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Clauswitz at the End of Chapter One
Words: 1339 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76696980
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Clauswitz

At the end of Chapter One, Book One of On War, Carl von Clausewitz famously gives his "paradoxical trinity" in regard to the nature of the forces arrayed against each other in war. He tells us war is a "total phenomenon" in which there are three "dominant tendencies" that characterize the nature of warfare, and that any theory of war which neglects or ignores any of these tendencies would both "conflict with reality" and thus be "totally useless."[footnoteRef:1] These three tendencies are so intertwined that they act like "three different codes of law, deep rooted in their subject and yet variable in their relationship with one another;" that is, each of the three tendencies is variable in its operative force, and the strength of each strand dominates or is diminished in any given particular case, but nevertheless, each magnet is still intimately involved in a given war or engagement.[footnoteRef:2]…

Jomini Is Considered as Being
Words: 1892 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23290623
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As it has been said by David Chandler, "the airy Kantian generalization of Clausewitz has held on for quite some time now." Another reason can be the fact that in a world that seems to have freed itself from the fundamental ideological conflicts and in a period in which there are some who seriously think and hope that the history has come to an end, the strife-driven world view of Clausewitz probably seems to be less important.

Conclusion

As an off shoot of the era of enlightenment, Jomini inclined towards natural laws to manage the control warfare. He developed an extremely geometrical as well as scientific methodology to modern warfare. In addition, he focused on the value of awareness, the principle of inner lines, as well as the intimate link amid combat and logistics. Inner lines are those assumed by one force to defend against the hostile forces.

On the…

References

Aron, Raymond. (1985). Clausewitz: Philosopher of War. (1985). 418 pp.

Bassford, Christopher. (1994). Clausewitz in English: The Reception of Clausewitz in Britain and America, 1815-1945. New York: Oxford University Press.

Corn, Tony. (2006). Clausewitz in Wonderland. Policy Review.

Edmonds, Brigadier General Sir J.E. (1951). "Jomini and Clausewitz." Canadian Army Journal, v.V, no.2 (May 1951), 64-69.

Military Art Principles of War
Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71035661
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military philosophies of von Clausewitz, Vegetius, and Machiavelli reveal common threads of pragmatism and political realism. Vegetius focuses less on philosophy and theory, and more on the practical details and logistics of military campaigns. Yet in so doing, Vegetius does evolve a foundational political strategy that remains relevant almost two thousand years later, even as technology and the dictums of foreign affairs have changed. Likewise, the tenets embodied by Italian political philosopher Niccolo Machiavelli are still studied in the 21st century, long after they were written. Machiavelli is not as focused on the minutia of military formations on the battlefield as his predecessor Vegetius, but he is far more focused on the ways political leaders need to comport themselves in times of war and peace. Machiavelli is likewise concerned with the ramifications of political power and how leaders can retain and wield their power to achieve self-serving ends. Just as…

Works Cited

Gilbert, Felix. "Machiavelli: The Renaissance of the Art of War." In Makers of Modern Strategy. Oxford University Press, 1986.

Vegetius. Epitome of Military Science. Trans. N.P. Milner. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1996.

Von Clausewitz, Carl. On War. Trans. Col. J.J. Graham.

Nature of War Is Noted to Be
Words: 1180 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3677106
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nature of war is noted to be persistent and widely remains the same over time; it is violent and leads to conflicts due to clashing political perspectives, claims casualties most of whom are innocent civilians and also disrupts the societal fabric at the end of the war. Clausewitz formulated a trinity in a bid to explain what war is hinged on and why conflicts often lead to war.

Clausewitz (2006) pointed out at Passion (people), Policy (government), and Probability (Army) as the three pillars upon which war is hinged. He calls these 'the paradoxical trinity' and that they are the three magnets on which war is hinged. His emphasis was more on the romance and stressed on how the different aspects of the paradoxical trinity interact with each other.

The trinity is an interactive set of three forces that drive wars in the actual world. According to Clausewitz (2006) the…

References

Bassford, C. & Villacres, E.(2010). Reclaiming the Clausewitzian Trinity. Retrieved march 16, 2013 from http://www.clausewitz.com/readings/Bassford/Trinity/TRININTR.htm

Gillie, M.(2009). Interpreting Clausewitz's Miraculous Trinity. Retrieved March 16,2013 from http://www.clausewitz.com/readings/Gillie-ThesisAntithesisSynthesis.htm

Tziarras, Z.(2013). Clausewitz's Remarkable Trinity Today. Retrieved march 16,2013 from  http://thegwpost.com/2011/11/09/clausewitz%E2%80%99s-remarkable-trinity-today/ 

Carl Von Clausewitz, (2006). On War. (Indexed Edition) Michael Howard & Peter Paret (eds).

Unconventional vs Conventional Warfare Conventional
Words: 797 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56984224
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The author makes his most poignant statement when he concludes, "…Nothing has such a depressing influence on the soldier, as the sound of the enemy's cannon afresh as the moment when, after a forced march he seeks some rest…" and falls into the "…law of the enemy" (158).

Author John Nagl points out that the strategies promoted by Antoine-Henri Jomini -- another well-known and respected military theorist -- and Clausewitz have been confused. Jomini had a prescription for "…the annihilation of the opponent's force as the best route to victory," a strategy which has "often and mistakenly" been attributed to General Clausewitz (Nagl, 2002, p. 18). Clausewitz was more likely to suggest that a political objective should be sought than that "anything was always the best route to victory" (Nagl, 18). Nagl asserts that Jomini "personally disliked" Clausewitz and thought Clausewitz's strategies were "rubbish" (Nagl, 18). In fact, by the…

Works Cited

Clausewitz, Carl Von. 2009. On War (Reprint). Rockville, MD: Wildside Press LLC.

Elek, Deborah E. 1994. Unconventional Warfare and the Principles of War. Small Wars Journal,

Retrieved January 8, 2012, from  http://www.smallwarsjournal.com/documents/elek.pdf .

Nagl, John A. 2002. Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam: Learning to Eat

Winning the Hearts and Minds in Afghanistan
Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32630916
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Winning the Hearts and Minds in Afghanistan

It has been a common belief among military strategists ever since the time of Clausewitz in the early 19th century that gaining the support of the people is necessary for the success of any military endeavor. (Clausewitz 1873) Modern strategists call this idea "winning the hearts and minds of the people," and generally perform this mission by providing aid to the local people in an effort to win approval for the presence of military troops to conduct counterinsurgency (COIN) operations. However, the recent military conflict in Afghanistan has called into question the validity of this assumption.

One common assertion among military strategists is that there three elements in conflicts: the people, the military, and the government. In order to gain the support for the military to conduct operations the government must gain the support of the people. Without winning the hearts and minds…

Reference List

Clausewitz, Carl. 1873. On War. Edited by James John Graham. London: N. Trubner.

Accessed 19 February 2014.

http://www.clausewitz.com/readings/OnWar1873/TOC.htm

"Winning the Hearts and Minds In Afghanistan: Assessing the Effectiveness of Development Aid in Coin Operations." Report on Wilton Park Conference 1022,

Theory According to Your View
Words: 2190 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 70258648
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S. involvement in World War II.

Is it possible to have a general theory of war?

Perhaps the most well-known "theory" of war is articulated in Matthew 24:6: "You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. . . . Such things must happen" (New International Version 1984). Therefore, although it is possible to have a general theory of war, any such theory will be limited in its ability to explain the why's and how's of its occurrence. According to Gray (1999), in his seminal text, on War, Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz, set forth a modern general theory of war, but Sun Tzu's Art of War also addressed this issue. Clausewitz, though, is cited time and again in the relevant literature as having propounded a general theory of war. For instance, eid (2004) reports that, "In particular, he seeks to explain the methods to establish a general theory of…

References

Clausewitz, C.V. (1976) on War. Princeton, NJ.

Gray, C.S. (1999) Modern Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

-. The 21st Century Security Environment and the Future of War. Parameters, 38(4): 14-9.

Lichbach, M.I. (1989) "An evaluation of 'does economic inequality breed political conflict?'

Religion and Wars
Words: 5869 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 87135313
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relationship exists between difference of religion and the occurrence of civil wars within societies. The relationship between religious groups to society can be defined against the backdrop of war. Powerful emotions surround both conflict and military conflict (Yinger, 1946). A direct relationship has been recognized for several year regarding religion and violence. Students of organized religion "have frequently pointed out the ease with which most church leaders shift, at the outbreak of war, from an explicit antiwar position to a vigorous pro-war policy" (Yinger, p. 176). However, despite the seemingly strong tie between religion and war, it is critical to also acknowledge that while religion seems a backdrop for many wars, many other factors have contributed as well. Political aspirations and agendas have had as much to do with war as religion. The complex intermingling of these many different factors will be explored in greater detail below.

ecent research suggests…

References

Allen, John L. (N.D.) "As Vatican Calls for Peace, diplomat plans defense of 'preventive war.' {Online} Available:  http://www.natcath.com/NCR/Online/archives/013103/013103j.htm 

Armstrong, K. (1991). "Peace in Palestine." Holy War. New York: Doubleday. p4.

Clausewitz, Carl Von. (1992). "What is War?" On War (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976). 75-89; excerpt reprinted in U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, C610 Syllabus/Book of Readings. 205011. Fort Leavenworth: USACGSC, July 1992.

Chandler, D.G. (1996). "The English Civil Wars, 'Islam vs. Christianity'." Atlas of Military Strategy. Boston: Sterline Publishing Company. Pp.30-33., 54-55

Similarities Between World War I And Modern Warfare
Words: 1178 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 52835861
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World War I is fundamentally similar to warfare as it is practiced today.

This paper reviews the relevant literature to provide evidence in support of the argument that World War I is fundamentally similar to warfare as it is practiced today.

Major and Supporting Points of Evidence

There were numerous innovations in military ordnance and munitions that took place during and following the U.S. Civil War, but the purpose of the warfare practiced on the field of battle in World War I was fundamentally similar to the purpose of warfare as it is practiced today for a number of reasons, including the following:

The fundamental purpose and nature of warfare today is identical to the purpose and nature of the warfare prosecuted in World War I;

Notwithstanding some differences in the composition of the belligerents and military tactics, wars are still fought and won by "boots on the ground"; and,…

References

Black's Law Dictionary (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Clausewitz, Carl von. (1976). On War, ed. And trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret.

Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press.

Hooker, R.D. Jr. (2005, Summer). "Beyond Vom Kriege: The Character and Conduct of Modern

Civil-Military Relations Civil Military Relations
Words: 2314 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 53546597
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However in those days, the progress was even slower and there was deeper concern about the possibility of complete transition. Samuel Huntington's path-breaking book, Political Order in Changing Societies (1968) has been by far the most well received and comprehensive book on the subject of civilian military relations. Huntington studied the conditions in Latin America and found that in underdeveloped countries, militaries were usually more powerful because society cannot access the government and hence support military's interference. Middle classes then "compel the military to oppose the government" and restore the status quo ante. Military may be powerful but Huntington felt that it was the organizational structure that can be blamed for coups but instead the social structure and thus "Military explanations do not explain military intervention," he argued.

By the end of the 1970s, even more literature appeared on the scene to explain civil military relations and to study the…

Four Questions About Terrorism and Intelligence
Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72844954
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intelligence operations. What role would state and local police play in these operations? What are the limits on their role?

Intelligence operations can tremendously aid in the prevention of terrorist and criminal acts. The problem with intelligence gathering is not the efficacy of the data but how it is shared and used. When local and state police are involved in intelligence-gathering operations, concerns related to civil liberties might arise. Arguments against intelligence operations include concerns over surveillance as an infringement on civil liberties.

Given government exists as a social contract in which individual citizens willingly agree to surrender a few individual rights in favor of a broader common good, intelligence gathering makes perfect sense. Intelligence gathering allows the elected government to protect its citizens via the identification of risks, and the mitigation and responses thereto. Therefore, intelligence gathering is undertaken according to the libertarian values upon which the United States…

Strategy -- Rulers States and War it
Words: 1765 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 14256491
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trategy -- Rulers, tates and War

It is very difficult to look at the history of humanity and define a number of common, yet intangible philosophies of action that seem to be part of the overall human condition. One of these intangibles is the human capacity to produce both incredible beauty and horrific evil -- both of which occur during war. In fact, we may ask -- what is war? Every historical period from Ancient Mesopotamia to the present has added a new meaning to the word, but the very essence remains the same. War is a conflict between groups, a way to solve a political or social disagreement through force. Because war has been part of the human condition for millennia, however, we can look at it from both a theoretical and practical aspect of a way to use violence as a solution to problems. One of the most…

Sources:

Clausewitz, C. On War. Edited by M. Howard. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1984.

Keegan, J. A History of Warfare. New York: Vintage, 1994.

Murray, W., et al., eds. The Making of Strategy: Rulers, States and War. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press, 1996.

Changes in Warfare from End of French Revolution
Words: 1611 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45292806
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New Technology/Changes in Warfare from End of French Revolution/Napoleonic Wars to American Civil War eginning

Warfare Change in Technology

In France, reforms began after the great Seven-Year-long war. The war ended in French calamity in1763. Evidently, it was important to have reforms to field soldiers that could fight for French interests and honor. The government suggested that light infantry should be increased. This later brought about initiatives for conventional infantry training in techniques for light infantry. This training created soldiers that could fight both in open and close order. The multiple gun calibers used by the artillery unit were taken away; and they were left with only four varieties. There were new guns, which were more portable and lighter than the earlier ones. The new guns featured standardized segments and enclosed rounds. Lidell-Hart stated that according to Jean du Teil, "light mobile guns for use in the field when used…

Bibliography

Gibson. "Napoleon and the Grande Armee: Military Innovations Leading to a Revolution in 19th Century Military Affairs." Accessed November 9, 2016.  http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/organization/c_rma.html .

History.com. "Civil War Technology." 2010. Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/civil-war-technology .

Scholastic. "Strategy and Tactics, Military." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/strategy-and-tactics-military .

Zapotoczny, Walter. "The Impact of the Industrial Revolution On Warfare." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.wzaponline.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Inductrialrevolution.292125935.pdf.

Changing Paradigm in International Policing
Words: 8998 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87743756
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The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."

The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.

Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."

Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…

Bibliography

Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.

Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at  

Neo-Conservatism Project Title To What
Words: 1844 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 28972560
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The interview questions will be prepared based on the literature review. Merrian (2006) describes

4. Chapter Structure

The dissertations will be divided into five chapters. Chapter-1: Introduction will consist of an introduction of the research issues, problem statement, significance and scope of the research. Chapter 2-Literature eview will be review of the literature relevant to the research topic. The researcher will focus on discussing the conceptual framework or theory for the research, a detailed discussion of the concept of neoconservative and its connection to Iraq War, the views of opponent and supporters of neoconservative as well as its long-term impacts on United States.

Chapter 3-methodology will consist of research design, selection of research instrument, sample population and sampling techniques as well an elaboration of data collection and analysis methods will be described. Chapter 4-Discussion of esults in which results of study will be described and analyzed while chapter 5 will…

References

Adam Wolfeson. 2004. Conservatives and Neoconservatives. The public Interest

Art, Robert J.2003. A Ground Strategy for America. United States: Cornell University Press.

Clausewitz Karl Von 1943. On War, in the Book of War (2000). United States: The Modern Library.

Creswell, J. 2003. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Government - The Diversionary Effects
Words: 6491 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80363526
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In this respect, it was not the reality which mattered but rather the perception of that reality. Most of the times during the Cold War, but especially after the fall of the Iron Curtain, the reality showed that the perception of the Russian Soviets as the strongest forces in the world was often not true. Still it motivated the U.S. To consider all sorts of side games to defeat the communist threat, which in fact was not as big as considered throughout the decades.

Diversionary war has its own motivation in terms of psychological impact on the population. People tend to view the international threat as being the ultimate point of reference for danger. The state in itself is the most trusted instrument for the insurance of security, and an international threat constitutes the questioning of this establishment. More precisely, it has been argued that "as the leader of one…

Bibliography

Baker, William D.. "The Dog That Won't Wag: Presidential Uses of Force and the Diversionary Theory of War" Strategic Insights, Volume III, Issue 5 (May 2004).

Clausewitz, Carl Von. On War.. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984

Hendrickson, Ryan. "Clinton's Military strikes in 1998: diversionary uses of force?" In Armed Forcea & Society, vol. 28, no. 2. Winter 2002, pp 309-332.

James, Patrick and John R. Oneal, "The Influence of Domestic and International Politics on the President's Use of Force," Journal of Conflict Resolution 35 (1991): 307-332.

Military Theory
Words: 5275 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32003274
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Military Theory: Jomini on Napoleon

The objective of this study is to use the Campaign of 1813 culminating in the battle of Leipzig and to identify and analyze both the critical points and decisive points that Antoine-Henri Jomini in his 'Principles of War' would have listed in relation to proper time and sufficient force and identify how many would be applied both positively and negatively to Napoleon's maneuvering and engaging.

Napoleon's Focus

The focus of Napoleon in the Campaign of 1813 was to launch such a mass attack on the enemy that they would be overcome and decimated. However, as this study will demonstrate, Napoleon missed chances to do just that and his poor planning and improper timing resulted in the losses of many thousands of lives that did not have to be lost. According to Jomini, the art of war is comprised by six specific parts including: (1) statesmanship…

References

Allen, BM (1998) The Effects of Infectious Disease on Napoleon's Russian Campaign. Air Command and Staff College, Air University. Retrieved from:  http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA398046 

Jomini on Strategic Lines and Points, Decisive Points of the Theater of War, and Objective Points of Operations. [Excerpted from Antoine-Henri Jomini, The Art of War G.H. Mendell and W.P. Craighill, trs. (Philadelphia: Lippicott, 1892), pp. 85-92]. Retrieved from:  http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/JominiSP.html 

Keefe, JM (1995) Napoleon's Marshals in 1813. School of Advanced Military Studies. United States Army Command and General Staff College. Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. First Term AY 94-95. Retrieved from:  http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA293453 

Nomura, RC (2012) Issues in strategic thought: from Clausewitz to al-Qaida. NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL I. JOMINI VS. CLAUSEWITZ December 2012. Retrieved from:  http://calhoun.nps.edu/public/bitstream/handle/10945/27881/12Dec_Nomura_Ryan.pdf?sequence=1

Mexican War'so Far From
Words: 1968 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11511166
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As a reader, the setting descriptions that the author used created an atmosphere of being "present" during the war. he maps used have helped the reader follow the warriors and deal with the facts surrounding the U.S. war with Mexico. he book really represents its era, as it is today, when it comes to the political and military problems and the relationship of the two countries.

he denouement of the plot happened, when at last, the reaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas rist. he United States was given undisputed control of exas and established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande River. he present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming were ceded to the United States. Mexico received $15,000,000 which is less than half the amount the United States had attempted to offer Mexico…

The denouement of the plot happened, when at last, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed on February 2, 1848 by American diplomat Nicholas Trist. The United States was given undisputed control of Texas and established the U.S.-Mexican border of the Rio Grande River. The present-day states of California, Nevada, Utah and parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Wyoming were ceded to the United States. Mexico received $15,000,000 which is less than half the amount the United States had attempted to offer Mexico before the war had begun. The $3.25 million debts that the Mexican government owed to the United States citizens were also assumed by the United States.

What if the United States did not colonize Mexico, would there be another nation to take charge? As Mexico has gained its independence as a republic in the years after 1836, it established diplomatic ties with Britain, France, and the United States. Nearly during those years, there was an existing political dispute between the United States and Britain over the Oregon territorial boundary. Although the United States has succeeded on conquering almost 40% of its territory, not all of the Americans were in favor of what had happened. One of the country's great men, then Lieutenant Ulysses Grant, who became the 18th President of the United States, also served in the Mexican-American War (1846-1848) under Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott. He was a genius and keen observer of the war as he has learned to judge the actions of colonels and generals. As written on his memoirs, he admitted that the war against Mexico was one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation. This was just a clear indication that, aside from the citizens' belief on the Manifest Destiny, considering the territorial dispute with another super power nation (Britain), the United States did the conquest primarily because of concerns that Britain might also attempt to occupy the area.

As you have finished reading the book, your thinking will be greatly influenced by the central idea of the book - the motives of each belligerent party; how they stood for what they believe and ought to achieve; the call for personal agenda; and the discovery of unsung injustice. This is somewhat a call from the author, as he stated in the introduction that this time should not be "relegated to the attic of memory."

Tomorrow When War Began Homer's Perspective Writing
Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83844459
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Tomorrow when War began: Homer's perspective

Writing a few years after the event when I am quite an elderly man and musing about the account that somehow or other made its way back into the past and interested an exceptionally large audience (many of them young I understand), I have to remark that Ellie's account was super-exaggerated.

Possibly, readers like stories where everything works out well for young individuals and where, given our alleged immortality we remain unscathed by incidents. It makes me wonder how Ellie could deceive herself into thinking that the readers would be so gullible as to believe her, and, indeed, this is just what they seem to do. Australia has never been invaded, and never likely well (God-bless our national home!), but Wirrawee was, indeed, totally destroyed and its citizens captured by the enemy.

It was not so easy -- as Ellie -- implied to turn…

Factors Leading to Either Total or Limited War
Words: 1959 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 48862817
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limited and total war, and the factors leading to either type of wars.

States will escalate a limited war to total warfare only in cases where they do not have certain limitations.

Key discussion areas:

A definition and a discussion of limited and total wars

A discussion of the Koreas war and how major world powers (the Soviet Union and the United States ) were fighting their own proxy wars in the conflict

A discussion of military imperatives such as nuclear weapons and their scale of destructions and why their possession and use is restricted. And how nuclear asymmetry affects modern warfare.

A discussion of the four main factors limiting war and why such factors are important to making defense policy decisions for nations in the modern day world

Summary of main points:

Limited and total war

Military imperatives; nuclear weapons and military factors

Factors limiting war

What are the…

References

Conway, 2013. Limited vs. Total War. [Online]

Available at:  http://www.mconway.net/page20/files  / [Accessed 16 September 015].

Salavrakos, I.-D., 2014. The Defence Economics of Total War 1870-1918: A Literature Review

Article. Global Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(1), pp. 23-45.

IR Review Fox J 2001
Words: 541 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 82913282
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The weakness here is that, given the specificity of the situation analyzed in the article, the conclusions are not nearly as broadly applicable as the author seems to imply. Doubtless the conclusions can be related to other events to some degree, but the author himself acknowledges that a lack of experts on Somalia was instrumental in the ultimate failure of the intervention, and other countries would require other experts and different proposed solutions. Still, the author is quite successful in developing his theory through direct analysis of what key players and documents actually said regarding the issue, basing his theory firmly in facts and drawing conclusions based on effects rather than on theoretical principles.

Along the same line, the research methods that the author employs and his evidence collection are directly related to the research questions that he developed. His citing of Oakley, the U.S. Ambassador in Nairobi, as well…

Air Space and Cyberspace Power Studies
Words: 1863 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35094856
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Air, Space, And Cyber Space Security

Air, Space, and Cyberspace Power Studies

"Since the birth of military aviation, airmen have claimed that airpower offered a new approach to warfare. Even in the earliest days of aviation, airpower's range of action, its ability to react and refocus quick across a wide area without having to consider the terrain or access, and its inherent above -- the surface perspective all pointed to a new era in warfare" ("AFDD 1, Air Force asic Doctrine"). Within the military, the United States air force has a great strength and makes a considerable contribution to the well-being and safety of citizens of the United States. As society progresses into a new technology age, where computers no longer take up entire rooms but can fit in the palm of our hands, the USAF must also change with the times. How is the air force going to keep…

Bibliography

"AFDD 1, Air Force Basic Doctrine." 2003.www.dtic.mil/doctrine_jel/service_pubs_afdd1.pdf (accessed August 22, 2011).

Boyne, Walter J. Air Warfare: An International Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2002.

Daniel, Lisa. "New Strategy Shows Importance of Space Domain, Lynn Says." February 16, 2011. http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=62844  (accessed August 22, 2011).

Hess, Bill. "Senior officer stresses growing importance of cyber ecurity." June 12, 2011.http://www.svherald.com/content/news/2011/06/12/senior-officer-stresses-growing-importance-cyber-security (accessed August 22, 2011).

Invention of Peace Discussion 1
Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54023333
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When Serbia refused, Austro-Hungary declared war on Serbia, forcing the mobilization of ussia to prevent the destruction of Serbia.

German forces mobilized in support of Austro-Hungary by prior agreement, and declared war on ussia in response to her mobilization of forces.

To avoid a war on two fronts, Germany attacked France because of the fear that France would attack Germany once Germany and ussia went to war against each other.

Britain entered the war against Germany because Germany invaded Belgium to bypass the most fortified approaches into France. By 1917, German attacks on neutral shipping bound for England provoked the U.S. To enter the war as well. Some of the first action of the wider war was the occupation of German colonies in Asia and Africa. By the end of the war, England was poised to rule much of the Middle East until after World War II, which control was…

REFERENCES

Howard, M. (2000) the Invention of Peace: Reflections on War and International Order. London: Yale University Press.

Strategic Security in the Middle
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Of the six conflicts (within the fifty mentioned) that resulted in 200,000 or more deaths, three were between Muslims and non-Muslims, two were between Muslim cultures, and just one involved non-Muslims on both sides. The author references a New York Times investigative piece in which fifty-nine ethnic conflicts were reported in forty-eight locations in 1993. In "half these places Muslims were clashing with other Muslims or with non-Muslims"; in thirty-nine of the conflicts groups from different civilizations were engaged, and two-thirds of those were between "Muslims and others" (Huntington, 257).

Keeping in mind this book was published in 1996 -- and updated data employing Huntington's Muslim-violence theme is not immediately available -- it is worthy of note that of the twenty-nine wars (that involved 1,000 or more deaths in a year's time) in 1992, twelve were intercivilizational, and of those dozen, nine were between Muslims and non-Muslims (257). Huntington raised…

Works Cited

Arendt, Hannah. (1969). On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.

Blitzer, Wolf. (2011). Cheney refuses to admit any mistakes as vice president. CNN.com

Retrieved September 7, 2011, from  http://situationroom.blogs.cnn.com .

Dougherty, James E, and Pfaltzgraff, Robert L. (1997). Contending Theories of International

War Over Countless Years of
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Dim through the misty panes and thick green light,/as under a green sea, I saw him drowning./in all my dreams before my helpless sight / He plunges at me, guttering, choking, drowning./if in some smothering dreams, you too could pace/Behind the wagon that we flung him in,/and watch the white eyes writhing in his face,/His hanging face, like a devil's sick of sin,/if you could hear, at every jolt, the blood/Come gargling from the froth-corrupted lungs/Bitter as the cud / of vile, incurable sores on innocent tongues, -- / My friend, you would not tell with such high zest/to children ardent for some desperate glory,/the old Lie: Dulce et decorum est / Pro patria mori. (Owen)

This is not how Owen "might" respond to patriotism this is a direct assault upon it. The words of Dali ring true as the toll of war is counted up among the youthful wasted…

References

Owen, W, Anthem for Doomed Youth, at  http://www.englishverse.com/poems/anthem_for_doomed_youth 

On Seeing a Piece of Our Artillery Brought into Action, at  http://www.poetryconnection.net/poets/Wilfred_Owen/1215 

Dulce et Decorum est at  http://www.potw.org/archive/potw3.html 

Remarque, E.M. (1958). All Quiet on the Western Front. Boston: Little Brown.

Military Conflict
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WWII: Italy

Both World War I and II were world events that left territories, countries, nations, and individuals exhausted from the effort and from loss. These wars proved ultimately ironic when the term "the war to end all wars" proved tragically inaccurate with the outbreak of World War II. In addition to the devastation, however, were significant changes, developments and effects on the world and its paradigms. Decolonization, for example proved to be one of the most important effects. Whereas colonization was a mainly European paradigm as means of transport and new discoveries enabled increasing voyages across the world, the World Wars created the ability of territories to become autonomous, searching for their own identity rather than identities that were associated with those of their colonizers. For Italy, World War II also held its own specific events and paradigm shifts as the country became a territory affected by war and…