America." Accessed April 29, 2012 from http://afroamhistory.about.com/od/slavery/a/The-Start-Of-Slavery-In-North-America.htm
Morgan Edmund, (2003). American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.
History of the Habsburg Empire,1273-1700
The historical work of Jean Berenger titled, "A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1273-1700," is beneficial in understanding the Habsburg Dynasty of this time period. hile there has been many works that have also been helpful when completing studies on this topic, Berenger's work is a successful addition to previously published research.
Berenger is a respected professor of history. His writings display a vast knowledge of the most recent as well as the older literature on Habsburg history. His knowledge is not limited to just the French and Austrain works, but he is also in command of the most recent English fellow. In this work, Berenger undertook an enormous task of explicitly explaining the colorful tapestry that is woven of the individual nations of the monarchy. He didn't take any stand for only one side, but equally gives information concerning all involved.
Berenger explains the…
Berenger, Jean. (1997). A History of the Habsburg Empire, 1700-1918. London: Longman.
A Brief History of Cool Jazz
December 6, 2012, would have marked the ninety-second birthday of pianist Dave Brubeck. The nonagenarian was looking forward to performing at the Palace Theater near his home in aterbury, Connecticut. Sadly, Brubeck died of heart failure just one day shy of the celebratory concert. The concert went on as scheduled, but it was a memorial rather than a birthday party. It is what Brubeck would have wanted. Brubeck was one of the originators of a jazz style that became known as "cool jazz." He was a brilliant pianist who loved to experiment with rhythms and instrumentation in ensemble work. Brubeck never stopped innovating over his long career during which he composed symphonies, classical and religious music, ballets and film scores He valued musical integrity over commercial reward. "You never know what's going to work," he said. "You just go with what you…
Dave Brubeck Quartet. 1961. YouTube. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. .
Dryden, Ken. "Take five: The public and private lives of Paul Desmond." All About Jazz.
2 Feb. 2011. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=17894 >.
human civilization, the unpredictable nature of cultural collisions has inevitably spawned conflict between neighbors and warfare between nations. While these brutal behaviors may be attributed vestigial links to innate animalistic instinct, the intellectual capacity which separates and elevates humanity has compelled thinkers of every generation to study and reflect on the nature of widespread conflict. Emerging from the meticulous documentation of official matters provided by monks in the early church, the role of the historian has been refined throughout the centuries, but their fundamental objective has remained essentially the same: to record the continuity of events as time progresses, from the mundane minutiae of municipal politics to the mobilization of military forces for armed conflict. As noted historian and Cold War strategist John Lewis Gaddis states in his comprehensive treatise on the profession, The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past, historians "pride ourselves on not trying to predict…
Gaddis, John L. The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past. Oxford University
Khong, Yuen F. Analogies at War: Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam
Decisions of 1965, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), pp. 3-18 and 97-147.
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…
Roman mosaics were more frequently used to adorn the floors, and thus used less glass, gold, and elaborate materials. Perhaps the most famous Byzantine mosaics are those found in the Hagia Sophia, the most famous church in Eastern Christianity. On the South Gallery or Catechumena is displayed a depiction of Christ, Mary, and St. John the Baptist known as the Deesis. Christ's "face is strikingly realistic and expressive…All [figures] are set against a golden background" ("Byzantine art," Art Lex, 2010). Of almost equal fame are the glittering, gold mosaics of Ravenna's holy buildings. "Ravenna's most famous Byzantine mosaics are of an emperor, his empress and their retinues. On one wall of the choir of San Vitale in Ravenna, built for Justinian and consecrated in AD 547, the emperor stands with crown and a golden halo" (Gascoigne 2001). Although the ostensible purpose of the structure is a holy one, the Emperor…
"Byzantine art." Art Lex. May 6, 2010. http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/b/byzantine.html
Gascoigne, Bamber. "History of mosaic." History World. 2001. May 6, 2010.
"History of mosaic art." Joy of Shards. 2008. May 6, 2010.
According to the institutional authority of the Catholic Church, individuals must accept certain principles, go through certain orientation and membership procedures (such as confirmation and confession), and submit to certain authorities, such as priests, bishops, and the Pope.
Give a meaning of sacrament as it applies to church.
Sacraments in the context of a worship community are often defined as the invisible made visible, or how the divine makes itself physically manifest on earth. The most obvious symbol of this is transubstantiation in the Catholic Mass, where God is made present in the form of the host, through the ritual process evident during the ceremony. In other Christian traditions, such as Quakerism, the spirit may be spontaneously present during a communal and nonhierarchical worship ceremony, when it moves ordinary believers to speak. The church during the context of any worship ceremony is supposed to provide a unique space and time…
history Mercy International Centre Dublin Catherine McAuley . ( http://www.mercyinternational. ) A history significance Jonathan Swift St. Patricks Cathedral Dublin ( http://www.stpatrickscathedral. ) A synopsis Kilmainham Jail, years functioning description peat bogs Ireland, (significance) The Famine Memorial Dublin ~ established built? Connemara marble churches Ireland? A explanation current political system Ireland .
The Mercy International Centre in Dublin is the hallmark of the mercy mission and its background is essential in providing people with a better understanding of the principles that help build this type of ideology. The building's architecture is not necessarily special, but it compensates through its history and through the intense feelings that numerous people coming here experienced. hile being acquainted with its history a person is very probable to look at it very different from how he or she would have been inclined to perceive it in the beginning.
The building came to function as a…
Cunningham, L. Reich, J. "Culture and Values, Volume II: A Survey of the Humanities with Readings," (Cengage Learning, 16 Jan 2009)
"Brief History of the Peat Industry in Ireland," Retrieved August 25, 2014, from http://www.heartland.ie/articles/brief-history-peat-industry-ireland
"Famine Memorial," Retrieved August 25, 2014, from http://www.discoverireland.ie/Arts-Culture-Heritage/famine-memorial/31500
"Galway Cathedral," Retrieved August 25, 2014, from http://www.dochara.com/places-to-visit/galway-cathedral/
The National Defense Education Act was the outcome of a bill that was present before the Sputnik scare.
While the categorical aid as described in the 1958 and 1965 legislation allowed some room for negotiations on the state-church issue, it yet faced another problem due to the opposition that did not want a federal control over their states. This dragged the implementation process of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. It was in the interest of the federal government to keep a check on how the funds that they allocated were being spent thus federal control was inevitable. The resistance however did not want any intervention and thus opposed any control and checks by the federal government.
There was a Public Law 94-142 passed in 1975 which was in favor for the education of handicapped children. The passing of this law experienced a slow but sure professional change in approach.…
The U.S. department of Education. "The Federal Role in Education" [online website] Available at http://www.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/role.html?src=ln [Accessed on 01/09/2005]
Laurence H. Tribe, American Constitutional Law (Minneola, NY: The Foundation Press, second edition, 1988)
W. Brooke Graves, American Intergovernmental Relations: Their Origins, Historical Development and Current Status (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1964)
Keith W. Olson. The GI Bill, the Veterans, and the Colleges (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1974)
One brand of turkey bacon, Oscar Mayer's Louis Rich, was recently given a spot in the Taster's Choice Hall of fame. Such a spot is awarded only to products that are awarded a score of 80 or higher out of 100 in the Taster's Choice taste test (Gold). Despite the opinions of cookbook authors such as James Villas, turkey bacon is clearly a viable substitute for its pork-based counterpart.
Less popular but growing in viability is beef bacon. Bacon purists consider very idea of beef bacon to be ridiculous. Nevertheless, beef bacon is slowly but surely making its way into more and more grocery stores. It is a product that is still easier to find in a butcher shop than a grocery store, but that fact is in the process of changing. For non-pork eaters, beef bacon can be an alternative that is preferable to turkey bacon because it is…
Bacon Today. Bacontoday.com, 2010. Web. 30 May 2010.
"Bacon Makes it All Better." The Early Show. CBS. 4 Nov. 2006. Television.
Gold, Amanda. "One Turkey Bacon Stands Out in the Flock." SFGate.com. 22 Oct. 2008.
Web. 30 May 2010.
history of the League of Women Voters rightly begins with the very inception of the Women's Movement and the fight for liberation in the United States. During the early history of the United States there was little, if any respect for the principles of women's rights. In an intensely patriarchal society a man " ... virtually owned his wife and children as he did his material possessions. If a poor man chose to send his children to the poorhouse, the mother was legally defenseless to object." (Women's History in America) The history of women's movements in the United States is largely a reaction to this system of exclusion and male-dominance.
The start of the history of the fight for women's rights begins with a tea party hosted by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in New York. Mrs. Stanton expressed her feelings of discontent at the situation of women in society. This meeting…
A biography of America: The sixties. learner. February 13, 2005.. http://www.learner.org/biographyofamerica/prog24/feature/
Eisenberg B. And Ruthsdotter M. Living the Legacy:
The Women's Rights Movement 1848 -- 1998. February 12, 2005. http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html
LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS. Houghton Mifflin. February 13, 2005.
German immigration to the United States prior to 1877. Specifically, it will discuss to what extent and how did they influence life in the U.S.A. German immigrants to the United States influenced thought and culture in a variety of ways, but they have nearly always managed to hold on to their own culture while adapting to their surroundings.
While America has always been a melting pot of different cultures blending to form a whole, Germans have always managed to blend into society while nevertheless retaining their own special culture and society. The Germans are one of the few races to hang on to their culture so powerfully, while still successfully merging with U.S. culture. One of the most important ways they held on to their culture was by continuing to speak German, especially in the homes, and raising their children to also speak the native language. They also tended to…
Editors. "Germans in America: Chronology." Library of Congress. 1 May 2001. 10 March 2003. http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/european/imde/germchro.html
Hoyt, Dolores J. "19th Century German Immigration in Historical Context." Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. 8 Oct. 1998. 10 March 2003. http://www-lib.iupui.edu/kade/nameword/context.html
Spencer, Aaron Fogleman. Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717-1775. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
Wittke, Carl. Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1952.
The session erupted in brawl, and in the end, the vote favored impeachment
. This became known as "loody Monday." This time, Long's bullying tactics did not work.
Long took his case to the people, claiming that his impeachment was a raucous attempt by Standard Oil to deprive the people of what they deserved. As the trial began, Long passed around "Round Robin" document that was signed by more than one -- third of the Senate members. The round robin document stated that they did not believe his offenses warranted removal from office
. As it takes an over two-thirds vote to remove him from office, the impeachment attempt failed. Long rewarded his faithful with state jobs, favors and some say cash as well
. Long became more harsh with his enemies, founding a newspaper to promote his ideas. Long began to receive death threats and was forced to surround…
Andrews, James and Zarefsky, David. American Voices: Significant Speeches in American history 1640-1945. (White Plains, NY: Longman, 1989.)
Authier, Philip. Duplessis, warts and all. 22 May 1999. Wednesday-Night. Available from http://www.wednesday-night.com/Duplessis.asp . Internet: accessed 29 September 2008.
Botting, Gary. Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses. (Calgary, Alta: University of Calgary Press. 1993).
Corner, Richard. The Kingfish and the Constitution: Huey Long, the First Amendment, and the Emergence of Modern Press Freedom in America. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996).
histories of the United States address the matter from a secular point-of-view. The government, the society, the economy and other such matters have been examined and discussed thoroughly but religion and its history has been largely ignored. Religion played an important role in the formation of the American government and played an even more important role in the development of American society, yet, studies related to how these roles developed are minimal (Eidsmoe). The purpose of this research is to examine how religious philosophy impacted on the formation of the American society and how religious philosophy developed as the young nation evolved and how religious philosophy has continued to impact American society .It is my belief that religion played a far more significant role in the formation of the United States than current history books presently represent and that, through proper and thorough research the importance of religious philosophy in…
Butler, Jon. Religion in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
This book described the development of the various organized religions that existed in America from the period of 1500 to the present. The book attempts to dispel the idea that the Puritans were the only religion that influenced the development of early American political thought and that other religious philosophies played a significant role as well. The book explores the role that other religions such as Roman Catholics, Judaism, and other Protestant denominations played. The failure of the Puritans to achieve their goal of instituting their religious philosophy throughout the Colonies is examined as is their influence on how the doctrine of the separation of Church and state was ultimately adopted.
Clarke, P.H. "Adam Smith, Stoicism and religion in the 18th Century." History of the Human Services (2000): 49-72.
This article examines how Adam Smith was affected by the influence of Stoicism and religion but through an examination of their effect on Smith their influences, by extension, are measured on other political philosophers of the time. Religious philosophy of the time was in a period of transition. The Enlightenment had emerged and reason had become the guiding principle and religious philosophers were rushing to combine the orthodox ideology of traditional religion with the ideas of the Enlightenment. In this book, this process is explained and how it affected philosophers in the 18th century.
history of Christianity within the country of Romania goes back to such a degree that the foundation of the country itself is often linked with its Christian theology. "By 360 Dacia was a part of Christendom. "
Miller 28) The foundation of the country is to some degree synonymous with its theology, known today to be largely Orthodox.
Romania occupies, roughly, ancient Dacia, which was a Roman province in the 2D and 3D cent. A.D.; The ethnic character of modern Romania seems to have been formed in the Roman period; Christianity was introduced at that time as well. After the Romans left the region, the area was overrun successively by the Goths, the Huns, the Avars, the Bulgars, and the Magyars.
Romania itself has a rough history of imperial rule and bloody tyranny, yet to some degree each successive conqueror was exposed to if not converted to Christianity…
Alecse, Rev. Fr. Constantin "News, Views, Community Announcements" The Christian Life 2001 Vol. 44 / Issues1-3 Retrieved May, 15, 2004 at: http://biserica.org/Publicatii/2001/NoI/XV_index.html . http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001871459
Bria, Ion. "Evangelism, Proselytism, and Religious Freedom in Romania: An Orthodox Point-of-View." Journal of Ecumenical Studies (1999): 163. Questia. 19 May 2004
A more definitive explanation is; "... A proposed explanation for a phenomenon." (Scientific Reference) a hypothesis should be able to be tested and functions as a directive for further research.
In my research study for example, the hypothesis that was explored was that certain circumstances in different historical periods affect the development of the areas of expertise and their application to project activities. These circumstances include social and cultural movements; the development of scientific and technical knowledge, among others. This hypothesis provides the incentive for further research and determines to a large extent the direction or trajectory of the research outcomes.
5. Explain briefly why applied research instead of basic research will typically be done in industry and commerce, and describe two examples of applied research
The answer to this question becomes clear when the looks the difference between basic and applied research. Basic research is theoretical and is aimed…
What Is Scientific Knowledge? Web.
What is the difference between observation and measurements?
Wade, Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pa v. Casey; Stenberg v. Carhart, where the courts, with public concurrence, have debated the question of whether or not a partially birth child is indeed a person whose right to live should be challenged.
The separation of powers should have prevented the courts from taking on the moral question of abortion. The elected representatives should have been responsible for legislating laws that would govern the protection of human life. That the courts and the public has arrived at this point in time where the Supreme Court must decide the issue of whether or not it is acceptable to terminate a partially birthed life is unthinkable. Abortion is not a matter of Constitutionality, but a moral one, and one that does not belong before the Supreme Court.
Fields, Suzanne. "Barbie Gets Busted." The Washington Times 2 Dec. 1996: 17. Questia. 22 May 2007…
church, where there is a charitable organization that I occasionally do volunteer work for. The second is a small business, a local family-run restaurant. These two organizations will provide a sufficient amount of contrast so that I can compare them in my research. The volunteer group has only three or four key members and the rest are just volunteers. The restaurant is basically run by the husband and wife, with their kids and a couple of employees. As I understand these organizations, they both have just a couple of people who make most of the decisions. From what I have seen at the volunteer group, it is more organization by committee among the leaders and things are very collaborative. If there is a final decision-maker I would not now at this point. The restaurant tends to be either the husband or wife making the decisions, depending on what the decision…
Akdere, M., & Azevedo, R.E. (2006). Agency theory implications for efficient contracts in organization development. Organization Development Journal, 24(2), 43 -- 54. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/197993598?accountid=144789
Altrichter, H., Kemmis, S., McTaggart, R., & Zuber-Skerritt, O. (2002). The concept of action research. The Learning Organization, 9(3), 125. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/215659917?accountid=144789
Stephens, J., Barton, J., & Haslett, T. (2009). Action research: Its history and relationship to scientific methodology. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 22(6), 463 -- 474.