In certain countries, an effective supervisor possesses basic teaching skills, facilitation skills, negotiation and assertiveness skills, counseling and appraisal skills, mentoring skills, and knowledge of learning resources and certification requirements (Kilminster).
The most important aspect of the role of an effective supervisor is giving supervisee responsibility and the opportunity to practice it (Kilminster, 2000). Supervisees come to view the supervisor as a colleague and this leads them to become self-directed. Some supervisees consider teaching skills and techniques, interpersonal style and professional competence the most important characteristics of an effective supervisor. An effective supervisor shows empathy, is supportive, and exhibits flexibility, instruction, knowledge, interest in supervision and good tracking of supervisees. He is interpretative, respectful, focused ad practical. In contrast, an ineffective supervisor is rigid, shows little empathy and provides low support. He fails to consistently track supervisee concerns, teach or instruct. He is indirect and intolerant. He is close-minded. He lacks respect towards individual differences. He is non-collegial, seldom compliments and encourages. He is sexist, and is weak in deficient in evaluating (Kilminster).
Both supervisors and supervisees point to certain supervision events as helpful in making a supervisor effective (Kilminster, 2000). These include direct guidance on clinical work, shared problem-solving, reassurance and theory practice linking. Feedback and the provision of advice and a role model are also critical. Training is both valuable and necessary for supervisors to become effective or ideal (Kilminster).
Other issues that surface in effective or ideal supervision are time, race, gender and sexuality (Kilminster, 2000). Dealing with the difficulty of finding time for supervision may require better planning and time management as well as extra time for clients or supervisees. Supervision always involves a power relationship between the supervisor and supervisee. It is inevitable for individual social position and circumstances to come in, such as race, gender, social class and sexuality. Women and Black people are frequently subordinated in many situations of supervision. These issues affect the supervisory relationship. Studies suggested mentoring by someone from a similar social background may make supervision more effective for these special groups or sectors. The mentor should be matched with the personal and social characteristics of the clients or supervisees. The effective or ideal supervisor understands issues of power and social categorization, such as institutional racism. Some programs address the aspects of multicultural working and the supervisor should take advantage of these. He understands that trans-cultural relationships assert transforming effects. An effective supervisor is, thus, teacher, a counselor and a mentor. This is another trait of a good supervisor or clinical supervisor. He compares a supervisor to an apprentice who shapes the supervisee according to the "what's" and "why's" of their profession or trade.
He underscores the need for providing feedback as a basic skill that every student or supervisee should fulfill. This is another trait of a good clinical supervisor. He views a good clinical supervisor as enthusiastic and connects well with the supervisee in their developmental journey. He describes this as a key element. He also describes the good clinical supervisor as a cheerleader, a wise risk-taker, and an explorer of new things. He possesses adequate training. His education and training provide the evidence that he is a good clinical supervisor.
He holds a Masters-level biology degree in estuary ecology with keen interest in related sciences. He trained in Gestalt and the systems theory, which he is now able to apply in his supervision work. He was an apprentice at UNC-G. He considers these the underlying tenets of his idea of a model clinical supervisor. He served as one of DiAnne Borders' subjects in one of her earliest researches. He also completed two formal supervision courses. His sees his past and current experiences as fitting his ideal concept in clinical supervision. He considers this fulfilled ideal and concept the keystone of clinical mental health, which is his work. And he believes that a supervisor never stops being a supervisee and a learner, which is another trait of the ideal. Possessing many of the traits found by many studies, he is on the way to becoming the ideal. #
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