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Civil ights Movement
Civil rights since 1954 with special reference to California's role
A growing Cause, 1776-1865
The Declaration of Independence asserted that "all men have been created equal," as well as in 1788, the U.S. Constitution presupposed to "secure the blessings of liberty" towards the United States citizens. These rights as well as liberties, nevertheless, had been meant just for white individuals of property. The actual Founding Fathers by no means thought that women, African-Americans (either slave and totally free), or males devoid of home may be the equal of the propertied white males vested with involvement within the civic area (Kukathas, 2008).
19TH century territorial development elevated civil rights problems amid those individuals who lost their areas as well as for brand new immigrants looking for financial success. Mexicans who apparently acquired their constitutional legal rights of citizenship following the U.S. takeover of the South west faced conflicts…
Appleby, J., Brinkley, A. And Broussard, A.S. (2004). The American Vision, Florida Edition. The Civil Rights Movement 1954 -- 1968. Chapter 29. McGraw-Hill Companies / Glencoe.
Cobb, D.M., and Fowler, L. eds. (2007). Beyond Red Power: American Indian Politics and Activism Since 1900. Santa Fe, NM: School for Advanced Research.
Kukathas, U. (2008). Native American Rights. Detroit, MI: Greenhaven Press.
U.S. Department of the Interior (USDI). (2002; Revised -- 2008) Civil Rights in America: A Framework for Identifying Significant Sites. National Historic Landmarks Program, National Park Service.
Civil Rights Movement: rown v. oard of Education
There were many great moments in the civil rights movement, but none stands out more than the landmark case of rown v. oard of Education of Topeka. That case truly addressed the horrors of segregation and gave a measure of equality to black school children who wanted to be able to attend school with their white counterparts. Occurring in 1954, the rown case went all the way to the Supreme Court, where school segregation was determined to be against the United States Constitution (Patterson, 2001; Valadez, 2000). The decision was unanimous, which gave a lot of insight into the times and how they were changing to better address what was taking place in the hearts and minds of the people of the United States. Many things that have happened in the civil rights movement since the rown case have occurred because people…
Kasher, Stephen. The Civil Rights Movement: A Photographic History (1954 -- 1968). NY: Abbeville Publishing Group (Abbeville Press, Inc.), 2000.
Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality. NY: Knopf, 1975.
Patterson, James T. Brown v. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy. NY: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Valadez, Jorge M. Deliberative Democracy: Political Legitimacy and Self-Determination in Multicultural Societies. NY: Westview Press, 2000.
The milestone that the Civil ights Movement made as concerns the property ownership is encapsulated in the Civil ights Act of 1968 which is also more commonly referred to as the Fair Housing Act, or as CA '68. This was as a follow-up or reaffirmation of the Civil ights Act of 1964, discussed above.
It is apparent that the Civil ights Act of 1866 outlawed discrimination in property and housing there was lacking any provisions for the federal government to enforce it. This Act came in to put more weight on the previous Acts and ban discrimination on the sale, rental, and financing of housing pegged on race, religion, and national origin. This was further expounded upon in 1974 on gender as well as 1988 protecting the disabled under the same Act.
With the passing of these fundamental Acts and several others that augmented it, there was an upsurge in…
About.com, (2011). 1909 - NAACP Is Founded. Retrieved March 12, 2011 from http://history1900s.about.com/od/1900s/qt/naacp.htm
Blackmon D. Slavery by another Name: The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II, Anchor Books (2009)
Case briefs, (2011). Civil Rights Cases. Retrieved March 12, 2011 from http://www.ecasebriefs.com/blog/law/constitutional-
During the mid 1960s, "highly public demonstrations" (525) became more popular and gained momentum among the community because popular and significant individuals close to the cause supported them. The power and attention these protest garnered illustrated just how serious African-Americans were in achieving their goals. The protests proved to the people that they could do more than they thought they could. They could accomplish things even though they were not in power and even while they suffered at the hand of oppression. Confidence and hope in one's generation was something very positive that emerged from the Civil Rights Movement.
The protests were good in that they empowered the people but this does not mean that they were without negative effects. Violence was one of the negative outcomes of the civil rights movement. Violence was never the goal during any civil rights gatherings or protests. Morris believes that from the beginning…
Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David. The American Pageant. Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.
Carmichael, Stokely. "Black Power," Black Protest. Joanne Grant, ed. New York:
Ballentine Books. 1968. Print.
"Cities: The Fire This Time." Time Magazine Online. Web. February 2, 2011.
The Black Power phase was best embodied by one of its leaders, Malcolm X, a Muslim convert who used the Islam religion as his philosophy in promoting the Black Power movement's objectives, which promotes the use of violence as replacement to moral idealism in the black Americans' fight against discrimination and prejudice. More than anything else, the Black Power movement promoted the use of violence directly against white Americans -- that is, black Americans need to use violence in order to protect themselves against the oppressive white American society.
Under Malcolm X's leadership, the Black Power civil rights movement developed more radical goals. While under King's leadership, creating a society wherein both black and white Americans are equal is the social ideal of black Americans, the Black Power movement re-focused its demonstrations and protests to a more radical and idealistic goal: create a new social order wherein black Americans will…
Right after the success of Martin Luther King's fight against racial segregation through the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the Black Power phase of the civil rights movement rapidly ascended to contest the congenial stance of King's SCLC.
The Black Power phase was best embodied by one of its leaders, Malcolm X, a Muslim convert who used the Islam religion as his philosophy in promoting the Black Power movement's objectives, which promotes the use of violence as replacement to moral idealism in the black Americans' fight against discrimination and prejudice. More than anything else, the Black Power movement promoted the use of violence directly against white Americans -- that is, black Americans need to use violence in order to protect themselves against the oppressive white American society.
Under Malcolm X's leadership, the Black Power civil rights movement developed more radical goals. While under King's leadership, creating a society wherein both black and white Americans are equal is the social ideal of black Americans, the Black Power movement re-focused its demonstrations and protests to a more radical and idealistic goal: create a new social order wherein black Americans will dominate, solely assuming control of this new society's economic and political activities and decisions. Combining both his Muslim beliefs and his being black American, Malcolm X argued for a new social order -- the Nation of Islam -- wherein this new society will have Islam's religious philosophy and traditions as the dominant and prevalent social order. Ultimately, the Black Power movement negated King's call for an integration of black and white Americans within one nation and territory, the United States.
In 1934 he published his first collection of short stories, entitled, the ays of hite Folks, which provided a series of short insights into the humorous and tragic interactions between the two races. During this time Hughes also established several theater groups in such cities as Los Angeles and Chicago. In 1935 he also received a Guggenheim Fellowship, which he used to help begin to write scripts for movies and plays. However, his dreams to create black films were stifled by the rampant racism of Hollywood. (Hughes, 1993; 122).
Shortly before his death, Hughes was awarded the Spingham Medal for distinguished achievements by an African-American from the NAACP. In 1961 he was inducted into the National Institute of Arts and Letters and, in 1971, the City College of New York awarded the first Langston Hughes Medal. (Hutson, 96).
One of Hughes most recognized poems is the work entitled Montage of…
Bernard, Emily. Remember Me to Harlem: The Letters of Langston Hughes and Carl Van Vechten. New York: Knopf, 2001.
Hughes, Langston. The Big Sea: An Autobiography. New York: Hill and Wang, 1993.
Hughes, Langston. The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. New York: Knopf, 1994.
Hutson, Jean Blawckwell and Nelson, Jill. "Remembering Langston." Essence Magazine. February 1992; p. 96.
By extension, this decision was expected to pave the way for a more equitable society.
The Civil Rights Act also served other equal-rights movements, such as the women's movement. This law gave women's rights activists in the 1970s legal standing to fight for equal pay and anti-sexual harassment policies. Furthermore, feminist theorists like Patricia Hill Collins pointed out black women faced dueling prejudices regarding their gender and race (Collins 2004). This integration of race and gender as interlocking systems of domination has had profound influences on the development of black feminist thought.
Feminists like Collins have drawn on the issues raised by the civil rights movement to articulate how women of color have different experiences and needs from their female counterparts.
The Civil Rights Movement also had important contributions to changes in the structure and role of the American family. In 1993, for example, the Family and Medical Leave Act…
Collins, Patricia Hill. 2004. Black Sexual Politics: African-Americans, Gender, and the New Racism. New York: Routledge.
Newman, Mark. 2004. The Civil Rights Movement. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Patterson, James. 2002. Brown V. Board of Education: A Civil Rights Milestone and Its Troubled Legacy (Pivotal Moments in American History). New York: Oxford University Press
Stuntz, William J. 2002. "Local Policing After the Terror." The Yale Law Journal, 111 (8). June.
It only makes sense that there be some Black bus drivers.
MLK: What if they offer some type of compromise?
Rosa: No compromises. I'm not just risking a fine and going through a legal battle. We've got to be realistic here. If this isn't successful, you and I and everyone else involved is going to be hounded for the rest of our lives. We're putting ourselves and our families at risk forever. For that, I think we need to hold out and make sure that we get everything we hope for.
MLK: Are you prepared to face the risks that they might try to hurt you in jail?
Rosa: I have. Do you any ideas about that?
MLK: Are you familiar with Mahatma Ghandi?
MLK: I think we need to stress to people that we all need to follow Ghandi's example. We can engage in civil disobedience, but…
The movement merely asked the founding fathers of this country to live up to their promises and provide freedom and equal opportunities for all.
In the early phases of the civil rights movement leaders asked the government to live up to its promises and provide equal opportunities from all. It received much support from minorities and even whites living in the United States.
After the period of 1965, considered the 'highlight' of the civil rights movement as described in this work, the emphasis and goals of the civil rights movement changed somewhat. Instead of merely seeking de-segregation among the goals adopted by the civil rights movement included access to equal employment opportunities, trade unions, utilization of affirmative action programs, fair housing and a "redistribution of wealth and services, changes in the functioning of institutions" and structure of fundamental affairs within the United States.
The moral fiber of the nation's Constitution…
African-American Odyssey - Civil Rights Era." [Online]. 17, November 2004: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html
Beck, S. "Martin Luther King and the Civil Rights Movement." [online] 17, November, 2004: http://www.san.beck.org/WP26-MLKinghtml
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. What Manner of Man: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. New York:
Pocket Books, 1965. Abridged.
These two laws constituted the real beginning of the end for Jim Crow laws and practices.
EMPOWERING THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
The civil rights movement may have gained impetus and cooperation among people with differing opinions and goals from what Canady (1998) called the "animating principle," or the principle that got people of differing views and backgrounds working effectively together: the idea that dignity was the right of all men, women and children in the country, and not just those born to relative power. This sense of personal dignity was reflected in the Declaration of Independence, Lincoln's speeches during the Civil War, by Justice Harlan in his dissenting opinion of 1896, the rown vs. oard of Education ruling by the Supreme Court in 1954, and in the civil laws that followed. The Civil Rights movement embraced Harlan's view that our Constitution should be color-blind. People of all races and backgrounds…
Canady, Rep. Charles T. 1998. "America's Struggle for Racial Equality." Policy Review Number 87, Jan-Feb. Published by the Heritage Foundation. Accessed via the Internet 8/15/05. http://www.policyreview.org/jan98/equality.html (Canady, 1998)
Eagles, Charles W. 2000. "Toward New Histories of the Civil Rights Era." Journal of Southern History, Vol. 66.
Graham, Hugh Davis. 1997. "The Civil Rights Commission: The First 40 Years." Civil Rights Journal, Vol. 2.
Gueron, Nicole L. 1995. "An Idea Whose Time Has Come: A Comparative Procedural History of the Civil Rights Acts of 1960, 1964, and 1991." Yale Law Journal, Vol. 104.
Johnson (Edwards, Wallenberg, & Lineberry, 2008; Friedman, 2005). Likewise, American public schools had been officially desegregated by the 1957 Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Ed. (EEOC, 2008), but progress implementing the requirements of that decision was painfully slow in many areas (Edwards, Wallenberg, & Lineberry, 2008).
The Civil ights movement suffered two tremendous setbacks in 1968 when both Martin Luther King and Senator obert F. Kennedy were assassinated. Martin Luther King had championed the process of non-violent protest, so it was sadly ironic that his assassination sparked riots in many large cities (Edwards, Wallenberg, & Lineberry, 2008). obert Kennedy had championed the cause of Civil ights, taking up the cause initiated by President John F. Kennedy before his 1963 assassination; in fact, it was the late president who had actually spearheaded the development of the Civil ights Act signed into law by his successor in office after his…
Edwards, G.C., Wallenberg, M.P., Lineberry, R.B. (2008). Government in America:
People, Politics, and Policy. New York: Longman.
Friedman, L. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster.
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of
Civil Rights Movement of the 1960's is a prime example of a movement containing both utopian and practical elements. To the outside observer, the passive resistance of the Montgomery Bus Boycotts and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s rousing "I Have a Dream Speech," seems hopeful and utopian. In contrast, the gritty determination of Malcolm X and the Black Muslims, who sought equal rights, but not integration, seems the more practical approach. However, both extremes of the Civil Rights Movement contained both practical and utopian elements. The outcome of the Civil Rights Movement was to accomplish most of the practical goals of both extremes and even some of the ideals. However, almost 40 years after the assassinations of both Dr. King and Malcolm X, the remnants of both extremes, as well as the rest of Americans, are still trying to decide which version of utopia to support.
Most Americans have at…
"Study Guide." Brother Malcolm. 2004. Twenty-First Century Books. 10 Dec. 2004
< http://www.brothermalcolm.net/studyguide/sg_main.html >.
'The Text of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s 'I Have a Dream' Speech." Holidays on the Net.
2004. Studio Melizo 9 Dec. 2004 < http://www.holidays.net/mlk/speech.htm >.
Coming of Age in Mississippi is Anne Moody's memoir of the civil rights movement in the United States. It therefore serves a different purpose as primary source historiography, rather than analytical secondary source historiography such as that written by David Garrow and Harvard. Moody grew up on a plantation, in conditions that are simply extensions of slavery. Her first hand awareness of what racism is, and what it does not just to individuals but whole communities, offers chilling contrast to the otherwise colder and more distant historical analyses. The "Childhood" section of Coming of Age in Mississippi details the harrowing conditions under which Moody was raised. Poverty and the grinding effects of racism on their souls have beaten down Moody's family, and they take out their anger and frustration on their children. Anne's father leaves the family for another woman, leaving Anne forced to work as a domestic…
Cobbs-Hoffman and Blum, Edward J., 2012. Major Problems in American History, Volume II. Cengage.
Garrow, David J. "A Leader for his Time."
Moody, Anne, 1968. Coming of Age in Mississippi. Random House.
Sitkoff, Harvard. "Preconditions for Racial Change."
Civil Rights Movement Through illiam Moyer's Map
Civil rights movement in the United States has a long history that dates back to the 18th Century due to issues associated with slavery and other problems in the country. Despite the existence of this movement for a long period of time, it gained considerable attention in the 19th Century largely because of racial discrimination and equality issues that became prevalent across the country. Some of the other issues that fueled the re-emergence and development of the movement include voting rights, hate crimes, and racial profiling. In essence, the major factor that contributed to the emergence and growth of the civil rights movement is the struggle African-Americans experienced in attempts to achieve significant equality through ending racial discrimination. However, the development of the civil rights movement from the early 1950s over the next five decades can be explained on the premise of the…
Andrew. "The Movement Action Plan." War Resisters' International. War Resisters'
International, 7 Aug. 2014. Web. 4 Dec. 2015. .
Hall, Jacquelyn D. "The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past." The Journal of American History (2005): 1233-263. Print.
American Civil ights Movement, which garnered large support and public attention in 1960 and continued for the next decade is largely considered one of the most powerful and driving force behind significant changes that took place on both a social and legislative level within the United States. The movement itself took place in order to stop racial discrimination and racism against African-Americans that for years had run rampant throughout the country. Despite the Movement's categorization of being dominant in American culture from around 1960 to around 1970, the truth exists that the American Civil ights Movement and its core values can be traced as far back as the 1783, which was the year that Massachusetts legally outlawed slavery within its borders (ThinkQuest 2010, pp.1). From then on, African-Americans, and their respective supporters rallied for change within the country, facing significant obstacles and set-backs along the way.
In viewing the history…
Bailey, P. 2010. Black folks and the illusion of inclusion, in The Washington Informer,
46(49): pp. 22-24. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database. [Accessed on 8 December 2011].
Civil Rights Act. 1964. CRA Title VII: Equal Employment Opportunities -- 42 U.S. Code.
Web. Retrieved from: http://finduslaw.com/civil_rights _act_of_1964 _cra_title_vii_equal_employment_opportunities_42_us_code_chapter_21 [Accessed on 8 December 2011].
Turner's Sitting In and Nikki Giovanni's The Collected Poems, as well as the movie, Guess Who's Coming to Dinner, demonstrate the way the black civil rights movement changed during the 1960s? What significant changes do they show? What was causing those changes?
Turner's remarkable book, Sitting In, demonstrates that range of ways in which the black civil rights movement experienced and manifested change during the 1960s. One of the tremendous ways in which this movement was able to transform and adapt was via the changes made by universities and the university experience for blacks. As Turner describes, these universities were able to be used as instruments of purpose, allowing for the democratization of education. While things weren't perfect during these times as so many Negro colleges lacked federal funding, there was still a massive expansion that included a greater black student body. This meant that in the 1960s, the civil…
Giovanni, N. (1996). The Collected Poetry of Nikki Giovanni. New York: Harper Collins.
Kramer, S. (Director). (1967). Guess Who's Coming to Dinner [Motion Picture].
Turner, J. (2010). Sitting in and Speaking Out: Student Movements in the American
South. Atlanta: University of Georgia Press.
Kennedy and the Civil Rights Movement
John Fitzgerald Kennedy, or JFK, served the President of the United States for less than a single full term in the early 1960s after serving in Congress for several terms before this. He was elected in 1960 and took office the following January, promising to explore new frontiers and bring the country to new heights. In late November of 1963, he was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. Despite the relatively short period of time in which he ruled the nation, Kennedy led the country to a period of heretofore unimaginable levels of financial success due to a thriving economy and also saved the country and the world from becoming embroiled in nuclear war with the Soviet Union. Kennedy dealt with Fidel Castro and the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Cold ar and the beginning of the war between the United States and the country of…
Chafe, W. (1981). Civilities and Civil Rights: Greensboro, North Carolina, and the Black
Struggle for Freedom. Oxford University Press: New York, NY.
Dalek, R. (2003). An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917-1963. Little, Brown, and Co.:
conventional view of the Civil Rights movement is considered highly suspect in Timothy Tyson's non-fictional account, Blood Done Sign My Name. What is significant about the author's viewpoint is that he dedicated several years' worth of erudition to studying the lack of efficacy in the Civil Rights movement that became quite lucid -- to him -- following the brutal slaying of an frican-merican Vietnam War veteran in the author's hometown. s such, Tyson's opinion on the subject, which is only aided by the fact that he is not a partisan frican-merican, contains a fair amount of subjectivity as the nature of his scholarship in this subject includes interviews with local participants in the aforementioned slaying as well as careful consideration of the national repercussions that the incident catalyzed. n analysis of Tyson's book and other important socio-economic and cultural factors of the United States reveals the fact that most people…
Another principle lie associated with the Civil Right movement is the notion that it was primarily non-violent in nature, and largely won by copious amounts of hand-holding, speech-making, and spraying people with water hoses. Gibson's narration shatters this myth quite well. He devotes a fair amount of it to explicating the acts of violence and destruction that occurred as a result of Marrow's slaying. He interviews some of the people who burned and looted throughout the town of Oxford, he details the thinly veiled threats of the Ku Klux Klan which responded, and, most importantly, he alludes to the fact that it was the former militant displays of destruction and violence that significantly changed, Oxford allowing for the degree of integration that it currently has. These acts of belligerence are not so different from those that accompanied many of the racial riots during 1976 and 1968, nor those that accompanied the verdict of Rodney King's initial trial. Yet these facts are seemingly exchanged for Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech ad nausum, and to the general largess of Caucasians who suddenly saw the error of their ways, passed a few laws, and ended the threat of racism altogether.
The ultimate cost of so many people in the U.S. preferring the lies regarding the Civil Rights movement to the truth of the nature and need for this movement is that instances of discrimination and racial violence can occur again. In fact, they do so all the time. Police brutality based on stereotyping and racism is a fact. Gibson's manuscript refers to this notion when he writes about the police presence that followed him around Oxford as he conducted his academic work, in attempts to intimidate him from conjuring images of the truth of the situation. And although police brutality is just one instance of the lack of Civil Rights afforded certain people (and those with certain intentions in the case of Gibson returning to Oxford), it can produce deadly results as the fairly recent murders of Bell and Mamadou Diallo indicate.
Moreover, the ultimate cost of people believing the lie of the conventional notion of Civil Rights is that there is a degree of lethargy, of apathy, among people today. The degree of organization and the militancy displayed by notable Civil Rights groups -- some planned such as the actions of the African-American Vietnam War veterans detailed in Gibson's manuscript and some less so such as those following spontaneous racial riots in the latter years of the 1960's -- is largely lacking from today's society. Although racial tolerance could certainly be increased, the tolerance for police subjugation and other forms of systemic racism as indicated by differences in healthcare and economic practices is exceedingly high among today's generation. The purposeful subduing of that generation, through the lies propagated regarding the Civil Rights movement, is the ultimate consequence of those lies.
tracing development Civil Rights Movement Brown v. Board decision Black Power Movement:
Although the Civil Rights Movement goes back several years, it was not until the Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, decision that society actually acknowledged the fact that change was going to happen. In spite of the controversy related to the condition of African-Americans in the U.S., things were critical in the country during the 1950s as the authorities seemed to express little to no interest in these individuals. hile some focused on devising non-violent strategies with the purpose of strengthening their position in the country, others got actively involved in promoting active action as one of the most effective methods to achieve their goals.
Racial discrimination was one of the most divisive topics at the half of the twentieth century and the fact that African-Americans experienced significant success in putting across their issues made it…
Dierenfield, Bruce J., "The Civil Rights Movement," (Pearson Education, 01.05.2004)
"The Black Power Movement1968-1980," Retrieved July 27, 2012, from the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum Website: http://hoover.archives.gov/exhibits/africanamerican/blackpower/index.html
"The Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1963," Retrieved July 27, 2012, from the SMU website: http://faculty.smu.edu/dsimon/Change-Civ%20Rts.html
Emergence of the Civil Rights Movement from 1950 to 1960
The Civil Rights Movement that began in 1950 was an attempt to address the state of inequality that had existed in Black and hite America since the nation's conception. The Movement began as a demand to get 'payment' on a promise too long delayed, as noted by the movement's leader Martin Luther King Jr., for Black equality, in his "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." The early Civil Rights movement focused on integration as achieved through legal means such as in the 'Brown v. Board of Education' case. This case was successfully appealed to the arren Court on behalf of Lisa Brown, a young Black student, and argued by Thurgood Marshall, who was later to sit on the bench as a Supreme Court Justice himself, after demanded integration in public education. (Cozzens, "Brown vs. Board of Education," 1998) The movement also…
Changing Nature of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement
The Origin of the Civil Rights Movement
American society changed tremendously following World War II, and in many ways; among them, was the shift in population among African-Americans from the rural South to the industrialized North. In the 1950s and 1960s, 2.5 million migrated north and east from south and west (oldfield, Abbot, Argersinger & Argersinger, 2005, 359). In particular, African-American population became more and more concentrated in the twelve largest American cities and comprised fully one-third of the nations black population by 1970 (oldfield, Abbot, Argersinger & Argersinger, 2005, 359). Because of a combination of poverty, lack of equal opportunity in employment, education, and housing because of racism and discrimination, many migrated blacks ended up in what became known as "second ghettos" in their new cities (oldfield, Abbot, Argersinger & Argersinger, 2005, 359).
Initially, the Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. was…
Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J. And Argersinger, P. Twentieth-Century
America: A Social and Political History. 2005. New Jersey: Pearson-Prentice
Segregation and Civil ights Movement
To understand the overall meaning of this novel, To Kill a Mockingbird (1960) is to come to terms with what it symbolized during the time that it was published. During the 1960's, African-Americans were still trying to fight for equal rights in the United States. They still did not have equal status, nor did they get treated as fairly or as well as Whites did during that time. To understand Harper Lee's novel from the time that it was published is to be able to put oneself back in that era where things for African-Americans in the South were as if they never changed from the time of slavery. Although slavery was outlawed at the end of the Civil War in the 1860's, these individuals were still going through a hard time trying to adapt to a society that clearly disliked them, and blatantly disrespected…
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1960. Print.
Madison, James H. "Lines of Color, Lines of Community." A Lynching in the Heartland: Race and Memory in America. New York: Palgrave, 2001. 43-62. Print.
Loewen, James W. Sundown Towns: a Hidden Dimension of American Racism. New York: New, 2005. 3-136. Print.
Rustin, Bayard (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987), was a Quaker, a Civil Rights activist, a Martin Luther Junior associate, and a proponent for lesbian and gay rights. Bayard was born near Philadelphia in the West Chester area. He was raised by a Quaker grandmother and later became a prominent Quaker himself in the year 1936. After becoming a Quaker, he moved to New York, where he lived most of his life ("Bayard Rustin," n.d.). Rustin Bayard was particularly known for being a pacifist. He was one of the fiercest proponents of non-resistance in the Civil Rights Movement. He drew his inspiration from Gandhi's struggle against the British in India.
While he was a college student in the thirties, Rustin signed up to become a YCL (Young Communist League). Rustin believed the YCL was committed to fighting for racial equality and justice in the United States. While this was the…
"Bayard Rustin." Quaker in the World. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.quakersintheworld.org/quakers-in-action/160/Bayard-Rustin
Carson, C., Burns, S., Carson, S., Powell, D., & Holloran, P. (1997). The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr. Volume III: Birth of a New Age, December 1955-December 1956. University of California Press at Berkeley and Los Angeles.
Carson, C., Carson, S., Clay, A., Shadron, V., and Taylor, K. (2000). The Papers of Martin Luther King, Jr. Volume IV: Symbol of the Movement, January 1957-December 1958. University of California Press at Berkeley and Los Angeles.
King Institute, (n.d.). Rustin, Bayard. Stanford. Retrieved from https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/rustin-bayard
Rustin, B. (1956). Montgomery diary. Liberation, 1, 7-10.
Slavery was more than an economic institution; it had completely radicalized the nation. Identity was inextricably tied up with race; even after emancipation, blacks were not truly free, and were certainly not equal. Even in the North, African Americans were second-class citizens, but it was in the South where racism truly flourished. Jim Crow was the most notable manifestation of official policies that preserved racist institutions for generations. When the Great Depression hit, African-Americans in the South were hit especially hard. The Great Depression was one of the major triggers of the great migration of African Americans from the south to the north. Unfortunately, African Americans fared little better socially or economically when they migrated to northern cities. Competition for unskilled and low-wage positions was reaching a peak, causing racial tensions to escalate. The labor movements were not only fledgling, but just as racially segregated as any other social or…
“The Appeal., November 12, 1904, Image 4.” Library of Congress, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83016810/1904-11-12/ed-1/seq-4/
Boyd, R.L. (2000). Race, Labor Market Disadvantage, and Survivalist Entrepreneurship: Black Women in the Urban North During the Great Depression. Sociological Forum 15(4): 647-670.
Brown v. Board of Education. https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/347/483/case.html
“Great Depression and World War II.” (n.d.). Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/depwwii/race/.
“Jim Crow. Sold wholesale and retail by L. Deming, at the sign of the Barber\\'s pole Hanover St., Boston, and at Middlebury, Vt.” Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/resource/amss.as106690.0
“NAACP History: W.E.B. DuBois.” (n.d.). NAACP. http://www.naacp.org/oldest-and-boldest/naacp-history-w-e-b-dubois/
Obama, President Barack. First inauguration speech: https://www.aol.com/article/news/2017/01/19/president-barack-obamas-first-inauguration-speech-full-text/21657532/
Patterson, J.T. (n.d.). The Civil Rights movement. https://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/civil-rights-movement/essays/civil-rights-movement-major-events-and-legacies
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) was the big court case in the post-war era: it changed the dynamic of schools from one of racial segregation to integration. As Klarman (2007) notes, integration was going to happen naturally on its own, as the war had led to more accepting attitudes between the races. However, the Court decision created some uproar and pushed the issue. This created tension and the Civil Rights Movement ran into issues in the South, where opposition in places like Birmingham led to Martin Luther King’s imprisonment. His impassioned letter from a Birmingham jail helped to win more support for the Civil Rights Movement.
In 1964 the Civil Rights Act was passed and it was meant to end the dispute once and for all; however, Malcolm X would be assassinated the following year and Martin Luther King would be assassinated four years later. Along with the…
US History. (2020). The Equal Rights Amendment. Retrieved from https://www.ushistory.org/us/57c.asp
Friedan, B. (1963). The Feminine Mystique. NY: W. W. Norton.
Davis, A. (2012). The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco, CA: City Light Books.
Klarman, M. (2007). Brown v Board of Education and the Civil Rights Moment. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
American Civil ight Movement
Compare and contrast the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) on the basis of their leadership, philosophy, and tactics.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was a civil rights organization that was initiated by African-Americans in 1957 (Fairclough, 2001). The movement was primarily aimed at ending the segregation and discrimination against the black African population in the U.S. The core philosophy of SCLC revolved around to seek civil rights and economic justice for the people of Southern States having majority of African-Americans.
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) actually aimed achieving same objectives as those of SCLC but through non-violent sit-in and defiance of segregated dining and lunch services. The core philosophy of SNCC was also eliminating segregation but the mission statement was narrower compared to SCLC.
The most prominent leader of SCLC was Martin Luther King, Jr. Other prominent…
Dyson, M.E. (2009). April 4, 1968: Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Death and how it Changed America. Basic Books.
Fairclough, A. (2001). To Redeem the Soul of America: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King, Jr. University of Georgia Press.
Johnson & Johnson (2013). Annual Report & Proxy Statements: J&J. Retrieved from: [http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/JNJ/2770950354x0x644760/85FD0CFF-2305-4A02-8294-2E47D0F31850/JNJ2012annualreport.pdf]
Sundquist, J.L. (1968). Politics and Policy: The Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson Years. Brookings Institution Press.
Coming of Age in Mississippi" by Anne Moody
In her article "Coming of Age in Mississippi," dating from 1968, Anne Moody tells the story of her participation in a blood shed sit-in demonstration at Woolworth's lunch counter. She was a student at Toogalo College in Jackson Mississippi, member of the NAACP (the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). The Association, under the leadership of John Salter, Moody's social science professor, undertook a boycott in public stores as one of the numerous forms of manifestation within the Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi. The story begins with three young African-American students were peacefully asking for the right to be served at the same lunch counter where the whites were sitting.
With a lack of sentimentality and with deliberate detachment, Moody succeeds to present a realistic picture of the heaviest segregated place on earth in the sixties, Jackson, Mississippi. Moody, along…
Freedom and Equality in the 20th century
AN UN-ENDING FIGHT
Two Primary Methods against Segregation Policies
The Civil Rights Movement of African-Americans in the United States, also called the 1960s Civil Rights Movement, consisted of mass actions, aimed at ending racial discrimination and segregation against them (Tavaana, 2015). At the same time, it aimed at acquiring legal recognition and federal protection of their rights as citizens, as enshrined in the Constitution and federal law. The Movement was particularly active in the South between 1954 and 1968 (Tavaana).
The two primary methods used by the Movement in pursuing its ends were non-violent protests and civil disobedience (Tavaana, 2015). These and other campaigns were forms of civil resistance. They triggered crises and induced the holding of meaningful talks between them and government authorities. These initiatives were effective in the federal, state, and local levels of government as well as businesses and communities.…
AAO (n.d.). The civil rights era. Part I, African-American Odyssey. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.memory/oc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart9.html
Civil Rights 101 (2001). Civil rights expanded: contemporary effects. The Leadership
Conference. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.civilrights.org/resources/civilrights.101/erexpanded.html
Foner, E. (1997). Expert report. Diversity Matters: University of Michigan. Retrieved on February 21, 2015 from http://www.vpcomm.umich.edu/admissions/legal/expert/foner.html
civil rights since Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated. There are three references used for this paper.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis in 1968 as he was fighting for civil rights in America. Since that time, the country has seen changes in how minorities are treated.
Some of these changes have been positive, while others have had a negative effect on the progression of the civil rights movement.
The Civil Rights movement has seen some positive changes since the death of Martin Luther King, Jr. There are no longer segregated drinking fountains or waiting rooms in public areas. The Black community no longer fears being evicted from their homes because they chose to vote (unknown 1997).
Congressman John Lewis stated on the 40th Anniversary of the Civil Rights movement that "because of the work and sacrifices of many, we are a better people (unknown 1997)."…
Williams III, Joe. The Death of the Civil Rights Movement. Precinct Reporter. (1994):
Williams, Leaford C. Remembering Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Washington Informer.
1996): 17 January.
Because of the fact that they ae Negos, they have been oppessed and intimidated on seveal occasions. Malcolm X also makes some histoical claims when demanding the civil ights. He states that Nego evolt has been going on since 1945 in the whole wold and in 1964 will see that it then emeges to be a black evolution. He claims that this evolution has been happening in Asia, Afica and Latin Ameica fo the not white individuals. The blacks who wee colonized by the Euopeans I Asia have been involved in the stuggle fo since 1945. Fo the Mexican-Ameican stuggle fo equality also involves some histoical statement especially in 1965 when efeing to Cesa Chavez who has had majo contibution fo the La Raza Unida quest fo the ights though non-violent means.
Reason fo the timing of the civil ights demands
In the Montgomey bus boycott, the people ae demanding…
references to his citizenship and the democracy. As for Malcolm the rights are also provided by the constitution. In the Mexican -- American, the rights are provided by the democratic system.
Consequence of failure
The civil rights activists for the Montgomery bus boycott are using non-violent approaches in demanding their rights. This is in line with the approach that Martin Luther King always uses therefore it's expected that the people will continue with the peaceful demonstration until their plights are heard. As for the Malcolm protesting people, they are at this moment peaceful. However if their rights i.e. voting rights are denied, the black man will start using the bullet as a new way to advocate for their rights. They will turn into violent movements and use violence so as to gain their rights.
The civil rights movements in the post was a reaction by most of the war veterans who came from the war hoping to be respected because of the sacrifice that they had given only for them to find that they are still stuck in a segregated and racist nation. This was also in sharp contrast to the freedom principals that they had fought for overseas. Therefore the civil rights seeds were sowed as the as demands were then put forth by the black leaders for equal rights. Martin Luther King was one of the leaders and in this instance he is seen leading the boycott of the Montgomery bus. He advocates for the equal rights of the blacks that they may be respected by their counterpart white citizens particularly in the bus stations. Malcolm X is also advocating for the civil rights of the black people in his expression of the ballot or the bullet. He is expressing the importance of the voting right to be granted because it will be useful in a bloodless revolution. He warns however that the failure to grant the right will lead to retaliation by violence of the bullets. The last incidents considered by the paper is the Mexican-Americans rights group through the faction called La Raza Unida. The members of this group seek to advocate the right of the Mexican-American having realized that there are no equal provisions of opportunities.
By the late 1970s, the Cold War had wound down, and the Soviets posed less of a threat than they had over the past three decades. Many civil rights for blacks, women, and minorities in America had been won during the Cold War. Many other hard fights were still to come, but ultimately, the Cold War marked the height of American fear of aggression, and American gains in civil rights.
In conclusion, the Cold War was a major contributor to civil rights for a number of reasons. Civil rights were hard won, and many people gave their lives in the ultimate sacrifice to obtain freedom and equality. Civil rights came about for a number of reasons, but pressure from world forces on American democracy was one reason that civil rights became so important to many political leaders. Without pressure from much of the world, civil rights may have been even…
Dudziak, Mary L. Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Fairclough, Adam. "The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in the Global Arena." History Today Nov. 2002: 84+.
Graham, Hugh Davis. "The Civil Rights Commission: The First 40 Years." Civil Rights Journal 2.1 (1997): 6.
McAuliffe, Mary Sperling. Crisis on the Left: Cold War Politics and American Liberals, 1947-1954. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1978.
hen then Governor George allace ordered state troopers to disband the marchers, using tear gas, clubs and whips, President Lyndon Johnson federalized the National Guard and the march continued (Modern 157). The national media coverage of these events led Congress to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which outlawed discriminatory voter-registration tests, and authorized federal registration of persons and federally administered voting procedures in any political subdivision or state that discriminated electorally against a particular group (Modern 157).
Nine days after the assassination of King on April 4, 1968, Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, which banned discrimination in most housing and provided penalties for those attempting to interfere with individual civil rights, thus adding protection for civil rights workers and others (Modern 157). Additional legislation added enforcement provisions to the federal government's rules concerning discriminatory mortgage-lending practices, which means that all lenders must report to the…
Modern Civil Rights Legislation. Pp. 156, 157, 158, 159.
The 1960s was a period that Americans remember as being a period bursting with activities and movements. There was a lot that these years brought out. Some of the things that the period is remembered for are the many movements, including the civil rights and hippies movements, evolution of art and music and a promotion of love and peace with activism against the war in Vietnam. There were many uprisings in the society, especially in terms of culture, with regard to politics and socially as well. As a result of this, a lot of change was experienced in society. The movements for the rights of African-Americans became very strong during this period and forced the then president Lyndon Johnston to push for a Civil Rights Act, which was enacted in 1964 by Congress.
Although the enactment of this Act was welcomed, it was not sufficient and thus, more…
Magill, Frank N. Chron 20c Hist Bus Comer Vol 2. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis, 2014. Internet resource.
Mjagkij, Nina. Organizing Black America: An Encyclopaedia of African-American Associations. New York: Garland, 2001. Internet resource.
Grofman, Bernard. Legacies of the 1964 Civil Rights Act: [...papers given at a 1994 Conference..., Held at the Federal Judicial Centre]. Charlottesville, Va. [u.a.: Univ. Press of Virginia, 2000. Print.
Gold, Susan D. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2011. Print.
Q3. What was the purpose of Prohibition? Which groups and areas generally supported the movement? Why?
The purpose of Prohibition was ostensibly to reduce alcohol-related crimes and the suffering perpetrated by alcoholism on individuals, families (particularly women and children), and society as a whole. The Temperance Movement was widely supported by women’s rights activists and abolitionists throughout its existence. Yet it was largely made up of rural, native-born Protestants and there was also a strong anti-immigrant sentiment within the movement. The virulently racist Klu Klux Klan, for example, also supported Prohibition.
In urban locations, the sentiment towards Prohibition was far different. In general, religion was less influential in cities, and many people profited from selling alcohol. Also, for European immigrants, particularly those from Catholic countries, alcohol had a very important place in their cultural worldview. Although Prohibition may have seemed like a benign attempt to protect women and children from…
Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights Association, aimed at organizing women in the long fight for equal rights. In 1868, the U.S. Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution which "defined citizenship and voters as male" and excluded women; in 1870, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment which also excluded women in favor of African-American males ("The History of Women's Suffrage," Internet).
At this point, the women's movement split into two factions, the National Woman
Suffrage Association, headed by Stanton and Susan . Anthony, and the American Woman Suffrage Association, a more conservative organization headed by Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone. y 1890, these two opposing factions joined forces to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Gurko, 145).…
Berkeley, Kathleen C. The Women's Liberation Movement in America. New York:
Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.
Frederick Powledge. We Shall Overcome: Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.
Gurko, Miriam. Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth of the Women's Rights Movement.
Under the new policy, the United States was committed to keep all commitments to treaties, provide a shield if nuclear power threatens the freedom of an ally or a nation that is important to U.S. security, and, in cases of other aggression, supply military economic assistance in accordance with treaty commitments, but should look to the nation threatened to assume primary responsibility to provide its own manpower for its defense. The goal was to reduce U.S. aid as the other country strengthens its own military for protection against attack.
Each of these movements created feelings that action was needed to force the government to enforce the laws they had created. Some of them took actions in protests, some in advocating for certain rights, and some took actions using violence. Where women took actions to advocate for women's rights, youth took actions of rebellion against traditions and voicing discontent and disagreement…
Civil Rights Movement. (n.d.). Retrieved from John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum: http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK_in_History/Civil-Rights-Movement.aspx
Decades of change: The rise of cultural and ethnic pluralism. (2008, Apr). Retrieved from IIP Digital: http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/publica...80407123655eaifas0.7868769.html#axzz2QNCLypoo
Hill, L. (2007). America Dreaming: How Youth Changed America in the 60s. Boston, NY: Little Brown and Company.
The civil rights movement 1960-1980. (n.d.). Retrieved from Country Studies: http://countrystudies.us/united-states/history-130.htm
African-American and Mexican-American
Civil Rights in Texas
This essay discusses African-American and Mexican-American civil rights in Texas. The goal is to discover what some of the key events was in each the African-American and the Mexican-American battles for their group's civil rights. The secondary objective is to see how these movements resembled each other and how they differed from one another and if one was more effective than the other. As the United States and its individual states like Texas become more racially diverse, all new criteria will arise that may be more closely linked to India's caste system than to what we understand and take for granted here in the United States. Economic barriers and not racial barriers are gradually becoming the underlying motivator of the civil rights movement. In other words, being black or Mexican will not matter in regard to civil rights. If the respective…
Arnoldo De Leon. (1982). "The Tejano Community, 1836-1900." Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Alwyn Barr (1973). "Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528-1971." Austin: Jenkins.
Michael L. Gillette. (1978). "The Rise of the NAACP in Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 81, April.
David Montejano (1987). "Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986." Austin: University of Texas Press.
Civil ights: The ole of Black Churches
The audience will understand the role that black churches played in the ongoing Civil ights Movement.
In this speech, I will show that black churches -- through methods of advocacy, spiritual leadership and active participation -- play a significant role in the ongoing Civil ights Movement that began in the mid-20th century and clearly continues on into today's times.
Everyone knows of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the important role he played in the Civil ights Movement. But how many people know about or realized that King was one of many black pastors to bring black churches into the Movement, providing leadership, spiritual nourishment, and advocacy to African-Americans struggling for equality? Or that black churches continue today to be part of that ongoing struggle? Just as black churches are making an impact in cities around the country where communities are torn by racial…
African-American Registry. (n.d.). The Black Churches: A Brief History. AARegistry.
Retrieved from http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/black-church-brief-history
Calhoun-Brown, A. (2000). Upon this rock: The black church, nonviolence, and the Civil Rights Movement. PS: Political Science and Politics, 33(2): 168-174.
Dagan, D. (2015). Black churches led the Civil Rights Movement. Can they do it again? The Huffington Post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/06/14/baltimore-black-churches-freddie-gray_n_7556560.html
But in 1973, the American Psychological Association announced that they would be removing homosexuality from the list of recognized mental illnesses, as growing numbers of researchers and doctors realized that it represented fairly normal sexual behavior (Head par. 17).
A quick bit of simple arithmetic can tell you that it still took thirty years after the medical community determined that homosexuality was not dangerous or especially abnormal for the law to catch up. And in many instances, there still aren't laws protecting gays. All that the Supreme Court ruling did was ban laws that banned homosexual behavior; they cannot make laws to protect gay rights.
This has been the major issue plaguing the civil rights of homosexuals. Until the legislative branch of the government becomes involved in mandating that certain rights are protected, nothing that the judicial branch does will ever really be secure. This was shown most recently in…
Cornell. "Civil Rights: An Overview." Cornell University Law School Website. Accessed 15 April 2009. http://topics.law.cornell.edu/wex/civil_rights
Head, Tom. "The American Gay Rights Movement: A Short History." Accessed 15 April 2009. http://civilliberty.about.com/od/gendersexuality/tp/History-Gay-Rights-Movement.htm
Stanford. "Civil Rights." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Accessed 15 April 2009. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/civil-rights/#SexOri
Every step of the African-American journey was a small one but it took a great of steps to make any headway. Mama knew this and wanted alter to realize it and be proud of his past so he could be proud of his future.
Dreams help us define people. e can see how the pre-civil rights mindset affected alter's mother as she understands the difficulties of her people and when she sees an opportunity to improve her family's situation, she takes it. She fights with alter because she watched her husband work long days. She knows what alter cannot and when he begins to whine she tells him, "e was going backward 'stead of forwards -- talking about killing babies and wishing each other was dead . . . hen it gets like that in life -- you just got to do something different, push on out and do something…
Bernstein, Robin. "Inventing a Fishbowl: White Supremacy and the Critical Reception of Lorraine Hansberry's a Raisin in the Sun." Modern Drama. 1999 v.1. Gale Resource
Database. Site Accessed April 23, 2010. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Cooper, David D. "Hansberry's "A Raisin in the Sun.'" the Explicator. 1993-52.1 Gale
Resource Database. Site Accessed April 23, 2010.
Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil ights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.
By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…
Du Bois, W.E.B. DuBois, W.E.B. 1903. "The Talented Tenth." Pp. 31-75 in the Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of to-Day. Contributions by Booker T. Washington, Principal of Tuskegee Institute, W.E. Burghardt DuBois, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chesnutt, and others. (NY: James Pott & Co., 1903
Lincoln, a. "13th amendment to the U.S. constitution: abolition of slavery." Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=40
Mack, K.W. (1999). "Law, Society, Identity and the Making of the Jim Crow South: Travel and Segregation on Tennessee Railroads, 1875-1905.," 24 L. & Soc. Inquiry 377 . http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/2790089/Law%2c%20Society%2c%20Identity%20and%20the%20Making%20of%20the%20Jim%20Crow%20South.pdf?sequence=2
Maidment, R.A. (1973). "Plessy v. Fergueson re-examined." Journal of American Studies. 7 (2): 125-132.
e are supported in this by a statement which Justice Kennedy made during a 2003 Supreme Court case on the subject, wherein the Justice observed that "gay people have a 'liberty under the Due Process Clause [that] gives them the full right to engage in [intimate] conduct without intervention of the government.'
No matter how unpopular a group's sexual norms, he explained, the government may not 'demean their existence or control their destiny by making their private sexual conduct a crime.'" (Masci, 1) This would essentially acknowledge that discrimination against the rights of homosexuals qualifies as a form of civil rights violation, strengthening the legal precedent now becoming an ever greater likelihood. Those parties who have objected have also shown a great deal of resolve, as suggested by their victory in the typically left-leaning state of California. Primarily, this denotes that on both sides of the issue, parties are politically…
Anitel, S. (2007). Gays' Discrimination at the Workplace Decreases Productivity.
Softpedia. Online at http://news.softpedia.com/news/Gays-039-Work-Discrimination-Decreases-Productivity-70002.shtml
Head, T. (2006). Workplace Discrimination. About: Civil Liberties.
Masci, D. (2008). An overview of the same-sex marriage debate. The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. Online at http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=288
1. Describe the impediments to, and reasons for, the development of civil rights from 1877 to 1940.
Reconstruction had failed, leading to unresolved issues and the entrenchment of racist institutions in the social, economic, and political fabric of American life. After the formal end of Reconstruction in 1877, many impediments to civil rights were in fact legal but also ideological. Due to the lack of formal legal protections for African Americans, civil rights movements remained critical, particularly given the sinister nature of Jim Crow.
2. Discuss some of the major laws and events related to civil rights since 1940.
World War Two did have a major bearing on civil rights legislation, particularly as it led to the de-segregation of the American armed forces in 1948. The 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v Board of Education was also a major event signaling a shift in civil rights law in America.…
omen's Rights Movement In The 1970s
In A People's History of the United States, Zinn begins his narrative of the liberation of women with the women's suffrage movement of the early twentieth century. However, according to Zinn, even after women were granted their vote, their identity was still largely measured by their success in living up to the idealized role models of wife and mother till the overt feminist movement of the late 1960s. Till then, the only time that women were allowed to break the traditional stereotype mold of femininity and domesticity was during periods such as war, civil strife or extreme economic conditions (Zinn, 503-6).
Zinn, in his account, gives a detailed description of the events that occurred in the 1960s. omen of all ages took active part in the civil rights movement of the sixties, which in a sense laid the ground for women collectively voicing their…
Friedan, Betty. "The Feminine Mystique." New York: Dell, 1974.
Rossi, Alice. "The Feminist Papers." New York: Columbia University Press,
Zinn, Howard. "Surprises." A People's History of the United States.
Civil rights can be delineated as the very basic and fundamental rights to be free from unequal treatment, on the basis of particular attributes that are considered important, for instance gender, race, and also disability. The Bill of Rights protects all citizens of the nation against the infringement of their rights and liberties by any entity and even the state, as it is assured in the Constitution. One of the key civil rights discussed and debated in the United States in the present day encompasses the rights of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning community (LGBTQ) (Newton, 2014).
Describe the observed political event in detail, including the environment and people involved
The event I attended was a political protest that covered the annual gay rights march. In particular, the parade was in search of shedding some light on the gay rights. The individuals that participated in the parade…
Hostile ork Environment: According to the 1993 decision of the United States Supreme Court in "Harris v. Forklift Systems Inc.," hostile environment harassment occurs when "the workplace is permeated with discriminatory intimidation, ridicule, and insult that is sufficiently severe or pervasive to alter the conditions of the victim's employment and create an abusive working environment" (Cross and LeRoy Miller 497). Facts of the Case: In 1986, Teresa Harris, who was employed as a rental manager with Forklift Systems, Inc., complained about comments and behaviors directed to her by Forklift's president, Charles Hardy. She claimed that Hardy's sexually harassing conduct caused her to suffer PTSD-like symptoms and that she was ready to resign when Hardy apologized and claimed he was only kidding. Later, after concluding that the harassment would not stop, she left Forklift and filed her complaint with the EEOC. The case was eventually heard by a U.S. magistrate judge…
Works Cited List
American Psychological Association "Harris v. Forklift Inc." 2011.
Accessed 3 December 2011.
< www.apa.org > About APA > Directorates and Programs>
Cross, Frank. B, and LeRoy Miller, R. "Employment Discrimination." The Legal Environment of Business. Mason: South- West Cengage Learning, 2011
Whether or not it was the direct intention of our forefathers, it has been the Bill of Rights that has allowed for the existence of various movements throughout U.S. history. he right to assembly, the right of free speech and the guarantee of a free press have allowed for the various movements to be tolerated, even when they represented but a small minority of society. heir existence has served as a safety valve to keep internal pressure from building and exploding.
Every movement --whether we are speaking of civil rights, anti-war, and progressive, as well as labor, anti-nuclear, prohibition, and suffrage -- moved from the fringe where its diehard constituents kept the flame burning, no matter the political climate, to the forefront through the building of coalitions and partnerships that coalesced with a common, usually homogenized sense of purpose. Movements in this country have not only developed to spread…
The anti-war movements in this country have probably had the most tenuous grip, as except for the most determined pacifists, the ending of conscription at various times (another example of government co-opting a movement's ideals) has taken the wind out of its sails.
The progressive movement a label that has been adopted by many throughout history was most prominent as an active force in this country in the period between 1900 and 1920. It held the unique distinction of being an anti-movement movement and was largely the result of the fear of socialism. Ironically it was probably responsible for the largest number of institutionalized changes in this country as Roosevelt and the captains of industry sought to head-off more sweeping reforms that would have been enacted without their presence. In that way it had always been co-opted by the government.
All movements are problem-based, have traditionally required charismatic leaders, and the self-righteous attitude that its ideals are the realization of the ideals of our forefathers. The best way to kill any movement has always been to either eliminate the problem or the perception of such, or to have its mission adopted by the powers in control.
Economic and social differences between the North and the South, states' rights verses federal rights, the fight between the proponents of slavery and abolitionists, and the election of Abraham Lincoln all contributed to the Civil ar. However, all of these causes can trace their roots in the institution of slavery. The major reason the southern states succeed was to maintain slavery, the conflict over western lands was about slavery, Lincoln couldn't maintain the union because of slavery, and the production of cotton demanded slavery.
Ultimately, though both sides claimed to want to achieve their objectives peacefully, the South viewed the North as a threat to its way of life, while the North preferred war rather than let the nation perish.
It seems incredible today that the institution of slavery was only abolished less than a century and a half ago. The idea that one person…
"Abraham Lincoln." The White House. Whitehouse.gov. (2011). 7 August 2011.
Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. Simon & Schuster: New York, 2005.
Roark, James L., Micheal P. Johnson, Patricia Cline Cohen, Sarah Stage, Alan Lawson, & Susan M.Hartmann. The American Promise: A History of the United States, 4th ed. Volume1: To 1877. Bedford/St. Martin's:Boston-New York, 2009.
The Cold War of the communist and the capitalist countries gay way to spying worldwide, together with the political and military meddling in the inside matters of the poor countries. Some of these developments led to a negative consequence which called for much of the distrust and uncertainty towards the government that came after the cold war. Examples of these outcomes are the serious reaction of the Soviet Union towards the famous uprising against communism, which included the Hungarian evolution of 1965, also the invasion in 1961 of the Cuban Bay of Pigs by the U.S. And the Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring in 1968. The lie of Dwight D. Eisenhower, president of the U.S. In 1960, about the extent of the U2 episode led to an even greater distrust amongst the public against the government (Eisenstadt, 1956).
The establishment in the U.S. was disintegrated into political and military framework after…
Bellah, Robert. "New Religious Consciousness and the Crisis of Modernity." In The New Religious Consciousness, edited by Charles dock and Robert Wuthnow, 1976.
Braungart, Margaret M. And Richard C. Braungart. "The Life-Course Development of Left- and Right-Wing Youth Activist Leaders from the 1960s." Political Psychology, 1990, 11:243-82.
DeMartini, Joseph R. "Social Movement Participation, Political Socialization, Generational Consciousness, and Lasting Effects." 1983, Youth atul Society 15:195-223.
Dunham, Charlotte Chorn, and Vern L. Bengtson, "The Long-Term Effects of Political. Activism on Intergenerational Relations." Youth and Society, 1992, 24:31-51.
In some ways, the Civil War was the analogue of the Terror for Americans: It was the bloodthirsty incestuous violence that allowed the nation to move onward to a full embrace of democracy, joining itself to Europe as the world began to tip toward democratic ideas and ideals.
Stephen Kantrowitz's biography of Benjamin Tillman demonstrates how he can be seen as a symbol for an entire cohort of Southerners of his generation, people (mostly but not exclusively men) who could neither understand nor tolerate the new order that had formally instituted itself after Emancipation. They could not understand a world in which black men were suddenly their legal equals. Tillman, and others like him, lived in a world that told them that blacks had to be treated like equals even though many white Southerners did not see their black compatriots as even being fully human.
This set up…
civil war on the American economics, military and diplomatic ties. The paper will discuss the effects of the victory of the Unions and the defeat of the Confederates.
The victory of the North in the American Civil War put an end to slavery and to the South's effort to secede from the Union. The years during which the Civil War settlement continued to be contested are known as the econstruction period. econstruction lasted roughly from the end of the war in April 1865 to the withdrawal of the last federal troops from the South in April 1877.
Effects of Civil War
The most important result of the Civil War was the liberation of nearly 4 million Southern slaves. The sudden release of so many people would have been a tremendous problem even in an atmosphere free from the bitterness that had been created by a civil war. Postwar…
Civil War: The Effects, Last viewed: 19th May'04
United States History, Civil War Effects and Reconstruction, last viewed: 19th May'04
right" embodies the notion that one has the sovereignty to act without obtaining the permission of others (Lea, 2004). This concept carries an implicit unstated postscript with it in that one may exercise one's rights as long as one does not violate the individual rights of others. Individual rights pertain to the rights that are deemed universal to all people regardless of any group affiliations they may have. For example freedom of speech is considered a universal individual right in many societies. Governments are formed to protect the individual rights of all, but at the same time restrict some rights to ensure equality.
Collective rights refer to the rights that groups have, or to the rights held only by those individuals within a specified group (Lea, 2004). For instance, a certain group of indigenous people may lay claim to certain rights such as the right to live on native lands…
Lea, D. (2004). Individual autonomy: Group self-determination and the assimilation of indigenous cultures. North Australian Research Unit. Discussion Paper No. 18, 1-17.
Tsey, K. & Every, A. (2000). Evaluating Aboriginal empowerment programs: the case of family well-being. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 24(5), 509-514.
passing of the civil rights protection of homosexuals. This paper presents the views and reasons of the people who oppose the passing of this act. This paper then demonstrates the importance of the passing of this act and how it would benefit the society at large. The paper also highlights certain quotes to support its claim.
Civil Rights Protection of Homosexuals Human beings claim to represent a society that is not only civilized but also just in its ways. hen we as humans can fight for animal's rights, than we can certainly work for the civil rights protection of the homosexuals, who still belong to the category of human beings. Discrimination on the basis of race, class and sexual orientation must be eliminated as much as possible. Man, a creature of God has not been given the liberty to judge between right and wrong. As the bible has said, "There…
Dan L. Gays Deserve Their Civil Rights. 20 Apr. 1995. Available on the address http://www.spub.ksu.edu/ISSUES/V099B/SP/n141/opn-gay-rights-lewerenz.html.. Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.
Darren H. Gay rights For Gay Whites?: Race, Sexual Identity, And Equal Protection
Discourse. Cornell Law Review. 1 Jul. 2000.
Homosexual Agenda. Available on the address http://www.christianhelps.org/homoagenda.htm . Accessed on 11 Nov. 2003.
The intended audience is the general reader, scholars and historians. Overall, this work is highly-valuale as a source for all those wishing to understand the complexities of the women's movement in the 20th century.
Google Book Search: (http://ooks.google.com/ooks?vid=ISBN0838632238&id=w9TzuCg-XYC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&dq=women%27s+rights+movement&sig=7y7B0ojdo7sgtl_agde_B1PdVnE#PPP10,M1).
Law, Cheryl. Suffrage and Power: The Women's Movement, 1918-1928. New York:
I.B. Tauris & Company (Palgrave Macmillan), 1997. 260 pages ISBN
This ook y acclaimed scholar Cheryl Law of New York University examines how the women's movement, through its network of organization and its powerful and widespread campaigning, was transformed and developed into a formidale fighting force which aided in its continuing assault on entrenched positions to secure women's full and equal participation in society -- in politics, commerce, industry and the professions, education, welfare, politics and for franchise extension. It also examines the myths associated with the decline in the women's movement following World War I. It contains eleven major sections…
bibliography and an index. Due to its scholarly nature, this work is not intended for general audiences and would make an excellent addition to a class focusing on the women's movement in early 20th century America.
Google Book Search: ( http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN1860642012&id=C17PslUo1DYC&dq=women%27s+rights+movement ).
Victims' ights Movements and its effect on the criminal justice system and the offenders' rights.
VICTIMS IGHTS MOVEMENT
VICTIMS IGHTS MOVEMENT
VICTIMS IGHTS MOVEMENT
The United States Victims' Movement was a product of the increasing social awareness in the 60s that unleashed the idealistic generation's energy in that era and the next decade. Its continued energy has originated from the very social forces from where it started and from extraordinary individual's leadership, some of these individuals have survived personal tragedy, and several others who have brought unusual insights and compassion being witness to these types of tragedies. In the international arena, this has remained a source of both criticism and praise (Young). etrospectively, it is right to assert that the United States victims' movement original involved the coming together of 5 independent developments: the introduction of compensation programs for compensating state victims; the development of a new academic field known…
Goldberg. (1970). Preface: Symposium on Governmental Compensation for Victims of Violence. Southern California Law Review, 43.
Morgan, A. (1987). Victim Rights: Criminal Law: Remembering the "Forgotten Person" in the Criminal Justice System. Marquette Law Review, 70(3). Retrieved, from http://scholarship.law.marquette.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article
Young, M. (n.d.)? (?
/UNAFEI). A HISTORY OF THE VICTIMS MOVEMENT IN THE UNITED STATES. Retrieved April 14, 2016, from http://www.unafei.or.jp/english/pdf/RS_No70/No70_08VE_Young1.pdf
A Fight for Democracy
There are many forms of government that exist in the world. From dictatorships to monarchies to democracies. However, the most challenging form of government by far is democracy. This is because it involves participation by the government and the people.
The word democracy has origins in the Greek language with the meaning 'rule by the people' (Patrick, 2006). ome and Athens represented the precursors to modern democracies and served as the first 'democracies' of antiquity. Democracies were made in order to control the abuse of power people witnessed see from rulers. While democracy has ancient roots, modern democracy was only formulated during the age of Enlightenment, specifically the 17th and 18th centuries.
In this age, philosophers designated fundamental elements of democracy. These are: basic human and civil rights, separation of powers, religious freedom, and separation of church and state (Ostrom, 1997). Modern democracies have…
Burns, K. (2015). The Civil War. The Film. Episode Descriptions. Episode One.Pbs.org. Retrieved 26 May 2016, from http://www.pbs.org/civilwar/film/episode1.html
Jones, T. (2016). Could the South Have Won the War? Opinionator. Retrieved 26 May 2016, from http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/03/16/could-the-south-have-won-the-war/
Kent, Z. (2011). The Civil War. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow.
Ostrom, V. (1997). The meaning of democracy and the vulnerability of democracies. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
National omen's Rights Convention of 1850 in orcester, Massachusetts, a convention dedicated to rallying important voices around the country for the cause of social reformation regarding the position of women. That the Convention took its name for the women's rights movement is indicative of the major compelling force behind that the new "idea" of womanhood had roused, not just among women but also among men of important social standing. omen were finding their voices and advocating social reform on a variety of levels -- a point reflected by the newspapers and commentators of the day -- and men were showing their support by joining in at the Convention and advocating for social change alongside their female "counterparts." Yet, not everyone viewed the Convention in the same light. This paper will show how the omen's Rights Convention served as a lightning rod of "controversy," indicating that midway through the 19th century…
"A Convention." U.S. Women's History Workshop. Web. 7 October 2015.
Blackwell, Elizabeth. "Editorial Note." Pioneering Work in Opening the Medical
Profession to Women: Autobiographical Sketches by Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell. NY: Longman, Green, 1895. Web. U.S. Women's History Workshop. 7 October 2015.
"Grand Demonstration of Petticoatdom at Worcester -- The 'Woman's Rights'
Clearly, the disadvantages of conducting interviews to interpret history is that often, memories become cloudy and/or lost, and people, as they age, remember things differently. Therefore, some of these memories could be faulty, or at least flawed, and yet, there is no mention of that in the book. There are also quotes in the interviews, and it is hard to imagine that anyone could remember exact words after even 10, 15, or 20 years after the incidents occurred. That means that some of these interviews, although they certainly mean well, could be inconsistent, and that takes away some of the historic notability of this book.
In conclusion, this is a very emotional and personal look into the Civil ights Movement and how it began, grew, and helped obtain equal rights for Black Americans. The author interviewed some of the most influential people in the Civil ights Movement, and their memories…
Raines, Howell. My Soul is Rested: Movement Days in the Deep South Remembered, New York: Penguin, 1983.
Howell Raines. My Soul is Rested: Movement Days in the Deep South Remembered, New York: Penguin, 1983, 21.
changed "Old South" ( Civil ar) "New South" ( Civil ar Second orld ar) modern South today? hat gained? hat lost? hat impact Civil ar Emancipation Southern Economy? The economy North? How Southern agriculture reorganized Civil ar? hat planters ? Black Freedmen? Consider tenancy sharecropping -- controversial? How Post war Southern agriculture Civil ar? hat trends southern agriculture 1865-1920? How compare mid-west? ere black tenants locked debt peonage tied land unable move opportunities, claimed? hat competing view? hat evidence cited? hat factors aided retarded growth manufacturing Civil ar? Consider specific industries problems.
The "New South" experienced change as African-Americans came to be normal workers and as the process of industrialization pervaded the territory. The Second orld ar and the Civil Rights movement provided individuals in the area with the hope they needed consequent to the Great Depression, considering how the economic crisis deeply affected them.
The Civil ar had a…
Fabre, Genevieve, "History and Memory in African-American Culture," (Oxford University Press, 1994)
Rothenberg, Daniel, "With These Hands: The Hidden World of Migrant Farmworkers Today," (University of California Press)
Turner-Sadler, Joanne, "African-American History: An Introduction," (Peter Lang, 2009)
From Slavery to African-American
By the beginning of the Civil ar, there were some four million African-Americans living in the United States, 3.5 million slaves lived in the South, while another 500,000 lived free across the country (African pp). The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 granted freedom to all slaves in the Confederacy, and the 13th Amendment of 1865 freed the remaining slaves throughout the nation (African pp). During the Reconstruction Era, African-Americans in the South gained a number of civil rights, including the right to vote and to hold office, however, when Reconstruction ended in 1877, white landowners initiated racial segregation that resulted in vigilante violence, including lynchings (African pp).
This resulted in the Great Migration of African-Americans from the South to the North during the beginning of the twentieth century (African pp).
From this Great Migration came an intellectual and cultural elite group of African-Americans that grew…