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Clinical Intervention: Methods and Techniques
Clinical Intervention eport
This research report has been prepared and designed to reveal how a clinical intervention helps in averting a traumatic situation. It is divided into two parts: the transcript and the analysis. In the transcript part, there is a five minutes dialogue going on between a therapist (Dc. X) and the client (Sarah) who is suffering through a traumatic condition. She has got a history of anxiety and is again afflicted with a severe problem which has reinforced her negativism towards life. Dc. X is trying to evaluate her problem by using some important techniques of intervention. However, in the analysis part, it is explained in detail how the therapist perceives the frame of reference of her patient with the help of intervention methods. Each method is discussed in detail to help the reader understand its importance.
It was 10AM…
Ivey, A. "International interviewing and counseling." Active listening work book. (p.2). Retrieved from http://www.ok.ngb.army.mil/j1/sarc/sarc_documents/Training/NGB_UVA_SARC_Training/Handouts/Active_Listening_Workbook-Learning_To_Listen.pdf
Thomas, B.R. (2004). "Empathy in the treatment of trauma and PTSD." (p.119). Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108649880
Child Clinical Intevention
Pat I Child Abuse
Physical abuse of childen occus thoughout evey social stata, although thee may be an inceased incidence among those living in povety. Abuse often occus at moments of geat stess, and the pepetato stikes out in ange at the child. The pepetato may also have been abused as a child and may have poo impulse contol. Because of the elative size and stength diffeence between adults and childen, the abused child can be seveely injued o killed. Abuse fequently occus fom shaking an infant, which causes bleeding ove the bain (subdual hematoma) and is often efeed to as 'shaken baby syndome'. The incidence of child abuse is emakably high and faily accuately epoted. The total abuse ate is 25.2 pe 1000 childen with physical abuse counting fo 5.7 pe 1000, sexual abuse 2.5 pe 1000, emotional abuse 3.4 pe 1000 and neglect accounting fo…
references. Obstetrics & Gynecology 96(4), 511-516
14. Puesche, S. Down Syndrome. The Arc Web site: http://www.thearc.org/faqs/down.html
15. National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse. 1987
16. Shaffer D, Fisher P, Dulcan MK, et al. The NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3 (DISC-2.3): description, acceptability, prevalence rates, and performance in the MECA Study. Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders Study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 1996; 35(7): 865-77.
17. Wolraich ML, Hannah JN, Baumgaertel A, et al. Examination of DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a county-wide sample. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 1998; 19(3): 162-8.
dissect you thought pocesses and clinical inteventions. It will allow you to beak down a significant clinical moment fom a goup session and scutinize it to futhe you self- awaeness and leaning fom two pespectives. This assignment allows you to deepen and boaden you pactice wisdom though self-eflection and application of concepts fom theoy and pactice.
An intevention is defined as a statement o action made by a goup woke o a goup membe that impacts goup pocess and catalyzes changes in goup dynamics. It is impotant to emembe that inteventions in goup wok that ae made by goup membes ae just as elevant as those made by pactitiones.
You will be equied to extapolate fom the liteatue and class discussions, and integate theoetical concepts with you evolving undestanding of you ole as a facilitato, and you gowing awaeness of and appeciation fo goup latent and manifest content.
references of the members themselves. In other words, the members retreated to the background and became objects to an arcane structure of rules and principles. It seemed to me that the dignity of the members was trampled in the process.
All activities should be focused on the client him or herself and on treating this client as central rather than as instrument or peripheral to the process. The process should be catered around the client and the facilitator should (as Shulman (2005)) suggests be constantly attuned to the client's needs.
The NFP group is a group that has the objective of giving fathers the necessary skills to relate to and help their children succeed in life. The perquisites of the leader, according to Brandler and R (*), are to:
Be flexible in order to respond to the needs of the group and individuals, while preserving the basic content of the curriculum and its relationship to other corresponding curricula (i.e., make sure the children's groups and parents' group correspond)
In certain countries, an effective supervisor possesses basic teaching skills, facilitation skills, negotiation and assertiveness skills, counseling and appraisal skills, mentoring skills, and knowledge of learning resources and certification requirements (Kilminster).
The most important aspect of the role of an effective supervisor is giving supervisee responsibility and the opportunity to practice it (Kilminster, 2000). Supervisees come to view the supervisor as a colleague and this leads them to become self-directed. Some supervisees consider teaching skills and techniques, interpersonal style and professional competence the most important characteristics of an effective supervisor. An effective supervisor shows empathy, is supportive, and exhibits flexibility, instruction, knowledge, interest in supervision and good tracking of supervisees. He is interpretative, respectful, focused ad practical. In contrast, an ineffective supervisor is rigid, shows little empathy and provides low support. He fails to consistently track supervisee concerns, teach or instruct. He is indirect and intolerant. He is close-minded. He…
Borders, L.D. (1994). The good supervisor. ERIC Digests: ERIC Clearinghouse on Counseling and Student Services. Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.ericdigest.org/1995-1/good.htm
Joslin, v. (2008). Ten traits of a good supervisor. Associated Content: Yahoo. Inc. Shine.
Retrieved on October 28, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/969660/ten_traits_of_a_good_supervisor.html
Kilminster, S.M. (2000). Effective supervision in clinical practice settings. Vol 34
Concisely, Comfort results when an individual keeps of negative or unhealthy living and sticks to positive and healthy living. Comfort has been associated with positive institutional outcomes that include patient satisfaction. The outcome of Comfort is therefore one of the most important indicator of measuring success in nursing practice particularly for patients and families going through some tough or stressful healthcare conditions.
Benefits of the Comfort theory to the Clinical Nurses of the 21st Century
Comfort theory is an important theory that is applicable to the 21st Century clinical practice because of its many inherent benefits or advantages. This theory defines the working environment for healthcare practitioners while at the same time it charts the direction for improving the services offered by the clinical nurses. The universality of the language and concepts used in presenting the theory also promotes its wide acceptance. The simplicity of the tenets of the Comfort…
Kolcaba, K. (2003) Comfort Theory and Practice: A Vision for Holistic Health Care and Kolcaba, K.Y. (1994). A theory of holistic Comfort for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(6), 1178-1184.
Kolcaba, K., & DiMarco, M.A. (2005). Comfort Theory and its application to pediatric nursing. Pediatric Nursing. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.
Magyrary, D. (2002) Positive mental health: a turn of the century perspective. Issues of Mental Health Nursing, 23, 331-349
Malinowski, a., & Stamler, L.L. (2002). Comfort: exploration of the concept in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(6), 599-606.
A level of 126 mg/dL or above, confirmed by repeating the test on another day, means that you have diabetes.
An oral glucose tolerance test measures your blood glucose after you have gone at least 8 hours without eating and 2 hours after you drink a glucose-containing beverage. This test can be used to diagnose diabetes or pre-diabetes. OGTT is more sensitive than the FPG test for diagnosing pre-diabetes, but it is less convenient to administer. The OGTT requires you to fast for at least 8 hours before the test. Your plasma glucose is measured immediately before and 2 hours after you drink a liquid containing 75 grams of glucose dissolved in water.
If your blood glucose level is between 140 and 199 mg/dL 2 hours after drinking the liquid, you have a form of pre-diabetes called impaired glucose tolerance or IGT, meaning that you are more likely to develop…
Braunald, Eugene., Fauci, Anthony S., Kasper, Dennis L., Hauser, Stephen L., Longo, Dan L., Jameson, J. Larry. 2001. Harrison's Principle of Internal Medicine, 15th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division.
The Merck Manual (16th ed.). (1995). Portland, Oregon: Merck & Co., Inc.
Utay and Miller (2006) described a study in which researchers observed over 100 individuals with unresolved grief reactions. There were three phases of treatment employed with these individuals. The first stage of treatment involved cognitive structuring for the decision to grieve again and for procedure clarification. The second stage involved guided imagery for reliving, revising, and revisiting the scenes at which the loss occurred. The third and final stage involved future-oriented identity reconstruction. The researchers reported that the reliving of the event through guided imagery effectively changed the client's view of reality, and furthermore helped along their grief resolution (Melges & DeMaso (1980), as cited by Utay & Miller, 2006). Moreover, Guided imagery has been established as a versatile and effective intervention.
The importance in assisting the children's mother with the grief process lies in the fact that bereavement is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and it…
Elliott, K. (2000). Long QT syndrome. Alberta RN, January/February.
Firth, Hurst (2005). Clinical Genetics, New York: Oxford University Press, 378-9.
Gravitz, MA. (2001). Perceptual reconstruction in the treatment of inordinate grief. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 44(1), 51-5.
Joffrion, L.P., Douglas, D. (1994). Grief resolution: faciliatating self-transcendence in the bereaved. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 32(3), 13-9.
Since modern medicine can sustain patients with proper medical follow-up for years, it becomes incumbent on the profession to follow the patients and provide them with the knowledge and tracking to insure that they are observing the procedures and medications which prolong their quality of life. Given hospitals' short-term orientation with the patients, there is a need to bridge patient care before, during and after acute-care visits.
While there are some nursing specialties which can be regarded as solely hospital- or community-based, many of the specialties call for a more holistic notion of patient care. y combining the CNS and NP specialties, this profession has a better chance of assuring better patient outcomes, and a better quality of life for the patient.
ennett, .J. (1998). Psychiatric mental health nursing: thriving in a changing environment through outcomes-based measurements. Semin. Nurse Manage., 144-148.
erger, a.M.-F. (1996). Advanced practice roles for nurses…
Bennett, B.J. (1998). Psychiatric mental health nursing: thriving in a changing environment through outcomes-based measurements. Semin. Nurse Manage., 144-148.
Berger, a.M.-F. (1996). Advanced practice roles for nurses in tomorrow's healthcare systems. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 250-255.
Chaska, N.L. (2001). The Nursing Profession Tomorrow and Beyond. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Cukr, P.L. (1997). The psychiatric clinical nurse specialist/nurse practitioner: an example of a combined role. Arch Psychiatr Nurs, 2-12.
The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…
1. Nesse, R. (1994). An evolutionary perspective on substance abuse. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 339- 348.
2. Robinson, T, & Berridge, K. (2001). Mechanisms of action of addictive stimuli incentive- sensitization and addiction. Addiction, 96, 103- 114.
3. Koob, G., & Le Moal, M. (1997). Drug abuse: Hedonic homeostatic dysregulation. Science, 278, 52- 58.
4. Brown, J.M., & Miller, W.R. (1993). Impact of motivational interviewing on participation and outcome in residential alcoholism treatment. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors,7, 211-218.
Intervention for the Improvement of Hypoglycemic Control
Diabetes complication is one of the top health problems in the United States, and the ADA (American Diabetes Association) recommends that people suffering from diabetes should control their hypoglycemic and maintain A1C to < 7% to avoid diabetes complications. To achieve this objective, the "diabetes self-management education (DSME)"(Ni coll, aiser, Campbell, ET AL. 2014 p 207) is an effective tool to enhance hypoglycemic control and improve patients' outcomes. The DSME is an on-going educational process to facilitate the skill, knowledge, and ability of patients to carry out a diabetes self-care. I am a diabetic educator working in the diabetic outpatient clinical setting. My experience has made to understand that patients struggle to manage and control their diabetes after being educated because patients are not allowed to set their goals in order to manage their diabetes. (American Diabetes Association; 2013).
Objective of this paper…
American Diabetes Association (2013). Standards of medical care in diabetes -- 2013. Diabetes Care 36 (Suppl. 1):S11 -- S66, .
Funnell, M.M. Brown, T.L. Childs B.P. Et al. (2010). National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education. Diabetes Care. 33: 589-596.
Nicoll, K.G. Ramser, K.L. Campbell, et al. (2014).Sustainability of Improved Glycemic Control After Diabetes Self-Management Education. Diabetes Spectrum 27 (3): 207-211.
Norris, S.L., Lau, J., Smith, J.,et al. ( 2002). Susan Sundae, N.L Norris elf-Management Education for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes meta-analysis of the effect on hypoglycemic control.
Clinical Governance and Auditing
Throughout this paper, an attempt has been made to demonstrate an understanding of the procedure of Clinical Audit (CA). The focus of this CA is the high risk area of patient safety, and with regard to how this is linked to patient safety, hand hygiene has been selected. The findings and the recommendations that follow combined with the CA tool and the selection criteria will be outlined in form of a Clinical Audit. For the purposes of improving clinical practice, CAs forms an integral aspect of clinical governance. It is indeed notable that CAs encapsulates practice which through analysis can result to quality enhancement, particularly for the patients. Various definitions of the term which are invariably the same and which tend towards verbosity exist, but a terse and precise definition is given by Coffey (2009) who puts forth that a CA is a systematic evaluation of…
Hart T. (2013).Promoting hand hygiene in clinical practice. Nursing Times; 109: 38, 14-15.
Tollefson, J. (2011). Clinical skills for enrolled/division 2 nurses. South Melbourne, Vic, Cengage Learning.
Scott, H.R., Blyth, K.G., & Jones, J.B. (2009).Davidson's Foundations of Clinical Practice. London, Elsevier Health Sciences UK..
Wilson, J. (2006). Infection control in clinical practice. Edinburgh, Elsevier, Baillie're Tindall.
Clinical Learning Points
Clinical Case Study Key Learning Points
Given the patient's history with angina and cardiac conditions, there is a clear need to ensure that he does not allow bad habits to continue in addition to the careful management and monitoring of his health. The patient's medical history also includes known diagnoses for diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. His father had also passed from heart disease, indicating a genetic predisposition to cardiac problems. The patient recently was discharged just a few days prior for a stent placement. He returned for an evaluation, claiming that his major cardiac symptoms, including crushing chest pain, shortness of breath and diaphoretic had subsided dramatically. Still, there is thought to be a high risk of future complications in regards to his cardiac health because of the fact that he has a very minimal support system in order to help him change his dietary and lifestyle…
American Heart Association. (2007). Patient-teaching for cardiac nurses. Nursing, 37(10), 14-16.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012). Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/bloodpressure/healthy_living.htm
John Hopkins Medicine. (2014). High Cholesterol (Hypercholesterolemia). Heart & Vascular Institute. Retrieved from http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/heart_vascular_institute/conditions_treatments/conditions/high_cholesterol.html
The objective of this study is to conduct a critical analysis of issues in clinical education. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of literature in this area of inquiry.
The work of Strohschein, Hagler and May (2002) entitled 'Assessing the Need for Changes in Clinical Education Practice' reports a study that identifies areas of need within clinical education and well as describing "…various models and tools that are proposed and utilized in clinical education, as well as the exploration of the extent to which these models and tools might meet the identified needs of the clinical education process in physical therapy." (p.1) Physical therapists are reported as working in a health care climate "of increasing complexity and rapid change, of fiscal restraint and demands for accountability, of scrutiny from both internal and external sources. In such a climate, the ability to respond appropriately to these…
Cross V. (1997) The professional development diary: a case study of one cohort of physiotherapy students. Physiotherapy.1997; 83:375 -- 383.
Hagler P, McFarlane L. (1991) Achieving maximum student potential: the supervisor as coach. Canadian Journal of Rehabilitation.1991; 5:5 -- 16.
Hayes KW, Huber G, Rogers J, Sanders B. (1999) Behaviors that cause clinical instructors to question the clinical competence of physical therapist students. Phys Ther.1999; 79:653 -- 667.
Higgs J, Glendinning M, Dunsford F, Panter J. Goals and components of clinical education in the allied health professions. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy, London.1991: 305 -- 307.
Tony Bush wrote an article regarding overcoming the hindrances to effective clinical supervision, which was published in Nursing Times website. Bush's publication was influenced by the fact that clinical supervision is one of the most commonly misunderstood practices in contemporary nursing. However, clinical supervision provides a supportive and nurturing service to nurse practitioners by assisting them to critically reflect on the actions during the delivery of patient care. As a result, the author seeks to examine and explore the existing role and status of clinical supervision in the Nursing Health Service.
Clinical supervision is basically described as a complex activity with multi-faceted functions that seeks to provide emotional support to counselors receiving supervision and providing them with extra education. This concept can also be described as a means of evaluating and monitoring counselors' professional performance and enhancing the quality of their respective duties. In the nursing field, clinical…
Bush, T. (2005, January). Overcoming the Barriers to Effective Clinical Supervision. Nursing Times, 101(2), 38-41. Retrieved from http://www.nursingtimes.net/Journals/2013/02/15/j/v/s/050111GLsupervision.pdf
Guindon, M.H. (2002). Toward Accountability in the Use of the Self-Esteem Construct. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80, 204-215.
Marley, E. (2011, December). Self-help Strategies to Reduce Emotional Distress: What Do
People Do and Why? A Qualitative Study. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 11(4), 317-324.
The following multimodal evaluation procedure is recommended for Carlos:
Semi-Structured Clinical Interview
The foremost component of an informal evaluation of traumatized individuals entails semi-structured interviewing, in which the following details of the patient ought to be garnered:
• Demographic facts
• Employment history
• Medical history
• Educational history
• Social history and • Several specific facts.
Such an interview must be closely founded on minor and major trauma disorder facets (James, 2008). Particular questions to be posed to Carlos are linked to:
• Trauma nature and level of exposure
• Definite trauma integral to PTS (post-traumatic stress) symptoms
• Intrusive thoughts, recollections, emotions, imagery, responsiveness/awareness freezing, avoidance response and other similar symptoms
• Related elements of anxiety, depression, drug/alcohol abuse, anger or violent behavior
• Pre-morbid family and social life, and adjustment
• Familial history of psychological ailments. Essentially, therapists must seek comprehensive information on individual PTS symptomatology elements,…
Using the COPE Intervention for Family Caregivers to Improve Symptoms of Hospice Homecare Patients: A Clinical Trial
This study was designed to test an intervention for hospice caregivers in order to help them better manage symptoms experienced by patients with cancer. The authors maintain that research indicates caregivers are unable to accurately assess and report the intensity of symptoms and overall quality of life (QOL) of patients with cancer and patients in hospice care.
Three symptoms, pain, dyspnea, and constipation, are commonly are seen in patients with advanced cancer. However, the author's site research that asserts that these symptoms are assessed inadequately and managed poorly in many patients. Pain and dyspnea have been found to create symptom distress, significantly affecting patient QOL.
The authors claim that caregivers must develop the skills needed to function effectively as part of the healthcare team. Building the knowledge base and teaching…
McMillan, S.C. & Small, B.J. (2007, March). Using the COPE intervention for family caregivers to improve symptoms of hospice homecare patients: A clinical trial. Oncology nursing forum, Vol. 34, Issue 2, 313-321. Retrieved January 20, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&hid=14&sid=b3e07ee7-388a-4d19-97ef-163b481297fd%40sessionmgr15
Sunrise Clinical System Version 6.1
The Emergency Room: Hybrid System
Meetings and Collaborative Care Councils
orkflow of the EMR
The KBC ( Knowledge Bas Charting) 3.4 Upgrade 6
The Role of the Nurse Informaticist
Comprehensive Analysis of my Clinical Experience
After completing 100 hours of practicum in informatics, the following will show the time at the site with my preceptor. The practicum took place at Franklin Hospital - North Shore Long Island. North Shore-LIJ which is an award-winning health system that consist of world-class tertiary hospitals, a nationally well-known children's hospital, a notorious mental facility and an assortment of community hospitals, in addition to a range of wellness and health programs. North Shore-LIJ Health System consist of 16 award-winning hospitals and approximately 400 physician practice locations all through New York, as well as Long Island, Manhattan, Queens and Staten Island. North Shore-LIJ Proudly serving an area of seven…
North Shore-LIJ Health System. (2014, April 29). Retrieved from North Shore LLJ: http://www.northshorelij.com/hospitals/services-and-programs/bariatric-surgery
Russell, C.L. (2010). A clinical nurse specialist -- led intervention to enhance medication adherence using the plan-do-check-act cycle for continuous self-improvement. Clinical Nurse Specialist, 24(2), 69-75. doi:10.1097/NUR.0b013e3181cf554d
Seidl, K. L. And Newhouse, R.P. (2012). The Intersection of evidence-based practice with 5 quality improvement methodologies. JONA, 42(6), 299-304. doi: 10.1097/NNA.0b013e31824ccdc9
Smith, K., Tremblay, M.L., Richer, M.C., and Lanctot, S. (2010). Exploring nurses perceptions of organizational factors of collaborative relationships. The Health Care Manager, 29(3), 271-278. Doi:10.1097/HCM.0b013e3181e9351a
clinical significance of the problem. Fatigue is one of the most common and serious complaints from patients undergoing dialysis. Dialysis causes fatigue that then may have significant negative impacts on the physical and psychological health of the patient.
What is the research purpose of the study? The specific purpose of the research study is to explore any potential physical performance changes in strength and exertion within the sample study of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis.
What are the objectives or aims of the study The current research aims to study the extent of fatigue experienced by patients undergoing and the possibility of introducing exercise as an intervention in order to present possible resolutions that could help patients in their everyday lives. The main objectives of the study are to understand the variables that care causing such fatigue in order to combat them so that patients can exercise more and experience a…
20. How were the rights of human subjects protected? The participants had to have their nephrologists' permission to participate in the study. In order to protect the patients' rights, they had to have agreed and understood the confidentiality aspects of the study.
Straub, Cynthia K., Murphy, Susan O., & Rosenblum, Ruth. (2008). Exercise in the Management of Fatigue in Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis. Nephrology Nursing Journal. 35(5), 469-477.
The MMPI-2 has been used successfully to detect feigning in neurological and psychiatric control groups (Klein, 2007). As a result, the MMPI-2 is the most frequently used test in forensic psychological testing. There is, however, still substantial "debate which of the four subscales is most useful for identifying malingering" (Klein, 2007). However, one of the MMPI-2's lingering problems is that it is a test where people can incorporate coaching, so that it is somewhat vulnerable to coaching.
The issue of coaching is critical in the forensics environment. This is because the goal of forensic psychology is to use neuropsychological assessment methods to help in some type of legal proceedings. These proceedings can be civil or criminal proceedings. In both civil and criminal environments, the need for accurate diagnosis can be critical to outcomes for the person being tested and for people being impacted by their testing. Moreover, it can be…
Klein, H. (2007). Assessment of malingered neuropsychological deficits. New York: Oxford
Write a summary of this interview. Do not submit a transcript of the interview.
5. Using the information from your reading, this interview and any journal articles that you find, discuss the impact that public policies have on the roles and responsibilities of clinical mental health counselors working in diverse communities. Be sure to discuss the roles and responsibilities of counselors providing services to clients of diverse ages, backgrounds, and exceptional abilities, including strategies for differentiated interventions. (How do counselors ensure that interventions "fit" for diverse clients?)
6. Discuss how the policies of professional, governmental, and accrediting organizations have impacted the practice of this counselor.
. Share your impressions of the information that the counselor shared, anything that you found particularly interesting, surprising, or that you expected to hear. Discuss the impact that the interview had on your beliefs, expectations, and goals related to becoming a clinical mental health counselor…
7. Share your impressions of the information that the counselor shared, anything that you found particularly interesting, surprising, or that you expected to hear. Discuss the impact that the interview had on your beliefs, expectations, and goals related to becoming a clinical mental health counselor working in this setting.
Summary of the interview
The ability of a clinical mental health counselor to work with a socially and culturally diverse population (e.g race, gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, economic status) is noted by the American Mental Health Association (AMHA, 2011) to be an important quality of all professional clinical mental health counselors. The work of Patterson (1996) indicated that multicultural counseling is important in order for the inadequacies of the mental health services targeting the minority groups to be eliminated. Such inadequacies include the lack of bilingual counselors, discrimination, and the lack of counselors who are members of the minority groups as well as prejudice in counselors. In this paper we discuss the impact that public policies have on the roles and responsibilities of clinical mental health counselors working in diverse
DSM diagnostic criteria have long been a source of criticism. McGorry, Hickie, Yung, Pantelis, and Jackson (2006) point out some basic deficiencies of the DSM diagnostic system. First the authors state that the function of a diagnosis is to state what treatment should be applied or predict the prognosis of the condition. These are certainly functions of a diagnosis, but a diagnosis has broader implications. First and foremost the idea of having a diagnosis is to take a series of related signs and symptoms that hang together consistently and label them so as to facilitate communication between health care professionals. A diagnosis alone is useless unless it allows professionals to communicate about the same entity. Then descriptions of course, treatment, and prognosis can follow.
McGorry et al. charge that in the DSM system the clinical features that occur early in the course of the disorder are not distinguished from those…
Fava G.A. & Kellner, R. (1993). Staging: a neglected dimension in psychiatric classification. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 87, 555-558.
Fava, G.A. & Tossani, E. (2007). Prodromal stage of major depression. Early Intervention in Psychiatry, 1, 9-18.
Hetrick, S.E., Parker, A.G., Hickie, I.B., Purcell, R., Yung, A.R., & McGorry, P.D. (2008).
Early identification and intervention in depressive disorders: Towards a clinical staging model. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 77, 263-270.
The nursing practice is a profession that is based on conceptual and theoretical models that help in guiding patient safety and quality initiatives. The use of conceptual and theoretical models is an important part in nursing practice that is applied across the various disciplines in this profession. As a clinical nurse specialist, nursing conceptual and theoretical models play a crucial role in achieving the specific goal of identifying, recognizing, treating, and monitoring illnesses or diseases. The process of using nursing conceptual and theoretical models involves developing practice-specific concepts relating to the specific professional practice and creating a personal philosophy and practice guideline. The practice-specific concepts should incorporate the four basic metaparadigms of nursing theory and be supported by research and concepts.
Overview of My Professional Practice and Four Metaparadigms
A clinical nurse specialist is a nurse professional or practitioner who provides a crucial link with regards to detecting,…
"Cultural Diversity in Nursing Practice." (n.d.). American Nurses Association. Retrieved April
18, 2015, from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/Policy-Advocacy/Positions-and-Resolutions/ANAPositionStatements/Position-Statements-Alphabetically/prtetcldv14444.html
Lyon, B.L. & Davidson, S.B. (2004). Statement on Clinical Nurse Specialist Practice and Education. Retrieved April 18, 2015, from http://www.nacns.org/docs/NACNS-Statement.pdf
Masters, K. (2014). Framework for Professional Nursing Practice. In Role development in professional nursing practice (3rd ed., Chapter 2, pp.47-87). Retrieved from http://samples.jbpub.com/9781449691509/81982_CH02_Pass1.pdf
Mammals will evolve (to choose an analogy) but they do not revert to being reptiles. If the subjects of this research had simply disagreed about the exact biographical dates of the model this would not have been problematic. If research subjects, for example, had argued to extend the period of middle adulthood to fifty rather than forty-five, for example, as people work until they are older than had been the case when Levinson was working, this would have in general supported his findings.
The validity of his model is not dependent on being absolutely precise in his age-related break-points and while Levinson himself might not have acknowledged this, it makes sense that details of the different stages should have to be shifted to meet changes in society. Such an acknowledgement is in fact missing from Levinson's model (as well as from the models of Erikson and Piaget) and must be…
service cost, Devices, and Cost per bed
Qualitative research design model
Secondary Data Collection
esearch Validity and eliability
Across the U.S., hospitals are overspending millions each year on mobile assets that are not utilized effectively. Despite more than adequate inventories, equipment often is not available when needed. As a result, more units are bought, leased, or rented. And those units, in turn, get lost in the system and therefore, underutilized. In fact, the number of mobile devices per U.S. hospital bed has increased 60% in the past 15 years while costs have doubled. Yet in most hospitals, the device utilization is approximately 45%. In the present study, the need for optimization and efficiency methods with clinical assets is investigated.
Hospitals in U.S. have to incur increased expenses for acquisition of medical equipment utilized for their normal operations. The cost of equipment purchased is high and hospitals are required to…
Baretich, M. (2004). Equipment Control and Asset Management. The Clinical Engineering Handbook, 1, 122.
Castro, L., Lefebvre, E., & Lefebvre, L.A. (2013). Adding Intelligence to Mobile Asset Management in Hospitals: The True Value of RFID. Journal of medical systems, 37(5), 1-17.
Christe, B., Rogers, R., & Cooney, E. (2010). Analysis of the impact of a radiofrequency identification asset-tracking system in the healthcare setting. Journal of Clinical Engineering, 35(1), 49-55.
DeGraff, B. (2013). As medical devices proliferate, asset management is key. Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology, 47(2), 123-7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1363268371?accountid=34741
Likewise, engaging in too much control over a Stage III supervisee could lead to quite a bit of tension in the supervisor/supervisee relationship and result in negative transference to clients in counseling sessions. Nonetheless, this notion that counseling supervisees develop in relatively predictable stages and that an effective supervisor can best help them progress by approaching them at the level of supervision that corresponds to their own development is very helpful in performing efficient and rewarding supervision for counseling trainees.
Empirical research has validated the approach of the integrated developmental models to some extent. In order to determine the supervisee's developmental McNeill, Stoltenberg, and omans (1992) developed the Supervisee Levels Questionnaire -- evised (SLQ -- ). Lovell (1999) found that the SLQ -- results from trainees indicated that the level of education and prior supervised experience was related to the level of the supervisee opposed to such concepts as cognitive…
Anderson, C.E., & Bang, K. (2004). Using the Integrated Developmental Model in a Substance
Abuse Practicum. Journal of Teaching in the Addictions, 2(2), 67-82.
Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (4th
ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Counselor Trainee Resource List
Foundations of MHC
Resource 1: Name of the organization - Care Counseling Center
Address, phone, fax, email address and website address.
• Address - 214-216 West 116th Street, NY 10026
• Phone *** Fax ***
• Email address - [email protected]
• Website Address - http://www.carecounselingny.com/
Summary of the organization's mission and services provided.
• Care Counseling Center is an approved alcohol and substance abuse center that nurtures health, growth and development. This center provides help to individuals and families in need of prevention or intervention counseling, domestic violence, parenting skills, anger and stress management, alcohol/substance abuse, mental health disorders, and LGBT issues. Through an intensive outpatient program model, Care Counseling Center offers individual and group therapy.
• Alcohol and drug abuse has grown into an epidemic across the globe and the need for professionals in this field has…
Clinical psychology is a professional and scientific field in which specialists of this area of practice seek to augment understanding of human behavior in order to promote effective functioning of persons within society. Clinical psychologists encompass both the application and search for psychological principles and techniques that better the individual. In order to search for and apply the data they collect, clinicians must engage in teaching, research, assessment or diagnosis, psychotherapy, and programs meant to augment psychological well-being and performance. Due to its rich history, clinical psychology has become the biggest and one of the most dynamic fields of psychology with the latest specialist focusing on positive clinical psychology.
Many events helped shape development and practice of clinical psychology. "…the publication of William James's Principles of Psychology, Sigmund Freud's pioneer investigations into the causes and treatments of neuroses, the founding of the American Psychological Association, the opening of the first…
Durlak, J.A., Weissberg, R.P., Dyminicki, A.B., Taylor, R.D., & Schellinger, K.B. (2011). The Impact of Enhancing Students' Social and Emotional Learning: A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Universal Interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405-432. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01564.x/full
Reisman, J.M. (1991). A history of clinical psychology. New York: Hemisphere Pub. Corp.
Wood, A.M., & Tarrier, N. (2010). Positive Clinical Psychology: A new vision and strategy for integrated research and practice. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 819. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.06.003
In an acute care setting, such Veterans Affairs, this objective is executed by educating patients about how to maintain a healthy diet and lifestyle after the leave the facility, while in a long-term care setting-such as Cobble Hill-this objective is executed on a daily basis by providing nutritious meals for elderly residents. And finally, in an ambulatory, out-patient care setting-such as Atlantic -- the clinical nutritionist works to support patients in maintaining a diet that addresses their personal healthcare needs, while still living independently within a larger community. Perhaps the most significant similarity between facilities is the notion of nutrition as merely one component of a comprehensive care program; hence the necessity of a clinical nutritional to work in conjunction with a full medical, administrative, and social support staff. The apparent goal of such an approach is to promote multiple aspects of health and well-being among patients, regardless setting or…
Cite Health. (2010). Long Island College Hospital. Retrieved December 19, 2010 from http://citehealth.com/dialysis-centers/new-york/cities/brooklyn/long-island-college-hospital
Cobble Hill Health Center. (2010). Resident Services. Retrieved December 19, 2010 from http://www.cobblehill.org/services
United States Department of Veterans Affairs. (2010). Patient Information. Retrieved December,
19, 2010 from http://www.brooklyn.va.gov/patients/index.asp
Masters in Nursing for Clinical Teaching
The objective of this study is to examine the importance of a Masters in Nursing for the Nurse in Clinical Teaching endeavors.
The work of Orton (2007) entitled "Nurses As Clinical Teachers" Variables Affecting Teaching Comfort and Self-Efficacy" reports a descriptive correlations study that examined whether there was a "common understanding of a good clinical teacher among nursing students and faculty." (p.ix) Stated as a secondary purpose was the validation of a tool for development of individual prescriptions for improvement of the clinical teaching of nursing instructors.
A third stated purpose was testing for common assumptions about good teaching:
(1) if experience in clinical teaching leads to a better praxis;
(2) if educational training (the most common intervention) leads to better teaching;
(3) if experience in teaching (other than nursing) leads to better clinical teaching;
(4) if the education degree status has…
Benner, P., Sutphen, M., Leonard, V., and Day, L. (2010). Educating nurses: A call for radical transformation. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Davis, D.C., Dearman, K. Schwab, C. & Kitchens, E. (1992). Competencies of novice nurse educators. Journal of Nursing Education, 31(4), 159-164.
Krisman-Scott, M.A., Kershbaumer, Sr. R., & Thompson, J.E. (1998). Faculty preparation: a new solution to an old problem. Journal of Nursing Education, 37(7), 318-320.
Leuner, JD and Ruland, JP (2010) Master's Programs Preparing Nurse Educators: What is the Current State of Affairs. Nurse Educator. Vol. 35 No. 6. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingcenter.com/lnc/journalarticle?Article_ID=1078569
By improving their self knowledge, leaders can change and develop as leaders of people. Clinical supervision for leaders is sometimes called administrative clinical supervision. This is managerial clinical supervision with a focus on problems related to leadership and organization of work, particularly human relations issues. Administrative clinical supervision makes use of experiential learning focused on oneself and one's work (Sirola-Karvinen and Hyrkas, 2008).
Administrative clinical supervision means clinical supervision for leaders that address leadership issues in order to achieve set goals. Supervision promotes cohesion within the organization and is directed at change. Administrative clinical supervision is the examination of leadership in which leaders have the chance to reflect upon the quality of their decisions and share their feelings. In terms of action, administrative clinical supervision involves process-like support and mentoring, which boost the leader's confidence in coping with leadership duties and changes associated with it. Administrative clinical supervision addresses issues…
Clinical supervision 'can inoculate staff against stress'. (2010). Mental Health Practice. 13(7),
Clinical Supervision. (2009). Retrieved June 27, 2010, Australian College of Mental Health
Nurses Web site: http://www.acmhn.org/career-resources/clinical-supervision.html
Studies suggest that more computerized order entry of medications helps reduce errors by limiting interpretation errors due to handwriting (Meadows, 2003). Thus more order entry is involving computers to protect patients. A culture that supports safety and safe practices has also been adopted to provide nursing staff and patients information about drug therapy and medication to ensure that everyone is aware of the need for safe practices when utilizing and dispensing medications.
Describe the strategies used to ensure nursing practice is performed within legal requirements and ethical frameworks
Nurses now "live and work in a world where there is no single reality but many coexisting realities among which they must choose" (Johnston, 1999:1). Given that through more and more nurses are forced to make legal and ethical decisions and take steps that will determine the best processes to adopt to ensure that moral and legal processes are adopted and followed.…
Campbell, D.W. & Sigsby, L.M. (1995). "Nursing interventions classification: A content analysis of nursing activities in public schools." Journal of Community Health Nursing, 12(4): 229.
Caretto, V.A. & McCormick, C.S. (1991). "Community as Client: A Hand's on experience for baccalaureate nursing students." Journal of Community Health Nursing, 8(3): 179.
Johnston, M.J. (1999). Bioethics: A nursing perspective. Sydney: Harcourt Saunders.
Lumby, J. & Picone, D. (2000). Clinical challenges: Focus on nursing. St. Leanords:
detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?
Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…
AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).
Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964
Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at http://www.healthinschools.org/mhs3.asp . Accessed on 12/08/2003
Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003
Forensic and Clinical oles and Assessment
While psychologists and psychiatrists may engage in both clinical and forensic practice, it important to recognize that clinical and forensic practice are distinct areas of practice. This means that the role of the forensic and clinical practitioner differs in several ways: "who the client of the psychologist is the nature of the relationship between the psychologist and the individual being evaluated, and the psychologist's approach to the material provided by the individual" (Packer, 2008). Moreover, it also means that the professional assesses the individual differently. These differences include: the purpose of the assessment, the goal of the intervention, and psycho-legal vs. psychological assessment. While the differences may seem clear, the reality is that even forensic evaluations can lead to the establishment of the type of relationships that develop in clinical practice, making it difficult for health care professionals and for their clients to differentiate…
American Psychological Association. (2011). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists.
Retrieved September 8, 2013 from American Psychology-Law Society website: http://www.ap-ls.org/aboutpsychlaw/SGFP_Final_Approved_2011.pdf
Healthcare Management (Discussion questions)
Healthcare organizations must always strive to provide quality care to their patients. This empowers them to be ahead of their competition and in line with the various rules set by healthcare bodies and the government. As such, companies often try to adopt best practices have been proven to be successful in other institutions. A best practice refers to a technique or method that has consistently shown or proved results superior to those attained by other means. Best practices can also be defined as methods used by organizations as benchmarks. According to Bogan and English (1994), benchmarks are used to uphold quality as an alternate solution to the enacted standards. The diversities within societies in terms of ethnicity, race, and religion calls for the importance of adopting affordable and quality care within the health care organizations.
According to Chin et al. (2012), the obert Wood Johnson Foundation…
Kay, J. (2007). "Health Care Benchmarking." Medical Bulletin, 12(2): 22-27
Houser, J. & Oman, K.S. (2011). "Evidenced-Based Practice: An Implementation Guide for Healthcare Organizations." Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett LearningQuality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures
Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures
Quality assurance: Importance of systems and standard operating procedures
According to Kane and Houston-Vega, Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and manifests as "an insidious memory impairment, with other possible symptoms including aphasia, apraxia, agnosia, and disturbances in executive functioning" (p. 286).
In a highly multicultural society such as characterizes the United Kingdom today, identifying any relevant cultural factors that must be taken into account when formulating walking regimens as proposed herein. For example, Kane and his colleagues report, "There are differing epidemiological rates for dementia among the various ethno-cultural groups. Additionally, there are differing values, beliefs, behaviors, attitudes, coping strategies, and needs related to Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. This is evidenced by an expanding body of literature that describes the effect of mental health concerns, such as dementia, on diverse ethno-cultural groups" (p. 285).
Beyond the challenges to the provision of a cost-effective, community-based walking regimen is the difficulty involved in…
College of Occupational Therapists Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct. (2005). College of Occupational Therapists. [Online]. Available: http://hsc.uwe.ac.uk/practicesupport/ .
Ebersole, P. & Hess, P. (1998). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response. St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Evans, S. & Garner, J. (2004). Talking over the years: A handbook of dynamic psychotherapy with older adults. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Hill, R.D., Thorn, B.L., Bowling, J. & Morrison, a. (2002). Geriatric residential care. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Autism Interventions Amongst African-Americans
The rise in diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders amongst wide swaths of children in the developed world has led to many complex and unique problems for parents, physicians, and children. Understanding and properly addressing autism and its impact on learning, family, and the community in specific ethnic, religious, and cultural contexts requires accurate and comprehensive knowledge of how the problem and potential solutions are perceived by individual cultural community. The following pages provide a brief overview of research related to autism in the African-American community, with special attention paid to specific intervention programs and methods that are successful in addressing autism amongst African-Americans. From this analysis, it can be seen that well-defined problems exist when confronting autism and other mental disorders in this cultural group, and that particular frameworks need to be implemented in order to achieve truly effective results.
Autism Interventions for African-Americans…
Dyches, T., Wilder, L., Sudweeks, R., Obiaker, F. & Algozzine, B. (2004). Multicultural issues in autism. Journal of Autism and Development Disorders 34(2): 211-22.
Mandell, D. & Novak, M. (2005). The role of culture in families' treatment decisions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Review 11(2): 110-5.
Yoder, P. & Stone, M. (2006). Randomized comparison of two communication interventions for preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 74(3): 426-35.
It is felt that an important part of this process is the family since that is where the child spends the majority of their time. The family situation and the experiences that are provided to the child within this situation are critical to a child's development (Bruder, 2000).
Physical Therapy is one type of early intervention that is often used with disabled children. The idea of family-centered care brings many wonderful things to the practice of pediatric physical therapy. Physical therapy is the profession of developing, maintaining and restoring maximum movement and function to a patient. Treatments often focus on improving gross and fine motor skills, balance and coordination, strength and endurance as well as cognitive and sensory processing. For a child with a disability all of these practices are things that they need to work on and improve in order to be able to grow up and care for…
Bruder, Mary Beth. (2000). Family-Centered Early Intervention: Clarifying Our Values for the New Millennium. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education. 20(2). p.105-115.
****Johnson, Beverly H. (1999). Family-Centered Care: Creating Partnerships in Health. Group Practice Journal. p. 18-21.
****- This citation needs the journal number and volume number in order to be complete…..it wasn't on the article itself and I couldn't locate it anywhere.
Childhood Obesity and Interventions
There is a strong relationship between childhood obesity and exposure to environmental factors -- most notably socio-economic status. There are exposures that trigger both positive and negative outcomes, and these have to be discussed along with the possible interventions that can be undertaken. Low socio-economic status (E) has been associated with a large number of problematic outcomes where health is concerned, including obesity and related issues in childhood (Kallem, et al., 2013). Despite this correlation, though, there are plenty of children with low E who grow up slim and apparently health, so it is clear that environment is not the only factor (Kallem, et al., 2013). The objective of the study by Kallem, et al. (2013) was to examine the "shift-and-persist" strategy and how (or if) it was what was protecting low E children from obesity in some cases. This strategy involves how a person deals…
Studies have found that racial and ethnic disparities can be just as significant as SES, diet, and exercise issues -- largely because SES and related concerns are often tied to specific racial and ethnic groups more than others (Carroll-Scott, et al., 2013). Preschool age children who are in minority racial and ethnic categories have a statistically higher prevalence of obesity when all other variables have been controlled for by researchers (Carroll-Scott, et al., 2013). That is a serious indication that there is more at play in the overall environment, and that study of all factors that could contribute to obesity is needed. That would include analyzing a larger area of environmental factors, because there are many causes for the tripling of obese children and adolescents throughout the last three decades (Dixon, et al., 2012). That much of a change in that short of a time period is a significant problem for society, and can raise the rates of health care for everyone.
If the obesity epidemic in children is not dealt with now, society can expect to see increases in the rates of many chronic diseases, and these diseases will be particularly obvious in populations that already have a disparity in their health (Dixon, et al., 2012). In the study conducted by Dixon, et al. (2012), the associations between SES and social characteristics of the residential environment were considered. Then, these were looked at as compared to diet, physical activity, and BMI (Dixon, et al., 2012). The participants consisted of students in the fifth and sixth grade at a school in New Haven, Connecticut (Dixon, et al., 2012). That was done to narrow down a population in order to determine the environmental factors associated with it (Dixon, et al., 2012). Multilevel modeling was used in order to collect information on the area and the students (Dixon, et al., 2012).
It was discovered that students living within a close walking distance of fast food outlets had higher BMI numbers than those who lived farther away (Dixon, et al., 2012). Additionally, high fast food outlet densities were linked to higher BMIs and more unhealthy eating (Dixon, et al., 2012). When students had close access to gyms, parks, and playgrounds, though, they were more likely to get exercise, helping to offset some of the unhealthy eating patterns (Dixon, et al., 2012). More affluent neighborhoods were also linked to healthier eating behaviors and better exercise regimens, where students who were on the low end of the SES scale ate poorly and got little exercise (Dixon, et al., 2012). One of the ways to help lessen the problems with childhood obesity could be to provide more parks, playgrounds, and other areas where students could get good exercise, and to lower the number of fast food establishments in residential areas.
old, the profession of clinical psychology is "one of the most vigorous fields of psychology," (eisman, 1991, p. 3). Clinical psychology refers generally to both social science research and application of that research to achieve specific clinical goals related to mental health. Since its inception in the 1890s, the field has changed and evolved dramatically (Benjamin, 2005). Earliest forms of clinical psychology included working with asylum patients, which often entailed using a variety of techniques that are now deemed unethical or harmful. The rise of psychoanalysis based on Freud's teachings led to the 20th century being an era in which talk therapy prevailed. esearch on different models of talk therapy has informed best practices in general. However, recent changes to the field of clinical psychology attempt to distinguish between the types of quantifiable evidence that can be gained from empirical research using psychopharmacological interventions on the one hand and less…
Barlow, DH (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Benjamin, L.T. (2005). A history of clinical psychology as a profession in America. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1, 1-30.
Lilienfeld, S.O., Lynn, S.J. & Lohr, J.M. (2015). Science and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology. New York: The Guilford Press.
Reisman, J.M. (1991). A History of Clinical Psychology. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Identify and Describe the Aggregate
This paper focuses on a particular section of HIV patients - that of men having sex with men, in the United States. There is also an identification and description of the aggregate, its needs and risk factors. The advantages, applications, limitations and adaptability of the interventions for the aggregate form the bulk of the discussion in this paper.
In almost every country in the world, it can be said with certainty, that there are men who have sex with men (MSM). Globally, however, this is a very diverse group. Some of these men label themselves as bisexual; others as gay and a large number simply refer to themselves as heterosexual men who just have sex with other men. In the global HIV and AIDS context, sex between men is a key front in the fight against the spread of this disease, because such…
Aceijas, C., Stimson, G., Hickman, M., & Rhodes, T. (2004). Global overview of injecting drug use and HIV infection among injecting drug users.
Avert.org. (2014). Men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV / AIDS. Retrieved from Avert: http://www.avert.org/men-who-have-sex-men-msm-hiv-aids.htm
Beyrer, C. (2007). HIV Epidemiology Update and Transmission Factors: Risks and Risk Contexts -- 16th International AIDS Conference Epidemiology Plenary. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 981-987.
CDC. (2013, Novemeber 29). HIV Testing and Risk Behaviors Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men -- United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), pp. 958-962.
educe Patient Falls in a Hospital Environment
Method of Obtaining Necessary Approval(s)
Description of Current Problem
Explanation of Proposed Solution
esources equired for Implementation
isk and quality management is a fundamental and important aspect to many health care organizations and patient lives are often at stake. This is especially true in nursing facilities or hospitals that house elderly patients because of the level of direct patient interactions that occur on a daily basis and the specific needs of this population. There are many potential risks that can emerge from this population. Three common risks were identified from a literature review based on evidence-based practices. One common risk deals medication error and making sure patients receive the right dosage of the correct medication at the right time. Another risk that is becoming increasingly common is the risk of the spread of infection and in severe cases infections that are…
Colon-Emeric, C., Schenck, A., Gorospe, J., McArdle, J., Dobson, L., Deporter, C., & McConnell, E. (2006). Translating Evidence-Based Falls Prevention into Clinical Practice in Nursing Facilities: Results and Lessons from a Quality Improvement Collaborative. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 1414-1418.
Renteln-Kruse, W., Krause, T., & Georgr, D. (2007). Incidence of In-Hospital Falls in Geriatric Patients Before andAfter the Introduction of an Interdisciplinary Team -- BasedFall-Prevention Intervention. The American Geriatric Society, 2068-2076.
Additionally, there may be patients that will be found to have the early symptoms of CKD, and those test results will be passed on to the individual patient.
All participants will be invited to learn more about CKD, and a one-night informational meeting will be conducted in which informational brochures will be passed out to the attendees, and will be discussed in detail. The attendees will also be provided the opportunity to give feedback (positive or negative) concerning their experiences with the early testing and how they view CKD from a current view as compared to their previous perceptions.
After all the data has been gathered and analyzed, a paper will be compiled that presents the results, along with a discussion of those results. It is hoped that the results will provide information to the medical community concerning how early testing and positive reinforcement can be effectively used during the…
Drabble, S.J.; O'Cathain, A.; Thomas, K.J.; Rudolph, A.; Hewison, J.; (2014) Describing qualitative research undertaken with randomized controlled trials in grant proposals: A documentary analysis, BMC Medical Research Methodology, Vol. 14, Issue 1, pp. 1 -- 17
Jansen, D.L.; Heijmans, M.; Rijken, M.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Grootendorst, D.C.; Dekker, F.W.; Boeschoten, E.W.; Kaptein, A.A.; Groenewegen, P.P.; (2013) Illness perceptions and treatment perceptions of patients with chronic kidney disease: Different phases, different perceptions? British Journal of Health Psychology, Vol. 18, Issue 2, pp. 244 -- 262
Kokonvei, G.; Urban, R.; Reinhardt, M.; Jozan, A.; Demetrovics, Z.; (2014) The difficulties in emotion regulation scale: Factor structure in chronic pain patients, Journal of Clinical Psychology, Vol. 70, Issue 6, pp. 589-600
Lewis, R.; (2013) An overview of chronic kidney disease in older people, Nursing Older People, Vol. 25, Issue 10, pp. 31 -- 38
1. The dilemma of Obesity
Mokdad et al., (1999) in his study found that the issue of unhealthy weight, overweight and obesity are perhaps one of the rising concerns for the Americans in the 21st century as more and more U.S. citizens become vulnerable to the circumstantial risks and dangers of the phenomenon (Mokdad et al., 1999). It is usually the body mass indexes (BMI) that indicate whether a person is actually overweight or not. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) carried out a study for the years 1999 to 2002 using the BMI phenomenon and concluded that about 65% of U.S. citizens in the adulthood years were categorized under the overweight group because of their BMI (Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2005).
To understand the phenomenon of obesity and its rise, it's important to understand…
Adam Drewnowski and S.E. Specter (2004), Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 1: 6-16.
Akande, a. & Akande, B.E. (1994). On becoming a person: Activities to help children with their anger. Early Child Development and Care, 102, 31-62.
Akande, a. Wyk, C.D.WV. And Osagie, J.E. (2000). Importance of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Illness and the Enchancement of Health. Education. 120: 4.
Alexander, M.A., & Blank, J.J. (1988). Factors related to obesity in Mexican-American preschool children. Image, 20(2), 79-82.
Early Detection and Management of Diabetic Neuropathy in a Clinical and Homecare Setting
The objective of this study is to examine early detection and management of diabetic neuropathy in a clinical and homecare setting and specifically through examination of articles published after 2002. The information from each source will be summarized listing the strengths and weaknesses of each article in separate paragraphs. As well, this work will utilize table or graphs to present the findings.
O'eilly, Caryl Ann (2005) Managing the Care of Patients with Diabetes in the Home Care Setting, Diabetes Spectrum, July 2005. Vol. 18. No. 3. etrieved from: http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/18/3/162.full
The work of O'eilly (2005) reports that more patients than ever before are released earlier from hospitals and rehabilitation center and that those with diabetes are included in this trend. Diabetes is reported to be ranked second following congestive heart failure as the primary diagnosis at…
Zieger, Anne (2009) Studies Offer Mixed Grades for Remote Diabetes Care. 6 July 2009 Retrieved from FierceHealthIT at: http://www.fiercehealthit.com/story/studies-offer-mixed-grades-remote-diabetes-care/2009-07-06
O'Reilly, Caryl Ann (2005) Managing the Care of Patients with Diabetes in the Home Care Setting, Diabetes Spectrum, July 2005. Vol. 18. No. 3. Retrieved from: http://spectrum.diabetesjournals.org/content/18/3/162.full
McLaughlin, Sue (2005) From Research to Practice/Diabetes Care in Special Settings: Meeting the Challenges: Diabetes Care in Special Settings Diabetes Spectrum July 2005 18:143-145. Retrieved from: http://www.vnsny.org/research/projects/1_implemetation.html
educing Substance Abuse Among College Freshman
Motivational Interviewing as an Intervention for Substance Abuse Problems among College Freshman
Motivational Interviewing as an Intervention for Substance Abuse Problems among College Freshman
Kazemi and colleagues (2013) were interested in understanding whether a behavioral intervention would reduce the prevalence of substance abuse among college freshman in the United States. The independent variable was motivational peer-counseling sessions (motivational interviews) about the risks of alcohol abuse and illicit drug use. The dependent variables were scores obtained on two questionnaires. These scores were then used to determine if there was a statistically significant association between blackout frequency, illicit drug use, and alcohol consumption. Demographic information (attribute variables) was also collected and the attributes of primary interest were ethnicity and gender. The hypothesis tested by the researchers is whether the intervention could reduce the prevalence of self-reported high risk behaviors among college freshman at a representative…
Barnett, E., Sussman, S., Smith, C., Rohrbach, L.A., & Pruijt-Metz, D. (2012). Motivational interviewing for adolescent substance use: A review of the literature. Addictive Behaviors, 37(12), 1325-34.
DiClemente, C.C. & Prochaska, J.O. (1982). Self-change and therapy change of smoking behavior: A comparison of processes of change in cessation and maintenance. Addictive Behaviors, 7(2), 133-42.
Dimitrov, D.M. & Rumrill, P.D. Jr. (2003). Pretest-posttest designs and measurement of change. Work, 20(2), 159-65.
Grucza, R.A., Norberg, K.E., & Bierut, L.J. (2009). Binge drinking among youths and young adults in the United States: 1979-2006. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(7), 692-702.
psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?
The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…
Barth, J., Critchley, J., & Benget, J. (2008). Psychosocial interventions for smoking cessations in patients with coronary heart disease, Cochrane Heart Review.
Critchley JA, Capewell S. Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease. J Am Med Ass;290:86 -- 97.
Frothingham, S. et al., (2006). How much does smoking cessation cut CHD risk? Clinical Inquiries, 57, 10, 675-679
Huey-Ling W., Harrell, J & Funk, S (2008). Factors Associated With Smoking Cessation
On the one hand, it has been rated as a severe and engrossing clinical disease; on the other hand, there is no clear consensus or protocol in defining and assessing it. Much about it still remains to be understood.
The most popular form of therapy for children with attachment disorders is 'holding therapy'. 'Holding therapy' describes a form of intervention that consists of close physical contact with one or more therapists. The child is held across the lap of one or two therapists, whilst touch and eye contact between child and therapists are encouraged strongly through the session. Although 'holding' is supposed to provide the child with the care and security that she missed during her developmental years, and although it is also thought to be the way to break through to the child, and perhaps contain the child's distress or frustration, considerable controversy surrounds the practice. There has been…
Carter, C. (1998). Neuroendocrine perspectives on social attachment and love. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23, 779-818
Chisholm, K. (1998). A three-year follow-up of indiscriminate friendliness in children adopted from Romanian orphanages. Child Development, 69, 1092-1106.
O'Connor, T. & Zeanah, C. (2003). Attachment disorders: Assessment strategies and treatment approaches. Attachment & Human Development, 5, 223-244
Environmental Interventions for Patients With Dementia
Dementia is a neurocognitive disorder that has been treated in various ways throughout all history. The modern era has proposed pharmacological interventions in the past but these have proved dangerous and degrading to the quality of life that dementia patients and their loved ones prefer. For this reason, environmental interventions have emerged as an alternative method for treating elderly dementia patients. This intervention method consists of altering the environment in which the patient lives by accommodating for the needs of the patient with clearly identifiable pathways, open spaces for communication, naturalistic settings, adequate stimuli and private rooms for quiet. This paper discusses the fundamental principles of environmental interventions for patients with dementia and includes a justification for this approach as a suitable alternative to prevailing psychoactive drug interventions. It also includes a discussion of the historical context of the disorder, its current description according…
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2015). Non-pharmacologic Interventions
for Agitation and Aggression in Dementia. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/index.cfm/search-for-guides-reviews-and-reports/?productid=1999&pageaction=displayproduct
Bupa. (2015). A dementia friendly society. Bupa. Retrieved from https://www.bupa.com/corporate/our-purpose/healthy-ageing-and-dementia/reports-and-publications/a-dementia-friendly-society
Fleming, R., Purandare, N. (2010). Long-term care for people with dementia:
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…
Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.
Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.
Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.
Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
social and psychological interventions are important in youth mental health
The most productive and creative generation of any nation are the youth, Australia included. Nations largely depend on the youth for almost everything hence the need to be in the best shape physically and more importantly psychologically. The mental health of the youth has been widely viewed as a subject of concern among the medical fraternity and one that needs constant and continuous intervention in order to have a sound mental health. This paper will delve into the prevalent mental disorder and the different ways in which they manifest themselves and the relevant social and psychological interventions that are appropriate in the intervention especially among the youth. Through understanding of these mental health conditions or disorders and the available interventions, one is able to evaluate whether the interventions have been sufficient and if not, interrogate the inefficiencies and the possible…
Lee R.S.C., et.al, (2012). Cognitive Remediation Improves Memory and Psychosocial Functioning in First-episode Psychiatric Out-patients. Psychological Medicine. Cambridge University Press.
Mario A.J., (2011). Preventing the Second Episode: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Psychosocial and Pharmacological Trials in First-Episode psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin Vol.37. Oxford University Press.
Mathew S. et.al., (2008). Recent Advances in the Neurobiology of Anxiety Disorders: Implications for Novel Therapeutics. American Journal of Medical Genetics. Wiley-Liss Inc.
Peters A.T & Nierenberg A.A., (2011). Stepping Back to Step Forward: Lessons From the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). American Society of Clinical Psychopharmacology Corner.
Psychological Interventions Chronic Pain
Medical science is increasingly aligning with a biopsychosocial treatment perspective that understands pain and symptoms as coming from multifaceted experience characterized by the complexity that is inherently human (oditi & obinson, 2011). Many vectors come together in this biopsychosocial perspective: the physicological and emotional state of the individual tend to dominate, garnering most of the medical attention these variables align with conventional medical and behavioral training (oditi & obinson, 2011). In addition, the influence of culture, ethnicity, and society on the interpretation of health and disease are important considerations (oditi & obinson, 2011). The literature on mind-body connection provides strong evidence of the impact that an individual's emotions can have on their behavior and, interestingly, provides findings that the reverse can also be true (oditi & obinson, 2011).
Chronic pain is considered to be an illness from a biopsychosocial perspective, and not a disease (oditi &…
Bishop, S.R. (2002). What Do We Really Know About Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64:71-84.Bishop, (2002).
Elkins, G., Jensen, M.P., & Patterson, D.R. (2007). Hypnotherapy for the Management of Chronic Pain. Int J. Clin Exp Hypn, 55(3):275-287.
Guzman, J., Esmail, R., Karjalainen, K., Malmivaara, A., Irvin, E. & Bombardier, C. (2007). Multidisciplinary bio-psycho-social rehabilitation for chronic low-back pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2.
Goossens, M.E.J.B., Vlaeyen, J.W.S., Hidding, A., Kole-Snijders, A. & Evers, S.M.A.A. (2005). Treatment Expectancy Affects the Outcome of Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in Chronic Pain. Clinical Journal of Pain, 21(1): 18-26.Kjellgren, A., Bood, S.A., Axelsson, K., Norlander, T. & Saatcioglu, F. (2007). Wellness through a comprehensive yogic breathing program -- a controlled pilot trial. BMC Complimentary and Alternative Medicine, 19, 7: 43.
Clinical Case Management
Case management emerged during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in an effort by professional social workers to address the broad-based social problems that followed the Industrial evolution, including most especially poverty (Aufderhaar, Giddens, Holder, et al., 2013). Since that time, case management has influenced by a wide range of evidence-based practices and social workers in virtually every field use these techniques to help their clients overcome the problems that are adversely affecting their lives. To gain a better understanding of the process, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a definition of case management, the rationale in support of its use, and a discussion concerning how case management can be useful as part of an overall treatment plan. In addition, based on a representative vignette involving a young couple and their minor daughter, this paper also examines how case management can help these clients,…
Aufderhaar, L., Giddens, B., Holder, L. A. et al. (2013). Social work case management. National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from http://www.socialworkers.org/practice / naswstandards/CaseManagementStandards2013.pdf.
Darnell, J. S. (2013, May). Navigators and assisters: Two case management roles for social workers in the Affordable Care Act. Health and Social Work, 38(2), 123-126.
Miller, E. (2011). Individual outcomes: Getting back to what matters. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic.
Perosa, L. M. & Perosa, S. L. (2010, April). Assessing competencies in couples and family therapy/counseling: A call to the profession. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 36(2), 126-130.
juvenile justice interventions to parental intervention and readiness for change. The study evaluates Parenting with Love Limits (PLL) group therapy program to determine its effect on adolescent behavior and its effect on parent factors as well as parent adolescent relationship and readiness for change.
The methods and procedures used in conducting this study are descriptive and experimental. It also involves statistical analysis of data. It also reviews previous studies that relates to it. It is descriptive in the sense that it gives a reader an insight into what terminologies like recidivism, re-adjudication, and community based intervention mean with regard to reducing adolescent oppositional and conduct disorders. The design was experimental in the sense that it used The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to measure behavioral problems and social competencies of children as reported by their parents. The parents are reported to have completed the CBCL by themselves. The CBCL integrates 118…
Sells, S.P., Early, K.W. & Smith, T.E. (2011). Reducing Adolescent Oppositional and Conduct
Disorders: An Experimental Design Using the Parenting with Love and Limits Model. Professional Issues in Criminal Justice 6(3&4), 9-30.
Warr, M. (2005). Making delinquent friends: Adult supervision and children's affiliations.
Criminology, 43(1), 77 -- 106.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be an effective alternative intervention to psychotropic medications. The therapy is mainly used for persons experiencing acute episodes of melancholy but may also be recommended for other disorders that include symptoms like catatonia, mania, or schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs are more commonly used to treat psychotic episodes (NIMH). ECT may also be helpful for persons who cannot take psychotropic drugs such as pregnant women or seniors.
Research questions related to the use of psychotropic medications"
. What are the long-term effects of taking psychotropic medications? Since they are new to the pharmacopia, what are some of the potential long-term risks of taking psychotropic drugs and might they affect human beings on the level of DNA?
2. Do psychotropic drugs become addictive, or are clients able to wean themselves off them without experiencing recurring symptoms of the clinical disorder? Do they have to be taken long-term?
1. What are the long-term effects of taking psychotropic medications? Since they are new to the pharmacopia, what are some of the potential long-term risks of taking psychotropic drugs and might they affect human beings on the level of DNA?
2. Do psychotropic drugs become addictive, or are clients able to wean themselves off them without experiencing recurring symptoms of the clinical disorder? Do they have to be taken long-term?
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). "Medications." Retrieved Oct 18, 2008 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/medications/complete-publication.shtml
Psychological test or assessment method. "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III
Brief Description of the Test
The recent release of one of the youngest convicted child murders in our nation's history, Lionel Tate, now an adult, into the general population, has highlighted the difficulty of determining if a former prisoner should be eligible for parole. Psychologists have attempted to answer this difficult and subjective question by designing the objectively-assessed test known as "The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III" exam. (Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc., 1997) This test was originally designed in 1987 exclusively for adult prisoners eligible for probation to determine the risk of paroling them and assessing their risk to society and has since been updated, in 1997, to include inventories for truthfulness. (Spies, 2003)
The SAQ is 165-item questionnaire. It can be administered either in a paper and pencil format or on a computer.…
American Educational Research Association. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
SAQ -- The Substance Abuse Questionnaire -- Adult Probation III (1997). Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc.
Spies, Robert. (2003). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].]. Buros Institute of Mental Measurements. http://www.unl.edu/buros/reviewsample.html .
Toneatto, T. (1995). [Review of the SAQ -- Adult Probation [Substance Abuse Questionnaire].] In J.C. Conoley & J.C. Impara (Eds.). The twelfth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 889-891). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
As a complex metabolic disease, diabetes does not lend itself to a wide variety of interventions and concurring the disease does not appear to be an event that medicine will see in the near horizon. For these reasons, and because diabetes can be such a devastating disease, research that shows promise of positively impacting the course of the disease is greeted with enthusiasm by the medical community and the public.
Blood glucose levels must be strictly regulated in order to avoid the complications that diabetes can create. A substantive stumbling block is the difficulty of achieving consistent glycemic control without occurrences of hypoglycemia. Indeed, this factor is a primary obstacle to obtaining regulatory approval of an artificial pancreas. Earlier research has focused on automatic systems that monitor the levels of glucose and stop insulin flow when the blood glucose drops too low. While this is a viable approach,…
Progress in artificial pancreas development: preventing and treating low blood glucose. (2014, September 11). American Diabetes Association. ADA-Novo Nordisk Award in Hypoglycemia and Diabetes. Supported by Novo Nordisk Inc. Retreived from http://www.diabetes.org/research-and-practice/we-are-research-leaders/recent-advances/progress-in-artificial-pancreas-development.html#sthash.HZwOqdlx.dpuf
Russell, S.J., El-Khatib, F.H., Sinha, M., Magyar, K.L., McKeon, K., Goergen, L.G., Balliero, C., Hillard, M.A., Nathan, D.M., & Damiano, E.R. (2014, July 24). Outpatient glycemic control with a bionic pancreas in type 1 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine. 371(4), 313-25. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1314474. Epub 2014 Jun 15.
QALYs and HUI interventions
QALYs as a Measure of Economic Benefits from Health Interventions
QALYs give an acceptable way to evaluate the level of the advantages obtained out of various actions concerning health and the standard of existence that the patient has and even their continued survival.
QALYs have made the distribution of the funds, which are given for various resources to be done in an open way, with those who are in charge being made aware of the advantages of incorporating and utilising new methods of treatment and advanced technology (Philips, 2009).
Challenges of using QALYs as a Measure of Economic Benefits from Health Interventions
The use of QALYs as a measure can bring about new challenges in terms of not accommodating some serious health consequences.
They are inadequate when used to gauge two drugs that are similar in most things and in competition. They cannot take in intricate…
Furlong, W. J., Feeny, DH, Torrance, G. W., & Barr, R. D. (2001). The Health Utilities Index (HUI®) system for assessing health-related quality of life in clinical studies. Annals of medicine, 33(5), 375-384.
Phillips, C. (2009). What is a QALY? Retrieved 7 March 2016 from http://www.medicine.ox.ac.uk/bandolier/painres/download/whatis/qaly.pdf
A disease is classified as 'chronic' when it cannot be cured and will last throughout the duration of the patient's life. Type II diabetes is an example of a chronic disease which is on the rise and which can be managed but cannot be entirely 'cured.' Unlike type I diabetes, which typically manifests itself in early childhood as an autoimmune disorder, type II diabetes is caused by a combination of environmental and genetic factors. "The majority of people (80%) who develop type 2 diabetes are overweight" (Burden 2003).
What two nursing preventions can nurses do for this chronic illness?
Because type II diabetes is classified as a lifestyle-related disorder, treating it requires a change of diet and altering other habitual factors. "The basis of initial treatment is to pay attention to dietary intake and to encourage exercise so as to induce weight loss, the rationale being to improve…
Burden, M. (2003). Diabetes: treatment and complications - the nurse's role. Nursing Times,
99 (2): 30. Retrieved from http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice/clinical-zones/diabetes/diabetes-treatment-and-complications-the-nurses-role/205780.article
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2013a) reported that in 2005/2006 an estimated 5.4% of all Americans over the age of 12 sought medical help for depression. Americans, however, are far from alone. Globally, 37% of lost life years due to disease have been attributed to mental illness (Insel, 2011). Of this 37%, depression is responsible for a full third. The economic burden of mental illness on a global scale is massive, representing $2.5 trillion dollars in 2010. By comparison, all health care spending worldwide in 2009 reached $5.1 trillion. These statistics suggest mental illness accounts for half of all health care spending globally and depression is responsible for approximately one-third. In addition, mental illness is expected to account for 35% of lost economic output within two decades. Given the substantial impact that depression has on society and the lives of individuals, this essay will review what is…
APA. (2013). Highlights of changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/changes%20from%20dsm-iv-tr%20to%20dsm-5.pdf .
CDC. (2013a). Depression: Surveillance data sources. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/data_stats/depression.htm .
CDC. (2013b). Mental health: Depression. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealth/basics/mental-illness/depression.htm .
Insel, T. (2011). Director's Blog: The global cost of mental illness. Retrieved 15 May 2014 from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/director/2011/the-global-cost-of-mental-illness.shtml .
Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM) Systems
Complementary and alternative medicine systems are health care approaches that are characterized by a history of use or origins that are external to mainstream medicine or health care practices. These health care systems or approaches have lasted for centuries since different kinds of complementary and alternative medicines have been reported. According to the World Health Organization, different types of complementary and alternative medicines have acted as the basic health practice in developing countries and are increasingly used in countries with predominant conventional medicine (Kramlich, 2014, p.50). CAM therapies have become common in the recent past and are used for treating various conditions including chronic pain conditions. Actually, several CAM therapies and practice interventions such as acupuncture and massage therapy are increasingly used in chronic pain management.
Naturopathic medicine, which is also known as naturopathy or alternative medicine, is a term that is…
"History of Naturopathic Medicine." (n.d.). North Carolina Association of Naturopathic Physicians. Retrieved August 17, 2015, from http://ncanp.com/about-ncanp/history-of-naturopathic-medicine/
Kramlich, D. (2014, December). Introduction to Complementary, Alternative, and Traditional Therapies. Critical Care Nurse, 34(6), 50-56.
Pongparadee et. al. (2012, August). Current Considerations for the Management of Musculoskeletal Pain in Asian Countries: A Special Focus on Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors and Non-steroid Anti-inflammatory Drugs. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases,15(4), 341-347.
Schulenburg, J. (2015). Considerations for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Interventions for Pain. AORN Journal, 101(3), 319-326.