Coal Mining Essays Examples

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Coal Impact People and Technology

Words: 2354 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37492996

Technologies which allow the integration of power stations underground and as such reduce the damaging effects of surface coal mining (Allied Publishers)

Technologies which reduce the environmental damage associated with coal burning such as fluidized bed combustor or coal gasification (National Energy Education Development Program)

Efforts in the creation of additional sources of renewable energy, such as hydro energy, wind energy or solar energy

On the downside, it has to be noted that the development of technology could not have been possible without the existence of coal. In other words, the simple advent of technology has generated higher levels of coal consumption and has accelerated the process of coal consumption and environmental instability (Laskowski, 2001).

Today, the needs and limitations of energy generation with coal burning have yet to be fully addressed and resolved. This specifically means that the bilateral relationship between technology and coal would continue to unfold -- the needs of coal would stimulate technological developments and the technological developments would support the creation of sustainable coal operations.

5. The future of coal

The future of coal is difficult to foresee. This resource has constituted the starting point in the creation and development of the modern day society.…… [Read More]

Graeber, W., Coal-mining safety in the progressive period: the political economy of reform, University Press of Kentucky, 1976

Laskowski, J., Coal flotation and fine coal utilization, Gulf Professional Publishing, 2001
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Generating Power With Coal Gangue

Words: 2487 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93702785

Mining on the Denniston Plateau

Towards the northwestern side of South Island of New Zealand is situated a small settlement that is known by the name of Denniston. The area formed by this settlement is the West Coast region of the country. This small town is situated on the small Mount Rochfort Plateau in the mountain ranges of Papahaua, which measure around 600 meters above sea level, meanwhile the distance from Westport is 18 kilometers towards northeast.

At the start of the 20th century, the population of this small settlement was recorded to be about 2000, because of the huge coal mine that is situated quite close to where the people had settled. Speaking of now, the area has become more of a ghost town and hardly 50 people live here. It will not be wrong to say that the fate, location and history of Denniston are not very different from another settlement of New Zealand, known by the name of Millerton.

It is important to note here that coal is still being mined at the Stockton Mine and close to the Burnett's Face. In the year 2010, it was announced by Bathurst Resources that Escarpment Mine Project would start…… [Read More]

Barnden, A., & Harding, J. (2005). Shredders and leaf breakdown in streams polluted by coal mining in the South Island, New Zealand. University Of Canterbury. School Of Biological Sciences..

Cashdollar, K., & Sapko, M. (2006). . -- EXPLOSION HAZARDS OF COAL DUST IN THE PRESENCE OF METHANE. Handbook For Methane Control In Mining, 147.
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Coal Production in Philadelphia Similar

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5375514

However, the use of these resources also has disadvantages including increase in unemployment because of more job losses and inability to match the impact of coal throughout the region.

Reducing Coal Combustion Waste:

The reduction of coal combustion waste and enhancement of the efficiency of coal-fired power plants involves the use of various advanced coal combustion technologies. To reduce this waste in Philadelphia, the most efficient method is the use of Fluidised Bed Combustion, which is a very flexible means of producing electricity. This project would also be effective since its systems enhance the impact of coal-based electricity on the environment while reducing the emission of Sulphur Oxide and Nitric Oxide by approximately 90% ("Improving Efficiencies," n.d.).

The implementation of the process involves burning coal in a reactor consisting of a bed with which the gas is fed to ensure that the fuel remains in a turbulent state. Through this, Fluidised Bed Combustion enhances combustion, recovery of waste materials or products, and heat transfer. These kinds of systems permit the process to function at lower temperatures because of the higher heat exchanger efficiencies. Moreover, Fluidized Bed Combustion systems use abandoned coal waste than previous systems because of their flexibility.

Conclusion:…… [Read More]

"EPA Considers Rules for Coal Combustion Waste; AGC Looks at Impact to Construction."

(2009, September 30). AGC of America - the Associated General Contractors of America. Retrieved January 20, 2012, from
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Scott Martelles Blood Passion

Words: 1545 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91629616

Coal War

Reading Between the Historical Lines

Perhaps the most important thing that a reader can learn from reading Scott Martelle's recounting of a bloody conflict between coal miners and coal mine owners (and the groups that they represented both directly and indirectly) is that history is as much about what is left out as it is about what is included. While this may be rather obvious in terms of large-scale wars, it is far less so for minor historical events, although Martelle demonstrates that what constitutes a "minor" as opposed to a more important historical event can itself be a part of the erasure that occurs in history when the victors get to write the authoritative accounts. One of the spoils that go to the victors is the chance to paint the other side as evil as possible and themselves as white as driven snow. By telling the stories as fairly as possible of each of the sides, Martelle is able to forestall such a dichotomy.

Martelle's Blood Passion: The Ludlow Massacre and Class War in The American West is a treatise both on historiography -- the way in which history is conceived and documented -- as well as…… [Read More]

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Sago Mining Crisis Began With

Words: 2122 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53103935

However, the lack of internal communication, particularly as to underground communication, is a leading cause of the Sago Mining crisis.

By lack of underground communication, it is meant both a lack of direct communication between the rescue teams and the trapped miners and a lack of scientific communication as to the actual conditions of the underground mines and the ability of the rescue teams to go into the mines for the rescue. If there would have been updated technologies implemented into the mines prior to the explosion, the disaster could have been avoided. Underground communication capabilities would have made it possible for the rescue teams to communicate with the trapped miners, allowing for a more efficient finding of their location and the ability to guide them to a safe area of the mine. Underground communication between the mine's condition and the rescue teams would have allowed for the rescue process to begin quicker and most likely be more successful.

The crux of the cause of the disaster is lack of underground communication. With the proper technology implemented, a disaster plan could have been efficiently and effectively executed. However, without any form of communication pertaining to the actual trapped miners and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
ABC News. "Rescuers Break Ground in Miner Mission. 3 Jan. 2006.

BBC News and Current Affairs. "Fury Over U.S. Mine Rescue Fiasco." 4 January 2006.
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Tiaro Coal Limited Prospectus --

Words: 2171 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98331355

There are no other material costs related to the Offer is expected.

15. Who is the investigating accountant for this prospectus and what is their role?

Tiaro Coal Limited's investigating accountant is BDO Kandalls Corporate Finance (NSE) Pty Ltd. The purpose of the investigating accountant's appointment is to report on the concerns raised in Australian Securities Investment Commission's (ASIC) application in relation to the Offer. The report must comply with the Australian Auditing Standard (AUS) 804 or at least, the reasonableness of the report can be appropriately verified (Cockburn: 2002: 1).

16. What are the risk factors associated with this prospectus and briefly describe each?

Investing in Tiaro Coal Limited involve embracing the susceptibility to uncertainties and risks. According to Section 10 of the Prospectus, Tiaro Coal's business activities are subject to both business risks and general risks. In relation to the nature of the business, there is the associated specific risk on exploration and development. There is no assurance that the funds spent on these activities will result in discoveries of new reserves and that it will be commercially viable. There are also uncertainties as to the result of existing and future contracts; the availability of market and the…… [Read More]

Cockburn, Richard. "

Avoiding stop orders on your prospectus," Australian Securities & Investments Commission Financial tips and safety checks. 2002. Accessed on March 23,
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Unlawful Discrimination of Coal Miners

Words: 2502 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50993859

Instances of violation found after examining the complaints, it will issue a determination letter ordering the employer to pay outstanding wages, reinstate and reimburse the employee for attorneys and expert witness fees and initiate other steps to provide necessary relief. Complaints lacking merit will be dismissed.

The Real Face:

Although MSHA is intended to function as a watchdog body to keep vigil on the implementation of the federal Mine Safety and Health Act, 1977, through prohibiting companies from dismissing and harassing poor miners who deny working in unsafe working conditions or report safety conditions, it has been widely reported in the sections of the press that MSH is juggling with the statistics of miners death. It has devised its own day of reporting or otherwise about the number of the death of miners while on duty. By applying its discretion, MSHA took into account death of three coal miners and left out one death case from the list on Dec.30. Although two of the deaths happened on March 12 and December 2, however, they did not merit being chargeable till the end of the year as MSHA at first place denied to regard them as mine related.

The work in…… [Read More]

Addington, Wes. 2005. MSHA manipulates fatality figures. January, 31. Retrieved from Accessed on 25 May, 2005

Discrimination Cases Filed on Behalf of Local Miners Against Coal Company. 2004. 14 December. Retrieved at Accessed on 25 May, 2005
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Black Mesa Mine the Black

Words: 2067 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49625594

Lands are reclaimed to a condition that typically is 20 times more productive for grazing than native range. These results, which are nationally recognized, are important to local American Indian families who make their livelihood raising cattle, sheep and goats (Peabody Western Coal Company 2007:1).

Of course, the company is ignoring the damage to the water supply when it makes these claims and does not account for this damage against the benefits. The intent of the company is clear in a settlement proposal it made to keep Black Mesa in operation while giving the federal government control over the aquifer and dismissing all claims against Peabody for injury to the groundwater (Helms 2007:1).

A call to action by a group called Honor the Earth makes the implicatiosn for the sacred land clear:

If the plan to allow Peabody to restart its Black Mesa Mine goes ahead, the cultural implications will be dramatic. The Hopi and Navajo's ability to grow traditional foods and herbal medicines, as well as access ceremonial sites and perform rituals, will all be affected (Honor the Earth 2007:1).

The group further charges that the issue is being raised at a time when the Hopi are in the…… [Read More]

Anderson, Frederick R., Jeffrey D. Baxter, Bruce a. Bishop, David Brookshire, F. Lee Brown, Albert M. Church, Mark O. Evans, Allen V. Kneese, Jerrold E. Levy, Alfred L. Parker, William D. Schulze, Walter O. Spofford, and Michael Williams

1981 the Southwest under Stress: National Resource Development Issues in a Regional Setting. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
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Consultancy Firm Expertise International Business Challenges Issues

Words: 1250 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67573621

consultancy firm expertise international business challenges issues. You present analysis a business report. Your report focus identification discursive analysis main issues include conclusions recommendations.

Risk analysis: Australia vs. Colombia and the Democratic Republic of Congo

New taxes are always worrisome, and the Australian government's recent decision to pass a 30% tax on profits from iron ore and coal have left many investors scurrying in search of other investment opportunities in alternate countries with lower tax rates and labor costs (Scott 2011). However, simply looking at a balance sheet to determine average tax rates and wages is only a small component of deciding whether a country is a worthwhile investment. With this caveat in mind, it must be cautioned that the proposed decision to shift resources to investing in the coal mining sector in Colombia and the iron ore sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo is neither viable nor cheaper in the long run. In fact, given the marked political instability in both regions, such a move could cause great potential losses.

The Democratic Republic of Congo is so volatile that travelers are asked not to venture there, as the "ability to provide consular services" in the wake of an…… [Read More]

Janda, Michael. (2013). Trade deficit falls on iron ore, coal recovery. CNN. Retrieved: 
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Centralia 1947 Mine Explosion Throughout the Annals

Words: 1144 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81243426

Centralia 1947 Mine Explosion

Throughout the annals of the American industrialized age, countless tragedies have occurred within the workplace and these incidents have forced the public at large to consider the weighty issue of applying moral precepts to the realm of public administration. While the tomes of American jurisprudence are littered with examples of corporate enterprises and bureaucratic entities failing to uphold their basic responsibilities, perhaps no case has demonstrated the capacity to generate both outrage and activism as readily as The Blast in Centralia No. 5: A Mine Disaster No One Stopped. Authored by John Bartlow Martin, this seminal case study examines the unique confluence of internal and external circumstances which eventually resulted in the 1947 explosion of Centralia Mine No. 5, a catastrophe which claimed the lives of 111 coal miners. By carefully retracing the series of events preceding the actual explosion, including a history of the Centralia mine beginning with its opening in 1907, a cursory primer on the industry of coal mining, and a blow-by-blow recounting of the evasions, denials, and betrayals committed by the various bureaucracies charged with preventing such disasters, Martin guides the reader through the machinations of both private companies and public policymakers.…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Hartley, R.E., & Kenney, D. (2006). Death underground: The centralia and west frankfort mine disasters. Chicago, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Fanning, F. (2007). Public sector safety professionals: Focused on activity or results?. Perspectives Newsletter, 6(3), 11-15. Retrieved from
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Does the United States Government Have Environmental Ethics

Words: 2987 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27254600

Environmental Ethics

US Government and Environmental Ethics

The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount of funding that these agencies receive always fluctuates depending on the political mood of the country and the strength of the local environmental activists in the area. The National Parks Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service best show the ethic of environmental protection…… [Read More]

American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from,

The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from,,_Franklin_D..
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Nuclear Power Disadvantages of Nuclear Energy and

Words: 846 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72375728

Nuclear Power

Disadvantages of nuclear energy and its comparison with other sources of energy

Comparison of nuclear energy with other sources of energy

Nuclear energy does have advantages over other sources of energy like fossil fuels (coal, gas etc.) because nuclear energy makes less pollution and nuclear energy supplies more power than any other source of energy. All sources of energy do have some disadvantages. Some of them are discussed here;

Fossil fuel

It makes emit a huge quantity of green house gases and advanced technology is required to utilize them for energy purposes. For example, coal mining damages huge amount of land around it.


There are many disadvantages associated with hydropower. It includes high damage to local eco system; high cost of construction, the large size of dams poses a danger of breaking it down and can wreak the local population. (How to Power the World, 2010)

Wind and solar energy

Wind energy is not constant it can vary from zero level of wind to powerful storm. Secondly wind energy is noisy also and makes lot of noise. Large wind turbines are needed to produce little amount of energy. For example largest turbine available today can provide electricity…… [Read More]

Dulabab. (2011). Nuclear power-Science, benefits, disadvantages and future use. Retrieved from Dulabab: Environmental and Ethical News and Information:

How to Power the World. (2010). Disadvantages of Hydro Electric Energy. Retrieved from How to Power the World:
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Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers This

Words: 3638 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50753050

Causes of Chronic Bronchitis in Workers

This review shows the literature and research available in the issue of respiratory diseases and the various occupations. The review shows that there is a pressing need to evaluate and conduct research in the known areas like coal, cement, and pesticides, but alarmingly agriculture and other industries have also to be included.

It is not only the factories that are hazardous. There are arguments to show that even farming can cause allergies. Rosenman (2012) in viewing "respiratory hazards that farmers and family members" argues that the grains that can be "contaminated with fungi, bacteria or microbial toxins; pesticides; solvents; gasoline and diesel fuels; and irritant gases such as oxides of nitrogen and ammonia." This may lead to occupational asthma and the allergens in such cases could be grain dust, cow dander, cow urine, egg yolk proteins, alternaria, aspergillus, cladosporium, meal worm, poultry mites, fungi, grain mite, grain weevil and also antibiotics used in feed along with formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde and many types of organic matter. Thus every occupation has its own health hazards. The modern factories and mines have mitigated the hazards with safety practices. (Rosenman, 2012)

There are laws that require adherence to…… [Read More]

Attfield, Michael D; Hodous, Thomas K. (1992) "Pulmonary Function of U.S. Coal Miners

Related to Dust Exposure Estimates" Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med, vol. 145, no. 3, pp: 605-609.
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Lost Mountain' and Look at What the

Words: 3690 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13162945

Lost Mountain' and look at what the writer say about coal mining and its overall effects to the overall environment and the entire human race. It will first analyze the problem at hand both from the political side and other actors involved in the coal mining on mountain tops. In addition to that the study will go ahead to see the varying criticism and proponents views on the issue and particularly on what the author of the book takes on the issue. According to Reece, the author of the book, the problem of coal miming on mountaintops has a political twist which makes it difficult to solve or work on its solution.

Lost mountain is a book by Reece Erik that has been eloquently been written and quite moving with the main agenda concentrating on the issue of cold mining at the mountain tops. Reece is mainly against the practice in his book and compares the now landscape to the earlier paradise that he knew earlier. This is no a tale of environmental degradation, it is shows how the blasting, coal washing and valley filling create deep human suffering, raising issue of decency, fairness and justice.

1. Varying Capacities of…… [Read More]

Reece E. (2006) Lost Mountain: A year in the Vanishing Wilderness: Radical Strip Mining and the Devastation of Appalachia, Riverhead Books Publishers

Lasswell H. (2007) American Political Scientist
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Groups That Live in Gaventa's Study Area

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79873124

groups that live in Gaventa's study area of Appalachia are the working class people who have lived there and work in the coal mining industry, and various representatives from the coal industry that own it. The former group is the powerless, whereas the latter group is the empowered. There is a degree of relative poverty for the people who live and work in the coal mining factories, who do not have significant financial resources. On the other hand, the individuals that own the coal mining company have substantial financial resources, which enable them to have power. Largely due to the money and the political connections of the mining company, it is able to assert its power to exploit the working class people, which profits the company and negatively impacts the homeowners.

The first dimension of social power predominantly pertains to behavior. It functions within a duality in which there are two groups, the empowered and the powerless. The empowered is able to assert its power over the powerless to make them do things they would not otherwise do. For instance, the U.S. government made Native Americans move to reservations. The second dimension of social power is more pervasive than the…… [Read More]

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Appalachia the Adena Hopewell and

Words: 2823 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18915240

Sociologists explain their condition through a culture-of-poverty theory or the theory of internal colonialism. Under the first theory, Appalachia families, for better or worse, simply cope with poverty. The second theory, on the other hand, ascribes poverty in Appalachia to structural causes. The theories offer insights but are both found to be quite deficient (Billings and Blee).

The first theory on culture-on-poverty became popular in the 60s and drew its premise from Appalachia's ethnic geography in the late 19th century. It was then perceived as a distinct region and race that entered the American consciousness only after the Civil War (Billings and Blee 2002). Imaginative fictionists only conjured images of the mountain and upland cultures, which were vastly out of step with the lowland's, culturally ad economically. At the turn of the century, Willim Goddell Frost, president of Berea College of Kentucky, discoursed on the people of the southern amounts as "Appalachian Americans" and assumed them to be backward on account of their geographical, socio-cultural and economic isolation from the progressive lowland (Billings and Blee). Frost pointed to the mountain people of Appalachia as "our contemporary ancestors" who were the surviving remnants of white pioneer settlers and valuable contributors to…… [Read More]

Billings, Dwight and Blee, Kathleen M. Rural Poverty in Appalachia. Fathom Knowledge Network, 2002.

Coats, Lauren. Crafting Appalachian Identity: Regional Handicrafts and the Politics of Culture. University of Pennsylvania, 1997.
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Massey Energy Co 's Liability Over

Words: 1793 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16256171

This can be seen with the consistent accidents and violations that have occurred at different mines that the company owns, the most notable being the Acroma Alma Mine. In this particular case, the company was cited and charged with violating federal law. Where, it would plead guilty to 10 different counts and pay a $4.2 million fine in 2008. This is troubling because it underscores how the top management at Massey Energy did not care about the issue of safety at any of their mines. If they did, then the company would have a procedure in place to address issues of mine safety, which would have meant that they never would have received the 515 violations at the Upper Big Branch Mine in 2009. Instead, the company decided to aggressively appeal the different citations that they would receive. This underscores the overall sense of arrogance and disregard for the law from top management all the way down. When you apply this background to the issue of negligence, it is obvious that the plaintiffs would be able to make compelling legal arguments to support this fact.


History of Mine Safety and Health Legislation. (2010). Retrieved May 5, 2010 from MSHA…… [Read More]

History of Mine Safety and Health Legislation. (2010). Retrieved May 5, 2010 from MSHA website:
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Paintings The Maas at Dordrecht

Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16857920

As in the other painting, light provides the interpretation of the picture, but whereas ships or individuals may serve as subject of Cuyp's painting, here light serves as the subjects of Turner's. Light from the full moon shines on the glittering water, with silhouetted ships (as in the other picture) framing the view. The other picture draws your eye to the centerpiece; here, Turner draws your eye out to sea and to the corners of the panting. Nature sweeps a clear elliptical path and becomes the centerpiece brushing ships and flame to the sides.

A palette knife conveys mood and atmosphere. Some areas, such as the silvery-white moon and the orange torchlight are painted more thickly than others, and unlike Cuyp's canvass which is smooth and polished, Turner's is rough and textured with the raised surfaces perfectly catching and representing the light and drama of the scene. Here, the paint is so thickly applied to the canvas, that the medium stands in relief and retains the mark of the brush and palette knife.

Both paintings are placed within an ocher / drab gold / metal burnished frame that excellently places the painting in relief whilst merging it with its background.…… [Read More]

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Labor Law Mine Safety and Health Act

Words: 1744 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26759982

Labor Law: Mine Safety and Health Act

The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act passed in 1969 and were last substantially amended in 1977. There has been just one amendment to the Act since 1977; that was a penalty increase in 1990 enacted not for safety and health policy reasons, but to raise revenue for the federal government.

The Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, and the Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, have been among the most successful laws that the Congress has every enacted. It provides for a comprehensive approach to mine safety and health combining enforcement with education and training as well as a wide range of cooperative efforts to promote safety and health throughout the mining industry. Total mine fatalities in the decade before enactment of the 1977 law ranged from 435 to 254. In the 1990's, annual deaths in mining have ranged from 112 to 80.The American mining industry today is the world leader in safety and health. This is a significant accomplishment for which industry, labor, and government all deserve credit (Ruffennach C. Gregory, Saving Lives or Wasting Resources? The Federal Mine Safety and Health Act)

But while the Mine Act…… [Read More]

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Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and

Words: 22311 Length: 76 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1609303

Polish Companies Reacted to Ethical Issues and Changes in Business Standards Since the Fall of Communism in 1989?

Poland's Economy Pre-Communism's Fall

Poland's Natural Resources

Minerals and Fuels

Agricultural Resources

Labor Force

The Polish Economy Under Communism

System Structure

Development Strategy

The Centrally-Planned Economy

Establishing the Planning Formula

Retrenchment and Adjustment in the 1960s

Reliance on Technology in the 1970s

Reform Failure in the 1980s

Poland's Economy After the Fall of Communism

Poland After the Fall of Communism

Fall of Communism

Marketization and Stabilization

Required Short-Term Changes

Section 2.3.2. The Shock Strategy

Section 2.3.3. Initial Results

Section 2.3.4. Long-Term Requirements

Section 2.4. Macroeconomic Indicators for 1990-91

Section 2.4.1. Price Increases

Section 2.4.2. Impact on Productivity and Wages

Section 2.4.3. Statistical Distortions

Section 2.4.4. Agricultural Imbalances

Section 2.4.5. Causes of Decline

Section 2.5.The Polish Post-Communism Privatization Process

Section 2.6. Structure of Poland's Economy: Post-Communism

Section 2.6.1. Fuels and Energy

Section 2.6.2. Coal

Section 2.6.3. Oil and Gas

Section 2.6.4. Power Generation

Section 2.6.5. Industry

Section 2.6.6. Light Industry

Section 2.6.7. Automotive Industry

Section 2.6.8. Construction Machinery

Section 2.6.9. Banking and Finance

Section 2.7. The State Banking System

Section 2.8. Banking Reform, 1990-92

Section 2.8.1. Insurance and Securities Reform

Section 2.8.2. New…… [Read More]

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Distinguished Board Members of Resourceco

Words: 2350 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84301980

The controversy has intensified in the past year, as Chinese companies have swept into Australia, Canada and other countries to buy up distressed energy companies and mines. Chinese buyers have been especially active in Australia, proposing more than $8 billion in resource investments since the beginning of last year.

In June, China Minmetals Non-Ferrous Metals Co. bought most of the assets of Oz Minerals Ltd., a Melbourne-based producer of copper and other minerals, for $1.4 billion.Sinosteel Corp. snatched up iron-ore company Midwest Corp. In a hostile takeover.Yanzhou Coal Mining Co. is trying to take over Australian coal producer Felix Resources Ltd. For $3 billion, and China Non-Ferrous Metal Mining Group is angling for a controlling stake in Lynas Corp., an Australian producer of "rare earth minerals" used to make hybrid-car batteries and other goods

4) An investment may impact on Australian Government revenue or other policies. Given that ResourceCo will pay all legally mandated taxes, the major provisions of this part of the law will not be a difficulty for ResourceCo. However, this provision of the law also includes a provision that the federal government can bar foreign investment if such an investment might produce environmental damage. This would certainly…… [Read More]

The text of the Foreign Acquisitions and Takeovers Act 1975 is available at

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Electricity Restructuring

Words: 10558 Length: 38 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50906081

Electricity Restructuring

Restructuring of the electricity industry has been approached with a top-down approach that has failed to result in benefits to consumers. Economic theory states guidance on conditions that are essential for well-functioning markets to exist in which the consumer benefits and the firms utilize innovation to control costs. There is currently a debate surrounding the importance of each 'condition' as well as the resulting harm when conditions are unmet. It has been learned that without the essential pieces in place that restructuring of the electricity industry may result in results that are highly negative in nature. These essential pieces include new transmission capacity, real-timing pricing, the absence of excessive market power in generation, fair competition between utility incumbents and other market players, effective regulatory oversight, a level playing field between private entities on the one hand and electric cooperatives and public power suppliers on the other, well0infomed small retail consumers and the opportunities and the correct incentives for risk-management activities by regulated utilities. Questions that are addressed in this research initiative include the question of why the difficulties of restructuring were so greatly underestimated. Secondly, the research in this work intends to examine why restructuring has been successful…… [Read More]

Ardoin, P.J. And Grady, Dennis (2006) The Politics of Electricity Restructuring across the American States: Power Failure and Policy Failure. State and Local Government Review. Vol. 38. No. 3 (2006.

Ardoin, Phillip J. And Grady, Dennis (2006) The Politics of Electricity Restructuring across the American States: Power Failure and Policy Failure. State and Local Government Review. Vol. 38, No. 3, 2006.
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Geology it Was a Work

Words: 1519 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75277034

Smith went deep into debt and as creditors chased him, he was unable to enjoy any of the fruits of his labor. Forced to sell off his fossil collection, Smith eventually retreated into Northern England and lived as a pariah. Before he did, he also entered into an unwise marriage with a mentally disturbed woman. Smith was also imprisoned for his debt.

Throughout much of his life, Smith received little personal recognition for his work, even from the national Geological Society. The Geological Society, far from honoring Smith, thrust him out of their elitist circle. Toward the end of Smith's life, he was finally offered back some of the recognition he deserved. In 1865, the Geological Society paid long overdue honors to William Smith: years after he was dead. Centuries after his death, geologists pay homage to William Smith as the "father of modern geology." Smith's maps shifted public perception of the creation of the universe and turned the popular religious notions of creation completely on their head. Smith's discoveries predicated those of Charles Darwin, whose theories of evolution complement Smith's and whose work was undoubtedly influenced by Smith's discoveries of the evolution of the earth.

Works Cited

Winchester, Simon.…… [Read More]

Winchester, Simon. The Map that Changed the World. New York: Harper Collins, 2001.
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Legal Book Review The Buffalo Creek Disaster

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78027492

Legal Book Review: The Buffalo Creek Disaster

The Buffalo Creek Disaster was one of the costliest preventable tragedies in the history of American coal-mining. An impoundment dam burst in a coal mining West Virginia town, precipitating a deadly flood that killed or injured more than a thousand people, and left many more residents homeless. The dam had been declared sound shortly before it burst by a federal inspector. The owner of the dam, the Pittston Coal Company initially only offered a very small settlement to the victims. "Over 125 people perished immediately. Most were women and children unable to struggle out from under the thick black water choked with crushed and splintered homes, cars, telephone poles, railroad tracks, and all manner of other debris. There were over 4,000 survivors, but their 1,000 homes were destroyed as well as most of their possessions" (Stern ix-x). Survivors of the incident experienced post-traumatic stress disorder similar to that of Vietnam veterans and victims of abuse. Parents were haunted by images of children floating away from them in the muck and debris; people lost everything -- loved ones, all of their possessions, homes and their livelihoods.

The lawyer who represented the victims, Gerald M.…… [Read More]

Stern, Gerald. The Buffalo Creek Disaster. Vintage, 1977.
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Affordable Housing & the Use

Words: 5459 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58307285

For example, any controls or regulations that are not unreasonable and bear some relationship to the general welfare of the community are permissible unless proscribed by preemptive state or federal laws or by the federal or state constitutions. Legal scholars have stated that inherent in the police power, is the power to exclude or condition development along with the power to mandate inclusion of development with particular characteristics that further the general welfare of the community. This is problematic because just about any zoning ordinance can be validated under the police power.

Current zoning regulations have long been cited as the cause of increases in housing and land costs, because most current zoning ordinances seek to exclude affordable housing by driving up property values in more affluent neighborhoods. Current zoning ordinances are used as the primary means that governments use to control the physical development of land and the kinds of uses to which each individual property may be put. Zoning laws typically specify the areas in which residential, industrial, recreational or commercial activities may take place. Besides restricting the uses that can be made of land and buildings, current zoning laws also may regulate the dimensional requirements for lots…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
See Morgan at 359.

See Andrew Dietderich, An Egalitarian's Market: The Economics of Inclusionary Zoning Reclaimed, 24 Fordham Urb. L.J. 23, 32 (1996).

Benjamin Powell, Edward Stringham, and Adam B. Summers, Affordable Housing in Monterey County, (2004).
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Buffalo Creek Disaster

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50684403

Buffalo Creek Disaster

In February of 1972, sixteen small working class towns in West Virginia were flooded not just with water but with black sludge waste material from a local coal mining operation. The flood caused the immediate deaths of 125 people, many of whom were women and children who were not even employees of the coal industry. Scarring the region and leaving over a thousand people without homes, the Buffalo Creek disaster consisted of 130 million gallons of hazardous waste material and water, which created tidal waves up to thirty feet high. Buffalo Creek rests in a seventeen mile valley located in Logan County, West Virginia. The region was home to Pittston, a New York-based coal mining company and one of the largest employers in the area. The Buffalo Creek disaster resulted from the failure of one of Pittston's refuse dams; when the dam collapsed, it unleashed the horrendous and deadly flow of water and waste throughout the area. The environmental damages are probably still observable, the psychological and physical scars on its victims still palpable decades later. Although they were essentially powerless in the face of corporate power and influence, over a hundred of the survivors of the…… [Read More]

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Health and Life Improvements in

Words: 722 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19103612

Not only does the MINER act impose fines for violations of safety provisions, it implements a lot of new ones. For example, there must be reporting of any dangerous conditions within mines that may lead to accidents within 15 minutes of discovering such things. There must also be two rescue teams on site at mines and those teams must be capable of responding to any disaster within an hour. Wireless two-way communications and a tracking system capable of allowing those on the surface to easily locate those underground quickly must be present at all mines. Abandoned areas of coal mines must be sealed, and better ventilation of mine shafts must be in place. All of these things and more are part of the MINER act, and have already contributed to a reduction in accidents in mines and greater mine safety since their implementation with the passage of the act (Gurtunca and Breslin 2006).

Further, grant money has been made available to study workplace conditions at mines in order to make further safety recommendations. These grants allow research into everything from explosion prevention to improved health standards for mines to protect the long-term health of mine workers (who are often subject…… [Read More]

Dhillon, B.S. (2010). Mine Safety: A Modern Approach. New York, NY: Springer Publishing.

Gurtunca, R.G. And Breslin, J.A. (2006). "Recent Developments in Coal Mining Safety in the United States." National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Pittsburg, PA: Centers for Disease Control.
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Case Laws

Words: 2054 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99222646

Slaughterhouse Cases, Takings Clause

PART I Slaughterhouse Cases

198 U.S. 45 Lochner v New York 1904 (Oyez, 2013)


Joseph Lochner

The People of the State of New York


FACTS -- Lochner was convicted but he appealed to the Supreme Court and argued that the bakery labor law interfered with an employee's liberty to contract as guaranteed by the 14th Amendment.. The employee has the right to substantive due process of law.

A state law did not allow workers in the bakery business to work longer than 60 hours a week, willingly or not. Is this law consistent with the 14th Amendment? If so, which should prevail -- the citizens' right to contract the length of work hours or the state's right to control work hours?

ARGUMENT -- In a 5-4 decision, Justice Rufus Peckham ruled the Bakeshop Act was unconstitutional and reversed Lochner's conviction. The Bakeshop Act was an absolute interference t the employee and employer's right to contract. Justice Peckham declared the right to contract as part of the liberty of the individual, which is guaranteed and protected by the 14th Amendment. The Amendment's Due Process Clause prevents the State from depriving…… [Read More]

UMKC (2005). Taking of private property. University of Missouri-Kansas City

School of Law: University of Missouri Kansas City. Retrieved on November

30, 2013 from
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Carson v 2012 St George Bank Staff's

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96058828

Carson, V. (2012). St. George Bank staff's cash windfall. The Telegraph. 3 April 2012. Retrieved online:

In 2008, the St. George Bank merged with Westpac. In order to retain the core of seven senior executives, who were already being wooed by rivals for their expertise in currency trading and money market management, the then-CEO Paul Fegan offered retention incentives to the tune of up to $50,000. After the merger, however, the numbers changed. Over a hundred employees who had been eligible for bonuses did not receive them and, as Carson (2012) points out, "a group of staff sued the bank over the bonus and redundancy payouts." The lawsuits were settled in court, and the St. George Bank was forced to pay not just the bonuses but interest on them: a total of $3 million. According to Carson (2012), the lawsuits present a major public relations gaffe for St. George Bank, as well as revealing the importance of human resources management. Human resources management concepts and theories illuminate the need for honest and straightforward employee relations: the types of relationships cultivated between managers and employees that engender trust, loyalty, and shared values. The need for retention incentive pay can be…… [Read More]

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Timothy Mitchell Challenges Conventional Wisdom Which Suggests

Words: 709 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72599246

Timothy Mitchell challenges conventional wisdom which suggests that oil-producing countries tend to be less democratic, specifically by referring to the current state of affairs in the Middle East. Mitchell discusses the role of oil by placing it within a larger context of fossil fuels and their effect on political mobilization, and argues that the existence of large reserves of fossil fuel may limit democracy but also made certain kinds of democratic processes possible. He calls the latter carbon democracy.

Mitchell argues that viewing the impact of oil as necessarily anti-democratic is narrow-minded. The role of oil should be analyzed in a larger context, he says. For instance, those who argue that a dependency on oil and the ability of the ruling elite in the Middle Eastern countries make them less democratic only look at the political processes of using oil for the benefit of the rulers. But we need also to look at the processes of exploration, extraction, storing, and distribution of oil and how those processes affect democratic politics. Mitchell also notes that the leading industrialized countries of the world also heavily depend on oil. So, the anti-democratic nature of a country cannot be attributed to just the existence…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Mitchell, Timothy. "Carbon Democracy." Economy And Society 38.3 (2009): 399-432. EconLit. Web. 15 Apr. 2012.
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Rocket Boys

Words: 778 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2293134

Rocket Boys by Homer Hickam, Jr. Specifically, it will compare and contrast the author, Homer Hickam, Jr. And his Father. Homer and his father seem to be from two different worlds that can never come together. Home has ambition and dreams, and his father cannot see past their small West Virginia coal-mining town. The main difference between Home and his father is that Homer has dreams, and his father only wants to smash those dreams, because he thinks they will never come true, and his son will only end up bitter and disappointed. In the end, Homer is stronger than his father, and the man his father cannot be, because he has grown beyond him, and the small West Virginia coal-mining town.

Homer's father works as a superintendent in the mine, and his life revolves around the mine. Because of this, he cannot see that the mine and the town are dying, and the future lies away from Coalwood. Homer Jr. can see the town is slowly dying, and so, he wants to leave the town and make something important and valuable out of his life. He works on the rocket because he wants to work with Werner von Bruan…… [Read More]

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Florida Electrical Power Grid Florida's

Words: 1507 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29745102

This is mainly done by the plants using non-renewable sources of energy. The plants also differ in the competency of the amount of watts produced. Due to the extent of sources used, some plants produce enormous amounts than others. A good example is the nuclear plant at Crystal River; it contributes to 15% watt production compared to the solar plant at Indiantown that contributes to 3% of power production.

Research methodology

The data collected through this research is concrete. Statistical information has been extracted from vital databases such as the Bureau of Economic Analysis, SEDS Database and the Institute of Energy research. Though the information is rightfully available, it is not possible to create Florida's electric power network due to poor infrastructure on the transmission network and the availability of many plants and substations.


Castleberry, G.W. (2008). Power Plant Electrical Distribution Systems. An Approved Continuing Education Provider.

Federal Energy Administration (F.E.A). (1994). Inventory of Power Plants in the United States. New York: DIANE Publishing.

Institute of Energy Research. (2009). Real GDP per Capita 2008: Bureau of Economic Analysis. News Release: GDP by State.

Kirkland, K. (2007). Electricity and Magnetism. New York: Infobase Publishing.

Lynch, T. & Schwartz, J.…… [Read More]

Castleberry, G.W. (2008). Power Plant Electrical Distribution Systems. An Approved Continuing Education Provider.

Federal Energy Administration (F.E.A). (1994). Inventory of Power Plants in the United States. New York: DIANE Publishing.
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Railroads Trains

Words: 2210 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39067807

Social, Economic and Political Results From Railroad Development in the United States

In the span of about fifty years in the middle of the 19th Century, the United States changed from a vast country separated by wide, empty spaces to a country connected by railroads. In the process, the railroads affected the social and economic development of the country and had major effects on some of the most important political events in our country's history.

When railroad construction began in the United States, most travelers who crossed the country to the west coast could travel for up to six months, very often walking beside their wagons. Until the completion of the transcontinental railroad, only wagon paths crossed the United States (UP, 2002).

By comparison, shortly after the transcontinental railroad was completed, people were being encouraged to travel by train across the country as a leisure activity. IN 1969 Samuel Bowles wrote, the railroad] brings... A new world of nature and of wealth...full of delightful surprises for the lover of scenery, the student in science, the seeker of opportunity for power and for riches. It is the unrolling of a new map, the revelation of a new empire, the creation of…… [Read More]

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Historical Analysis of Vancouver British Columbia Canada

Words: 3798 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3722744

Vancouver British Columbia is a location that is steeped in tradition and a rich history. The purpose of this discussion is to examine Vancouver within the larger context of western Canadian development. The task is to prepare a short history of Vancouver and discuss the changes that have taken place over time. In addition the research will focus on the community's political history as a local register of reaction to outside or distant forces. We will complete this task by assessing regional geographic factors. Finally, the conclusion will reflect upon the broad sweep of Vancouver's history over the decades.

A short history

Vancouver is a city with a profound history consisting of very diverse people from various places in the world. The city of Vancouver was first occupied by Coast Salish people of the Kwantlen, Musqueam, Tsawwassen, and Capilano bands. ("Vancouver (British Columbia)" 2003) A book entitled "Making Vancouver: Class, Status, and Social Boundaries, 1863-1913" explains that For Centuries the waters of Burrard Inlet on the northwest coast of North America and the shores surrounding it were the territory of Native people. Gulf of Georgia Salish people came in the early summer each year -- Squamish from the north and…… [Read More]

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American Era Between 1870 and 1920

Words: 1747 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83432908

American History Between 1870 and 1920

The years between 1870 and 1920 had been the period of astonishing changes because of the political, social and military upheaval that occurred during the period. Typically, the United States had witnessed several changes that affected the American way of life during the period. For example, period of 1877 -1900 had witnessed the rise of the industrial revolution. The years between 1870 and 1920 were the period of momentous and dynamic changes in the American history because they set in motion the industrial and socio- economic development that shaped the country for several generations which include industrialization, labor strike, westward expansion, immigration, urbanization, and integration of millions of freed American Americans.

The objective of this paper is to explore the fundamental changes that occur between 1870 and 1920 and the impacts on the American life. The paper also explores different labor strikes and massacres that occurred during the era, and methods they affected the different American way of life.

Fundamental Changes between 1870 and 1920

The urbanization, growth of cities, and rise of industrial America represented the greatest changes that occurred to the United States between 1870 and 1920. For the first time in…… [Read More]

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Water Legislation Origins of Environmental

Words: 11427 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87395038

The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.

Legislation Arising From Public Anger

At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across Europe at the time. (Some soda ash was imported to Europe from the New World, where deforestation was also occurring. However, because the process of deforestation had begun later in the New World, including in Canada, there were still large stands of forests.)

At the same time that the availability…… [Read More]

Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs,

Global Forest Watch,
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Labor Market in Harlan County Texas Was

Words: 1001 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70346761

labor market in Harlan County, Texas, was monopolistic in the sense that Duke Power had a significant amount of wage-setting power at the time that Harlan County, USA was filmed. The company and its subsidiary, the Eastover Mining Company, were one of the largest employers within the county. Moreover, the sort of people that the company hired did not have a lot of other career prospects. Most of them were relatively uneducated by contemporary standards and had high school diplomas or did not finish high schools. As such, the work afforded by this company was fairly important to their livelihoods, which is why the laborers were willing to endure a strike for as long as they did.

Since Duke Power was one of the larger employers within Harlan County, they were able to set wages in the region. A testament to this particular fact is the scab replacements that the company got to replace its regular workers during the strike. The scabs did not make as much money as the regular employees did, and did not even have the paltry health benefits that the striking workers did. Due to the fact that Duke Power could hire these laborers for less…… [Read More]

Krundt, R. (2011). "Cinematic Journalism at its best." The New York Times. Retrieved from

Long, C. (2006). "Harlan County USA dvd review." Movie Metropolis.
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Plot Background Zola's Germinal Encompasses Thinking Major

Words: 998 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67237405

plot background Zola's Germinal encompasses thinking major figures discussed

Revolutionary Sentiment

By most estimates, the historical epoch of the mid to late 19th century was fairly turbulent, particularly within the throes of Western Civilization. Earlier in that century the communist urgings of Karl Marx and Freidrich Engels challenged the conventional politics and economics of the time period in which the capitalist divide between those that have and those that have not was especially noticeable -- even blatantly so (Marx, Engles 1848). Additionally, psychological notions of hysteria, the likes of which would be innovated and championed by Sigmund Freud, were also being explored (Scurr 2010), while conventional notions of labor and exploitation were also being challenged. Much of the zeitgeist that was existent during this epoch is demonstrated within Emile Zola's Germinal, which was the 13th novel within the author's 20 volume series entitled Les Rougon-Macquart. A close analysis of the majority of characters within this novel, as well as the background and the plot involved, reveals that the author was actively attempting to accurately reflect the intellectual hegemony existent during this time period.

Germinal is set within the French coal mining town of Montsou in the 1860's. Many of the…… [Read More]

Marx, Karl, Engels, Friedrich. The Communist Manifesto.

Scurr, Ruth. "Rereading Zola's Germinal." The Guardian. 2010.
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Humana and Tata Steel Humana

Words: 1733 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66756997

The costs of raw materials continued to escalate as well, further impacting profitability.

More environmental regulations - There are many industrial regulations on the steel industries including the Kyoto doctrine that concentrates on green-based government initiatives to save the environment. All of these regulations further increase the costs that Tata must incur to continue operating.

Humana References

Jaimy Lee. (2008, April). Humana engages public on health-sector solutions. PRweek, 11(17), 2. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1629703111).

Chad Terhune. (2008, August). THEY KNOW WHAT'S in YOUR MEDICINE CABINET. Business Week,(4094), 48. Retrieved February 28, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1542853581).

Brandi White. (2007). A Report Card for 32 Payers: Not Making the Grade. Family Practice Management, 14(6), 43-9. Retrieved February 27, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1295595111).

Tata Steel References (Amit, Mukherjee, Tridibesh, 1995)

Chatterjee, Amit, Mukherjee, Tridibesh. (1995). Staying ahead of global competition: The Tata Steel strategy. Journal of General Management, 21(1), 71. Retrieved February 25, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 6986348).

T.V. Mahalingam. (2008, July). India Inc. On a steely voyage:Since the landmark acquisition of Corus by Tata Steel, Indian steel companies…… [Read More]

Chatterjee, Amit, Mukherjee, Tridibesh. (1995). Staying ahead of global competition: The Tata Steel strategy. Journal of General Management, 21(1), 71. Retrieved February 25, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 6986348).

T.V. Mahalingam. (2008, July). India Inc. On a steely voyage:Since the landmark acquisition of Corus by Tata Steel, Indian steel companies seem to have developed a hunger for acquiring steel companies and raw material assets across the globe.. Business Today. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1518967231).
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Industrial Development in Europe and

Words: 2583 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34483053

But he failed and started cooperating with real leaders - owners of huge industrial monopolies. To get rid of small businessmen organization (SA) Hitler murdered their leader Ernst Rem and some other leaders.

That's why fascists changed their political program.

Any national property was controlled by state, but in fact - rich monopolists. Hitler created extremely effective General department of property (head - Krupp and Siemens).

The largest corporation in the country belonged to German Gering. It was that huge because it received Jews' property and later - property which was captured in states- victims of German foreign policy. German leaders started regulating prices as it was in USSR or USA during New Line.

Agriculture was also controlled by the state. Agricultural production was controlled and every farmer had to sell it to the state (by the way, prices were also regulated by state).

So, all German private property got under state's control and there were very necessary reasons to do so. Hitler planned great war and knew that he had to strengthen and centralize his state to win it. Only under the condition of centralized economics and the main component - industry no state can win any war. Hitler…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
6. Georgi Zhukov From Moscow to Berlin: Marshall Zhukov's Greatest Battles Noontide Pr 1991.

7. Montefiore, Simon Sebag Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar Dixie 1993

8. J.Simon, M. Miller. World Economics WestPrint 1988
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Railway Lines That Cross the

Words: 778 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27184267

" (Nevard, 2002) All trains by 1965 were rerouted via Oxford avoiding the Somerset & Dorset line completely. In 1966 the lines closed for ever but the Broadstone Junction to Blandford Forum lines were kept open for goods traffic likewise from Highbridge to Bason Bridge was kept open upto 1972 for milk traffic. The last section to work and continue was the Radstock to Writhlington Colliery section for coal traffic. The entire section thus was closed in 1976. (Nevard, 2002)

Later records kept by rail enthusiasts and photographers reveal that by the year 1960 steam was replaced by diesel and other type of locomotives, and in 1966 the Somerset and Dorset line with a whole 72 miles from Bath to Bournemouth was stopped, and torn up. The end of the steam locomotives also closed the line. (Holland, 2010)

Now let us have an understanding of the present situation. Railway enthusiasts and the people living in the former rail route have come together to recreate the Somerset & Dorset Joint Railway system and this is done by many enthusiasts participating in the venture. The Somerset and Dorset Joint Railway is proposed to be reconstructed to link Bournemouth to the Midlands and…… [Read More]

Great Britain Parliament. 1864. "House of Commons Accounts and papers of the House of Commons" Great Britain Parliament Publications.

Holland, Julian. (2010) "Amazing & Extraordinary Railway Facts"
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Immigration at Different Times Immigration in Early

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12273933

Immigration at Different Times

Immigration in early 1800's and today

Immigration has not been ever so easier for people residing across the globe. People have to obey the immigration policies made by countries. This study would give sound coverage to all issues faced by people in northern cities in the early 1800s era. Hence, issues with immigration in past would be compared with current issues to immigration. Millions of immigrants expiated to northern cities to find quality living standards. Northern cities reserve a very important place on the entire continent for providing opportunities to people. The ratio of immigrants from United Kingdom was found little higher than other countries. Northern cities have become so diverse. This was probably the reason besides huge influx of immigrants in northern cities.

Immigration a huge issue northern cities early 1800s

Huge influx of immigrants had started moving to get settled in northern cities. Economic trends were rapidly transforming from agricultural economy to industrial economy. Northern cities d got little higher fame for manufacturing functions to begin with. Civil war had affected industrialization by accelerating production of war supplies and coal mining. Civil war left its effects on northern societies; United State of America became…… [Read More]

Tolany, S. E. 'African-Americans and immigrants in northern cities: the effects of relative group size on occupational standings in 1820' 2011, university of Washington publication, vol.1, pp.121-189.

Hynes, G.E. PhD. 'The migration of negroes into northern cities; Executive sectary of the national league on urban conditions among negroes' 2000, vol. 1, pp.494-497.
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Elites in Engineering in the

Words: 11890 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80333793

Engineers should focus on the improvement of the performance of the economy. This relates to the transformation of the theories of controlling the world and adopting new frameworks in the operating in conjunction with the planet. New engineers need to adopt and implement new theories of focusing on the economic, social, and political concepts in relation to both technical and nontechnical disciplines (Cameron 2010 p.40).

Leaders in British Engineering

According to Lewis (1998, p.88), the technology style of the 19th century stretches from the peak of one long wave to the peak of the next. The concerned style would have made its first appearance in 1870s and would have held great influence in the late Victorian period. It was marked through the diffusion of cheap bulk steel that emerged in the mid-Victorian periods, advances in science-based industries such as engineering and chemicals, spread of electric power and the adoption of novel types of managerial organizations linked to the rise of the managerially controlled corporations (Bodde 2004, p. 45). This period saw the transformation from rule of thumb techniques in industry to a world of more intricate mechanization, large-scale organizations which include science-based industries in electrical engineering and organic chemistry.

Electricity…… [Read More]

Tric?, C, & Papuc, M 2013, 'Green economic growth premise for sustainable development', Theoretical & Applied Economics, 20, 1, pp. 131-140

He-dak, M, & Raszka, B 2013, 'Evaluation of the Local Spatial Policy in Poland with Regard to Sustainable Development', Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 22, 2, pp. 395-402,

Petrovi?, N, Snider, a, "irovi," M, & Milenkovi?, N 2012, 'Debate in Education for Sustainable Development', Management (1820-0222), 65, pp. 33-39
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Enforcement of Power in Organizations Managing Organisations

Words: 2434 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8757009

Enforcement of Power in Organizations

Managing Organisations - Critically analyse how the enforcement of power may or may not lead to organisational resistance, conflict and decline

Enforcement of power in organizations has led to conflicts in many organizations, due to employee resistance to power (Fiske and Depret, 1996). Managers in many organizations try to use coercion when ordering employees to perform their work (French Jr. et al., 1960). The different subunits within an organization need to work cohesively in order to achieve the organization's overall goal. Failure to do this result in organizational decline and conflicts arise between the different subunits. This paper will demonstrate that enforcement of power is a catalyst for organizational resistance and conflicts. The different elements that cause conflict in an organization have been analysed to demonstrate how they affect an organization. The arguments made in the paper will indicate that enforcement of power could lead to the decline of the organization.


Thompson (1956) researched the effects of uncertainty in military bureaucracy by conducting research on two U.S. Air Force wing commands that comprised of ground and flight crew personnel. The ground crew were central in ensuring the safety of the flight crew, and this…… [Read More]

DEPRET, E. & FISKE, S.T. 1999. Perceiving the powerful: Intriguing individuals vs. threatening groups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 461-480.

ELLEMERS, N., VAN RIJSWIJK, W., BRUINS, J. & DE GILDER, D. 1998. Group commitment as a moderator of attributional and behavioural responses to power use. European Journal of Social Psychology, 28, 555-573.