Classical Conditioning Essays (Examples)

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Classical Conditioning
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Classical Conditioning
Discuss the four basic phenomena of classical conditioning

Classical conditioning is one of the most famous forms of behavioral 'learning.' It is epitomized in the experiment of Pavlov's dog. The dog was conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell because the dog associated eating with that particular noise. "Classical conditioning involves placing a neutral signal before a naturally occurring reflex" (Cherry 2011). The signal is located in the subject's environment, which is manipulated from the outside by an experimenter (in the case of Pavlov's experiment). Or, classical conditioning may unintentionally occur in the real world when a signal is paired many times when a physiological reflex occurs.

Classical conditioning contains four basic components. The first component is the unconditioned stimulus, which occurs naturally in the environment and produces a particular response. For example, many people feel hungry when they smell one of their favorite foods. Just like Pavlov's dog….

Classical Conditioning
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Classical Conditioning
Pavlov's Roommate

Classical conditioning involves the association of two stimuli. The most well-known example of classical conditioning involves Pavlov's salivation experiments with dogs. Not to compare my roommate too strongly with animals, but he is also very fond of food. He is also a little bit of a mooch. Therefore, I chose to imitate Pavlov and use food for my conditioning.

In this experiment the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is the smell of baking brownies. The conditioned stimulus (CS) / previously neutral stimulus (NS) is the specific cell phone ring tone. The unconditioned response (UCR) is my roommate running down the stairs when he smelled the brownies baking. The conditioned response (CR) is my roommate running down the stairs when he heard the specific cell phone ring tone.

The unconditioned stimulus I chose was the smell of baking brownies. The unconditioned response I used was based on my roommate's moochiness- every time that….

Classical Conditioning
PAGES 2 WORDS 635

Classical Conditioning
The subject of conditioning is something that has been established and proven for quite some time. Many point solely or at least mainly to Pavlov's Dog. However, there is a litany of other examples and situations that can be identified as conditioning and thus are worthy of further review. Even though Pavlov will not be the focus in this report, Pavlov did set the tone for what was picked up by John Broadus Watson starting talking about behaviorism. While it might be possible to attribute too much behavior to classical and other types of conditioning, it is without a doubt that conditioning is what influences and causes a lot of what makes up human behavior in the world today.

Watson & Conditioning

Watson had some things to say that would be quite controversial today. Indeed, he said that he could take a dozen healthy infants and that, given the right upbringing….

The dogs had learned to associate the bell tone with food. The results of Pavlov's experiment indicate that responses to certain stimuli are learned, and that we make connections which can cause responses from a naturally occurring stimulus to be elicited by a neutral stimulus. In the above example, the food is the unconditioned stimulus, and the unconditioned response is salivating to the food, because food naturally results in salivating. A ringing bell does not naturally cause dogs to salivate, therefore before conditioning; the bell is the neutral stimulus. However, when the dog learns to associate the bell with food, the bell becomes the conditioned stimulus, and salivating to the bell is the conditioned response. This is called a conditioned relationship.
K-mart shoppers and the blue light special is a good example of classical conditioning in people. Shoppers will naturally buy sale items because they are sold at a lower….


Since phobia can be developed through classical conditioning, many experts reason that the same conditioning techniques would be useful in helping people get over their phobia.

Phobics usually manage their fears by avoiding the objects that make them fearful. However, many psychologists maintain that avoidance merely magnifies the phobia. The task is therefore to expose the person to the feared object, to condition them to respond to the object in an appropriately non-fearful manner. In this manner, a person is forced to deal with his or her phobia.

The task of re-conditioning a response relies on gradually increasing exposure (McCallister et al. 1986). A person with a strong phobia to snakes, for example, can be shown simple line drawings of snakes. Over time, these drawings can then give way to more realistic photos, and even video presentations of crawling serpents. The key is to habituate the person to the presence of the….

Classical Conditioning
Marketers make extensive use of classical conditioning techniques. In brief, classical conditioning combines a stimulus with an unconditioned response and a stimulus with no conditioned response. Through repetition of this combination, it is expected that eventually the stimulus that previously had no response would now have a response, that being the conditioned response (PsychPost, 2012). Through the use of these techniques, marketers elicit specific responses in consumers. Repetition is used, as ads are replayed dozens of times before they have the desired effect. For example, while a cold cola might not be intrinsically thirst-quenching (being too sticky, sweet, and even salty), repetition of thirst-quenching imagery alongside the soda has conditioned millions to believe that a cold soda is better for quenching thirst than water. Stimulus discrimination is sometimes poor, meaning that consumers will elicit a conditioned response to a stimulus that is similar, but not identical to, the original….

Classical Conditioning
Smith, S.M. & Moynan, S.C.; (2008) Forgetting and recovering the unforgettable, Psychological Science, Vol. 19, Issue 5

his study helped determine "whether interference can cause dramatic forgetting that is subsequently reversed when retrieval cues are provided" (p. 462). he study assisted the researchers in understanding how the brain manipulates conditioned responses to cues which can also be interfered with. he manner in which the article will provide support for the proposed study is through a better understanding of how classical conditioning works in the brain.

Pahlavan, F.; (2008) Re-emerging conceptual integration: Commentary on Berkowitz's "On the Consideration of Automatic as well as Controlled Psychological Processes in Aggression," Aggressive Behavior, Vol. 34, Issue 2,

he Pahlavan study determined that there are "two different modes of information processing" that operate in making decisions and copying behavior within the mode of classic conditioning. he manner in which this study will assist the proposed study is….

Conditioning
The Theory of Classical Conditioning

Ivan Pavlov is credited with developing the theory of classic conditioning. His experiments using dogs helped to describe the phenomenon of behavior and presented practical applications for its use. Conditioning is a training regimen of sorts that allows the brain to process information and make new associations due to different stimulus and the environment. This is important due to the fact of predicting behavior being useful for determining outcomes for problems in society in general. The purpose of this essay is to highlight certain aspects of the theory of classical conditioning and create a practical example of how it might be used in a practical sense.

Understanding Stimuli

In order to understand Pavlov's theory, it is necessary to define certain terms. While Pavlov is concerned mainly with the digestive processes in human physiology, behaviorism arose out of his curiosity. Studying the different reflexes of dogs in reaction to….

But if "Pavlovian techniques can be used to induce fear, then it is likely that they can be used to remove fears," which would have been a more ethical version of the experiment, than essentially dooming the boy to a lifetime of phobias, and perhaps even teaching a young child his first taste of fear. Instead, atson and Rayner could have found a child who was afraid of a harmless animal, like a dog, and deconditioned the child of that fear by giving the child a piece of forbidden candy, whenever the animal was in the room.
orks Cited

Beck, HP. (2001) "atson, Rayner and Little Albert." General Psychology. Retrieved 19 Feb 2007 at http://www1.appstate.edu/~beckhp/littlealbert.htm

atson, John B. & Rosalie Rayner (1920). "Conditioned Emotional Reactions."

First published in Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3(1), 1-14.

Classics in the History of Psychology. An internet resource developed by Christopher D. Green. Retrieved 19 Feb 2007 at http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/atson/emotion.htm.

Classical Conditioning
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classical conditioning, including a classical conditioning scenario. Classical conditioning is a learning theory of behavioral psychology that recognizes a specific response to a specific occurrence. Dr. IA Pavlov discovered it in his famous experiments with a dog, which heard the sound of a bell and learned to associate it with a treat. Eventually, he simply associated the bell with the treat and began to salivate when he heard the bell. Pavlov's discovery was a complete accident, he was actually studying the digestive processes of the dog, and uncovered the learning process while studying the digestion (Millis, 2003). Today, classical conditioning is also referred to as "reflexive conditioning." It is called classic because it was the first conditioning learning theory discovered and studied.
This is not a theory about learning new behaviors. It is a theory of association with existing behaviors. There are some specific terms used to describe the process….

Classical Conditioning
PAGES 8 WORDS 3531

It is to be stressed upon that such reflexes may exist in some species but not in others. According an effective U.S., however, there are still several factors that have influence on conditioning a particular CS applying it. (Features of Classical Conditioning)
The Classical Conditioning response is considered as most primitive and primary units of learning and assists the analysts in better comprehending and potentially treats some human pathology. The Classical Conditioning initiates to predict about the ways the conditioning is influenced by some pathologies being well settled on a behavioral and neural basis. eally, classical conditioning is better understood and is so similar in animals and humans and it is effective in analyses which attempt to connect human disorders to brain dysfunction. (Classical conditioning could link disorders and brain dysfunction, researchers suggest) Various illustrations of therapies with regard to classical conditioning are as follows. A treatment for enuresis or….

Classical conditioning exhibits some patterns that can be associated with the initial establishment of a response to stimuli or to the disappearance of a response to stimuli. These patterns -- often referred to as the phenomena of classical conditioning -- include: Acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, stimulus generalization, and discrimination.
Acquisition. In the initial stage of learning, a response is established through continued association with the presentation of a stimulus. The salivation of Pavlov's dog in response to the sound of a bell is the classical example of acquisition. Prior to the training period, the bell itself has no association with the act of feeding the dog. However, over time, as the sound of the bell is paired with the presentation of food, the dog begins to anticipate the arrival of food upon first hearing the bell ring. Thus, the acquisition phase has been established, the stimulus and the response have been….

Learning Theories
Classical Conditioning

Classical conditioning is the process of linking an unconditioned stimulus to a conditioned stimulus. The famous classical conditioning experiment by Pavlov resulted in a dog beginning to salivate whenever a bell was rung. This was achieved by ringing the bell every time food was brought for the dog, thus the dog was conditioned to associate the sound of the bell with food. Since food naturally elicits salivation in a hungry animal, this is the unconditioned stimulus. By comparison, the sound of a bell does not normally elicit salivation; therefore the bell is the conditioned stimulus.

Examples of classical conditioning are most easily observed around children. The first time a child is given a chocolate chip cookie, they may not salivate. Instead, due to a lack of experience the child may cautiously chew a tiny piece to test whether they like it or not. If they do, and I've never….

classical conditioning by Pavlov and its current use in treating anxiety
The paper focuses on the development of classical conditioning being used, as suggested by Pavlov, in treating anxiety through using fear-induced techniques. The paper talks about the past experiments that were done on animals and human, those who were suffering from anxiety and those who weren't, and highlights how anxiety is treated through fear induced conditioning.

Combination of neutral stimulus with aversive U.S. (unconditioned stimulus) is what we see involved in fear conditioning. In the first stance, there is no emotional response seen from a neutral stimulus, but after the recurring coupling with unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus turn out to be a CS (conditioned stimulus). CS gives indication about the forth coming unconditioned stimulus and brings to mind the nervousness and expectancy with regard to U.S.. Fear conditioning is commonly an adaptive type of learning. hen an uneasy response….

To achieve better results, strategies could therefore be devised to ensure that all students understand the instructions provided.
One way to do this is to encourage students to ask for help. Students who received undesirable results after their second attempt, therefore, were divided into groups where the first and second groups, who eventually achieved success, provided clarification of the instructions. This ensured peer education, where the learners were able to encourage and help each other. Each group was given the opportunity to submit one essay in which they all participated. The outcomes for these essays were consistently desirable. The final group, therefore, received direct peer instruction and could learn exactly what was meant by the instructions.

As a final strategy, a new essay topic was given to individual students, with the same basic format and premise. This resulted in undesirable results for only three students. On resubmission, these students also improved….

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2 Pages
Research Paper

Psychology

Classical Conditioning

Words: 633
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Classical Conditioning Discuss the four basic phenomena of classical conditioning Classical conditioning is one of the most famous forms of behavioral 'learning.' It is epitomized in the experiment of Pavlov's dog.…

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1 Pages
Term Paper

Agriculture

Classical Conditioning

Words: 316
Length: 1 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Classical Conditioning Pavlov's Roommate Classical conditioning involves the association of two stimuli. The most well-known example of classical conditioning involves Pavlov's salivation experiments with dogs. Not to compare my roommate too…

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2 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Classical Conditioning

Words: 635
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Classical Conditioning The subject of conditioning is something that has been established and proven for quite some time. Many point solely or at least mainly to Pavlov's Dog. However, there…

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3 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Classical Conditioning Is the First

Words: 893
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

The dogs had learned to associate the bell tone with food. The results of Pavlov's experiment indicate that responses to certain stimuli are learned, and that we make…

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8 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Classical Conditioning and Phobia Treatment

Words: 2382
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Since phobia can be developed through classical conditioning, many experts reason that the same conditioning techniques would be useful in helping people get over their phobia. Phobics usually manage their…

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2 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Classical Conditioning Marketers Make Extensive Use of

Words: 656
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Classical Conditioning Marketers make extensive use of classical conditioning techniques. In brief, classical conditioning combines a stimulus with an unconditioned response and a stimulus with no conditioned response. Through repetition…

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2 Pages
Annotated Bibliography

Psychology

Classical Conditioning Smith S M & Moynan S C

Words: 449
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Annotated Bibliography

Classical Conditioning Smith, S.M. & Moynan, S.C.; (2008) Forgetting and recovering the unforgettable, Psychological Science, Vol. 19, Issue 5 his study helped determine "whether interference can cause dramatic forgetting that is…

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3 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Conditioning the Theory of Classical Conditioning Ivan

Words: 745
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

Conditioning The Theory of Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov is credited with developing the theory of classic conditioning. His experiments using dogs helped to describe the phenomenon of behavior and presented practical…

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1 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Classical Conditioning Little Albert Explain

Words: 358
Length: 1 Pages
Type: Term Paper

But if "Pavlovian techniques can be used to induce fear, then it is likely that they can be used to remove fears," which would have been a more…

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3 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Classical Conditioning

Words: 1124
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

classical conditioning, including a classical conditioning scenario. Classical conditioning is a learning theory of behavioral psychology that recognizes a specific response to a specific occurrence. Dr. IA Pavlov…

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8 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

Classical Conditioning

Words: 3531
Length: 8 Pages
Type: Term Paper

It is to be stressed upon that such reflexes may exist in some species but not in others. According an effective U.S., however, there are still several factors…

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2 Pages
Term Paper

Psychology

III Discuss the Four Basic Phenomena of Classical Conditioning

Words: 729
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Classical conditioning exhibits some patterns that can be associated with the initial establishment of a response to stimuli or to the disappearance of a response to stimuli. These patterns…

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3 Pages
Essay

Psychology

Learning Theories Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Is

Words: 936
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

Learning Theories Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning is the process of linking an unconditioned stimulus to a conditioned stimulus. The famous classical conditioning experiment by Pavlov resulted in a dog beginning to…

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11 Pages
Research Paper

Psychology

Development of Classical Conditioning by Pavlov and Its Current Use in Treating Anxiety

Words: 5439
Length: 11 Pages
Type: Research Paper

classical conditioning by Pavlov and its current use in treating anxiety The paper focuses on the development of classical conditioning being used, as suggested by Pavlov, in treating anxiety…

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3 Pages
Essay

Teaching

Operant and Classical Conditioning the

Words: 926
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

To achieve better results, strategies could therefore be devised to ensure that all students understand the instructions provided. One way to do this is to encourage students to ask…

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