Classical Conditioning Essays (Examples)

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Conditioning and Free Will Conditioning

Words: 453 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18995846

Classically, the dog's fear was a conditioned reflex to the sound -- in operant terms, the dog's climbing behavior was a conditioned by the "reward" of avoiding the shock.

Some critics of theories regarding conditioning suggest that it is distasteful to talk about conditioning humans, because this removes the idea that we have free will. It is possible to condition humans, of course. The purpose of spanking children, for example, is to try to condition them not to behave in certain way because it will result in pain. However, it is a misnomer to suggest that conditioning removes free will. It would be more accurate to suggest that conditioning is the outcome of free will combined with intelligence. Free will enables the animal or human to choose responses that are most rewarding, and conditioning teaches them what responses are likely to be most rewarding. It is always theoretically possible for…… [Read More]

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Classical School vs Positivist School

Words: 951 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74289807

Classical vs. Positivist School of Criminology:

Two Clashing Views of the Human, Criminal Animal

Although 18th century classical views of criminology should not be conflated with later, modern notions of classical psychological conditioning like Pavlov's dog being trained to salivate at the sound of a bell, there are certain similarities between the two schools of thought and even some of the methods used in classical criminology to reorient criminals back into society. First and foremost, later forms of classical conditioning and the early classical school of criminality both stressed the ability, through repeated positive reinforcement of socially desirable traits and negative enforcement regarding antisocial traits deemed criminal by society. (Adler, et. al, 2004) For instance, Jeremy Bentham's vision of a 'panopticon' like prison in classical criminology suggested a prison in which individuals were constantly watched, and thus were forced to monitor and reform their behavior accordingly. Eventually, the reinforcement of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adler, Freda, et al. (2004) Criminology and the Criminal Justice System. Fifth Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Barak, Gregg. Integrating Criminologies. Prepared by Paul Leighton Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1997.

Bentham, Jeremy. (1861). Utilitarianism.

Foucault, Michel. (1977) Discipline and Punishment. New York: Vintage Books.
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Instrumental Conditioning

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48791288

Instrumental Conditioning

One of the key principals in psychology is instrumental conditioning. This is when punishment or reinforcement is utilized to encourage the subject to engage in particular types of behavior. The basic idea behind this approach is to increase the chances that a specific kind of action will take place in the future. Once this happens, is when there can be a transformation in how the subject is reacting to the stimuli that they will see, hear or feel. (Cherry, 2011) This is significant, because it is showing how this is utilized as a basic strategy to subtly change the way someone is responding to various events. To fully understand this technique we will examine how this kind of conditioning is used by someone who is learning to ride a bike. This will be accomplished by: comparing positive / negative reinforcement that relate to the situation, examining the role…… [Read More]

References

Classical and Operant Conditioning. (2011). All Psych. Retrieved from: http://allpsych.com/psychology101/conditioning.html

Conditioned Responses. (2009). Emotional Competency. Retrieved from:  http://www.emotionalcompetency.com/conditioned.htm 

Cherry, K. (2011). What is Instrumental Conditioning. About.com. Retrieved from: http://psychology.about.com/od/operantconditioning/f/instrumental-conditioning.htm

Robbins, A. (1992). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
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Instrumental Conditioning A Description of

Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77270022

(Kimble; Hilgad; Maquis, 1961)

(c) Explain the ole of ewad and punishment in you selected leaning situation of 'How to ide a Bike'

A lot of avesive events ae thee inclusive of withholding einfocement i.e. extinction, emoving a positive einfoces i.e. esponse cost and pesenting an avesive event contingent on a behavio i.e. punishment. The same vaiables that influence the effectiveness of einfocement also influence the effectiveness of punishment, inclusive of the immediacy with which a negative event follows a behavio, the intensity of the event, and the schedule of punishment. It is impotant to compehend that punishment constitute an inescapable aspect of life which individuals tend to lean though both punishing consequences and positive consequences. Fo instance in the selected leaning situation of how to ide a bike, if the leane is not watching whee he is going, he will sustain a fall which is a punishment fo him.…… [Read More]

reference: core for occupation-based practice" SLACK Incorporated.

Dworkin, Barry R. (1993) "Learning and psychological regulation"

Gambrill, Eileen D. (2006) "Social Work Practice: A critical thinker's guide"

Kimble, Gregory A; Hilgard, Ernest Ropiequet; Marquis, Donald George. (1961) "Hilgard

and Marquis' Conditioning and Learning." Appleton-Century-Crofts: New York
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Classic Conditioning

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77047698

Classic Conditioning

I have noticed consistently that people react differently when tickled. I decided to find out which of my friends was the most ticklish and see if I could create a conditioned reaction to the threat of being tickled. After considering and rejecting a few candidates for experimentation, I came across a friend who is extremely ticklish. His entire torso is sensitive to the movement of tickling fingers and he bends in interesting positions in order to attempt to avoid the potential tickling. So, for several days when I approached him, I would tickle him. I would keep tickling him until he made that familiar bending action. He became wary of whenever I approached and guarded himself against me. I took to approaching from behind. Now, he has learned to associate my presence with tickling and either bends himself before I come near or he backs away to avoid…… [Read More]

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Learning Exploring Pavlov's Notion of Conditioning There

Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72957907

Learning: Exploring Pavlov's Notion Of Conditioning

There are enormous differences between unconditioned and conditioned responses. Unconditioned responses are those natural reactions that occur without thought or planning. These reactions are not a product of training, but rather a natural response of the body and mind when exposed to certain stimuli. In unconditioned responses, there is no training that would alter an individual's behavior. One of the most infamous examples of an unconditioned response is Pavlov's dog. The dog, as any dog would, naturally salivates at the idea of food. The dog was hungry, and thus naturally reacted to the stimulus of food. We all have had similar reactions to food that perked our interest in any given state of hunger. Another example of this would be the strange, but familiar leg jerk when one is forced to endure a tap on the knee. It is a natural response of the…… [Read More]

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Psychological Learning Theories There Are

Words: 1412 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98009598

Thus instrumental condition would rely on the notion that a person generates a response rather than an environmental stimulus. I have found that both people and stimulus may elicit certain behaviors both in and outside of the classroom.

Instrumental conditioning is modeled after animal experiments which showed that the individual's environment can reinforce response controls, thus the best responses occur when reinforcement of a particular behavior is given. This I have learned to be the case in the classroom most assuredly, where students are more likely to exhibit positive behaviors more frequently when they are reinforced immediately for demonstrating positive behaviors. Generally the patterns that emerge from such conditioning are self-directed, meaning that I have found that most students engage in behaviors and continue to engage in behaviors which they find result in a positive response regardless of the environment they are placed in.

With regard to controlling adverse behavior,…… [Read More]

References

Chang, Min-Yu S. (1998). "Learning Theory and Advertising." CIA Advertising. 23,

October 2004, Available: http://www.ciadvertising.org/studies/student/98_spring/theory/learning.html

Klein, S.B. (2002). "Principles and Applications of Appetitive Conditioning." Mississippi

State University. McGraw Hill. Education. 22, October, 2004, Available:
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State of Learning Disabilities

Words: 2561 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9838806

memory, classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. The paper also describes the effect of diversity issues on the learning process. In addition to that, the paper also summarizes the psychiatric disorders and their effect on learning and memorizing process. Lastly, the paper gives a comparison between various behavioral counseling approaches.

THEOIES OF LEANING AND MEMOY

Learning is an important topic in the field of psychology. Learning refers to a permanent change in the behavior and attitude of a person. The reason behind this change is experience and thus maturation or illness has nothing to do with it. This definition of learning as a permanent change and therefore it eliminates the temporary mood swings and illnesses from it. In this paper, we will be focusing on two types of learning: (Wood, 2010)

Classical Conditioning

Instrumental Conditioning (Wood, 2010)

Classical Conditioning

There are a lot of visuals and sounds that trigger certain emotions…… [Read More]

References

Cassidy*, S. (2004). Learning styles: An overview of theories, models, and measures. Educational Psychology, 24(4), 419 -- 444.

Cortiella, C., & Horowitz, S. (2014). The State of Learning Disabilities (1st ed., pp. 3-5). New York: National Center for Learning Disabilities. Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/images/content/files/stateofld2014/2014%20State%20of%20LD%20FINAL%20FOR%20RELEASE.pdf

Lutz, S., & Huitt, W. (2003). Information Processing and Memory: Theory and Applications (1st ed., pp. 1-5). Valdosta: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from  http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/papers/infoproc.pdf 

Nelson-Jones, R. (2011). Theory and practice of counselling and therapy (1st ed., pp. 1-3). Los Angeles, Calif.; London: SAGE.
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Psychology Explain the Similarities and

Words: 1369 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74591111



The first stage of language acquisition is talking one word at a time. The child uses that single word to make requests and direct activities. The individual at this stage can be considered an "emergent communicator." Their use of language for the purpose of communication is in its beginning period. Thus, the articulations consists mainly of a single word, this word may capture an entire sentence.

In stage, two the individual builds on the foundation of stage one as their vocabulary increases to beyond 75 words. At this stage, they are able to fuse words together and make simple phrases. They may continue at this stage to rely on single words but two word phrases begin to be used more frequently and with greater assuredness. During this stage some individuals may improve their vocabulary to upwards of two hundred words or more.

For stage three, the individual begins using morphemes.…… [Read More]

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Psychology of Learning Summarize a

Words: 987 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58308838

The U.S. would be the attractive woman, minimally dressed, as well as the snake which sometime represents male reproductive prowess. The UR would be a general feeling of sexual excitement targeted toward men but could be experienced by either gender. The brand of vodka is the CS while the intended CR is a feeling of sexual excitement when viewing the brand.

Figure 1 - Smirnoff Ad (Crooked Brains, 2012)

3.How could stimulus control be used in the following behavior-modification programs? Be sure to describe the specific procedures that must be implemented in order for the treatment to work.

1. To treat drug abuse

This one is difficult because drug abuse has intrinsic conditioning already associated with it. After a drug user takes a drug, the sense of euphoria often becomes associated with the drug itself. Therefore, when a user simply sees the drug they could experience some euphoria. However, if…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crooked Brains. (2012, December 29). 20 Creative Smirnoff Advertisments. Retrieved from Crooked Brains:  http://www.crookedbrains.net/2007/12/creative-ads-by-smirnoff.html 

Experiment Resouirces. (N.d.). Classical Conditioning. Retrieved from Experiment Resources: http://www.experiment-resources.com/classical-conditioning.html

Prize, N. (2001, May 15). Pavlov's Dog. Retrieved from Nobel Prize:  http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/pavlov/readmore.html
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Learning and Behavioral Analysis Learning

Words: 1261 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67415605



Provide an example of something you learned through positive reinforcement; provide an example of something you learned through negative reinforcement.

Through positive reinforcement, I learned how to throw a ball. My father taught me in the backyard, and the farther I threw it, the more he told me I had done a 'good job.' I learned through negative reinforcement not to breathe through my nose while swimming -- every time I breathed incorrectly, I would always choke on the water, which made me extremely aware of how I was breathing.

Provide an example (and the steps involved) of something you can teach a child or a pet through shaping.

You can housebreak a puppy through shaping. First, you keep the puppy in a crate because it does not want to soil its den, and only let it out of the crate when you can observe the puppy. When the puppy…… [Read More]

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Person Single Mom Who Lost Custody Over

Words: 1089 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70848428

Person: Single mom, who lost custody over her children, has sex with multiple male partners, asks for money afterwards, and denies that she is prostitute because she doesn't charge money up front. The mother is hypercritical and unloving and her father has been an absent figure in her life. Her stepfather abused her.

Cognitive self-regulation

Cognitive self-regulation theory, fashioned by Bandura, believes that human behavior is motivated and regulated by the influence that one has over the self. This self-influence works through three key mechanisms: monitoring one's behavior, causes of one's behavior, and the effects of that behavior; judging one's behavior in contrast to personal standards; and regulating the feelings / moods (affect) of one's conduct / behavior. Higher goals lead to enhanced behavior and this results in a certain mindset. Self-regulation is continuous and never-ending. And is also effectuated by self-reinforcement that result in self-efficacy. It is intentional and…… [Read More]

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Behavioral Techniques for Substance Abuse

Words: 1355 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44811731

Kyle is a 42-year-old, single, Caucasian male, with 16 years of education. He works as a software programmer. Kyle reports that he is seeking assistance in helping to "kick his drinking problem." Kyle explains that his use of alcohol has gotten progressively worse over the last five years. He explains that he began drinking as a teenager in high school, but then only occasionally. He never felt that his drinking was problematic until he returned from the service and in the last five years it has gotten worse. He began drinking more regularly following his deployment in the Gulf War. As a reservist in the U.S. Marines Kyle served in Iraq and while on a weekend leave just before he was sent back to the United States Kyle was exploring a rural marketplace with several military colleagues. A bomb detonated at the market killing several dozen local civilians and one…… [Read More]

References

Cartwright, A.K. (1981). Are different therapeutic perspectives important in the treatment of alcoholism? British Journal of Addiction, 76 (4), 347 -- 361.

Drummond, D.C., Cooper, T., & Glautier, S.P. (1990). Conditioned learning in alcohol

dependence: implications for cue exposure treatment. British Journal of Addiction, 85(6), 725-743.

Hembree, E.A., & Foa, E.B. (2004). Promoting cognitive change in posttraumatic stress disorder. In M.A. Reinecke & D.A. Clark (Eds.), Cognitive therapy across the lifespan: Evidence and practice (pp. 231 -- 257). New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Consumer Behavior for Marketing Understanding Consumer Behavior

Words: 3123 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5001570

Consumer Behavior for Marketing

Understanding Consumer Behavior

Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…… [Read More]

References

Cherry K (2012) Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Retrieved http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classical-vs.-operant-conditioning.htm

Pavlov IP. (1927) Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.

Skinner BF (1953) Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.
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Psychology of Learning and Obesity

Words: 2133 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51315269



Latent learning; this is the type of learning that takes place oblivious of the reinforcements that are applied though these reinforcements can be useful later on in the process of learning. It is the education that is instantly expressed in a response that is obvious. Here, an organism may be learning but the information learnt is not instantly expressed (obert Jensen, 2006). For instance, a child may watch the elders set the table and they may not instantly set the table but will store that knowledge and information till the day and time that they will need it.

Insight learning; this is the understanding that one has even without much effort or many trials and errors. This type of learning allows the person to be able to form associations between events and objects that can help them solve new challenges that may come their way (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011 ). This…… [Read More]

References

David N. Perkins, (1992). Transfer of Learning. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from  http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/docs/traencyn.htm 

Encyclopedia Britannica, (2011 ). Insight in Learning Theory. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/289152/insight

Gonzalez, J.J. (2002). Modeling Erosion of Security and Safety Awareness. Proceedings of the Twentieth International Conference of the System Dynamics Society July 28 - August 1, 2002 Palermo, Italy, Vol., 200. Retrieved on April 10, 2010 from www.ikt.hia.no/.../Modeling%20Instrumental%20Conditioning%20(HICSS'36%20pap

Jeffry Ricker, (2011). What is Stimulus Generalization & Discrimination? Retrieved December
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Learning Theory and Grief

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18936593

Operant Conditioning and Grief

Because grief is an emotional process, many people are reluctant to believe that grief can, in many ways, be explained through operant or classical conditioning principles. However, the biochemical underpinnings of many type of love relationships serve as reward systems that can actually condition a person to feel love, which can result in grief when the object of affection is no longer available. In both sexual relationships and parent-child relationships, the body releases chemicals at certain times during the relationship- sexual intercourse, nursing, holding an infant, and hugging are all related to the body's release of hormones. Classical or operant conditioning principles suggest, then, that the presence of the loved one will, eventually be sufficient to stimulate the release of those hormones. If the loved one resides with the person who has done the learning or spends sufficient time with them, then it seems clear that…… [Read More]

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Psychology Psychoanalysis Is a Theory

Words: 816 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65468279

It also means that people don't have free will necessarily because behaviorism believes that feelings and thoughts don't cause people to behave in certain ways. Classical conditioning can be best understood by the example of Pavlov's dogs. Pavlov's dogs were discovered salivating by the mere sound of the people with food coming rather. In other words, they were reacting to a neutral stimulus. Operant conditioning, on the other hand, is more about reward and punishment (Donaldson 2008). Operant conditioning works because sometimes the subject is rewarded and sometimes not and this has found to be very successful (the most successful, in fact) in conditioning. For example, if one sometimes gives dogs food off their plate and sometimes not, the dog will be conditioned to wait always for the food because sometimes he gets it.

The term 'mental illness' is a culturally bound term. What is considered a mental illness in…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th edition).

Donaldson, J. (2008). Oh, behave!: Dogs from Pavlov to Premack to Pinker. Dogwise Publishing.

Mitchell, S.A. & Black, M.J. (1996). Freud and beyond: A history of modern psychoanalytic thought. Basic Books.

Piaget, J. (2001). The psychology of intelligence. (2nd edition). Routledge.
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Ethical Concern That May Arise When Using the Above Methods

Words: 787 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57801380

Psychology Concepts

Psychology is a term derived from two Greek words that translate to life explanation, which makes it an important element of daily life. The field of psychology can be described as a discipline that focuses on the study of mind and behavior (Stangor, 2010, p.7). This discipline is characterized by several concepts and approaches that are used by psychologists in understanding human behavior. Since psychology is a broad field, psychologists not only use these concepts and approaches but also conduct scientific research that enables them to understand human behavior. Some of the most common psychological concepts that are used to modify or change an individual's behavior include operant conditioning, positive and negative punishment, and positive and negative reinforcement.

Operant condition can be described as a learning method that is used to modify or change a person's behavior through experiences and consequences. While it is part of the process…… [Read More]

Reference:

Stangor, C. (2010). Introduction to psychology. Washington, DC: Flat World Knowledge, L.L.C.
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Organizational Behavior Joe Salatino Revision Joe Salatino

Words: 1445 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69825059

Organizational Behavior

Joe Salatino (evision)

Joe Salatino, president of Great Northern American case study

Joe Salatino

Joe Salatino is known as the Northern American President due to his determination and effort in maintaining high standards, in regards to his profession as a sales person. Joe was capable of hiring many employees in his organization, and used motivation as the major tool in helping his employees. The employees specialized in supplying general stationery and other appliances, to realize their objectives of maximizing production.

Attribution and Perception

Customers, according to Joe, are normal human beings. Human being has always been anxious and observant with the manner in which others behave, and relate it to how they behave themselves. There has always been a persistent urge to know differentiated reasons behind certain behavioral characteristics. If the attribution theory is used, it guides to explain how to get to know the causes of behavior,…… [Read More]

References

Hellriegel, D. & Slocum, J.W. (2007) Organizational Behavior: New York, Cengage Learning.

Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2012, April). Social Learning Theory (Bandura) at Learning-Theories.com. Retrieved April 29th, 2012 from  http://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html .

Lunenburg, F.C. (2011). Self-Efficacy in the Workplace. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 2 ISSN 1047-7039.

Nelson, D.L. & Campbell, Q.J. (2007) Understanding Organizational Behavior: New York, Cengage Learning EMEA.
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Road Is Not Just the

Words: 2197 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93749944

These values can be as operational for the parent/child association as it is for the owner/pet relationship.

Strategy for communication

The objective of any family is for all members to live in agreement with each other. It is the first basis of a Childs education and moral standards (Gouze & Wendel, 2007). With that said, a strategy called floor planning is what will be utilized for Jeff and Roger.

Floor Planning

This method should also be done throughout the instigating stages of counseling for Jeff and Roger. Jeff and Roger will be requested to draw a floor plan of their house. They will then be asked to remember the odors, sounds, colors, and people that are in their home. While they are drawing particular questions are asked regarding the environment such as;

What room does the family gather in?

What conversations take place in the various rooms?

Are any rooms…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gouze, K.R., & Wendel, R. (2007). INTEGRATIVE MODULE-BASED FAMILY THERAPY: APPLICATION AND TRAINING. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 286-296.

Hogarty, G.E., Greenwald, D., Ulrich, R.F., Kornblith, S.J., & a, e. (1997). Three-year trials of personal therapy among schizophrenic patients living with or independent of family, II: Effects on adjustment of patients. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 56-89.

Kissane, D.W., & McKenzie, M. (2006). Family Focused Grief Therapy: A Randomized, Controlled Trial in Palliative Care and Bereavement. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 56-78.

Lund, L.K., Zimmerman, T.S., & Haddock, S.A. (2002). The theory, structure, and techniques for the inclusion of children in family therapy: A literature review. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 67-89.
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Criminal Theory - Operational Implementation

Words: 1089 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38364082



In terms of correctional program implementation, operant conditioning principles provide the basis for motivating cooperation and other desirable behaviors (including reduction of undesirable behaviors) in a quid pro quo arrangement. Typical examples of operational implementation of operant conditioning would include so-called "token economies" and other bilateral agreements, arrangements, or understandings that certain desired behaviors provide specific rewards (Van Voorhis 2007). Operant conditioning principles are particularly useful in parenting, such as between teenagers rewarded with late weekend curfews for good grades; it is also a proven method of increasing inmate compliance within correctional institutions where good behavior is rewarded with increased privileges and undesirable behaviors are punished through privilege reduction (Spiegler & Guevremont 1993). Generally, the most important fundamental element of successful implementation of operant conditioning principles in behavior modification is the gradual phasing out of the reward-based motivation for compliance (Van Voorhis 2007). The goal of any such operational conditioning-based…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Gerrig, R.J., Zimbardo, P.G. (2005) Psychology and Life. New York: Pearson

Goldstein, Glick, and Gibbs. (1986) Aggression Replacement Training, pp 1-68

Henslin, J.M. (2002) Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Story of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercus
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Information Security Behaviors

Words: 2050 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21568248

security behavior, a concept that touches on the behavior of consumers in regard to information technology systems is an important one to the global IT industry. Johnston and Warkentin (2010) for instance studied the influence of elements of fear appeal on the level of compliance of various end-users with the specific recommendations aimed at enacting specific individual IT security actions towards threat investigation. The authors performed an in-depth examination that yielded into the development as well as testing of a conceptual framework that represents an infusion of the concept of technology adoption and the theories of fear appeal. In this paper we investigate the concept of information security behaviors with a specific focus on consumer behavior and its related theories.

Consumer behavior

Extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of consumer behavior. The human information behavior has for a long time been studied under different environments and circumstances. Consumer…… [Read More]

References

Allen, C.T. And Madden, T.J. (1985), "A Closer Look at Classical Conditioning," Journal of Consumer Research, 12, December, pp. 301- 315

Barry, T.E. And Howard, D. (1990), "A review and critique of the hierarchy of effects in advertising," International Journal of Advertising, 9, pp. 121-135

Elliot, R. (1996), "Discourse analysis: exploring action, function and conflict in social texts," Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 65-68

Feinberg, R.A. (1986), "Credit Cards as Spending Facilitating Stimuli: A Conditioning Interpretation," Journal of Consumer Research, 13, December, pp. 348-356
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Development of Canine Behavior Genetics vs Environment

Words: 4662 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91836586

Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment

The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…… [Read More]

References

Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.

Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.
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Memory and Intelligence Theory

Words: 1203 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68917984

Memory

In the spaces provided beneath the flowchart, list the term that corresponds with the definition in each box.

ABC/123 Version X

Copyright © XXXX by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.

Sensory memory

Meaningful organization

Short-term memory

Encoding

Storage

Grouping

ehearsal

Association

Hopper, C. How memory works. PowerPoint. etrieved from:

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:BZ81rE0CqEcJ:college.cengage.com/collegesurvival/hopper/practicing_college/4e/prepare/ppt/hopper_ch04_how_memory_works.ppt+&cd=10&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

Computing IQ Essay

Consider the following scenario:

Kara is 10 years old. She has been given an intelligence test. Her mental age is 13.

According to Sternberg, what is Kara's IQ? Conduct research and interpret her score.

Kara's IQ is 130. One formulation of an intelligence quotient is that of mental age and a child with a superior mental age to her actual years thus has a higher IQ. "Sternberg's discussions on intelligence are very different from a lot of others because he appears to think that other than a static score, intelligence is somewhat malleable and should…… [Read More]

References

Lane, C. (20008). Gardner's multiple intelligences. The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide. Retrieved from: http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html

McLeod, S. A. (2010). Long-term memory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/long-term-memory.html McLeod, S. A. (2014). Classical Conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/classical-conditioning.html

McLeod, S. A. (2015). Skinner - operant conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html

Paik, H. (2001). One intelligence or many? Alternative approaches to cognitive abilities. Personality Research.
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Learning Educational Psychology Multiple Choice

Words: 3789 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64594759



A behavior resulting from injury or disease behavior resulting from experience behavior resulting from disease or drugs biologically determined behavior

Evidence that learning has occurred is seen in published research studies changes in thinking changes in behavior emotional stability

Change in performance is preceded by bad reviews scientific research the behavior of others change in disposition

If-then statements may also be referred to as principles generalization hypothesis laws

Statements which summarize relationships are restricted to the physical sciences known as hypothesis known as generalization never used in the social sciences

Rules which govern the gathering of information are known as rigid and dogmatic scientific method being flexible

APA rules for research studies

Informed consent is given by the researcher judicial review the American Psychological Association the research subject

Laws are to beliefs as truth is to untruth accuracy is to inaccuracy convictions are to facts are to convictions

Trace conditioning…… [Read More]

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Theoretical Approaches to Learning

Words: 2498 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78319889

theoretical approaches to learning and explores possibilities of learning applications to special education. A matrix is presented and the information in the matrix is explained within a professional setting that deals with special education. The theoretical approaches to learning provide the framework for development of leaning skills and are examined in detail.

Keywords: Learning, Learning theories, Cognitive development, andura's social learning, Pavlov, Classical condition, special education, Erikson's theory, social development theory, experiential learning.

andura's Social Learning Theory

Social learning theory by andura highlights the societal processes in learning suggesting that people learn from each other using the means of observation and imitation. This means that children watch and learn behavior of adults and family members and during the process of observation they pick up skills which they imitate. The theory of social learning requires an analysis of the psychological processes of motivation, attention and memory and these three cognitive processes…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundations of Thought and Action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.

Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of Behavior Modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
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Learning and Cognition Definition of Learning Merriam-Webster

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81943194

Learning and Cognition

Definition of Learning

Merriam-Webster defines learning as "knowledge or skill acquired by instruction or study; modification of a behavioral tendency by experience (as exposure to conditioning)" (Merriam-Webster, 2011). Other experts defines learning as a process, one that leads to behavioral change or potential behavior change that is relatively permanent. That is, as people learn, his or her learning alters the way one perceives the environment, the way he or she interprets incoming stimuli, and therefore, the way one interacts or behaves (Introduction to Learning Theory, 2004). According to Cherry (2011), learning is a permanent change in behavior that is the result of experience. The common characteristic that all these definitions share is their identification of a behavioral component as part of the process of learning. In other words, for learning to occur, a change in behavior takes place.

The ole of Behavior

For the early part of…… [Read More]

References

Bietz, K. (2011). The relationship between learning and cognition. Bright Hub. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from  http://www.brighthub.com/education/early-childhood/articles/101060.aspx 

Cherry, K. (2011). Learning Study Guide. About.com Psychology. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/learning_sg.htm

Introduction to Learning Theory and Behavioral Psychology. (2004). Retrieved June 26, 2011 from http://allpsych.com/psychology101/learning.html

Merriam-Webster. (2011). Learning. Retrieved June 26, 2011 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/learning?show=0&t=1309112968
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Personality Theoretical Perspective of the Approach According

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42749887

ersonality

Theoretical perspective of the approach

According to behavioral approach human behavior can be learned and unlearned. When a behavior is unlearned, new behaviors are learned in its place. This approach is primarily concerned with observable and measurable aspects of human behavior. Unacceptable behaviors are unlearned. This approach views development as a continuous process in which children play a positive role. This approach can be used in a clinical and educational set up. Behavioral theorists posit that real things are things that can be seen and observed (Bustamante, Howe-Tennant, & Ramo, 1996). The mind, the id, or the unconscious, cannot be seen, but people's actions, how they react, and behave can be seen. From ones behavior inferences can be made about the minds and the brain. However, the mind and the brain are not the primary focus of investigation. It is what people do that is subject of study and…… [Read More]

Pavlov is one of the pioneer behaviorist theorists. He was the first person who came up with the idea of conditioning. According to him behavior was reflexive. It took him some time to distinguish reflexive behaviors from instinctive behaviors. Instinctive behaviors are at times thought to be motivated. An animal has to hungry, be sexually aroused, or have nest building hormones before the instinctive behaviors can occur (SparkNotes, 2013). Pavlov averred that there was no basis for distinguishing between reflexes and reflexive behaviors. Pavlov was more concerned with the nervous system and to be specific the cerebral cortex. Pavlov thought that learning of elicited responses in animals and conceptual behaviors in humans was due to mechanisms of classical conditioning. This has thus been proved wrong (SparkNotes, 2013). None the less, his ideas were one of the greatest ideas of our culture.

John B. Watson is considered one of the most colorful personalities in realms of psychology. He was behaviorism's chief spokesman and protagonist. He believed that mechanism had a thing in explaining behavior. He averred that the study of mind is the province of philosophy and that the mind is the realm of speculation and endless word games. He was categorical that the mind has no place in psychology (SparkNotes, 2013). To him psychology has to be based on objective phenomena and ultimate explanation must be found in the central nervous system. Watson convinced psychologists that the real explanation of behavior lay in the nervous system. When the brain is understood a little better, most mysteries would be demystified. It was for Watson that many psychologists believed that what they called conditioning was so important.

Skinner described the principles of operant conditioning. He strongly believed that environment is a stimulus of ones behavior. He attributed certain behavior patterns to particular kinds of response tendencies. People will therefore learn to behave in particular ways over time. Behaviors with positive consequences will increase while those with negative consequences will decrease. Skinner never believed that childhood had a role in shaping ones personality (SparkNotes, 2013). To him, personality is something that whose development is lifelong process. People's responses change as they encounter new situations. Take the example of a man who lived in the suburbs when he was young who had developed a liking for fast driving because his friends rode with him and he never got speeding tickets. After leaving, college this man moved to the city. Whenever he drove
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Learning and Memory in the

Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46953791



This, in effect, links learning to memory. Memory is likened to the idea of cognitive maps, or at least the way cognitive maps operate in the mind of the individual. Memory is described as processing information through encoding (getting information and memory), storage (retaining information over time), and retrieval (taking information out of storage) (219). These processes that the individual goes through to create and retain memory is highly related to the theories of learning enumerated earlier: classical conditioning posits that stimuli (a memory of an event) is needed to elicit a particular behavior from the individual; operant conditioning described learning as the consequences in behavior of the person, linked also to the memory of an event and its consequences; and lastly, cognitive maps, which aptly describes how an individual learns through memories mapped out and retain in his/her mind.

orks Cited

Santrock,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Santrock, J. 2000. Psychology. McGraw-Hill.
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Associationism Remains Not Only One of the

Words: 2998 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40442078

associationism remains not only one of the earliest theories of leaning but it also comes across as being one of the most enduring. Basically, associationism holds that association of ideas can be used to explain mental processes. In this text, I will mainly concern myself with associationism as a learning theory. In so doing, I will highlight the main principles associated with the theory while making a mention of three theorists whose contribution towards the development of this theory as we know it today cannot be overstated. Further, this discussion will invoke associationism in explaining mental processes associated learning. I will also attempt to explain how associationism utilizes prior experience in explaining how learning in individuals takes place. Also, I will seek to explain how permanent change in behavior comes about by depicting the application of the theory. Lastly, a number of settings in which learning takes place will be…… [Read More]

References

Ebersohn, L. & Eloff, I. (2004). Keys to Educational Psychology. Juta and Company

Hays. R.T. (2006). The Science of Learning: A Systems Theory Perspective. Universal-Publishers

Harnish, R.M. (2002). Minds, Brains, Computers: An Historical Introduction to the Foundations of Cognitive Science. Wiley-Blackwell

Mishra, B.K. (2008). Psychology: A Study of Human Behavior. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
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Human Learning and Memory Learning

Words: 869 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29447726

hen the behavior is followed by a favorable consequence, the behavior is more likely to recur over and over. However, if the behavior is followed by a negative consequence or a painful consequence, then the behavior is less like to happen again.

The third type of learning is Motor Learning. Carlson says that motor learning is "the establishment of changes within the motor system." (433). He claims that this type of learning is a component of the stimulus-response type of learning. However, this type of learning must involve some form of sensory guidance from the environment and it elicits a reaction from the body.

Finally, the fourth type of learning that Carlson describes is Relational Learning. This is the most complex type of learning and it "involves learning the relationship among individual stimuli." (431) Relational Learning involves spatial learning which is the actual process of identifying similarities and differences among…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Carlson, Neil. Physiology of Behavior, Ninth Edition. Published by Allyn and Bacon in Institute of Perceptual Learning. How Perceptual Learning Works. Retrieved on December 10, 2009 from  http://www.perceptuallearning.com/plearn.php .

Motor Teaching and Motor Learning. Retrieved December 10, 209 from http://moon.ouhsc.edu/dthompso/mtrlrng/mtrlrng.htm
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Starting From 19th Century Psychology School of

Words: 3034 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16938592

Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.

During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…… [Read More]

Work cited

Arntzen, E., Lokke, J., Kokke, G. & Eilertsen, D-E. (2010). On misconceptions about behavior analysis among university students and teachers. The Psychological Record, 60(2), 325- 327.

Chiesa, M. (2004).Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the Science ISBN

Claus, C.K. (2007) B.F. Skinner and T.N. Whitehead: A brief encounter, research similarities, Hawthorne revisited, what next? The Behavior Analyst, 30(1), 79-86. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223160/?tool=pmcentrez 

Diller, J.W. And Lattal, K.A. (2008). Radical behaviorism and Buddhism: complementarities and conflicts. The Behavior Analyst, 31(2), 163-177. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2591756/?tool=pmcentrez
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Marketing Class

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19558365

Learning

Define learning.

Describe each element of consumer learning.

Learning is applying one's past knowledge and experience to present circumstances and behavior.

Motives (motivation), cues (stimulus), responses (reactions), reinforcement (exposure)

Explain how each of these elements affects learning.

A consumer will respond better to an individual or source that they view as knowledgeable; especially when your message is viewed in a positive way (fun and attract attention). The more they see the message the more likely it is to sink-in and reinforcement can also strengthen the consumer's perception of a product in learning.

Explain behavioral learning

Explain classical conditioning and the relationship between all elements of the model, from the start to the end of the process. Apply it to a marketing example.

Classical conditioning is the automatic response built from exposure and reinforcement. It could be applied to a soft drink company. The company would want to position their…… [Read More]

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John Watson and His Contributions

Words: 1690 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50331218



Watson really created the field of behavioral psychology with his speech and his first book, and while it refined over the years with input from others, such as B.F. Skinner, it is essentially based on Watson's original ideas and studies, so he is the father of this type of psychology. His personal life derailed his career (the woman he had an affair with while he worked at Johns Hopkins was his lab assistant.) They later wrote a book together, and they conducted the Little Albert study together. He married her, but they divorced after having two children together. If his personal life had not interfered with his studies and work, he might have created even more foundations for behavioral psychology to build on. Before his problems, he was a respected member of the psychological community, and even became president of the American Psychological Association in 1915. His work was very…… [Read More]

References

Bentley, M., Dunlap, K., Hunter, W.S., Koffka, K., Kohler, W., McDougall, W., et al. (1928). Psychologies of 1925: Powell lectures in psychological theory (C. Murchison, Ed.) (3rd ed.). Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.

Grant, J. (2004). A "real boy" and not a sissy: Gender, childhood, and masculinity, 1890-1940. Journal of Social History, 37(4), 829+.

Scull, A., & Schulkin, J. (2009). Psychobiology, Psychiatry, and Psychoanalysis: the Intersecting Careers of Adolf Meyer, Phyllis Greenacre, and Curt Richter. Medical History, 53(1), 5+.

Watson, E. (2010). John B. Watson. Retrieved 22 April 2010 from the Muskingum University Web site:  http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/watson.htm .
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Framwork for Practise and Presentation Sociology --

Words: 4006 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43751466

Framwork for Practise and Presentation

Sociology -- Social Work

There are several factors that contribute to seeming intractability and complexity of social issues. We cannot retrieve an actual picture of any problem considering a single issue. The root causes of social issues are related to individual circumstances and some are beyond the individual control. Central goal of social work profession is the social justice. Social workers can better serve all the needs of the service users if they will have the tools that are required to analyze the existing social policies and problems. This term paper is based on the ideology and the theories embraced by social workers; also their practice strategies and inclusiveness of cultural diversity is discussed in detail.

FINAL PAPE -- FAMWOK FO PACTISE AND PESENTATION

We find several social issues in our surroundings. Every social issue does not depend on a single cause rather there are…… [Read More]

References

Antonio, A., & Resko, S.M. (2008). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory. Retrieved July 3rd, 2012, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/40689_2.pdf.

Clines, F.X. (1993). Dealing with Drug Dealers: Rehabilitation, Not Jail; Hynes Tries Alternative Approach Intended to Stop a Problem by Curing and Addiction. The New York Times. Retrieved July 3rd, 2012, from http://www.nytimes.com/1993/01/20/nyregion/dealing-with-drug-dealers-rehabilitation-not-jail-hynes-tries-alternative.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm

CBR. (2004). A Strategy for Rehabilitation, Equalization of Opportunities, Poverty Reduction and Social Inclusion of People with Disabilities. Community-Based Rehabilitation. Retrieved August 3rd, 2012, from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2004/9241592389_eng.pdf.

Flores, P.J. & Georgi, J.M. (2005). Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy. Retrieved June 02, 2012, from  http://www.ctcertboard.org/files/TIP41.pdf .
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Application of Personality Theories to Counseling and Therapy

Words: 2507 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86383313

Personality Therapy

Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.

Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…… [Read More]

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Succeeding in Work Whenever People

Words: 2601 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20919378



Business coach Jonathan Farrington reports that the standards that follow team work should underpin how a person operates. The purpose of a team is to get work done satisfactorily by involving everyone and gaining through their individual strengths. Involving people with a variety of interests on broad issues is motivational and very effective. Myriad views can enhance methods, standards, processes and overall effectiveness and productivity. Other people's differences need to be respected, regardless how unusual they appear, and any personal biases eliminated. It is never healthy to underestimate people or make quick judgments about them. Humans are very complex beings; just because a person says or does one thing, he/she should not be immediately categorized.

When becoming involved with a team, it is necessary to spend time to understand its goals, the ultimate task that is to be performed and each person's responsibilities to accomplish the goals. At first, it…… [Read More]

References Cited:

Ansary, T.(2009). Degrees & Training: What is a Leader? Retrieved March 20, 2010, from http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/departments/elearning/Default.aspx?

Bruce, C.E. (nd) Making the Transition from Campus to Workplace. Black Collegean Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.black-collegian.com/career/transition-199805.shtml

Burke, R.J., Oberklaid, F., & Burgess, Z. (2005) Organizational values, job experiences and satisfactions among female and male psychologists. Community, Work & Family, 8(1): 53-68

Career Media (1999), Graduate Careers in Information Technology, Westlake: Watcham Penrose Associates.
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Embarrasses or Shames Them to

Words: 3460 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88984669



People are aware of the impact that major stressful events can have on a person's life. In general, society is solicitous of people undergoing major stressors like major illness, divorce, or a death in the family. However, it is interesting to note that, for the individual, small stressors can actually be more significant than major stressors. For example, a friend of mine was fired from her job the day before 9-11. The day of 9-11, when everyone else was so stressed out about the idea of a terrorist attack, she was far more worried about the source of her next paycheck. While she realized, intellectually, that the national impact of 9-11 was certainly greater than the national impact of her being fired, in her life she experienced the loss of her job as a more stressful event. In fact, the most stressful part of 9-11 was that, with its resultant…… [Read More]

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Marketing Internal Influences on Gateway

Words: 1783 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5184703

"Building a successful buzz campaign hinges on finding the right carriers for the message: influencers who are obsessed with staying one step ahead of their peers." (Khermouch & Green, 2001)

Conclusion

In conclusion, this phase of the marketing experience revolved around the perceived impact of various internal influences on consumers as they would be convinced to purchase Gateway Plasma Screen Televisions. The report looked at various aspects and marketing approaches such as demographic data gathering including age and income as well as psychographic data gathering which incorporates personality style or lifestyle data in the marketing of products. The world has become highly technologically advanced and has therefore introduced many new sources or opportunities such as direct database marketing, email contact points and internet shopping to marketing and consumerism management. Marketing and selling have therefore greatly changed. It is no longer a viable approach to just blanket advertise and other traditional…… [Read More]

References

Khermouch, Gerry & Green, Jeff (2001, July 30). "Buzz Marketing: Suddenly This Stealth Strategy Is Hot -- but it's Still Fraught with Risk." Business Week Online. Retrieved on February 20, 2005, at http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/01_31/b3743001.htm

Silverman, George (1997, November). How to Harness the Awesome Power of Word of Mouth. Direct Marketing Magazine, 32-37. Retrieved on February 20, 2005, from Market Navigation, Inc., Web Site: http://www.mnav.com/H2HarnWOM.htm

Marketing
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Psychological Treatment for Gender Dysphoria

Words: 3198 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11557244

Clinical Psychology and Gender Dysphoria

Advancement of Clinical Psychology with Gender Dysphoria

Clinical psychology is recognized as a psychology branch that deals with the assessment and treatment of abnormal behavior, mental illness, and psychiatric problems (Brennan, 2003). Clinical psychology integrates the science of psychology with treatment of complicated human problems, which makes it a challenging and rewarding field. American psychologist Lightner Witmer introduced the term in 1907. Witmer defined clinical psychology as a field that studies individuals by experimentation or observation, with the intent of promoting change. A clinical psychologist will try to reduce any psychological distress suffered by a patient and enhance their psychological well-being. Previously clinical psychology focused on the psychological assessment of the patients, and there was little or no attention been paid to treatment. This scenario changed after World War II in the 1940s because there was increased demand for trained clinicians. A clinical psychologist will…… [Read More]

References

Brennan, J.F. (2003). History and systems of psychology. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.

Colomb, J., & Brembs, B. (2010). The biology of psychology:'Simple'conditioning? Communicative & integrative biology, 3(2), 142.

Eliason, M.J., Dibble, S.L., & Robertson, P.A. (2011). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) physicians' experiences in the workplace. Journal of homosexuality, 58(10), 1355-1371.

Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education.
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Human Biological Variation Is Human

Words: 2690 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55012786



Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…… [Read More]

Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;

Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database, http://www.highbeam.com.
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Crime the Purpose of This

Words: 2753 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71668087

Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.

Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…… [Read More]

References

Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352

Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime 

Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.

Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
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How the Mind Works Memory and Motivation

Words: 511 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54211499

Classical conditioning for instance is defined as a "simple form of associative learning that enables organisms to anticipate events" while Operant Conditioning is defined as learning to do/not do actions as a result of being conditioned to know what consequences to expect of the said actions. The chapter looks at the contributions of B. F. Skinner to the field work of conditioning, reinforcements and punishments used in conditioning, different methods of reinforcement (fixed-interval schedule versus variable-interval schedule). Chapter touches on the effects of violence in media on aggression of subjects watching, indicates that there is a circular relationship between media violence and aggression in persons who watch.

Chapter 6 examines the subject of memory, the three stages of memory according to the Atkinson-Shiffrin model (sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory). Information processing theory describes how sensory memory impacts working memory which in turn impacts and is then impacted by long-term…… [Read More]

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People Help Themselves An Interdisciplinary

Words: 12988 Length: 47 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92004923

The study will also be important to those in the future, because scientists have not yet found ways to cure these chronic illnesses or correct some of these problems that are seen today, and therefore it stands to reason that there will be more people in the future who will have to face the same problems as those with chronic illnesses and traumatic injuries today.

Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is relatively large, simply because there has been a great deal written about chronic illness and injuries from the perspective of the physician and from the perspective of the patient. Both sides are important, although the focus here will remain largely on the patient perspective. Because there are so many people today that suffer from a chronic illness or traumatic injury, much study has been done about these individuals. Despite these studies, however, not a lot…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, B.L. (2002). Biobehavioral Outcomes Following Psychological Interventions for Cancer Patients. Journal of Counsulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(3), 590-610.

Brannon, L., & Fiest, J. (2004). Health Psychology: Vol.. An Introduction to Behavior and Health (Fifth ed.) Belmont CA: Thompson/Wadsworth.

DiMatteo, M. (2004). Social Support and Patient Adherence to Medical treatment: A Meta- analysis. Health Psychology, 23(2), 207-218.

Eitel, P., Hatchett, L., Friend, R., Griffin, K.W., & Wadhwa, N.K. (1995). Burden of Self-Care in Seriously Ill Patients Impact on Adjustment. Health Psychology, 14(5), 457-463.