Discuss the four basic phenomena of classical conditioning
Classical conditioning is one of the most famous forms of behavioral 'learning.' It is epitomized in the experiment of Pavlov's dog. The dog was conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell because the dog associated eating with that particular noise. "Classical conditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex" (Cherry 2011). The signal is located in the subject's environment, which is manipulated from the outside by an experimenter (in the case of Pavlov's experiment). Or, classical conditioning may unintentionally occur in the real world when a signal is paired many times when a physiological reflex occurs.
Classical conditioning contains four basic components. The first component is the unconditioned stimulus, which occurs naturally in the environment and produces a particular response. For example, many people feel hungry when they smell one of their favorite foods. Just…… [Read More]
Classical conditioning involves the association of two stimuli. The most well-known example of classical conditioning involves Pavlov's salivation experiments with dogs. Not to compare my roommate too strongly with animals, but he is also very fond of food. He is also a little bit of a mooch. Therefore, I chose to imitate Pavlov and use food for my conditioning.
In this experiment the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is the smell of baking brownies. The conditioned stimulus (CS) / previously neutral stimulus (NS) is the specific cell phone ring tone. The unconditioned response (UCR) is my roommate running down the stairs when he smelled the brownies baking. The conditioned response (CR) is my roommate running down the stairs when he heard the specific cell phone ring tone.
The unconditioned stimulus I chose was the smell of baking brownies. The unconditioned response I used was based on my roommate's…… [Read More]
The subject of conditioning is something that has been established and proven for quite some time. Many point solely or at least mainly to Pavlov's Dog. However, there is a litany of other examples and situations that can be identified as conditioning and thus are worthy of further review. Even though Pavlov will not be the focus in this report, Pavlov did set the tone for what was picked up by John Broadus Watson starting talking about behaviorism. While it might be possible to attribute too much behavior to classical and other types of conditioning, it is without a doubt that conditioning is what influences and causes a lot of what makes up human behavior in the world today.
Watson & Conditioning
Watson had some things to say that would be quite controversial today. Indeed, he said that he could take a dozen healthy infants and that, given…… [Read More]
The dogs had learned to associate the bell tone with food. The results of Pavlov's experiment indicate that responses to certain stimuli are learned, and that we make connections which can cause responses from a naturally occurring stimulus to be elicited by a neutral stimulus. In the above example, the food is the unconditioned stimulus, and the unconditioned response is salivating to the food, because food naturally results in salivating. A ringing bell does not naturally cause dogs to salivate, therefore before conditioning; the bell is the neutral stimulus. However, when the dog learns to associate the bell with food, the bell becomes the conditioned stimulus, and salivating to the bell is the conditioned response. This is called a conditioned relationship.
K-mart shoppers and the blue light special is a good example of classical conditioning in people. Shoppers will naturally buy sale items because they are sold at a lower…… [Read More]
Since phobia can be developed through classical conditioning, many experts reason that the same conditioning techniques would be useful in helping people get over their phobia.
Phobics usually manage their fears by avoiding the objects that make them fearful. However, many psychologists maintain that avoidance merely magnifies the phobia. The task is therefore to expose the person to the feared object, to condition them to respond to the object in an appropriately non-fearful manner. In this manner, a person is forced to deal with his or her phobia.
The task of re-conditioning a response relies on gradually increasing exposure (McCallister et al. 1986). A person with a strong phobia to snakes, for example, can be shown simple line drawings of snakes. Over time, these drawings can then give way to more realistic photos, and even video presentations of crawling serpents. The key is to habituate the person to the presence…… [Read More]
Marketers make extensive use of classical conditioning techniques. In brief, classical conditioning combines a stimulus with an unconditioned response and a stimulus with no conditioned response. Through repetition of this combination, it is expected that eventually the stimulus that previously had no response would now have a response, that being the conditioned response (PsychPost, 2012). Through the use of these techniques, marketers elicit specific responses in consumers. Repetition is used, as ads are replayed dozens of times before they have the desired effect. For example, while a cold cola might not be intrinsically thirst-quenching (being too sticky, sweet, and even salty), repetition of thirst-quenching imagery alongside the soda has conditioned millions to believe that a cold soda is better for quenching thirst than water. Stimulus discrimination is sometimes poor, meaning that consumers will elicit a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar, but not identical to, the…… [Read More]
Smith, S.M. & Moynan, S.C.; (2008) Forgetting and recovering the unforgettable, Psychological Science, Vol. 19, Issue 5
his study helped determine "whether interference can cause dramatic forgetting that is subsequently reversed when retrieval cues are provided" (p. 462). he study assisted the researchers in understanding how the brain manipulates conditioned responses to cues which can also be interfered with. he manner in which the article will provide support for the proposed study is through a better understanding of how classical conditioning works in the brain.
Pahlavan, F.; (2008) Re-emerging conceptual integration: Commentary on Berkowitz's "On the Consideration of Automatic as well as Controlled Psychological Processes in Aggression," Aggressive Behavior, Vol. 34, Issue 2,
he Pahlavan study determined that there are "two different modes of information processing" that operate in making decisions and copying behavior within the mode of classic conditioning. he manner in which this study will assist…… [Read More]
The Theory of Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov is credited with developing the theory of classic conditioning. His experiments using dogs helped to describe the phenomenon of behavior and presented practical applications for its use. Conditioning is a training regimen of sorts that allows the brain to process information and make new associations due to different stimulus and the environment. This is important due to the fact of predicting behavior being useful for determining outcomes for problems in society in general. The purpose of this essay is to highlight certain aspects of the theory of classical conditioning and create a practical example of how it might be used in a practical sense.
In order to understand Pavlov's theory, it is necessary to define certain terms. While Pavlov is concerned mainly with the digestive processes in human physiology, behaviorism arose out of his curiosity. Studying the different reflexes of…… [Read More]
But if "Pavlovian techniques can be used to induce fear, then it is likely that they can be used to remove fears," which would have been a more ethical version of the experiment, than essentially dooming the boy to a lifetime of phobias, and perhaps even teaching a young child his first taste of fear. Instead, atson and Rayner could have found a child who was afraid of a harmless animal, like a dog, and deconditioned the child of that fear by giving the child a piece of forbidden candy, whenever the animal was in the room.
Beck, HP. (2001) "atson, Rayner and Little Albert." General Psychology. Retrieved 19 Feb 2007 at http://www1.appstate.edu/~beckhp/littlealbert.htm
atson, John B. & Rosalie Rayner (1920). "Conditioned Emotional Reactions."
First published in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3(1), 1-14.
Classics in the History of Psychology. An internet resource developed by Christopher D. Green. Retrieved 19…… [Read More]
classical conditioning, including a classical conditioning scenario. Classical conditioning is a learning theory of behavioral psychology that recognizes a specific response to a specific occurrence. Dr. IA Pavlov discovered it in his famous experiments with a dog, which heard the sound of a bell and learned to associate it with a treat. Eventually, he simply associated the bell with the treat and began to salivate when he heard the bell. Pavlov's discovery was a complete accident, he was actually studying the digestive processes of the dog, and uncovered the learning process while studying the digestion (Millis, 2003). Today, classical conditioning is also referred to as "reflexive conditioning." It is called classic because it was the first conditioning learning theory discovered and studied.
This is not a theory about learning new behaviors. It is a theory of association with existing behaviors. There are some specific terms used to describe the process…… [Read More]
It is to be stressed upon that such reflexes may exist in some species but not in others. According an effective U.S., however, there are still several factors that have influence on conditioning a particular CS applying it. (Features of Classical Conditioning)
The Classical Conditioning response is considered as most primitive and primary units of learning and assists the analysts in better comprehending and potentially treats some human pathology. The Classical Conditioning initiates to predict about the ways the conditioning is influenced by some pathologies being well settled on a behavioral and neural basis. eally, classical conditioning is better understood and is so similar in animals and humans and it is effective in analyses which attempt to connect human disorders to brain dysfunction. (Classical conditioning could link disorders and brain dysfunction, researchers suggest) Various illustrations of therapies with regard to classical conditioning are as follows. A treatment for enuresis or…… [Read More]
Classical conditioning exhibits some patterns that can be associated with the initial establishment of a response to stimuli or to the disappearance of a response to stimuli. These patterns -- often referred to as the phenomena of classical conditioning -- include: Acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalization, and discrimination.
Acquisition. In the initial stage of learning, a response is established through continued association with the presentation of a stimulus. The salivation of Pavlov's dog in response to the sound of a bell is the classical example of acquisition. Prior to the training period, the bell itself has no association with the act of feeding the dog. However, over time, as the sound of the bell is paired with the presentation of food, the dog begins to anticipate the arrival of food upon first hearing the bell ring. Thus, the acquisition phase has been established, the stimulus and the response have…… [Read More]
Classical conditioning is the process of linking an unconditioned stimulus to a conditioned stimulus. The famous classical conditioning experiment by Pavlov resulted in a dog beginning to salivate whenever a bell was rung. This was achieved by ringing the bell every time food was brought for the dog, thus the dog was conditioned to associate the sound of the bell with food. Since food naturally elicits salivation in a hungry animal, this is the unconditioned stimulus. By comparison, the sound of a bell does not normally elicit salivation; therefore the bell is the conditioned stimulus.
Examples of classical conditioning are most easily observed around children. The first time a child is given a chocolate chip cookie, they may not salivate. Instead, due to a lack of experience the child may cautiously chew a tiny piece to test whether they like it or not. If they do,…… [Read More]
classical conditioning by Pavlov and its current use in treating anxiety
The paper focuses on the development of classical conditioning being used, as suggested by Pavlov, in treating anxiety through using fear-induced techniques. The paper talks about the past experiments that were done on animals and human, those who were suffering from anxiety and those who weren't, and highlights how anxiety is treated through fear induced conditioning.
Combination of neutral stimulus with aversive U.S. (unconditioned stimulus) is what we see involved in fear conditioning. In the first stance, there is no emotional response seen from a neutral stimulus, but after the recurring coupling with unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus turn out to be a CS (conditioned stimulus). CS gives indication about the forth coming unconditioned stimulus and brings to mind the nervousness and expectancy with regard to U.S.. Fear conditioning is commonly an adaptive type of learning. hen an uneasy…… [Read More]
To achieve better results, strategies could therefore be devised to ensure that all students understand the instructions provided.
One way to do this is to encourage students to ask for help. Students who received undesirable results after their second attempt, therefore, were divided into groups where the first and second groups, who eventually achieved success, provided clarification of the instructions. This ensured peer education, where the learners were able to encourage and help each other. Each group was given the opportunity to submit one essay in which they all participated. The outcomes for these essays were consistently desirable. The final group, therefore, received direct peer instruction and could learn exactly what was meant by the instructions.
As a final strategy, a new essay topic was given to individual students, with the same basic format and premise. This resulted in undesirable results for only three students. On resubmission, these students also…… [Read More]
Implicit attitude formation though classical conditioning" (Oslon, & Fazio, 2001 p 413). The research purpose is to demons rate that "attitudes can develop through implicit covariation detection in a new classical conditioning paradigm." (Oslon, & Fazio, 2001 p 413). The study uses female undergraduate participants who view hundreds of images and words to investigate their USs (unconditioned stimuli) with novel CSs (conditioned stimuli) for the experiment. Oslon, & Fazio, (2001) identify the research problem by pointing out that an attitude formation that refers how people evaluate objects positively and negatively within an environment has become a long standing research issue within a social psychology. In essence, a form of classical conditioning and attitude acquisition has struck the curiosities in both social psychology and marketing research environments. While Oslon et al. (2001) believe that classical conditioning may serve as a primary origin or starting point of attitude, nevertheless, research investigating the…… [Read More]
Classically, the dog's fear was a conditioned reflex to the sound -- in operant terms, the dog's climbing behavior was a conditioned by the "reward" of avoiding the shock.
Some critics of theories regarding conditioning suggest that it is distasteful to talk about conditioning humans, because this removes the idea that we have free will. It is possible to condition humans, of course. The purpose of spanking children, for example, is to try to condition them not to behave in certain way because it will result in pain. However, it is a misnomer to suggest that conditioning removes free will. It would be more accurate to suggest that conditioning is the outcome of free will combined with intelligence. Free will enables the animal or human to choose responses that are most rewarding, and conditioning teaches them what responses are likely to be most rewarding. It is always theoretically possible for…… [Read More]
Classical vs. Positivist School of Criminology:
Two Clashing Views of the Human, Criminal Animal
Although 18th century classical views of criminology should not be conflated with later, modern notions of classical psychological conditioning like Pavlov's dog being trained to salivate at the sound of a bell, there are certain similarities between the two schools of thought and even some of the methods used in classical criminology to reorient criminals back into society. First and foremost, later forms of classical conditioning and the early classical school of criminality both stressed the ability, through repeated positive reinforcement of socially desirable traits and negative enforcement regarding antisocial traits deemed criminal by society. (Adler, et. al, 2004) For instance, Jeremy Bentham's vision of a 'panopticon' like prison in classical criminology suggested a prison in which individuals were constantly watched, and thus were forced to monitor and reform their behavior accordingly. Eventually, the reinforcement of…… [Read More]
One of the key principals in psychology is instrumental conditioning. This is when punishment or reinforcement is utilized to encourage the subject to engage in particular types of behavior. The basic idea behind this approach is to increase the chances that a specific kind of action will take place in the future. Once this happens, is when there can be a transformation in how the subject is reacting to the stimuli that they will see, hear or feel. (Cherry, 2011) This is significant, because it is showing how this is utilized as a basic strategy to subtly change the way someone is responding to various events. To fully understand this technique we will examine how this kind of conditioning is used by someone who is learning to ride a bike. This will be accomplished by: comparing positive / negative reinforcement that relate to the situation, examining the role…… [Read More]
(Kimble; Hilgad; Maquis, 1961)
(c) Explain the ole of ewad and punishment in you selected leaning situation of 'How to ide a Bike'
A lot of avesive events ae thee inclusive of withholding einfocement i.e. extinction, emoving a positive einfoces i.e. esponse cost and pesenting an avesive event contingent on a behavio i.e. punishment. The same vaiables that influence the effectiveness of einfocement also influence the effectiveness of punishment, inclusive of the immediacy with which a negative event follows a behavio, the intensity of the event, and the schedule of punishment. It is impotant to compehend that punishment constitute an inescapable aspect of life which individuals tend to lean though both punishing consequences and positive consequences. Fo instance in the selected leaning situation of how to ide a bike, if the leane is not watching whee he is going, he will sustain a fall which is a punishment fo him.…… [Read More]
I have noticed consistently that people react differently when tickled. I decided to find out which of my friends was the most ticklish and see if I could create a conditioned reaction to the threat of being tickled. After considering and rejecting a few candidates for experimentation, I came across a friend who is extremely ticklish. His entire torso is sensitive to the movement of tickling fingers and he bends in interesting positions in order to attempt to avoid the potential tickling. So, for several days when I approached him, I would tickle him. I would keep tickling him until he made that familiar bending action. He became wary of whenever I approached and guarded himself against me. I took to approaching from behind. Now, he has learned to associate my presence with tickling and either bends himself before I come near or he backs away to avoid…… [Read More]
Learning: Exploring Pavlov's Notion Of Conditioning
There are enormous differences between unconditioned and conditioned responses. Unconditioned responses are those natural reactions that occur without thought or planning. These reactions are not a product of training, but rather a natural response of the body and mind when exposed to certain stimuli. In unconditioned responses, there is no training that would alter an individual's behavior. One of the most infamous examples of an unconditioned response is Pavlov's dog. The dog, as any dog would, naturally salivates at the idea of food. The dog was hungry, and thus naturally reacted to the stimulus of food. We all have had similar reactions to food that perked our interest in any given state of hunger. Another example of this would be the strange, but familiar leg jerk when one is forced to endure a tap on the knee. It is a natural response of the…… [Read More]
Thus instrumental condition would rely on the notion that a person generates a response rather than an environmental stimulus. I have found that both people and stimulus may elicit certain behaviors both in and outside of the classroom.
Instrumental conditioning is modeled after animal experiments which showed that the individual's environment can reinforce response controls, thus the best responses occur when reinforcement of a particular behavior is given. This I have learned to be the case in the classroom most assuredly, where students are more likely to exhibit positive behaviors more frequently when they are reinforced immediately for demonstrating positive behaviors. Generally the patterns that emerge from such conditioning are self-directed, meaning that I have found that most students engage in behaviors and continue to engage in behaviors which they find result in a positive response regardless of the environment they are placed in.
With regard to controlling adverse behavior,…… [Read More]
memory, classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. The paper also describes the effect of diversity issues on the learning process. In addition to that, the paper also summarizes the psychiatric disorders and their effect on learning and memorizing process. Lastly, the paper gives a comparison between various behavioral counseling approaches.
THEOIES OF LEANING AND MEMOY
Learning is an important topic in the field of psychology. Learning refers to a permanent change in the behavior and attitude of a person. The reason behind this change is experience and thus maturation or illness has nothing to do with it. This definition of learning as a permanent change and therefore it eliminates the temporary mood swings and illnesses from it. In this paper, we will be focusing on two types of learning: (Wood, 2010)
Instrumental Conditioning (Wood, 2010)
There are a lot of visuals and sounds that trigger certain emotions…… [Read More]
The first stage of language acquisition is talking one word at a time. The child uses that single word to make requests and direct activities. The individual at this stage can be considered an "emergent communicator." Their use of language for the purpose of communication is in its beginning period. Thus, the articulations consists mainly of a single word, this word may capture an entire sentence.
In stage, two the individual builds on the foundation of stage one as their vocabulary increases to beyond 75 words. At this stage, they are able to fuse words together and make simple phrases. They may continue at this stage to rely on single words but two word phrases begin to be used more frequently and with greater assuredness. During this stage some individuals may improve their vocabulary to upwards of two hundred words or more.
For stage three, the individual begins using morphemes.…… [Read More]
The U.S. would be the attractive woman, minimally dressed, as well as the snake which sometime represents male reproductive prowess. The UR would be a general feeling of sexual excitement targeted toward men but could be experienced by either gender. The brand of vodka is the CS while the intended CR is a feeling of sexual excitement when viewing the brand.
Figure 1 - Smirnoff Ad (Crooked Brains, 2012)
3.How could stimulus control be used in the following behavior-modification programs? Be sure to describe the specific procedures that must be implemented in order for the treatment to work.
1. To treat drug abuse
This one is difficult because drug abuse has intrinsic conditioning already associated with it. After a drug user takes a drug, the sense of euphoria often becomes associated with the drug itself. Therefore, when a user simply sees the drug they could experience some euphoria. However, if…… [Read More]
Provide an example of something you learned through positive reinforcement; provide an example of something you learned through negative reinforcement.
Through positive reinforcement, I learned how to throw a ball. My father taught me in the backyard, and the farther I threw it, the more he told me I had done a 'good job.' I learned through negative reinforcement not to breathe through my nose while swimming -- every time I breathed incorrectly, I would always choke on the water, which made me extremely aware of how I was breathing.
Provide an example (and the steps involved) of something you can teach a child or a pet through shaping.
You can housebreak a puppy through shaping. First, you keep the puppy in a crate because it does not want to soil its den, and only let it out of the crate when you can observe the puppy. When the puppy…… [Read More]
Person: Single mom, who lost custody over her children, has sex with multiple male partners, asks for money afterwards, and denies that she is prostitute because she doesn't charge money up front. The mother is hypercritical and unloving and her father has been an absent figure in her life. Her stepfather abused her.
Cognitive self-regulation theory, fashioned by Bandura, believes that human behavior is motivated and regulated by the influence that one has over the self. This self-influence works through three key mechanisms: monitoring one's behavior, causes of one's behavior, and the effects of that behavior; judging one's behavior in contrast to personal standards; and regulating the feelings / moods (affect) of one's conduct / behavior. Higher goals lead to enhanced behavior and this results in a certain mindset. Self-regulation is continuous and never-ending. And is also effectuated by self-reinforcement that result in self-efficacy. It is intentional and…… [Read More]
Kyle is a 42-year-old, single, Caucasian male, with 16 years of education. He works as a software programmer. Kyle reports that he is seeking assistance in helping to "kick his drinking problem." Kyle explains that his use of alcohol has gotten progressively worse over the last five years. He explains that he began drinking as a teenager in high school, but then only occasionally. He never felt that his drinking was problematic until he returned from the service and in the last five years it has gotten worse. He began drinking more regularly following his deployment in the Gulf War. As a reservist in the U.S. Marines Kyle served in Iraq and while on a weekend leave just before he was sent back to the United States Kyle was exploring a rural marketplace with several military colleagues. A bomb detonated at the market killing several dozen local civilians and one…… [Read More]
Consumer Behavior for Marketing
Understanding Consumer Behavior
Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…… [Read More]
Latent learning; this is the type of learning that takes place oblivious of the reinforcements that are applied though these reinforcements can be useful later on in the process of learning. It is the education that is instantly expressed in a response that is obvious. Here, an organism may be learning but the information learnt is not instantly expressed (obert Jensen, 2006). For instance, a child may watch the elders set the table and they may not instantly set the table but will store that knowledge and information till the day and time that they will need it.
Insight learning; this is the understanding that one has even without much effort or many trials and errors. This type of learning allows the person to be able to form associations between events and objects that can help them solve new challenges that may come their way (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011 ). This…… [Read More]
It also means that people don't have free will necessarily because behaviorism believes that feelings and thoughts don't cause people to behave in certain ways. Classical conditioning can be best understood by the example of Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov's dogs were discovered salivating by the mere sound of the people with food coming rather. In other words, they were reacting to a neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is more about reward and punishment (Donaldson 2008). Operant conditioning works because sometimes the subject is rewarded and sometimes not and this has found to be very successful (the most successful, in fact) in conditioning. For example, if one sometimes gives dogs food off their plate and sometimes not, the dog will be conditioned to wait always for the food because sometimes he gets it.
The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term. What is considered a mental illness in…… [Read More]
Psychology is a term derived from two Greek words that translate to life explanation, which makes it an important element of daily life. The field of psychology can be described as a discipline that focuses on the study of mind and behavior (Stangor, 2010, p.7). This discipline is characterized by several concepts and approaches that are used by psychologists in understanding human behavior. Since psychology is a broad field, psychologists not only use these concepts and approaches but also conduct scientific research that enables them to understand human behavior. Some of the most common psychological concepts that are used to modify or change an individual's behavior include operant conditioning, positive and negative punishment, and positive and negative reinforcement.
Operant condition can be described as a learning method that is used to modify or change a person's behavior through experiences and consequences. While it is part of the process…… [Read More]
Joe Salatino (evision)
Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern American case study
Joe Salatino is known as the Northern American President due to his determination and effort in maintaining high standards, in regards to his profession as a sales person. Joe was capable of hiring many employees in his organization, and used motivation as the major tool in helping his employees. The employees specialized in supplying general stationery and other appliances, to realize their objectives of maximizing production.
Attribution and Perception
Customers, according to Joe, are normal human beings. Human being has always been anxious and observant with the manner in which others behave, and relate it to how they behave themselves. There has always been a persistent urge to know differentiated reasons behind certain behavioral characteristics. If the attribution theory is used, it guides to explain how to get to know the causes of behavior,…… [Read More]
These values can be as operational for the parent/child association as it is for the owner/pet relationship.
Strategy for communication
The objective of any family is for all members to live in agreement with each other. It is the first basis of a Childs education and moral standards (Gouze & Wendel, 2007). With that said, a strategy called floor planning is what will be utilized for Jeff and Roger.
This method should also be done throughout the instigating stages of counseling for Jeff and Roger. Jeff and Roger will be requested to draw a floor plan of their house. They will then be asked to remember the odors, sounds, colors, and people that are in their home. While they are drawing particular questions are asked regarding the environment such as;
What room does the family gather in?
What conversations take place in the various rooms?
Are any rooms…… [Read More]
In terms of correctional program implementation, operant conditioning principles provide the basis for motivating cooperation and other desirable behaviors (including reduction of undesirable behaviors) in a quid pro quo arrangement. Typical examples of operational implementation of operant conditioning would include so-called "token economies" and other bilateral agreements, arrangements, or understandings that certain desired behaviors provide specific rewards (Van Voorhis 2007). Operant conditioning principles are particularly useful in parenting, such as between teenagers rewarded with late weekend curfews for good grades; it is also a proven method of increasing inmate compliance within correctional institutions where good behavior is rewarded with increased privileges and undesirable behaviors are punished through privilege reduction (Spiegler & Guevremont 1993). Generally, the most important fundamental element of successful implementation of operant conditioning principles in behavior modification is the gradual phasing out of the reward-based motivation for compliance (Van Voorhis 2007). The goal of any such operational conditioning-based…… [Read More]
Neo-behaviorism and Classical S-R Behaviorism
Behaviorism is regarded as an approach in the field of psychology that emphasizes the significant role of environmental factors in shaping people’s behavior. This approach of psychology emphasizes that environmental factors influence behavior more than intrinsic or genetic factors. Based on this school of thought, all behaviors are influenced by interactions with the environment and therefore focuses on stimulus-response behaviors. The behaviorist movement has attracted several varying perspectives among different psychologists including John Watson’s classical S-R behaviorism. Classical S-R behaviorism is an approach that postulates that all psychological functions can be explained through observable, overt, and measurable muscular movements, nerve impulses, and glandular secretions (Moore, 2011).
However, classical S-R behaviorism has attracted considerable criticism from various psychologists on the premise that it’s insufficient to account for the wide range of human behavior. One of the major criticisms of classical S-R behaviorism is from Edward C.…… [Read More]
security behavior, a concept that touches on the behavior of consumers in regard to information technology systems is an important one to the global IT industry. Johnston and Warkentin (2010) for instance studied the influence of elements of fear appeal on the level of compliance of various end-users with the specific recommendations aimed at enacting specific individual IT security actions towards threat investigation. The authors performed an in-depth examination that yielded into the development as well as testing of a conceptual framework that represents an infusion of the concept of technology adoption and the theories of fear appeal. In this paper we investigate the concept of information security behaviors with a specific focus on consumer behavior and its related theories.
Extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of consumer behavior. The human information behavior has for a long time been studied under different environments and circumstances. Consumer…… [Read More]
Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment
The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…… [Read More]
In the spaces provided beneath the flowchart, list the term that corresponds with the definition in each box.
ABC/123 Version X
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Hopper, C. How memory works. PowerPoint. etrieved from:
Computing IQ Essay
Consider the following scenario:
Kara is 10 years old. She has been given an intelligence test. Her mental age is 13.
According to Sternberg, what is Kara's IQ? Conduct research and interpret her score.
Kara's IQ is 130. One formulation of an intelligence quotient is that of mental age and a child with a superior mental age to her actual years thus has a higher IQ. "Sternberg's discussions on intelligence are very different from a lot of others because he appears to think that other than a static score, intelligence is somewhat malleable and should…… [Read More]
A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior
Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability
Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition
If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws
Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences
Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible
APA rules for research studies
Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject
Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions
Trace conditioning…… [Read More]
Clark, R. E. (2004). The classical origins of Pavlov's conditioning. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 39(4), 279-294.
Classical conditioning is the cornerstone of behaviorism. However, it is often taken for granted how classical conditioning was introduced to the field of psychology. This article starts with a brief section about the precursors of Pavlov’s famous dog salivation response experiments. The precursor to Pavlov was Twitmyer’s knee-jerk reflexes. Like Green (2009), Clark (2004) talks a little of William James and his contributions to the early evolution of psychology. Then, Clark (2004) delves into the meat of the matter: Pavlov’s experiments. Using dogs as subjects, the Russian scientist revolutionized the study of human behavior with his studies showing how classical conditioning works. Clark (2004) traces Pavlov’s work, and also shows how it was received. Then, the author shows how Pavlov’s conditioning experiments became classical conditioning through the work of B.F. Skinner. Essentially, this research…… [Read More]
theoretical approaches to learning and explores possibilities of learning applications to special education. A matrix is presented and the information in the matrix is explained within a professional setting that deals with special education. The theoretical approaches to learning provide the framework for development of leaning skills and are examined in detail.
Keywords: Learning, Learning theories, Cognitive development, andura's social learning, Pavlov, Classical condition, special education, Erikson's theory, social development theory, experiential learning.
andura's Social Learning Theory
Social learning theory by andura highlights the societal processes in learning suggesting that people learn from each other using the means of observation and imitation. This means that children watch and learn behavior of adults and family members and during the process of observation they pick up skills which they imitate. The theory of social learning requires an analysis of the psychological processes of motivation, attention and memory and these three cognitive processes…… [Read More]
Learning and Cognition
Definition of Learning
Merriam-Webster defines learning as "knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study; modification of a behavioral tendency by experience (as exposure to conditioning)" (Merriam-Webster, 2011). Other experts defines learning as a process, one that leads to behavioral change or potential behavior change that is relatively permanent. That is, as people learn, his or her learning alters the way one perceives the environment, the way he or she interprets incoming stimuli, and therefore, the way one interacts or behaves (Introduction to Learning Theory, 2004). According to Cherry (2011), learning is a permanent change in behavior that is the result of experience. The common characteristic that all these definitions share is their identification of a behavioral component as part of the process of learning. In other words, for learning to occur, a change in behavior takes place.
The ole of Behavior
For the early part of…… [Read More]
Although behaviorism is now considered part of psychology, it was not always. Early behaviorists tried hard to set themselves apart from the psychology of their day, which many believed focused too much on the subconscious mind. Behaviorism was the first attempt to study human behavior using the scientific method. However, there were many different approaches to behaviorism.
II. The Early Foundations of Behaviorism
A. The structuralism versus functionalism debate
1. Structuralism: Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Tichener tried to show that they could use introspection as a scientific method with the goal of objectively understanding the structures of the human mind or consciousness.
2. Functionalism: William James and later behaviorists were more interested in how the mind works and why the mind reacts to stimuli as it does.
B. Functionalism was a direct extension of Darwinism.
C. John Watson, William James, and Chauncy Wright were proponents of functionalism, which…… [Read More]
This, in effect, links learning to memory. Memory is likened to the idea of cognitive maps, or at least the way cognitive maps operate in the mind of the individual. Memory is described as processing information through encoding (getting information and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). These processes that the individual goes through to create and retain memory is highly related to the theories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a particular behavior from the individual; operant conditioning described learning as the consequences in behavior of the person, linked also to the memory of an event and its consequences; and lastly, cognitive maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns through memories mapped out and retain in his/her mind.
Santrock,…… [Read More]
associationism remains not only one of the earliest theories of leaning but it also comes across as being one of the most enduring. Basically, associationism holds that association of ideas can be used to explain mental processes. In this text, I will mainly concern myself with associationism as a learning theory. In so doing, I will highlight the main principles associated with the theory while making a mention of three theorists whose contribution towards the development of this theory as we know it today cannot be overstated. Further, this discussion will invoke associationism in explaining mental processes associated learning. I will also attempt to explain how associationism utilizes prior experience in explaining how learning in individuals takes place. Also, I will seek to explain how permanent change in behavior comes about by depicting the application of the theory. Lastly, a number of settings in which learning takes place will be…… [Read More]
Unfamiliar vocabularies relating to learning and cognition emerged in the course of Week 4's readings and research. These include "mnemonics," "mental representation," and "domain knowledge." Mnemonics may essentially be defined as the techniques an individual uses to enhance memorization. These techniques are useful for learning as they help retain crucial information in the long-term memory. When information is retained in the long-term memory, it is organized in a certain manner. This is referred to as mental representation. Mental representation plays an important role in learning as learning generally occurs when the learner has a clear picture of a given phenomenon in his/her mind. Domain knowledge simply refers to knowledge relating to a given area or field. For instance, seasoned doctors have extensive knowledge of the domain of medicine. They acquire this knowledge not inherently, but through continuous learning.
A major focus of research in the area of learning…… [Read More]
hen the behavior is followed by a favorable consequence, the behavior is more likely to recur over and over. However, if the behavior is followed by a negative consequence or a painful consequence, then the behavior is less like to happen again.
The third type of learning is Motor Learning. Carlson says that motor learning is "the establishment of changes within the motor system." (433). He claims that this type of learning is a component of the stimulus-response type of learning. However, this type of learning must involve some form of sensory guidance from the environment and it elicits a reaction from the body.
Finally, the fourth type of learning that Carlson describes is Relational Learning. This is the most complex type of learning and it "involves learning the relationship among individual stimuli." (431) Relational Learning involves spatial learning which is the actual process of identifying similarities and differences among…… [Read More]
Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.
During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…… [Read More]
Describe each element of consumer learning.
Learning is applying one's past knowledge and experience to present circumstances and behavior.
Motives (motivation), cues (stimulus), responses (reactions), reinforcement (exposure)
Explain how each of these elements affects learning.
A consumer will respond better to an individual or source that they view as knowledgeable; especially when your message is viewed in a positive way (fun and attract attention). The more they see the message the more likely it is to sink-in and reinforcement can also strengthen the consumer's perception of a product in learning.
Explain behavioral learning
Explain classical conditioning and the relationship between all elements of the model, from the start to the end of the process. Apply it to a marketing example.
Classical conditioning is the automatic response built from exposure and reinforcement. It could be applied to a soft drink company. The company would want to position their…… [Read More]
Watson really created the field of behavioral psychology with his speech and his first book, and while it refined over the years with input from others, such as B.F. Skinner, it is essentially based on Watson's original ideas and studies, so he is the father of this type of psychology. His personal life derailed his career (the woman he had an affair with while he worked at Johns Hopkins was his lab assistant.) They later wrote a book together, and they conducted the Little Albert study together. He married her, but they divorced after having two children together. If his personal life had not interfered with his studies and work, he might have created even more foundations for behavioral psychology to build on. Before his problems, he was a respected member of the psychological community, and even became president of the American Psychological Association in 1915. His work was very…… [Read More]
Framwork for Practise and Presentation
Sociology -- Social Work
There are several factors that contribute to seeming intractability and complexity of social issues. We cannot retrieve an actual picture of any problem considering a single issue. The root causes of social issues are related to individual circumstances and some are beyond the individual control. Central goal of social work profession is the social justice. Social workers can better serve all the needs of the service users if they will have the tools that are required to analyze the existing social policies and problems. This term paper is based on the ideology and the theories embraced by social workers; also their practice strategies and inclusiveness of cultural diversity is discussed in detail.
FINAL PAPE -- FAMWOK FO PACTISE AND PESENTATION
We find several social issues in our surroundings. Every social issue does not depend on a single cause rather there are…… [Read More]
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…… [Read More]
Business coach Jonathan Farrington reports that the standards that follow team work should underpin how a person operates. The purpose of a team is to get work done satisfactorily by involving everyone and gaining through their individual strengths. Involving people with a variety of interests on broad issues is motivational and very effective. Myriad views can enhance methods, standards, processes and overall effectiveness and productivity. Other people's differences need to be respected, regardless how unusual they appear, and any personal biases eliminated. It is never healthy to underestimate people or make quick judgments about them. Humans are very complex beings; just because a person says or does one thing, he/she should not be immediately categorized.
When becoming involved with a team, it is necessary to spend time to understand its goals, the ultimate task that is to be performed and each person's responsibilities to accomplish the goals. At first, it…… [Read More]
"Building a successful buzz campaign hinges on finding the right carriers for the message: influencers who are obsessed with staying one step ahead of their peers." (Khermouch & Green, 2001)
In conclusion, this phase of the marketing experience revolved around the perceived impact of various internal influences on consumers as they would be convinced to purchase Gateway Plasma Screen Televisions. The report looked at various aspects and marketing approaches such as demographic data gathering including age and income as well as psychographic data gathering which incorporates personality style or lifestyle data in the marketing of products. The world has become highly technologically advanced and has therefore introduced many new sources or opportunities such as direct database marketing, email contact points and internet shopping to marketing and consumerism management. Marketing and selling have therefore greatly changed. It is no longer a viable approach to just blanket advertise and other traditional…… [Read More]
It seems like the more a person goes to church, the more they accept the idea of torture (Thistlethwaite, 2009).When looking at the Savior, Jesus, this is a religious figure demonstrating the virtue of forgiveness. Jesus did not condone violence even when Peter was arrested. Yet, how does the church allow such violence in approving of torture? Remmel’s “Personality and Politics” describes personality as involving “the investigation of individual differences, both differences across individuals and the manifestation of those differences within individuals. Certainly, such an approach holds a great deal of interest for political scientists studying the beliefs and behaviors of individuals” (Remmel, 2016). When looking at the politics of torture, it means that certain efforts must be made to acquire something important, like information.
The article on torture notes that white evangelical Protestants are the most likely to accept torture for the overall ‘good’. They believe…… [Read More]
People are aware of the impact that major stressful events can have on a person's life. In general, society is solicitous of people undergoing major stressors like major illness, divorce, or a death in the family. However, it is interesting to note that, for the individual, small stressors can actually be more significant than major stressors. For example, a friend of mine was fired from her job the day before 9-11. The day of 9-11, when everyone else was so stressed out about the idea of a terrorist attack, she was far more worried about the source of her next paycheck. While she realized, intellectually, that the national impact of 9-11 was certainly greater than the national impact of her being fired, in her life she experienced the loss of her job as a more stressful event. In fact, the most stressful part of 9-11 was that, with its resultant…… [Read More]
Clinical Psychology and Gender Dysphoria
Advancement of Clinical Psychology with Gender Dysphoria
Clinical psychology is recognized as a psychology branch that deals with the assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior, mental illness, and psychiatric problems (Brennan, 2003). Clinical psychology integrates the science of psychology with treatment of complicated human problems, which makes it a challenging and rewarding field. American psychologist Lightner Witmer introduced the term in 1907. Witmer defined clinical psychology as a field that studies individuals by experimentation or observation, with the intent of promoting change. A clinical psychologist will try to reduce any psychological distress suffered by a patient and enhance their psychological well-being. Previously clinical psychology focused on the psychological assessment of the patients, and there was little or no attention been paid to treatment. This scenario changed after World War II in the 1940s because there was increased demand for trained clinicians. A clinical psychologist will…… [Read More]
Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…… [Read More]