Coal Mining Essays (Examples)

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Coal Impact People and Technology

Words: 2354 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37492996



Technologies which allow the integration of power stations underground and as such reduce the damaging effects of surface coal mining (Allied Publishers)

Technologies which reduce the environmental damage associated with coal burning such as fluidized bed combustor or coal gasification (National Energy Education Development Program)

Efforts in the creation of additional sources of renewable energy, such as hydro energy, wind energy or solar energy

On the downside, it has to be noted that the development of technology could not have been possible without the existence of coal. In other words, the simple advent of technology has generated higher levels of coal consumption and has accelerated the process of coal consumption and environmental instability (Laskowski, 2001).

Today, the needs and limitations of energy generation with coal burning have yet to be fully addressed and resolved. This specifically means that the bilateral relationship between technology and coal would continue to unfold --…… [Read More]

References:

Graeber, W., Coal-mining safety in the progressive period: the political economy of reform, University Press of Kentucky, 1976

Laskowski, J., Coal flotation and fine coal utilization, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2001

Leer, S.F., Anderson, G.F., Vision 2020: The role of coal in U.S. energy strategy, DIANE Publishing, 1997

Nersesian, R.L., Energy for the twenty-first century, M.E. Sharpe, 2007
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Generating Power With Coal Gangue

Words: 2487 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93702785

Mining on the Denniston Plateau

Towards the northwestern side of South Island of New Zealand is situated a small settlement that is known by the name of Denniston. The area formed by this settlement is the West Coast region of the country. This small town is situated on the small Mount ochfort Plateau in the mountain ranges of Papahaua, which measure around 600 meters above sea level, meanwhile the distance from Westport is 18 kilometers towards northeast.

At the start of the 20th century, the population of this small settlement was recorded to be about 2000, because of the huge coal mine that is situated quite close to where the people had settled. Speaking of now, the area has become more of a ghost town and hardly 50 people live here. It will not be wrong to say that the fate, location and history of Denniston are not very different…… [Read More]

References

Barnden, A., & Harding, J. (2005). Shredders and leaf breakdown in streams polluted by coal mining in the South Island, New Zealand. University Of Canterbury. School Of Biological Sciences..

Cashdollar, K., & Sapko, M. (2006). . -- EXPLOSION HAZARDS OF COAL DUST IN THE PRESENCE OF METHANE. Handbook For Methane Control In Mining, 147.

Greenpeace International. (2010).

Mfe.govt.nz,. (2014). Laws and treaties | Ministry for the Environment. Retrieved 21 August 2014, from http://www.mfe.govt.nz/laws/
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Coal Production in Philadelphia Similar

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5375514

However, the use of these resources also has disadvantages including increase in unemployment because of more job losses and inability to match the impact of coal throughout the region.

educing Coal Combustion Waste:

The reduction of coal combustion waste and enhancement of the efficiency of coal-fired power plants involves the use of various advanced coal combustion technologies. To reduce this waste in Philadelphia, the most efficient method is the use of Fluidised Bed Combustion, which is a very flexible means of producing electricity. This project would also be effective since its systems enhance the impact of coal-based electricity on the environment while reducing the emission of Sulphur Oxide and Nitric Oxide by approximately 90% ("Improving Efficiencies," n.d.).

The implementation of the process involves burning coal in a reactor consisting of a bed with which the gas is fed to ensure that the fuel remains in a turbulent state. Through this,…… [Read More]

References:

"EPA Considers Rules for Coal Combustion Waste; AGC Looks at Impact to Construction."

(2009, September 30). AGC of America - the Associated General Contractors of America. Retrieved January 20, 2012, from http://newsletters.agc.org/environment/2009/09/30/epa-considers-rules-for-coal-combustion-waste-agc-looks-at-impact-to-construction/

"Improved Efficiencies." (n.d.). World Coal Association. Retrieved January 20, 2012, from http://www.worldcoal.org/coal-the-environment/coal-use-the-environment/improving-efficiencies/

Mastrull, D. (2011, January 23). Amid Growth of Renewables, Coal Fights to Keep its Share.
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Safety in Australia's Mining Sector

Words: 778 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64676649

Safety in Mining in Australia

The mining industry in Australia is traditionally renowned for establishing best practices that are geared towards promoting the health and safety of miners as they engage in their various activities towards improved productivity. Through the use of these best practices and safety solutions, Australia's mining sector has developed to become a global leader with regards to safety and health. According to the Australian Trade Commission (2014), the health and safety of miners in the country's mining industry has partly been attributable to the use of an effective world class regulatory and policy framework. Moreover, the Australian government collaborates with industry players and stakeholders to ensure that the mining sector is free from injuries, fatalities, and disease. Currently, the Australian government utilizes a Safety Engineering Model that has helped in dealing with unsafe acts and unsafe conditions as shown in Figure 1 below (Cliff, 2012).

Figure…… [Read More]

References

Australian Trade Commission. (2014, June). Australia's Mining Health and Safety Systems. Retrieved from Australian Government website:

Cliff, D. (2012). The Management of Occupational Health and Safety in the Australian Mining Industry. Retrieved May 19, 2017, from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6625/75fe4001b93872dfa4aed58b76b4f29875e8.pdf

Evekall, E., Gillespie, B. & Riege, L. (2008, August). Improving Safety Performance in the Australian Mining Industry Through Enhanced Reporting. Retrieved May 19, 2017, from  https://www.pwc.com/gx/en/energy-utilities-mining/pdf/safetypaper_english_final.pdf 

Joy, J. (2004). Occupational Safety Risk Management in Australian Mining. Occupational Medicine, 54(5), 311-315.
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Scott Martelles Blood Passion

Words: 1545 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91629616

oal War

Reading Between the Historical Lines

Perhaps the most important thing that a reader can learn from reading Scott Martelle's recounting of a bloody conflict between coal miners and coal mine owners (and the groups that they represented both directly and indirectly) is that history is as much about what is left out as it is about what is included. While this may be rather obvious in terms of large-scale wars, it is far less so for minor historical events, although Martelle demonstrates that what constitutes a "minor" as opposed to a more important historical event can itself be a part of the erasure that occurs in history when the victors get to write the authoritative accounts. One of the spoils that go to the victors is the chance to paint the other side as evil as possible and themselves as white as driven snow. By telling the stories…… [Read More]

Connected to his inability to see the miners as the moral equivalent of himself and other wealthy, leading men were the changes rolling over the nation. The world that existed before World War I -- the Great War and the War to End All Wars -- until 1939 was dissolving in front of them. The ideas and values that Bowers had been taught would be enduring no longer seemed so and he reacted in the most common way that people caught in such historical moments do. He could have embraced the changes in the status of the miners and all other workers -- but only if he had been a different man, one who had grown up with different images of the men whose work his family depended on to keep them wealthy.

When he looked at the violent miners he saw not just men who were threatening him, his family, and his company but also men who were the harbingers of a world in which the poor would no longer 'know their place'. That was something Bowers would and did fight back against with all the means he had to do so. He could perhaps have been able to let go some of his profits, at least a small amount of his profits. But he could not tolerate the idea that he might be one of the agents that helped to create an America in which his workers were in any way considered to be his equals.

Bowers's view about the role of state and federal officials runs in a parallel line to his view of the miners: Just as he felt that he was entitled to every ounce of work that his laborers could put forth, no matter what it cost them, he also felt himself to be entitled to have government at all levels help him to protect his wealth and his treatment of workers. He held government officials in less contempt than he did the miners because they were more like him in class background and the same race, which he did not consider miners who had come from Greece or Italy, for example, to be. He remained to the end a man who saw the world as owing him just about everything.
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Sago Mining Crisis Began With

Words: 2122 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53103935

However, the lack of internal communication, particularly as to underground communication, is a leading cause of the Sago Mining crisis.

y lack of underground communication, it is meant both a lack of direct communication between the rescue teams and the trapped miners and a lack of scientific communication as to the actual conditions of the underground mines and the ability of the rescue teams to go into the mines for the rescue. If there would have been updated technologies implemented into the mines prior to the explosion, the disaster could have been avoided. Underground communication capabilities would have made it possible for the rescue teams to communicate with the trapped miners, allowing for a more efficient finding of their location and the ability to guide them to a safe area of the mine. Underground communication between the mine's condition and the rescue teams would have allowed for the rescue process…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ABC News. "Rescuers Break Ground in Miner Mission. 3 Jan. 2006.

BBC News and Current Affairs. "Fury Over U.S. Mine Rescue Fiasco." 4 January 2006.

Dao, James. "Blast Traps 13 in a Coal Mine in West Virginia." The New York Times. 3 Jan. 2006.

McLachlan, Justin. "West Virginia Mine Explosion, My Time There." New York Times. 3 Jan. 2006.
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Tiaro Coal Limited Prospectus --

Words: 2171 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98331355

There are no other material costs related to the Offer is expected.

15. Who is the investigating accountant for this prospectus and what is their role?

Tiaro Coal Limited's investigating accountant is DO Kandalls Corporate Finance (NSE) Pty Ltd. The purpose of the investigating accountant's appointment is to report on the concerns raised in Australian Securities Investment Commission's (ASIC) application in relation to the Offer. The report must comply with the Australian Auditing Standard (AUS) 804 or at least, the reasonableness of the report can be appropriately verified (Cockburn: 2002: 1).

16. What are the risk factors associated with this prospectus and briefly describe each?

Investing in Tiaro Coal Limited involve embracing the susceptibility to uncertainties and risks. According to Section 10 of the Prospectus, Tiaro Coal's business activities are subject to both business risks and general risks. In relation to the nature of the business, there is the associated…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cockburn, Richard. "

Avoiding stop orders on your prospectus," Australian Securities & Investments Commission Financial tips and safety checks. 2002. Accessed on March 23,

Australian Securities & Investment Commission. National names index. Extracted from ASIC's database on March 23, 2008.

Van Horne, James C. Financial Management and Policy. "Option Financing: Warrants,
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Bethseda Mining Case Study

Words: 405 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97783775

Bethseda Mining
The details of the project are as follows:
1. The company has a four year contract encompassing 500,000 tons of coal every year at $82 for every ton
2. The production level in the four respective years include: 620,000 tons, 680,000 tons, 730,000 tons and 590,0000 tons
3. Fixed costs amounts to $4.1 million each year
4. The variable costs amount to $31 for every ton
5. Net working capital is 5 percent of the sales. This will be built up in the year before the sales
6. Spot sales of excess coal are $77 for every ton
7. Land: Purchase cost is $4 million. The land is held for ten years, after/tax sale currently $6.5 million
8. $2.7 million is necessitated for reclamation at year 5
9. Donation of land for $6 million deduction
10. Equipment cost of $95 million, 7 year MACRS depreciation
11. Equipment sale…… [Read More]

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Unlawful Discrimination of Coal Miners

Words: 2502 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50993859

Instances of violation found after examining the complaints, it will issue a determination letter ordering the employer to pay outstanding wages, reinstate and reimburse the employee for attorneys and expert witness fees and initiate other steps to provide necessary relief. Complaints lacking merit will be dismissed.

The eal Face:

Although MSHA is intended to function as a watchdog body to keep vigil on the implementation of the federal Mine Safety and Health Act, 1977, through prohibiting companies from dismissing and harassing poor miners who deny working in unsafe working conditions or report safety conditions, it has been widely reported in the sections of the press that MSH is juggling with the statistics of miners death. It has devised its own day of reporting or otherwise about the number of the death of miners while on duty. By applying its discretion, MSHA took into account death of three coal miners and…… [Read More]

References

Addington, Wes. 2005. MSHA manipulates fatality figures. January, 31. Retrieved from http://www.kentucky.com/mld/kentucky/news/editorial/10764746.htm. Accessed on 25 May, 2005

Discrimination Cases Filed on Behalf of Local Miners Against Coal Company. 2004. 14 December. Retrieved at http://www.appalachianlawcenter.org/currentcases.htm. Accessed on 25 May, 2005

Mine Safety and Health. U.S. Department of Labor Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/asp/programs/guide/msha.htm. Accessed on 25 May, 2005

U.S. files discrimination complains in miner findings. Retrieved from http://www.wkyt.com/global/story.asp?s=2809240&ClientType=PrintableAccessed on 25 May, 2005
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Black Mesa Mine the Black

Words: 2067 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49625594

Lands are reclaimed to a condition that typically is 20 times more productive for grazing than native range. These results, which are nationally recognized, are important to local American Indian families who make their livelihood raising cattle, sheep and goats (Peabody Western Coal Company 2007:1).

Of course, the company is ignoring the damage to the water supply when it makes these claims and does not account for this damage against the benefits. The intent of the company is clear in a settlement proposal it made to keep Black Mesa in operation while giving the federal government control over the aquifer and dismissing all claims against Peabody for injury to the groundwater (Helms 2007:1).

A call to action by a group called Honor the Earth makes the implicatiosn for the sacred land clear:

If the plan to allow Peabody to restart its Black Mesa Mine goes ahead, the cultural implications will…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, Frederick R., Jeffrey D. Baxter, Bruce a. Bishop, David Brookshire, F. Lee Brown, Albert M. Church, Mark O. Evans, Allen V. Kneese, Jerrold E. Levy, Alfred L. Parker, William D. Schulze, Walter O. Spofford, and Michael Williams

1981 the Southwest under Stress: National Resource Development Issues in a Regional Setting. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Benedek, Emily.

1999 the Wind Won't Know Me: A History of the Navajo-Hopi Land Dispute. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
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Consultancy Firm Expertise International Business Challenges Issues

Words: 1250 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67573621

consultancy firm expertise international business challenges issues. You present analysis a business report. Your report focus identification discursive analysis main issues include conclusions recommendations.

isk analysis: Australia vs. Colombia and the Democratic epublic of Congo

New taxes are always worrisome, and the Australian government's recent decision to pass a 30% tax on profits from iron ore and coal have left many investors scurrying in search of other investment opportunities in alternate countries with lower tax rates and labor costs (Scott 2011). However, simply looking at a balance sheet to determine average tax rates and wages is only a small component of deciding whether a country is a worthwhile investment. With this caveat in mind, it must be cautioned that the proposed decision to shift resources to investing in the coal mining sector in Colombia and the iron ore sector in the Democratic epublic of Congo is neither viable nor cheaper…… [Read More]

References

Janda, Michael. (2013). Trade deficit falls on iron ore, coal recovery. CNN. Retrieved:

 http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-02-05/trade-deficit-falls-on-iron-ore-recovery/4501422 

[14 Apr 2013]

Scott, Jason. 2012. Australia Passes 30% Tax on Iron-Ore, Coal Mining Profits. Businessweek.
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Centralia 1947 Mine Explosion Throughout the Annals

Words: 1144 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81243426

Centralia 1947 Mine Explosion

Throughout the annals of the American industrialized age, countless tragedies have occurred within the workplace and these incidents have forced the public at large to consider the weighty issue of applying moral precepts to the realm of public administration. While the tomes of American jurisprudence are littered with examples of corporate enterprises and bureaucratic entities failing to uphold their basic responsibilities, perhaps no case has demonstrated the capacity to generate both outrage and activism as readily as The Blast in Centralia No. 5: A Mine Disaster No One Stopped. Authored by John Bartlow Martin, this seminal case study examines the unique confluence of internal and external circumstances which eventually resulted in the 1947 explosion of Centralia Mine No. 5, a catastrophe which claimed the lives of 111 coal miners. By carefully retracing the series of events preceding the actual explosion, including a history of the Centralia…… [Read More]

References

Hartley, R.E., & Kenney, D. (2006). Death underground: The centralia and west frankfort mine disasters. Chicago, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Fanning, F. (2007). Public sector safety professionals: Focused on activity or results?. Perspectives Newsletter, 6(3), 11-15. Retrieved from http://www.usmra.com/repository/category/disasters/Best-of-the-

Best_Newsletter_Article.pdf

Martin, J.B. (1948). The blast in centralia no. 5: A mine disaster no one stopped. In R.J. Stillman
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Does the United States Government Have Environmental Ethics

Words: 2987 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27254600

Environmental Ethics

US Government and Environmental Ethics

The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…… [Read More]

Work Cited

American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp.

The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D..

The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/.

BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from,  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm .
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Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers This

Words: 3638 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50753050

Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers

This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included.

It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show that even farming can cause allergies. osenman (2012) in viewing "respiratory hazards that farmers and family members" argues that the grains that can be "contaminated with fungi, bacteria or microbial toxins; pesticides; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuels; and irritant gases such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia." This may lead to occupational asthma and the allergens in such cases could be grain dust, cow dander, cow urine, egg yolk proteins, alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, meal worm, poultry mites, fungi,…… [Read More]

References

Attfield, Michael D; Hodous, Thomas K. (1992) "Pulmonary Function of U.S. Coal Miners

Related to Dust Exposure Estimates" Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, vol. 145, no. 3, pp: 605-609.

Baumgartner, Kathy B; Samet, Jonathan M; Coultas, David B; Stidley, Christine A; et al.

(1999) "Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: A Multicenter Case-Control Study" American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 152, no. 4, pp: 307-315.
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Lost Mountain' and Look at What the

Words: 3690 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13162945

Lost Mountain' and look at what the writer say about coal mining and its overall effects to the overall environment and the entire human race. It will first analyze the problem at hand both from the political side and other actors involved in the coal mining on mountain tops. In addition to that the study will go ahead to see the varying criticism and proponents views on the issue and particularly on what the author of the book takes on the issue. According to Reece, the author of the book, the problem of coal miming on mountaintops has a political twist which makes it difficult to solve or work on its solution.

Lost mountain is a book by Reece Erik that has been eloquently been written and quite moving with the main agenda concentrating on the issue of cold mining at the mountain tops. Reece is mainly against the practice…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Reece E. (2006) Lost Mountain: A year in the Vanishing Wilderness: Radical Strip Mining and the Devastation of Appalachia, Riverhead Books Publishers

Lasswell H. (2007) American Political Scientist
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Pennsylvania's Natural Resources the State

Words: 2464 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55499062

8 billion, and primary metal manufactures, $1.4 billion (Exports pp). Together, these five manufactured product categories accounted for 61% of the state's total exports of goods in for that year (Exports pp).

In dollar terms, the leading manufactured export growth category is transportation equipment, rising $294 million between 1999 to 2003, while others included miscellaneous manufactures, up $248 million, processed foods, up $192 million, and primary metal manufactures, up $171 million (Exports pp). In percentage terms, the fastest growing manufactured export category is fabric mill products, which grew 70%, from $99 million in 1999 to $169 million in 2003, while others included processed foods, up 52%, miscellaneous manufactures, up 48%, and beverages and tobacco products, up 48% (Exports pp).

The Port of Pittsburgh is the largest inland river port in the United States and the 11th largest port of any kind (Water pp). The Port Commission is the central point…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Coal Mining in Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/enved/go_with_inspector/coalmine/Coal_Mining_in_Pennsylvania.htm

This is a web page from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental

Protection web site. It provides a history of the state's coal mining industry.

Gordon, John Steele. "Iron and Steel Industry." Readers Companion to American History. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_046100_ironandsteel.htm
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Groups That Live in Gaventa's Study Area

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79873124

groups that live in Gaventa's study area of Appalachia are the working class people who have lived there and work in the coal mining industry, and various representatives from the coal industry that own it. The former group is the powerless, whereas the latter group is the empowered. There is a degree of relative poverty for the people who live and work in the coal mining factories, who do not have significant financial resources. On the other hand, the individuals that own the coal mining company have substantial financial resources, which enable them to have power. Largely due to the money and the political connections of the mining company, it is able to assert its power to exploit the working class people, which profits the company and negatively impacts the homeowners.

The first dimension of social power predominantly pertains to behavior. It functions within a duality in which there are…… [Read More]

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Appalachia the Adena Hopewell and

Words: 2823 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18915240

Sociologists explain their condition through a culture-of-poverty theory or the theory of internal colonialism. Under the first theory, Appalachia families, for better or worse, simply cope with poverty. The second theory, on the other hand, ascribes poverty in Appalachia to structural causes. The theories offer insights but are both found to be quite deficient (Billings and Blee).

The first theory on culture-on-poverty became popular in the 60s and drew its premise from Appalachia's ethnic geography in the late 19th century. It was then perceived as a distinct region and race that entered the American consciousness only after the Civil War (Billings and Blee 2002). Imaginative fictionists only conjured images of the mountain and upland cultures, which were vastly out of step with the lowland's, culturally ad economically. At the turn of the century, Willim Goddell Frost, president of Berea College of Kentucky, discoursed on the people of the southern amounts…… [Read More]

References

Billings, Dwight and Blee, Kathleen M. Rural Poverty in Appalachia. Fathom Knowledge Network, 2002. http://www.fathom.com/features/122206

Coats, Lauren. Crafting Appalachian Identity: Regional Handicrafts and the Politics of Culture. University of Pennsylvania, 1997. http://www.history.upenn.edu/phr/archives/97/coats.html

Hagedorn, Jake. The Music of Appalachia. http://webpages.charter.net/jakehagedorn.appalachia.html

Lewis, Ronald and Billings, Dwight B. Appalachian Culture and Economic Development. http://www.wvu.edu/pdfiles/lewisarc.pdf
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Massey Energy Co 's Liability Over

Words: 1793 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16256171

This can be seen with the consistent accidents and violations that have occurred at different mines that the company owns, the most notable being the Acroma Alma Mine. In this particular case, the company was cited and charged with violating federal law. Where, it would plead guilty to 10 different counts and pay a $4.2 million fine in 2008. This is troubling because it underscores how the top management at Massey Energy did not care about the issue of safety at any of their mines. If they did, then the company would have a procedure in place to address issues of mine safety, which would have meant that they never would have received the 515 violations at the Upper ig ranch Mine in 2009. Instead, the company decided to aggressively appeal the different citations that they would receive. This underscores the overall sense of arrogance and disregard for the law…… [Read More]

Bibliography

History of Mine Safety and Health Legislation. (2010). Retrieved May 5, 2010 from MSHA website:

http://www.msha.gov/mshainfo/mshainf2.htm

Obama Blames Owner for West Virginia Mine Disaster. (2010). Retrieved May 5, 2010 from Reuters website:

http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE63E1ZG20100415
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Paintings The Maas at Dordrecht

Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16857920



As in the other painting, light provides the interpretation of the picture, but whereas ships or individuals may serve as subject of Cuyp's painting, here light serves as the subjects of Turner's. Light from the full moon shines on the glittering water, with silhouetted ships (as in the other picture) framing the view. The other picture draws your eye to the centerpiece; here, Turner draws your eye out to sea and to the corners of the panting. Nature sweeps a clear elliptical path and becomes the centerpiece brushing ships and flame to the sides.

A palette knife conveys mood and atmosphere. Some areas, such as the silvery-white moon and the orange torchlight are painted more thickly than others, and unlike Cuyp's canvass which is smooth and polished, Turner's is rough and textured with the raised surfaces perfectly catching and representing the light and drama of the scene. Here, the paint…… [Read More]

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Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and

Words: 22311 Length: 76 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1609303

Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in usiness Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?

Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall

Poland's Natural Resources

Minerals and Fuels

Agricultural Resources

Labor Force

The Polish Economy Under Communism

System Structure

Development Strategy

The Centrally-Planned Economy

Establishing the Planning Formula

Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s

Reliance on Technology in the 1970s

Reform Failure in the 1980s

Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism

Poland After the Fall of Communism

Fall of Communism

Marketization and Stabilization

Required Short-Term Changes

Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy

Section 2.3.3. Initial Results

Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements

Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91

Section 2.4.1. Price Increases

Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages

Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions

Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances

Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline

Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process

Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism

Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy

Section 2.6.2.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bowie E. (1999) Business Ethics a Kantian Perspective Oxford: Blackwell

Ciszewska B. (1998) Unethical behaviour Warszawa: Rzeczpospolita

Cryssides G.D.; Kaler J.H. (1999) Introduction to the ethics of business. Warszawa: PWN

Davies W.F. (1997) Current issues in business ethics London: Routledge
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Fracking Policy Analysis

Words: 3910 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85885174

1. Executive summary

While the extraction of natural gas by means of hydraulic fracturing is a decade- long practice, of late, it has witnessed immense development owing to advancements in the area of horizontal drilling which enables gas and oil operators to now harness earlier- unprofitable natural gas reserves within rock formations. Extant extraction- related policies combine state-federal alliances and voluntary endeavors by private organizations. More unprejudiced, scientific studies providing details on how fracturing and extraction potentially affect environmental media like water and air are essential, in addition to those focusing on natural gas surges’ long- term effects on local societies. Primary models and hypotheses may offer a basis to reasonably discuss possible effects.

Maintenance of the current state of affairs with regard to free market rules and governmental policies will potentially continually check short- run public expenses; however, it will not contribute sufficiently to furthering response to concerns regarding…… [Read More]

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Legal Book Review The Buffalo Creek Disaster

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78027492

Legal Book Review: The Buffalo Creek Disaster

The Buffalo Creek Disaster was one of the costliest preventable tragedies in the history of American coal-mining. An impoundment dam burst in a coal mining est Virginia town, precipitating a deadly flood that killed or injured more than a thousand people, and left many more residents homeless. The dam had been declared sound shortly before it burst by a federal inspector. The owner of the dam, the Pittston Coal Company initially only offered a very small settlement to the victims. "Over 125 people perished immediately. Most were women and children unable to struggle out from under the thick black water choked with crushed and splintered homes, cars, telephone poles, railroad tracks, and all manner of other debris. There were over 4,000 survivors, but their 1,000 homes were destroyed as well as most of their possessions" (Stern ix-x). Survivors of the incident experienced post-traumatic…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Stern, Gerald. The Buffalo Creek Disaster. Vintage, 1977.
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Buffalo Creek Disaster

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50684403

Buffalo Creek Disaster

In February of 1972, sixteen small working class towns in West Virginia were flooded not just with water but with black sludge waste material from a local coal mining operation. The flood caused the immediate deaths of 125 people, many of whom were women and children who were not even employees of the coal industry. Scarring the region and leaving over a thousand people without homes, the Buffalo Creek disaster consisted of 130 million gallons of hazardous waste material and water, which created tidal waves up to thirty feet high. Buffalo Creek rests in a seventeen mile valley located in Logan County, West Virginia. The region was home to Pittston, a New York-based coal mining company and one of the largest employers in the area. The Buffalo Creek disaster resulted from the failure of one of Pittston's refuse dams; when the dam collapsed, it unleashed the horrendous…… [Read More]

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Health and Life Improvements in

Words: 722 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19103612



Not only does the MINE act impose fines for violations of safety provisions, it implements a lot of new ones. For example, there must be reporting of any dangerous conditions within mines that may lead to accidents within 15 minutes of discovering such things. There must also be two rescue teams on site at mines and those teams must be capable of responding to any disaster within an hour. Wireless two-way communications and a tracking system capable of allowing those on the surface to easily locate those underground quickly must be present at all mines. Abandoned areas of coal mines must be sealed, and better ventilation of mine shafts must be in place. All of these things and more are part of the MINE act, and have already contributed to a reduction in accidents in mines and greater mine safety since their implementation with the passage of the act (Gurtunca…… [Read More]

References

Dhillon, B.S. (2010). Mine Safety: A Modern Approach. New York, NY: Springer Publishing.

Gurtunca, R.G. And Breslin, J.A. (2006). "Recent Developments in Coal Mining Safety in the United States." National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Pittsburg, PA: Centers for Disease Control.
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Case Laws

Words: 2054 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99222646

Slaughterhouse Cases, Takings Clause

PART I Slaughterhouse Cases

198 U.S. 45 Lochner v New York 1904 (Oyez, 2013)

UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT

Joseph Lochner

The People of the State of New York

TALE OF AUTHORITIES

FACTS -- Lochner was convicted but he appealed to the Supreme Court and argued that the bakery labor law interfered with an employee's liberty to contract as guaranteed by the 14th Amendment.. The employee has the right to substantive due process of law.

A state law did not allow workers in the bakery business to work longer than 60 hours a week, willingly or not. Is this law consistent with the 14th Amendment? If so, which should prevail -- the citizens' right to contract the length of work hours or the state's right to control work hours?

ARGUMENT -- In a 5-4 decision, Justice Rufus Peckham ruled the akeshop Act was unconstitutional and reversed Lochner's…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

LII (2013). Nebbia v. New York. Legal Information Institute: Cornell University Law

School. Retrieved on November 30, 2013 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSV_CR_0291_0502__ZO.html

Lurie, J. (2003). Reflections on justice, Samuel F. Miller and the slaughterhouse cases:

still a meaty subject. Vol 1 # 1, NYU Journal of Law and Liberty: New York
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Carson v 2012 St George Bank Staff's

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96058828

Carson, V. (2012). St. George Bank staff's cash windfall. The Telegraph. 3 April 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/business/st-george-bank-staffs-cash-windfall/story-fn7ki9fd-1226317134801

In 2008, the St. George Bank merged with Westpac. In order to retain the core of seven senior executives, who were already being wooed by rivals for their expertise in currency trading and money market management, the then-CEO Paul Fegan offered retention incentives to the tune of up to $50,000. After the merger, however, the numbers changed. Over a hundred employees who had been eligible for bonuses did not receive them and, as Carson (2012) points out, a group of staff sued the bank over the bonus and redundancy payouts. The lawsuits were settled in court, and the St. George Bank was forced to pay not just the bonuses but interest on them: a total of $3 million. According to Carson (2012), the lawsuits present a major public relations gaffe for St. George…… [Read More]

"Unions Vote for Ban on Asbestos Site." The Telegraph. Mar 30, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/business/unions-vote-for-ban-on-asbestos-site/story-fn7ki9fd-1226314210935

Australian law protects workers against conditions that are unsafe or unsound. The "Unions Vote for Ban on Asbestos Site" story is one example in which Fair Work and Best Practice Guidelines have practical application. Unions in several different sectors have voted to "ban work" at the former James Hardie factory site in Sydney," ("Unions Vote for Ban on Asbestos Site"). The site is "said to be riddled with asbestos," ("Unions Vote for Ban on Asbestos Site"). The strike is related to workplace health and safety concerns, as well as broader social and environmental justice issues. A German firm Remondis has proposed the construction of a waste treatment plant on the site, and the construction would require extensive excavation and unearthing of the potentially dangerous asbestos. The site has been called "contaminated," and the workers are invoking their rights to protest a job based on clear health and safety concerns ("Unions Vote for Ban on Asbestos Site").

This article shows the importance of managing employee relations based on current law and ethical sensibility. The law protects employees against working in conditions that are unsafe or unsound. Moreover, companies that wish to retain their employees and cultivate a workplace environment conducive to business growth and development need to rethink their approaches to management. Employment relations in the industrial sector are changing, as are the theoretical frameworks that guide them. A pluralist perspective still prevails, in which antagonism between management and unions is expected. A Marxist or radical perspective pulls in the opposite direction but is equally as relevant in the modern business and legal climate. The sound middle ground is offered by the unitarist perspective on employment relations: in which the company understands the value of its human resources and a healthy organizational culture.
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Timothy Mitchell Challenges Conventional Wisdom Which Suggests

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72599246

Timothy Mitchell challenges conventional wisdom which suggests that oil-producing countries tend to be less democratic, specifically by referring to the current state of affairs in the Middle East. Mitchell discusses the role of oil by placing it within a larger context of fossil fuels and their effect on political mobilization, and argues that the existence of large reserves of fossil fuel may limit democracy but also made certain kinds of democratic processes possible. He calls the latter carbon democracy.

Mitchell argues that viewing the impact of oil as necessarily anti-democratic is narrow-minded. The role of oil should be analyzed in a larger context, he says. For instance, those who argue that a dependency on oil and the ability of the ruling elite in the Middle Eastern countries make them less democratic only look at the political processes of using oil for the benefit of the rulers. But we need also…… [Read More]

Work Cited:

Mitchell, Timothy. "Carbon Democracy." Economy And Society 38.3 (2009): 399-432. EconLit. Web. 15 Apr. 2012.
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Rocket Boys

Words: 778 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2293134

ocket Boys by Homer Hickam, Jr. Specifically, it will compare and contrast the author, Homer Hickam, Jr. And his Father. Homer and his father seem to be from two different worlds that can never come together. Home has ambition and dreams, and his father cannot see past their small West Virginia coal-mining town. The main difference between Home and his father is that Homer has dreams, and his father only wants to smash those dreams, because he thinks they will never come true, and his son will only end up bitter and disappointed. In the end, Homer is stronger than his father, and the man his father cannot be, because he has grown beyond him, and the small West Virginia coal-mining town.

Homer's father works as a superintendent in the mine, and his life revolves around the mine. Because of this, he cannot see that the mine and the town…… [Read More]

References

Hickam, Jr. Homer H. Rocket Boys. New York: Delta Books, 1998.
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The Case Against Nuclear Energy

Words: 2175 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26378205

Nuclear Energy

The modern world has been characterized with several environmental issues in the recent past including natural resource depletion, climate change, pollution, and overpopulation. However, climate change has attracted significant attention because of increased environmental impact of industrialization and globalization. Climate change is largely attributable to the current energy sources, which continue to affect the environment. As a result, the search for a suitable energy source with little to no environmental effect has become a major issue for policymakers, governments, and environmentalists. Despite conventional views that nuclear power is unsuitable, recent studies and statistics have considered it a clean energy source. This has contributed to arguments and counter-arguments on whether nuclear energy is clean and safe for the environment. Despite having little to no emission of dangerous gases, nuclear energy is unsustainable when considered from an economic and social perspective.

The Case for Nuclear Energy

In the past few…… [Read More]

References

Cavanagh, R. & Cochran, T. (2013, November 6). Nuclear Energy Film Overstates Positives, Underplays Negatives. CNN. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://edition.cnn.com/2013/11/06/opinion/pandora-nuclear-energy-opinion-cavanagh-cochran/

Kemfert et al. (2015, November). European Climate Targets Achievable Without Nuclear Power. DIW Economic Bulletin, 5(47), 619-625.

Koffler, D. (2008, July 8). The Case for Nuclear Power. The Guardian. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2008/jul/08/nuclearpower.energy

Totty, M. (2008, June 30). The Case For and Against Nuclear Power. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB121432182593500119
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Florida Electrical Power Grid Florida's

Words: 1507 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29745102

This is mainly done by the plants using non-renewable sources of energy. The plants also differ in the competency of the amount of watts produced. Due to the extent of sources used, some plants produce enormous amounts than others. A good example is the nuclear plant at Crystal iver; it contributes to 15% watt production compared to the solar plant at Indiantown that contributes to 3% of power production.

esearch methodology

The data collected through this research is concrete. Statistical information has been extracted from vital databases such as the Bureau of Economic Analysis, SEDS Database and the Institute of Energy research. Though the information is rightfully available, it is not possible to create Florida's electric power network due to poor infrastructure on the transmission network and the availability of many plants and substations.

eferences

Castleberry, G.W. (2008). Power Plant Electrical Distribution Systems. An Approved Continuing Education Provider.

Federal Energy…… [Read More]

References

Castleberry, G.W. (2008). Power Plant Electrical Distribution Systems. An Approved Continuing Education Provider.

Federal Energy Administration (F.E.A). (1994). Inventory of Power Plants in the United States. New York: DIANE Publishing.

Institute of Energy Research. (2009). Real GDP per Capita 2008: Bureau of Economic Analysis. News Release: GDP by State.

Kirkland, K. (2007). Electricity and Magnetism. New York: Infobase Publishing.
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American Era Between 1870 and 1920

Words: 1747 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83432908

American History Between 1870 and 1920

The years between 1870 and 1920 had been the period of astonishing changes because of the political, social and military upheaval that occurred during the period. Typically, the United States had witnessed several changes that affected the American way of life during the period. For example, period of 1877 -1900 had witnessed the rise of the industrial revolution. The years between 1870 and 1920 were the period of momentous and dynamic changes in the American history because they set in motion the industrial and socio- economic development that shaped the country for several generations which include industrialization, labor strike, westward expansion, immigration, urbanization, and integration of millions of freed American Americans.

The objective of this paper is to explore the fundamental changes that occur between 1870 and 1920 and the impacts on the American life. The paper also explores different labor strikes and massacres…… [Read More]

It is essential to realize that strike had played a major role in the economic, social and political life of the United States during the period. In 1880s, workers in the United States fought equally with their peers in Europe. Unlike the strikes in Europe, the United States recorded the bloodiest fatalities in the American labor history. The outcome of the strikes had influenced the life of workers because during the process, workers had been able to win increase for wages, and improved working condition that led to the increase of workers standard of living.

Conclusion

The study explores the American history between 1870 and 1920 revealing that the period has witnessed a fundamental change in the American history. The period marked the time of American industrial revolution, rise of mechanized agriculture and economic boom. In this period, the United States also witnessed the influx of immigrants from different part of the world that the country had ever experienced. People from all over the world immigrated into the United States to search for the economic opportunities. Despite the significant economic and political benefits that the country has experienced during the period, the United States also recorded several bloody labor strikes leading to the loss of thousands of workers. For example Pullman strike led to the loss of life of many workers. However, the strikes had led to the fundamental changes in the American labor relations.
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Water Legislation Origins of Environmental

Words: 11427 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87395038

The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.

Legislation Arising From Public Anger

At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…… [Read More]

Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."

"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.

"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."

Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.

First Nations
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Labor Market in Harlan County Texas Was

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70346761

labor market in Harlan County, Texas, was monopolistic in the sense that Duke Power had a significant amount of wage-setting power at the time that Harlan County, USA was filmed. The company and its subsidiary, the Eastover Mining Company, were one of the largest employers within the county. Moreover, the sort of people that the company hired did not have a lot of other career prospects. Most of them were relatively uneducated by contemporary standards and had high school diplomas or did not finish high schools. As such, the work afforded by this company was fairly important to their livelihoods, which is why the laborers were willing to endure a strike for as long as they did.

Since Duke Power was one of the larger employers within Harlan County, they were able to set wages in the region. A testament to this particular fact is the scab replacements that the…… [Read More]

References

Krundt, R. (2011). "Cinematic Journalism at its best." The New York Times. Retrieved from http://community.nytimes.com/rate-review/movies.nytimes.com/movie/21576/Harlan-County-USA/overview

Long, C. (2006). "Harlan County USA dvd review." Movie Metropolis. http://moviemet.com/review/harlan-county-usa-dvd-review

Schneider, D. (2010). "You can't topple Kopple." Culture Wars. Retrieved from  http://www.culturewars.org.uk/index.php/site/article/you_cant_topple_kopple/
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Plot Background Zola's Germinal Encompasses Thinking Major

Words: 998 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67237405

plot background Zola's Germinal encompasses thinking major figures discussed

Revolutionary Sentiment

y most estimates, the historical epoch of the mid to late 19th century was fairly turbulent, particularly within the throes of Western Civilization. Earlier in that century the communist urgings of Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels challenged the conventional politics and economics of the time period in which the capitalist divide between those that have and those that have not was especially noticeable -- even blatantly so (Marx, Engles 1848). Additionally, psychological notions of hysteria, the likes of which would be innovated and championed by Sigmund Freud, were also being explored (Scurr 2010), while conventional notions of labor and exploitation were also being challenged. Much of the zeitgeist that was existent during this epoch is demonstrated within Emile Zola's Germinal, which was the 13th novel within the author's 20 volume series entitled Les Rougon-Macquart. A close analysis of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Marx, Karl, Engels, Friedrich. The Communist Manifesto. Marxists.org. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/

Scurr, Ruth. "Rereading Zola's Germinal." The Guardian. 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2010/jun/19/emile-zola-germinal-ruth-scurr

Zola, Emile. Germinal. Eldritch Press. 1885.  http://www.eldritchpress.org/ez/germinal.html
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Humana and Tata Steel Humana

Words: 1733 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66756997

The costs of raw materials continued to escalate as well, further impacting profitability.

More environmental regulations - There are many industrial regulations on the steel industries including the Kyoto doctrine that concentrates on green-based government initiatives to save the environment. All of these regulations further increase the costs that Tata must incur to continue operating.

Humana eferences

Jaimy Lee. (2008, April). Humana engages public on health-sector solutions. Pweek, 11(17), 2. etrieved February 28, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1629703111). http://www.prweekus.com/Humana-engages-public-on-health-sector-solutions/article/109416/

Chad Terhune. (2008, August). THEY KNOW WHAT'S in YOU MEDICINE CABINET. Business Week,(4094), 48. etrieved February 28, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 1542853581). http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/08_31/b4094000643943.htm

Brandi White. (2007). A eport Card for 32 Payers: Not Making the Grade. Family Practice Management, 14(6), 43-9. etrieved February 27, 2009, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 1295595111). http://www.aafp.org/fpm/20070600/43arep.html

Tata Steel eferences (Amit, Mukherjee, Tridibesh, 1995)

Chatterjee, Amit, Mukherjee,…… [Read More]

References (Amit, Mukherjee, Tridibesh, 1995)

Chatterjee, Amit, Mukherjee, Tridibesh. (1995). Staying ahead of global competition: The Tata Steel strategy. Journal of General Management, 21(1), 71. Retrieved February 25, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 6986348). http://www.tata.com/aboutus/articles/inside.aspx?artid=m4rLPokLVbc=

T.V. Mahalingam. (2008, July). India Inc. On a steely voyage:Since the landmark acquisition of Corus by Tata Steel, Indian steel companies seem to have developed a hunger for acquiring steel companies and raw material assets across the globe.. Business Today. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1518967231). http://www.businesstoday.intoday.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6101
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Industrial Development in Europe and

Words: 2583 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34483053

But he failed and started cooperating with real leaders - owners of huge industrial monopolies. To get rid of small businessmen organization (SA) Hitler murdered their leader Ernst Rem and some other leaders.

That's why fascists changed their political program.

Any national property was controlled by state, but in fact - rich monopolists. Hitler created extremely effective General department of property (head - Krupp and Siemens).

The largest corporation in the country belonged to German Gering. It was that huge because it received Jews' property and later - property which was captured in states- victims of German foreign policy. German leaders started regulating prices as it was in USSR or USA during New Line.

Agriculture was also controlled by the state. Agricultural production was controlled and every farmer had to sell it to the state (by the way, prices were also regulated by state).

So, all German private property got…… [Read More]

6. Georgi Zhukov From Moscow to Berlin: Marshall Zhukov's Greatest Battles Noontide Pr 1991.

7. Montefiore, Simon Sebag Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar Dixie 1993

8. J.Simon, M. Miller. World Economics WestPrint 1988
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Railway Lines That Cross the

Words: 778 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27184267

" (Nevard, 2002) All trains by 1965 were rerouted via Oxford avoiding the Somerset & Dorset line completely. In 1966 the lines closed for ever but the Broadstone Junction to Blandford Forum lines were kept open for goods traffic likewise from Highbridge to Bason Bridge was kept open upto 1972 for milk traffic. The last section to work and continue was the adstock to Writhlington Colliery section for coal traffic. The entire section thus was closed in 1976. (Nevard, 2002)

Later records kept by rail enthusiasts and photographers reveal that by the year 1960 steam was replaced by diesel and other type of locomotives, and in 1966 the Somerset and Dorset line with a whole 72 miles from Bath to Bournemouth was stopped, and torn up. The end of the steam locomotives also closed the line. (Holland, 2010)

Now let us have an understanding of the present situation. ailway enthusiasts…… [Read More]

References

Great Britain Parliament. 1864. "House of Commons Accounts and papers of the House of Commons" Great Britain Parliament Publications.

Holland, Julian. (2010) "Amazing & Extraordinary Railway Facts"

David & Charles.

Nevard, Chris. (2002) "Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway History" Somerset & Dorset Joint
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Nuclear Energy Risks vs Reward Every Source

Words: 1039 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30788363

Nuclear Energy: isks vs. eward

Every source of energy has its own drawbacks. This is more so the case taking into consideration the recent energy source related accidents including but not limited to coal-mining mishaps, the nuclear crisis in Japan, the B.P. oil spill, etc. In this text, I will amongst other things concern myself with nuclear power and the consequences associated with the development of the same.

As I have already pointed out in the introductory section, every source of energy has a set of drawbacks. For instance, while there are a number of benefits associated with wind energy, the same also has several disadvantages. In the words of Eccleston, March and Cohen (2011), "wind farms can interfere with radar, creating a hole in radar coverage affecting aviation and national security." The author further points out that wind energy is largely unpredictable. Similarly, although hydroelectric power in the opinion…… [Read More]

References

Eccleston, C.H., March, F. & Cohen, T. (2011). Inside Energy: Developing and Managing an ISO 50001 Energy Management System. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Ginley, D.S. & Cahen, D. (Eds.). (2011). Fundamentals of Materials for Energy and Environmental Sustainability. New York: Cambridge University Press.

McKinney, M.L., Schoch, R.M. & Yonavjak, L. (2012). Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions (5th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Miller, G.T. & Spoolman, S. (2007). Environmental Science. Belmont, CA: Thompson Higher Education.
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Elites in Engineering in the

Words: 11890 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80333793

Enginees should focus on the impovement of the pefomance of the economy. This elates to the tansfomation of the theoies of contolling the wold and adopting new famewoks in the opeating in conjunction with the planet. New enginees need to adopt and implement new theoies of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in elation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameon 2010 p.40).

Leades in Bitish Engineeing

Accoding to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th centuy stetches fom the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concened style would have made its fist appeaance in 1870s and would have held geat influence in the late Victoian peiod. It was maked though the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emeged in the mid-Victoian peiods, advances in science-based industies such as engineeing and chemicals, spead of electic powe and the adoption of…… [Read More]

references of the current population without compromising the needs of the future population. This relates to the achievement of sustainable development thus improving living conditions of the citizens. Global warming is a problem affecting growth and development of the economy. This is through increasing the sea water level because of the high temperatures thus melting of ice caps. In order to minimize the effects of global warming, it is ideal to focus on the transformation of the engineering systems in the United Kingdom (Nuvolari et al. 2009 p.700).

Possible predictions about the future of British engineering

In order to address challenges affecting the current and future populations, it is essential to train engineers with the ability to make intelligent decisions in relation to maximum protection and quality life on the planet than endangering forms of life. Engineers will have to make decisions with reference to professional environment in relation to interactions between technical and nontechnical disciplines. The modern system should focus on the preparation of the engineers to become valuable facilitators of sustainable development and implementers of appropriate technology. This aims at addressing social and economic challenges facing the current engineers because of the modern systems and mindset of engineers in the context of the United Kingdom. This is essential in becoming an effective and efficient body of engineers with the aim of providing leadership to the world engineering body (Burgess 1972 p.10).

Future development in relation to the engineering systems and subsystems in the United Kingdom should focus on adequate implementation of technology in addressing essential needs of the future population. Technological developments should also focus on the improvement of conditions such as sufficient water, protection of the environment, and adequate infrastructure. This is vital in the achievement of the millennium development goals and objectives as outlined by the United Nations under the influence of its General Assembly. Future engineering should focus in the achievement of sustainable development thus addressing current and future needs of the world's population. It is vital to note future engineering should integrate numerous aspects in addressing social, economic, and political effects on the planet.

Reference List
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Natural Gas Drilling a Retrospect

Words: 3795 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6366641



7. Wells on Indian eservations

Wells to drilling natural gas are often found on Indian reservations as the respective lands are rich in resources. Historically, debates have emerged based on the undervaluation of the gas extracted, which led to the inhabitants of the region being only limitedly remunerated for the usage of the land and the extraction of the natural gas. The matter has been addressed throughout the years (judiciary trials have even been filed) and the situation is more balanced in the present. Consequently, today, several Indian reservations base much of their economic development on operations of natural gas extraction. The most relevant example in this sense is given by the Blackfeet Indian eservation, which generates income from leasing lands for gas extraction.

The large majority of the drilling operations were centered in the western part of the reservation, but an agreement signed in January 2009 allows the new…… [Read More]

References:

Baker, D., August 4, 2008, the Compromise "Drill Anywhere" Plan, Truth Out, http://www.truthout.org/article/the-compromise-drill-anywhere-plan last accessed on March 26, 2009 -- Truth Out is an independent website, supported only the contributions made by their readers. They did not seek the sponsorship of for-profit organization as their focus was on presenting the facts from an objective standpoint and they also wanted to not become associated with any institution. The ultimate aim of the website is to present the readers with extensive information on various topics of interest and as such assist them in making the most adequate decision. The main areas of interest include social progress, environmental concerns, human rights, healthcare or international relations.

Dentry, E., July 22, 2008, Natural Gas Drilling Hurting Land, Rocky Mountain News, http://www.rockymountainnews.com/news/2008/jul/22/feverish-natural-gas-drilling-has-wreaked-havoc / last accessed on March 26, 2009 -- Rocky Mountain News is in many ways similar to Truth Out, with the main difference that the first only covers a limited geographic zone -- the area in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains. Their news are organized under eight categories, including general news, business news, sports, entertainment, living, outdoor activities, opinions and multimedia. Ed Dentry's article is featured under the outdoors section, under the subcategory of columns and blogs. The article is a presentation of drilling activities for natural gas from the standpoint of those who suffer the negative consequences. Its findings are reliable as they are based on direct research and his conclusions resemble those of other researchers.

Gallun, R.A., Wright, C.J., Nichols, L.M., Stevenson, J.W., 2001, Fundamentals of Oil and Gas Accounting, 4th Edition, PennWell Books -- the work is extremely useful for a generalist understanding of oil and natural gas extraction and the adherent processes. It explains basic notions such as the formation of the natural gas reserves or the history of drilling operations. Its easy-to-read style makes the work accessible to all those interested, be them exports or novices. The downside of the book is however that the consequent revised editions bring in little additional information. In this context then, the book is more suitable for a generalist look at the industry, rather than a specific and modern analysis.

Hurdle, J., March 13, 2009, U.S. Energy Future Hits Snag in Rural Pennsylvania, Truth Out, http://www.truthout.org/031309E last accessed on March 26, 2009
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Hitler Was Able to Win

Words: 3030 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53814859

Conservatives and socialists splitted society and failed to create a functioning coalition. After years of authoritarian monarchic control, proportional system of election led society to political chaos, as nearly 20 parties with different political programs from communist to right radicals were represented in eichstag. None of country's politicians was successful either in diplomacy or in the art of achieving compromise. The experience of political pluralism led to political and economical disorientation in society, as in a period of 1919-1933 Germany witnessed several temporary coalitions in parliament and twelve governments, which were unable to stabilize country's economy.

Haffner describes that political crisis was a common attribute of Weimar republic's pluralism: "From 1914 to 1923 all governments had been weak" German parliamentarians of Weimar republic faced a common problem of all young political parties. Being one of the most popular parties in the country with wide support in society and even being…… [Read More]

References

Gay, Peter Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider W.W. Norton & Company 2001

Haffner, Sebastian Defying Hitler: A Memoir Picador 2003

Eyck, Erich History of the Weimar Republic Macmillan Pub Co 1970

Eyck, Erich
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Uplifting the Race Through Domesticity

Words: 1264 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85701012

Civil War

Between 1865 and 1920, industrialization had diverse effects on the life of Americans. While it improved the life of Americans, it also created problems for the society. Following the civil war, the amount of city jobs and factory jobs increased. As urbanization increased, rural populations decreased. Steel production rates and education increased during this period. Transportation was made more available and easier with the growth of railroads. The American society was revolutionized (Oleson & Brown, 1976).

Major aspects of industrialization during 1865 and 1920 that influenced U.S. society, economy, and politics

Following the civil war, the U.S. embraced steps to become a more industrialized country. Between 1865 and 1920, the effects of industrialization were visible in diverse aspects of the U.S. society. One aspect of American life that improved following this period was steel production. The drastic increase in steel production is linked to new technologies in the…… [Read More]

References

Dubofsky, M. (1996). Industrialism and the American worker, 1865-1920. Wheeling, Ill: H. Davidson.

Johnson, C.D. (1993). Redeeming America: Evangelicals and the road to Civil War. Chicago: I.R. Dee.

Oleson, A. & Brown, S.C. (1976). The pursuit of knowledge in the early American Republic: American scientific and learned societies from colonial times to the Civil War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Banks, N. (2006). Uplifting the race through domesticity: Capitalism, African-American migration, and the household economy in the Great Migration era of 1916-1930. Feminist Economics, 12, 4, 599-624.
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Creativity on Organizations Not Only

Words: 1246 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27144279

These are the attributes that must be written about, researched, sought for, and retained. "Brainstorming" should not be the focus; implementation should be the key. The bottom line of business is to make money, and to do that it must get things done not to engage in endless 'brainstorming'.

Creative ideas need vigorous and systematic carefully detailed plans and proposals for following through. Very few of these 'creative types', according to Levitt, have the patience and oomph for this. It does not sustain their interest. Creative types are irresponsible and, therefore, responsibility for creating and implementing innovative ideas should be transferred to the so-called conformist type.

Four factors are needed for an idea to work:

1. ank -- downward idea (i.e. Those emenatign from the upper hierarchy down) are more likely to work since they are accompanied by power. If one wishes for a reverse success, the idea had better…… [Read More]

Reference

Branson, R. (2008). Business stripped bare: adventures of a global entrepreneur. London: Virgin Books

Cherrington, D.J. (1994). Organizational Behavior. USA: Alleyn & Bacon

Levitt, T. (2002). Creativity is not enough. Harvard Business Review, 137-145

Osborn, a. (1953) Applied imagination: principles and procedures of creative thinking. NY: Scriber & Sons.
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Collaboration Between the Hopi People

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90694942

They write, "Combining tribal narratives and interpretations with archeological data results in a more intimate rendering of history, and enables us to more easily imagine the vitality of life at these sites" (Swidler, et al. 2000, 53). This, the perspectives of the many participants helped create a larger picture of life and work at these sites.

The project seemed to work well because all the participants worked at getting along with each other, and were working together toward a common goal - preservation of ancient sites that had strong meaning in their cultures. The authors end their discussion with this comment, "We now see that tribes are and will continue to be proactive in directed research projects. [...] -- it is possible to set aside political and philosophical differences to address a common goal" (Swidler, et al. 2000, 53). The challenges included getting the many tribes and their representatives together,…… [Read More]

References

Lister, Florence C. 2000. Incidents in Southwestern Archaeology. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

Swidler, Nina, David Eck, T.J. Ferguson and Leigh Kuwanwisiwma, Roger Anyon and Loren Panteah, and Klara Kelley and Harris Francis. 2000. Multiple Views of the Past. Cultural Resource Management. Vol. 23. http://crm.cr.nps.gov/archive/23-09/23-09-13.pdf
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Extended Overview of General Dynamics

Words: 3142 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26802719

With such result, estimates for the 2,400 F-111 (including their exports) were significantly reduced, but nevertheless, General Dynamics still managed to obtain a $300 million profit with this project.

Grumman started also to build the F-14 Tomcat, using many of the F-111 innovations, but build solely for its purpose of serving as a carrier-borne fighter.

General Dynamics eorganization - it was in May 1965 that the company reorganized its activities into 12 operational divisions, having as a base their production lines. The board took the decision to have all future planes built in Fort Worth and thus ended the plane production in San Diego, which had been Convair's original plant. At the San Diego location the production of space and missile development continued.

The second CEO in this period, David S. Lewis required the headquarters of the company to be moved to St. Louis, event that took place finally in…… [Read More]

References

Canada's Air Force, Historical Aircraft - Canadair F-86 Sabre, retrieved online October 6th at http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/site/equip/historical/sabrelst_e.asp

Defense News Top 100, retrieved online October 5th at http://www.defensenews.com/static/features/top100/charts/top100_08.php?c=FEA&s=T1C

General Dynamics Annual Report 2007, retrieved online October 6th at  http://library.corporate-ir.net/library/85/857/85778/items/284657/GD%20AR%202007.pdf 

HLTH Press releases, HLTH Announces Agreement to Sell ViPS Unit to General Dynamics for $225 Million, retrieved on October 6th at http://investor.shareholder.com/hlth/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=313710
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American Revolution

Words: 2801 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79109

But it certainly was a crucial step in he legitimation of free labor" (141).

eligion in general and revivals especially eased the pains of capitalist expansion in the early 19th century U.S. After Finney was gone, the converted reformers evangelized the working class; they supported poor churches and built new ones in working class neighborhoods. Finney's revival was effective since it dissected all class boundaries and united middle and working class individuals in churches. The middle class went to church, because of the moral obligation to do so; the working classes went, because they were concerned about losing their. Workers who did not become members of churches had more difficulty keeping their jobs. To succeed in ochester, it was astute for the employees to become active churchgoers.

In 1791, not much before the Native Americans began their trek across the country and ochester, New York, was changing its employee/merchant system,…… [Read More]

References

Gilje, Paul a., ed. The Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1997

Johnson, Paul E. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, New York: Hill and Wang, 2004.

McCusker, J.J. And Menard, R.R., the Economy of British America, 1607-1789, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

Slaughter, Thomas. R. Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution, New York, Oxford Press, 1986.
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Rocket Boys Chapters 1-2 Until

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14675536

For Homer, the radio was the voice of the outside world, and all information, long before television ever existed. Homer's Republican father was furious. He was a zealous anti-communist, and this meant that the Russians were 'ahead' in their fight for freedom. Just as people huddled around their televisions during 9/11, Homer kept abreast of Sputnik, wondering if the world was going to end. Even the newscasters were afraid, wondering if an atomic bomb was on board, the Russian spacecraft. But Homer's mother took a different view and saw that the world was taking a new turn, perhaps for the better, as the U.S. government encouraged children to advance in science.

Homer's mother encouraged her son to build the rocket of his dreams, and was unafraid of the town's public opinion and her husband. "Take care if this one doesn't embarrass me all over Coalwood," said Homer, Senior (41). Homer's…… [Read More]

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Sister Marie Simone Roach a Number of

Words: 2383 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40014704

Sister Marie Simone oach

A number of prominent nursing theorists have been an influential force in improving nursing practice over the years, with Sister Marie Simone oach being among them. Sister oach is best known for her so-called "six C's" of nursing care: Compassion, Competence, Confidence, Conscience, Commitment, and Comportment. Her work has been absorbed into the mainstream of nursing theory over the years and her contributions to nursing practice have been significant. This paper examines the contributions made by Sister oach to the body of nursing scholarship for the improvement of nursing practice, her contributions to the body of nursing scholarship for the improvement of healthcare and how this nurse ethicists can inform nursing research for the nurse practitioner.

eview and Discussion

Biography of Sister Marie Simone oach

According to her official biography, Sister Marie Simone oach was raised in a oman Catholic family with a number of siblings…… [Read More]

References

Concepts and definitions. (2011). San Antonio College: Nursing Education Department.

Retrieved from http://www.alamo.edu/sac/nursing/CurDef.htm.

Johnstone, M-J. (1999). Bioethics: A nursing perspective. Sydney, NSW: Harcourt Saunders.

McKenna, H. (1997). Nursing theories and models. London: Routledge.
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Manifesto of the Communist Party

Words: 1717 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81882145

Communist Manifesto is a calling by German philosopher Karl Marx to the working class to rise up and take power over his or her own working lives. The Communist Manifesto is both a political discourse as well as a battle cry for the Communist cause. Communists believe that democracy, and every other form of government, will naturally run its course and eventually the huge income disparity present between the upper classes and the working class will create enough societal friction that the masses will simply claim the entire state for themselves, and rule without division in the ranks of civilians.

This paper discusses the Communist Manifesto and the ideas of Karl Marx by exploring some of the unique features of Marx's political philosophy of Communism. The first is historical materialism, which is the belief that property and the control over certain functions of the state is what has traditionally determined…… [Read More]

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Ozone a Little Is Good

Words: 2319 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36495591

Due to the Montreal Protocol signed in 1987 in which 160 of the world's nations joined together in banning CFCs and in an initiative to try to off-set any further effects due to emissions of gases that deplete the Ozone there are many recent reports that the hole in the Ozone layer is becoming smaller.

The "impressive global response to ozone layer destruction," were sung praises of the Secretary-General but also cautioned that it is not a time for complacency. There were minimum effects of decreasing to the ozone levels in the Antarctic during the decade of the 1990's. During 2000 and 2003 the hole extended over 10.8 million square miles or an area larger than the North American Continent.

All damages to the Ozone layer are not of the manmade type. It is known that volcanoes emit sulfuric acid droplets during the course of an eruption. Although it is…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Ricks, Delthia (2004) "U.S. Urban Air Polution: Ground-level Ozone Tied to Deaths"-

Newsday Report [Online] Retrieved from HighBeam Research ttp://www.highbeam.com library/doc3.asp?DO CID=1P1:102525028& num=4& ctrlInfo=Round9b%3APro d%3ASR %3AResult& ao=

Fundamental of Physical Geography (nd) Chapter 7: Introduction to the Atmosphere: Atmospheric Composition [Online] located at; http://www.physicalgeography.n et/fu ndamenta ls/7a.html

Mukhopadyay, R. (2004) Rubber World: Ozone Attack and Tire Sidewall Protection (Tech Service); 9/1/2004; Mukhopadhyay, R.
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Abandoned Mine Drainage in Pennsylvania

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80733391



One contributing factor to the problem is the environmental damage and long-term impact that damage will have to natural resources.

The populations that could be most at risk include pregnant women and people with already weakened immune systems as well as the elderly and the very young.

Several agencies could help investigate the problem and are doing that.

Nursing interventions or preventive measures that could be instituted to address the issue include protocol for history taking as well as education with a focus on pregnant women or women who are considering getting pregnant.

A plan of action should include several questions in the history taking that nurses perform to determine whether the patient has any symptoms of mercury poisoning, and whether the patient is currently pregnant or trying to get pregnant. If so then education should be given about the drinking water and fish consumption that can help maintain a…… [Read More]

References

AMD&ART, the Project: 1994-2005 (accessed 9-25-06)

http://www.amdandart.org/projectindex.html

Acid Mine Drainage: Research Looks at Remediation, Manual Provides How-Tos on Site (accessed 9-25-06)

http://www.ruralpa.org/news0303.html acid mine drainage (accessed 9-25-06)
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Vendor Management IT Management Process

Words: 4065 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57673057

In this regard, a project manager must have a follow-up on facilities development in order to ascertain success.

Strategic Planning and Project Programming

A good strategic plan shapes programming of essential capital projects in an organization. Market demands and resource constrictions impede the success of the projects. The programming activities linked with planning, and other management functions establishes the priorities and time required for completion of various projects to achieve the goals of the organization (Bruhn et al., 2007). Managers make such a decision while initiating a project and market fluctuations may determine the success or fate of the completion. Among the different projects influenced by market fluctuations is the construction project. If the organization fails to hit the market, it may short-live the demands for the products. With the current trend in both local and global markets, there is intensive competition. However, only the technology intensive organizations succeed in…… [Read More]

References

Abramson, a., and Paul R. 2007 .The Challenge of Transforming Organizations: Lessons Learned about Revitalizing Organizations. In Transforming Organizations, 1 -- 10. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Amis, J. Trevor S,. 2008 .The Pace, Sequence, and Linearity of Radical Change. Academy of Management Journal 47 (1):15 -- 39.

Armenakis, a ., and Arthur G . Bedeian . 2009 .Organizational Change: A Review of Theory and Research in the 1990s. Journal of Management 25 (3): 293 -- 315.

Armenakis, Achilles a ., Stanley G. Harris, and Hubert . Feild . 2007. Paradigms in Organizational Change: Change Agent and Change Target Perspectives. In Handbook of Organizational Behavior,, 631 -- 58 . New York: Marcel Dekker.
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Magnum Opus Twice the Work of Free

Words: 1031 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96923440

magnum opus "Twice the Work of Free Labor- the Political Economy of Convict Labor in the New South" by Alex Lichtenstein. The reference page appends one source in APA format and the last paragraph is based on personal opinion of the book.

The masterpiece under consideration addresses the ongoing debate on the age and history of New South among the historians and other related experts. The issue might have suffered from repetition and has been discussed many times but the author skillfully unfolds various new aspects of this old debate to help historians and the world view the significance of past experiences and events on the present status of a nation or a country. This highly informative and absolutely convincing piece of writing presents something of great value to voracious readers of history- a well-defined theme addressing a pressing issue at hand and a mesmerizing conclusion thereby settling an ancient…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lichtenstein A. Twice the Work of Free Labor- The Political Economy of Convict Labor in the New South.
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Energy vs Conservation

Words: 2703 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59747544

Strip Mining Project

Strip mining has long attracted the attention that "fracking" is now due to the proven or at least theoretical environmental impacts and issues that can or definitely arise when the practice is engaged in. Not unlike similar industries like timber, anything that destroys or alters wetlands/marshes, anything that leads to increase erosion and so forth is hotly contested and debated. Even basic things like irrigation of crops can raise a proverbial stink if the water is denied to people or states that happen to be downstream and they feel they need/deserve it so as to provide drinking water, their own crop irrigation or other environmental concerns. While strip mining, especially that which relates to energy like lignite and lithium, is here to stay and largely cannot be stopped, the real and tangible impacts it can and does have need to be taken seriously before the lignite-harvesting project…… [Read More]

References

EIA. (2014, June 23). Coal. EIA Energy Kids. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from  http://www.eia.gov/KIDS/ENERGY.CFM?PAGE=COAL_HOME-BASICS 

WSGS. (2014, June 23). Wyoming State Geological Survey. Wyoming State Geological

Survey. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from http://www.wsgs.uwyo.edu/Research/Energy/Coal/Diagrams.aspx

WVC. (2014, June 23). 2013. Coal Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2014, from  http://www.wvcoal.com/coal-facts-2013.html