Cocaine Essays (Examples)

Filter results by:

 

View Full Essay

Physiological Effects and Treatments for

Words: 902 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68982866



Different routes of cocaine administration can produce different adverse effects. egularly snorting cocaine, for example, can lead to loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems with swallowing, hoarseness, and an overall irritation of the nasal septum, which can lead to a chronically inflamed, runny nose. Ingested cocaine can cause severe bowel gangrene, due to reduced blood flow. Persons who inject cocaine have puncture marks and tracks, most commonly in their forearms. Intravenous cocaine users may also experience an allergic reaction, either to the drug, or to some additive in street cocaine, which can result, in severe cases, in death. Because cocaine has a tendency to decrease food intake, many chronic cocaine users lose their appetites and can experience significant weight loss and malnourishment. The human liver combines cocaine and alcohol and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, which intensifies cocaine's euphoric effects 3. The mixture of cocaine and alcohol is the…… [Read More]

References

1. Quaglio G, Lugoboni F, Pajusco B, Fornasiero a, Mezzelani P, Lechi a. [Clinical manifestations of cocaine abuse]. Ann Ital Med Int. Oct-Dec 2004;19(4):291-301; quiz 302-293.

2. White SM, Lambe CJ. The pathophysiology of cocaine abuse. J Clin Forensic Med. Mar 2003;10(1):27-39.

3. Velasquez EM, Anand RC, Newman WP, 3rd, Richard SS, Glancy DL. Cardiovascular complications associated with cocaine use. J La State Med Soc. Nov-Dec 2004;156(6):302-310; quiz 311.

4. Sofuoglu M, Kosten TR. Novel approaches to the treatment of cocaine addiction. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(1):13-25.
View Full Essay

Drug Abuse in Eastern Kentucky

Words: 3027 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29623389

drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.

History of Drug Use & Availability

The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.

Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from  http://www.deamuseum.org .

Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.

Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
View Full Essay

Opium Consumption and Trade the

Words: 2838 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70148264

The author mentioned that rather than only tying the drug consumption with unemployment, urban drug culture, and other factors, one needs to view the drug pervasiveness issues in light of distribution channels as well. The author mentioned that South East Asia's Golden Triangle was the hub of opium trade to the world. Thai-Burma border was used by the Yunnan province drug lords to change opium into marijuana and heroin. The long trail from Golden Triangle to New York was managed by Yunnan merchants and they exported the illicit drugs to Thai -- Burma border. After refinement into heroin, the drugs were then carried by the Chiu Chau Chinese drug traders. They transported these drugs to Bangkok, South Asia, America and Europe. ith loose organizational structures, these Chinese networks of drug trade were closely knit clans and fiercely ruthless in their trade practices as were the gangs of Versailles.

Davenport observed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's war on drugs: No margin for maneuver." The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.1 (2002): 134-148.

Grayson, George W. Mexico: Narco-violence and a failed state? Transaction Books, 2011.
View Full Essay

Disparity in Sentencing for Crack

Words: 4592 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29436561

It is a matter of opinion as to whether this is actually accurate, but it does appear to be logical (Payne, 1997).

This is an important analogy because of the fact that many individuals who are targeted for a particular reason will often attempt to find a disparity issue that they can use to insist that they have been treated unfairly. In drug use or sale issues, these people are targeted because of the offense that they have committed, but when sentencing is handed down, those who feel that they received too harsh of a sentence will work to find reasons that they believe their sentencing to be unfair.

Race is only one reason that these individuals use. Others include gender, age, and whether the amount of drug that they had is a felony or should be a misdemeanor instead. Some of the speculation into why some individuals feel that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Banks, C. (2004). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Blumstein, a. et. al. (1983). Research on sentencing: The Search for Reform.

Drug Use Trends. (1997, September-October). Slow development in "crack babies" may be caused by conditions of urban poverty, says new study. Retrieved at  http://www.ndsn.org/sepoct97/poverty.html 

Education Reforms and Students at Risk: A review of the current state of the art. (1994, January). Chapter 2: Student Background. Retrieved at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/edreformstudies/edreforms/chap2a.html
View Full Essay

Contingency Management Alcohol & Marijuana

Words: 11354 Length: 41 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27822679

" (1995)

The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.

McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)

Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
View Full Essay

U S v Billy Bob This

Words: 1162 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76312982

In fact, he repeatedly told officer Friday that he had no interest in doing so. In Sherman v. United States, the Court held that "a line must be drawn between the trap for the unwary innocent and the trap for the unwary criminal." 356 U.S. 369, 375. Furthermore, in Sorrells v. United States, the decision that officially established the entrapment defense, the Court asked "whether the defendant is a person otherwise innocent whom the government is seeking to punish for an alleged offense which is the product of the creative activity of its own officials." 287 U.S. 435, 451. Looking at the facts as developed at trial, it is clear that Billy Bob's agreement to take the drugs on consignment and distribute them was the product of Friday's creative activity, and that Billy Bob was otherwise innocent of possession with intent to distribute.

Interestingly enough, although entrapment would apply in…… [Read More]

References

Hampton v. United States 425 U.S. 484 (1976).

Sherman v. United States, 356 U.S. 369 (1958).

Sorrells v. United States, 287 U.S. 435, 451 (1932).

United States v. Russell, 411 U.S. 423 (1973).
View Full Essay

Social Issue Alcohol Drugs Consider a Social

Words: 1118 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83850354

Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.

Social issue: Drug abuse

The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…… [Read More]

References

Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.

Retrieved at:

http://articles.cnn.com/2011-11-01/justice/justice_crack-cocaine-sentencing_1_powder-cocaine-fair-sentencing-act-crack-penalties?_s=PM:JUSTICE

Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
View Full Essay

Crack Capturing the Audience's Attention

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81118651



A. Supporting details (Give citation)

Crack is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that can increase risk for cardiovascular incidents, strokes, and other deadly effects (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2009).

B. Supporting details (Give citation)

Addicts may even use crack cocaine while pregnant, severely harming their children. "Fetal cocaine effects include premature separation of the placenta, spontaneous abortion, premature labor, low birthweight and head circumference at birth, greater chance of visual impairment, mental retardation, genitourinary malformations, and greater chance of developmental problems," (American Council for Drug Education 2001).

C. Supporting details

Crack addiction is associated with high-risk sex, and therefore increases the risk of contracting deadly STDs and AIDS (American Council for Drug Education 2001).

V. Conclusion

A. estatement of thesis

Addiction to crack is both a cause and an effect of underlying social, political, and economic issues.

B. Wrap up of major ideas

Crack has affected poor communities…… [Read More]

References

American Council for Drug Education (2001). Basic facts about drugs: cocaine. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://www.acde.org/common/Cocaine.htm

Baumer, E. (2007). Poverty, crack, and crime: A cross-city analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 31, No. 3, 311-327

Cowen, T. (2005). Crime and crack. Out of the Crooked Timber. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from  http://crookedtimber.org/2005/05/23/looking-forward/ 

Crack Addicts Face Added Stigma in Housing (2007). Join Together. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://www.jointogether.org/news/headlines/inthenews/2007/crack-addicts-face-added.html
View Full Essay

Entrapment' and 'Outrageous Governmental Conduct' Entrapment Is

Words: 1900 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95776068

entrapment' and 'outrageous Governmental conduct'. Entrapment is usually permitted within confines of the law even though it contradicts the fourth and fifth amendments. It refers to entrapping the suspect into a situation where it is clearly seen that he was willing and ready to violate the law. 'Outrageous Government conduct,' on the other hand, refers to cases when the Government's conduct was so egregious that it provoked the accused into committing the transgression. Usually conducted out of undue zeal, particular Government official(s) can be egregious in their 'entrapment' conduct and generally, although not always, consequent in running afoul of the law.

The distinction between 'entrapment' and 'outrageous government conduct' is illustrated by the following fictitious case history, "Alabama vs. Billy Bob," where, on the grounds of 'Outrageous Governmental conduct', I appeal to the Judge to exonerate Mr. Bob.

The Appeal

There is no doubt in my mind that, firstly, Mr.…… [Read More]

Sources

Bardhan, P. (1997). Corruption and Development: A Review of Issues Journal of Economic Literature, 3. pp. 1320-1346.

Coleman, Stephen (2004). When Police Should Say "No!" To Gratuities. Criminal Justice Ethics, p. 33-50.

Hampton v.U.S.

.http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgibin/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&vol=425&invol=484
View Full Essay

Drug Legalization Is a Highly Controversial Issue

Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35311989

Drug legalization is a highly controversial issue, which has been given top priority in political agenda. Many oppose legalization of cocaine but there are just as many people favoring legalization on various grounds. It is important to study both sides of the problem to see if legalization is practical or not. Those who oppose legalization of drugs maintain that cocaine is a dangerous drug which if legalized will send the wrong message that "it is OK to try such drugs" (Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea: 17 A). Opponents maintain that it is the responsibility of law enforcement agencies and other authorities to maintain stricter control over drug use in order to maintain "a delicate balance on drug initiatives." (Hemenway, 2002)

Drug legalization is a sensitive issue that many regard as problematic and believe that it is not in the jurisdiction of United States to allow or disallow legalization…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1)

Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea., USA Today, 10-11-1999, pp 17A

2)

HEMENWAY, D. Alexandria Arguments against states legalizing drugs, Arguments against states legalizing drugs., The Washington Times, 11-08-2002.
View Full Essay

Marion Barry on Political Perceptions in D C

Words: 4604 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8321279

Marion Barry on Political Perceptions in D.C.

This paper examines the political life of Marion Barry, former mayor of Washington D.C. And current member of Washington's city council. Barry was arrested and convicted of possession of crack. He has also been linked to a number of other political and personal scandals. This paper attempts to determine: the impact Barry's contemporaries believed his actions would have on his political career; the impact that his actions have had on his political career; how Barry remains politically relevant after a criminal conviction; the role that race plays in Barry's continued political viability; and what Barry's continued political viability say about the current state of racial relations in the United States.

Table of Contents

Abstract

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Framing the Problem

Chapter 3. Study Questions

Chapter 4. Data Collection, Composition, and eporting

Chapter 5. Discussion

Chapter 6. Conclusion

eferences

Chapter 1: Introduction…… [Read More]

References

A&E. (2013). Marion S. Barry, Jr. Retrieved April 9, 2013 from Biography website:

http://www.biography.com/people/marion-s-barry-jr-9200328

Ashley, J. (1990, January 21). The Barry years: Triumphs and troubles. Retrieved April 9,

2013 from The Washington Post website:  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/library/dc/barry/timeline.htm
View Full Essay

Supreme Court of U S Has

Words: 1974 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25155642



From the study of treatment for mothers on crack, 50 experts in drug dependency as well as 150 addicted women identify components which they believe are important in the treatment of women effectively. Some of the features that they had identified that are always not present within the current programs are: comprehensive health care such as family planning, prenatal as well as prevention of HIV; service for children such as play therapy, day care, parental training and developmental monitoring of a child; an advocacy role such as contact with protective services of a child as well as welfare; and appropriate staffing such as non-confrontational, female staffing as well as cultural and racial sensitive.

As evident in the finding of the study, there is preference within experts and women for a program that combines medical, drug treatment and therapeutic services for the child and the mother, job training and education, long-term…… [Read More]

Reference

MacGi-egor, (1989). Cocaine and prenatal Outcome. Obstetrics and Gyllecology.

Murphy. S.. & Rosenbaum. M., (1999). Pregnant women on drugs: Combating Stereotype.. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.

Reuter, (1994). Setting Priorities: Budget and Program Choices for Drug Control. Reprint h-om Toward a Rational Drug Policy. The University of' Chicago Legal Forum,1994, pp. 14S 173.

Weisdorf, T. Parran. TV., Graham, A. & Snyder, C., (1999). Comparison of pregnancy-specific Interventions to a Traditional treatment Program for Cocaine-addicted Pregnant Women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment,1999, pp 16(1), 39-45.
View Full Essay

Letting the Big Ones Get Away a Focus on Ethics

Words: 1057 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27712896

Letting the Big Ones Get Away

One of the most common tools that is used by prosecutors is the plea bargain. This is when the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser crime in exchange for immunity or reduce charges. In nearly all court cases, prosecutors are willing to make some kind of plea deal. The reason why, is they believe that this will save time, reduce costs and it will serve justice. However, like with any kind of deal, the focus of the prosecution will be focused on a single person or group of individuals. As this information will more than likely be used to solidify the government's case against the defendant. ("Bargaining Justice," 2012)

The situation involving the known drug kingpin and his girlfriend is problematic. This is because the drug kingpin has been known for successfully avoiding prosecution in the past. The main reason is from the…… [Read More]

References

Bargaining Justice. (2012). St. Louis Today. Retrieved from:  http://www.stltoday.com/suburban-journals/illinois/bargaining-justice-the-impact-of-plea-deals/article_a8bf0604-01ef-57fe-ac6d-07c53c6f1ddb.html 

Plea Bargain. (2012). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved from: http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/plea_bargain

Larson, A. (2000). How Plea Bargaining Works. Expert Law. Retrieved from:  http://www.expertlaw.com/library/criminal/plea_bargains.html 

Rhodes, W. (1979). Plea Bargaining. The Journal of Criminal Law 70 (3), 360 -- 375.
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice Although Jeff's Confession

Words: 1709 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2903379

If this is indeed the case, Leach is within his rights to appeal for an overturn of his conviction. The Fourth Amendment protects travellers from unwarranted police searches, which appears to be what happened in this case.

The Fourth Amendment then protects the rights of individuals to reasonable expectation of privacy. While Archibald Leach voluntarily yielded his luggage for investigation, the search itself was not conducted in a legal manner if there was neither warrant, reasonable suspicion or probable cause. The case does not mention any of these, based upon which the conclusion can be that Leach has sound grounds for appeal.

ources

Criminal Law Lawyer ource. (2009). earch Warrant. http://www.criminal-law-lawyer-source.com/terms/search-warrant.html

Farlex, Inc. (2009). Probable Cause. The Free Dictionary. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Probable+cause 'Lectric Law Library's Lexicon. (2009). "Confession." http://www.lectlaw.com/def/c274.htm

Rice, Beverly. (2009). When can the police stop and frisk you on the street? upreme Court Articles. http://www.legalzoom.com/legal-articles/when-police-frisk-you.html

Walker, Jayme . (1998, Dec…… [Read More]

Sources

Criminal Law Lawyer Source. (2009). Search Warrant.  http://www.criminal-law-lawyer-source.com/terms/search-warrant.html 

Farlex, Inc. (2009). Probable Cause. The Free Dictionary.  http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Probable+cause  'Lectric Law Library's Lexicon. (2009). "Confession."  http://www.lectlaw.com/def/c274.htm 

Rice, Beverly. (2009). When can the police stop and frisk you on the street? Supreme Court Articles. http://www.legalzoom.com/legal-articles/when-police-frisk-you.html

Walker, Jayme S. (1998, Dec 1). Moving and touching stowed or checked luggage: Fourth Amendment considerations. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-53590199.html
View Full Essay

Changes in Police Force Operations

Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91449419

Police Officers

Crime handling by Police officer

In the given case scenario, there are several triggers that would dictate the way the police officer would handle the involved men in the fight. First, if one or both of the men involved would display a continues aggressive behavior even in the presence of the law enforcement officer, this would be a reason for the officer to respond with reasonable force to end the duel. The disregard for the instructions that the officer may give, for instance to put their hands up or freeze would as well call for use of assistive tools like the Taser gun to incapacitate the suspects for arrest. Worse still, if one or both suspects would turn violent towards the officer, he may have to use any means possible in self-defense. The suspects may also opt for the use of human shield to avoid arrest and in…… [Read More]

References

Carter W.H., (2003). Ethical issues in using a cocaine vaccine to treat and prevent cocaine abuse and dependence. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from  http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/337.full 

Division of State Police, (2014). The 1950s. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from https://www.troopers.ny.gov/Introduction/History/1950s/

Jackman T., (2010). Police fear crime increase as recession saps forces. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/09/29/AR2010092907447.html

Kirsch S., (2014). The Six Key Lessons of 911. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from  http://www.skirsch.com/politics/iraq/Lessons911.htm
View Full Essay

Sociology Whether or Not to

Words: 847 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65440825



everal authors like ullivan (2001) point out the hypocrisy in drawing arbitary lines around certain classes of drugs. In fact, all drugs are potentially harmful. Even caffeine is bad for health when abused. Legally acquired pharmaceutical drugs can be lethal, whereas marijuana has no known cases of overdose. The discrepancy in laws and sentencing policies should be eradicated in order to create a more just society. As Walsh & Hemmens (2008) point out in the chapter on "Law and ocial Change," the prohibition on drugs is no different than the prohibition on alcohol. Both have caused the proliferation of organized crime and neither solved the underlying issues related to mental and physical health. One of the main reasons to legalize drugs is to reduce the market power of organized crime syndicates. Prohibition of alcohol "literally kick-started organized crime in the United tates, and ushered in a decade of gang wars…… [Read More]

Sullivan, a. (2001). The Distinction betwen legal and illegal drugs is arbitrary. In Rolleff, Tamara L. 2004. The War of Drugs: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.

Walsh, a. & Hemmens, C. (2008). Law and Social Change. Walsh & Hemmens.

Wisher, R. (2001) Illegal Drugs Should Not Be Legalized. In Rolleff, Tamara L. 2004. The War of Drugs: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
View Full Essay

Mapp v Ohio Over the Centuries There

Words: 1073 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2387117

Mapp V. Ohio

Over the centuries, there has been considerable debate as to the application of the Bill of ights when it comes to the states. This is because a series of court cases decided it was only relevant when it came to the federal government (i.e. Barron v. Baltimore and United States v. Cruickshank). However, with the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment, these states were obligated to follow them. This has shifted the debate as to if this aspect of the Constitution is relevant to state and local officials. To determine if this is correct requires examining a fictional case in contrast with Mapp V. Ohio. This will be accomplished by carefully studying the facts of the case, the Fruit of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine (under Mapp V. Ohio), the application of the rule of law and discussing how this would affect the ruling from the fictitious scenario. Together,…… [Read More]

References

Barron V. Baltimore. (2007). Constitution.org. Retrieved from:  http://constitution.org/ussc/032-243a.htm 

The Fourth Amendment and the Exclusionary Rule. (2012). Find Law. Retrieved from:  http://criminal.findlaw.com/criminal-rights/the-fourth-amendment-and-the-exclusionary-rule.html 

Mapp V. Ohio. (2010). Cornell School of Law. Retrieved from: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0367_0643_ZO.html

US V. Cruickshank. (2010). Find Law. Retrieved from: http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=92&invol=542
View Full Essay

Treatment of Bi-Polar Disease Is

Words: 1058 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18562355

Studies conducted by Doughty et al. (2004) suggest that panic disorders, potentially exacerbated by the panic-inducing qualities of drug usage, are significantly associated with bi-polar disease, and Long finds that panic disorders are generationally related to bi-polar. Therefore, the well-known panic- and anxiety-related effects of drug usage have been shown to be related to bipolar disorder, so that both diseases correlate. Further, chemical responses that drive the bi-polar are complicated by the chemical effects of drug addiction, making treatment difficult to sort out. The associated risk of suicide, already high with sufferers of bi-polar disorder, is heightened. Care and treatment, both physical and mental, must be approached in an integrated fashion.

Drug and chemical treatments for dual diagnosis patients have attempted to sort out the effects of each disorder. However, because the brain centers that are impacted by drug abuse and addiction are often driven by the same or similar…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Doughty, C., Wells, J., Joyce, P., Olds, R., & Walsh, A. (2004). Bipolar-panic disorder comorbidity within bipolar disorder families: a study of siblings. Bipolar Disorders, 6(3), 245-252. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2004.00120.x.

Long, M. (2005). Bipolar Disorders. Retrieved from http:/ / www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-md02.html. Internet Mental Health.

Michael's House. n.d. 10 important facts about dual diagnosis and bipolar disorder. Retrieved from http://www.michaelshouse.com/dual-dual-diagnosis/about-dual-diagnosis-bipolar-disorder.

Whitten, L. (2008). Aripiprazole prevents rats from resuming cocaine seeking. Nida Notes, 22(2), 4-5. Retrieved from CINAHL database.
View Full Essay

Teratology From the Greek Word

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74968171

(Bendersky, Alessandri, Gilbert & Lewis, 1996)

Many teratogens, however, have much more subtle effects that may not be noticeable at birth. Sometimes months or even years, pass before the damage is recognized. For example, prenatal infection with the parasite Toxoplasma can lead to subtle visual impairment and/or learning disabilities that may not be detected until school age. A pregnant woman may have no noticeable symptoms from toxoplasma infection or just have nonspecific flu-like symptoms. Since the diagnosis of congenital infection with toxoplasmosis can only be confirmed in the newborn period, it is impossible to make a diagnosis in a school-aged child. Therefore, many children who have suffered brain damage from prenatal exposure to damaging agents will remain undiagnosed. (Strom, 1990, p. 71)

Drugs (or teratogens) produce the greatest danger to prenatal development if they are consumed prior to the 45th day after conception, when cell specialization and organ development are…… [Read More]

References

Bendersky, M., Alessandri, S., Gilbert, P., & Lewis, M. (1996). Characteristics of Pregnant Substance Abusers in Two Cities in the Northeast. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 22(3), 349.

Boling, P. (Ed.). (1995). Expecting Trouble: Surrogacy, Fetal Abuse, and New Reproductive Technologies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Bopp, J. (Ed.). (1985). Human Life and Health Care Ethics (Vol. 2). Frederick, MD: University Publications of America.

Coull, B.A., Hobert, J.P., Ryan, L.M., & Holmes, L.B. (2001). Crossed Random Effect Models for Multiple Outcomes in a Study of Teratogenesis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 96(456), 1194.
View Full Essay

Federal Rules of Evidence the

Words: 2542 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62577670



Rule: Any out-of-court statement offered to prove the truth of the matter asserted is generally inadmissible as hearsay. (801-802) However, hearsay may be admitted, in a prosecution for homicide or in a civil case, if the declarant, while believing the declarant's death to be imminent, made the statement about its cause or circumstances. (804(b)(2).

Application: Here, the defense attorney's objection is premised on the fact that the deceased Sam's statements are I inadmissible as hearsay, as an out-of-court statement by a person unavailable for trial, offered to prove that the other driver was driving on the wrong side of the road. However, Trooper Jones may offer this statement because it falls under the (804(b)(2) hearsay exception, as a statement in a civil case that the declarant made while his death was imminent.

Conclusion: The basis for the defense attorney's objection is hearsay because the deceased Sam's statement is an out-of-court…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Suppressed Evidence

Words: 1191 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72296329

Suppressed Evidence

First Case. No. The passenger's motion to suppress the seized evidence should not be granted. An accurate description of the apprehension by the two police officers and the rocks of crack cocaine they confiscated from the passenger's pocket and body are fundamental evidence of illegal drug use. The passenger cannot claim any right to suppress the evidence because the actual substance was found in his personal possession and constitutes direct evidence against him. Moreover, the apprehension happened in a high-crime neighborhood where drug use is inherent or quite likely. y omitting or suppressing the direct evidence and presenting an incomplete or misleading account or description, the police officers or judge will commit obstruction of justice.

The driver was not arrested because no such evidence was found in his personal possession. The woman who leaned into the passenger's window and handed him an object was not arrested, either, because…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Atheism. Fallacies of Presumption: Suppressed Evidence. About, Inc., 2005. http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/Skepticism/faq_fall_suppressed.htm

2. Carroll, Robert Todd. The Fallacy of Suppressed Evidence. The Skeptics Dictionary.  http://skepdic.com/refuge/ctlessons/lesson7.html 

3. Medawar, Charles, interviewee. The Conspiracy of Silence: the Suppressed Evidence About Anti-Depressants. Multinational Monitor, July-August 2004. vol 25 (7 & 8). http://multinationalmonitor.org/mm2004/july-aug04/interviewmadewar.html

4. Soil Association. U.S. Public Interest Attorney Uncovers Suppressed Evidence of Potential GM Food Health Risks, February 28, 2000. http://www.soilassociation.org/web/sa/saweb_nsf/0/81256ad8005545498025689006614e1?OpenDocument
View Full Essay

Substance Abuse Among Licensed Counselors

Words: 3892 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82037251

However, a different kind of problem may arise, when the counselor himself was a user and an addict, and has recovered fully from his addictions, to move on to become a legal counselor of others like him. (NIDA, Introduction and overview)

Take for example, the case of when a drug abuse and substance abuse counselor was among the fifteen people who were arrested recently in Harlem. The police charged this particular individual with being a part of a fifteen-member gang of cocaine and crack distributors on Long Island. Andrew J. Maloney, the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of New York, identified the counselor as Al ichardson, 40 years old, who was allegedly a distributor in a drug-selling ring, in which each 'runner' in the enterprise, or in other words, the individual who makes the actual sale of the drug, cocaine or crack, sold as much as $2,000 a…… [Read More]

References

ACA Code of Ethics: The ACA Governing Council." Retrieved at http://www.cacd.org/ACA_2005_Ethical_Code10405.pdf. Accessed 20 August, 2006

ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of practice" Retrieved at http://www.cacd.org/codeofethics.html. Accessed 20 August, 2006

Boren, John J; Onken, Lisa Simon; Carroll, Kathleen M. "NIDA, Introduction and overview"

Retrieved at http://www.nida.nih.gov/ADAC/ADAC2.html. Accessed 20 August, 2006
View Full Essay

Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47854518

Medical Marijuana Legislation and Civil Liberties

When the historic passage of legislation permitting medical marijuana use in states like Arizona (2010), Delaware (2011) and Massachusetts (2012) is considered in conjunction with the fact that 13 other states have similar legislation or ballot measures pending, the traditional conception of marijuana ingestion as a criminal act is being reexamined on a societal level. Further bolstering this assertion is the legal situation in California, Colorado and Washington, where marijuana has been decriminalized entirely and permitted for recreational sale by licensed dispensaries, providing the platform for a restoration of basic rights in these jurisdictions. With approximately half of the states in the union already affording citizens with medical needs the liberty to seek relief in the form of marijuana, while the federal government's ostensible ban on the substance remains in effect, the stage has been set for a national debate over the merits of…… [Read More]

References

Mill, J.S., Smith, J.M., & Sosa, E. (1969). Mill's Utilitarianism: Text and criticism. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
View Full Essay

Naturalistic Observations the Advantages of

Words: 903 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49203286

This chapter points out how early environmental influences, however, are also part of the nurture equation, something that is often forgotten. A baby who is picked up when he or she cries, is given stimulation in the nursery, and is given good nutrition will have a better start in life than a baby who is given none of these advantages, even if the deprived and enriched infants in this hypothetical scenario may have relatively the same genetic material. Nurture, in other words, begins very early on, and nurture can affect the later biology of the brain just as much as genetics.

Chapter 6

From birth, it seems as though humans are predisposed to communicate, and to make meaning out of sounds and gestures. Yet despite this apparent hard-wiring to create language, culture also has a profound influence on individual's communication styles, from the words that are used to nonverbal cues.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berger, Kathleen Stassen. The Developing Person through Childhood and Adolescence. 6th Ed.

Worth Publishers, 2004.
View Full Essay

Interoffice Memorandum of Law Case Joe Lee

Words: 1373 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82812742

Interoffice Memorandum of Law

Case: Joe Lee Simmons, Appellant v. State of Texas, Appellee

Docket number: 01-07-00543-C

Office file number

e: Issue [1] was there evidence of possession of cocaine weighing four or more grams but less than 200 grams given the evidentiary requirements of TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 38.35(d)(1); [2] the validity of a motion to suppress based on the officer's failure to report all offenses committed in his jurisdiction to the magistrate, as required by TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 2.13(b)(3); and [3] the sufficiency of an indictment under TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 28.10.

Facts:

The appellant contends that the trial court erred in admitting the testimony of the State's forensic chemist, who performed a chemical analysis on the controlled substance found in appellant's shirt pocket, because the chemical analysis was not accredited at the time of the analysis; appellant challenges the trial court's denial of…… [Read More]

Reference:

TEX. JUR. 3d § 23 Sufficiency of Indictment (2006).

It is the appellant's responsibility to show error on appeal, and if the record fails to show error, then it should be assumed that the trial court acted correctly.

"It is generally presumed on appeal that the court ruled correctly and that the appellant must show error" (Hall v. State, 829 S.W. 2d 407, 410-411).

"It is appellant's burden to not only preserve the alleged error for review, but to present a record of the alleged error sufficient for us to review it and determine if it was error and if so whether the defendant was harmed" (Montoya v. State, 43 S.W.3d 568, 572).
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice Scare Tactics and

Words: 2376 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34950674

S.A., there is bound to be more problems relating to criminality as well as social problems. For instance legalization of drugs will lead to even more violence across the U.S. Mexico border with each cartel trying to control as much of the market as possible. It will be a magnification of what is currently experienced in the drug deals.

Factually, criminals will not stop being criminals because a drug has been legalized and start be law abiding citizens, paying their taxes and upholding moral standards within the society. This is in light of the fact that the drug dealers don't deal in drugs due to the challenge of making a proper sale but because that is what makes them more money and they will not change just because it is now legal.

Apparently the legalization of drugs will lead to more organized gang crimes like those in Mexico. These are…… [Read More]

References

Denis C., (1999). Zero-tolerance policies lack flexibility. U.S. Today. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from  http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/educate/ednews3.htm 

Drug Enforcement Administration, (2013). Speaking out Against Drug Legalization. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://www.justice.gov/dea/pr/multimedia-library/publications/speaking_out.pdf

Drug Policy Alliance, (2013). Zero Tolerance Drug Policies. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from  http://www.drugpolicy.org/zero-tolerance-drug-policies 

Holemberg J., 2009). Narcoterrorism. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://traccc.gmu.edu/pdfs/student_research/HolmbergNarcoterrorism.pdf
View Full Essay

DSM IV TR

Words: 1469 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40167120

DSM IV-T

Grade course

Alcohol intake, getting high, cocaine addiction and withdrawal symptoms are some of the terms widely heard by everyone in their day-to-day lives. Although they may sound interesting, habitual or a source of entertainment, they can transform into serious illnesses. Due to this fact, substance-related disorders are listed in the DSM IV-T which includes the disorders associated with drug intake, related to the side effects of a medicine and also to the exposure of toxins.

The symptoms of substance related disorders commonly occur due to high dosage of medication. However, it may lower down as soon as the dosage reduces or is put to an end. The examples of some of these medicines include anesthetics, anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, anti-depressants, and more (Durand, M. 2009).

As mentioned earlier, apart from medications, there are a number of other chemical substances which might also be the factor in causing the…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fourth Edition. Text Revision. Washington DC

Brooks, B. (2006). "DSM-IV-TR for Clinicians: Accurate Diagnosis and Treatment

Planning." Pesi Training.

Durand, M. (2009). Abnormal Psychology. Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
View Full Essay

Drug Law Reform Pro According to the

Words: 402 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26420633

Drug Law Reform (Pro)

According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), the United States' policy on illegal drugs is threefold: stopping drug use before it starts, healing the country's drug users, and disrupting the market. The United States' war on drugs has been going on for at least the last three decades. Given the duration of this war, some have questioned the effectiveness of it, wondering if the money spent is really making a difference and bringing about results.

Actually, the effects of this policy on illegal drugs have been mixed. According to a study conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) covering current and emerging trends in drug abuse for 21 major U.S. metropolitan areas, some drugs are decreasing in use while others are increasing. For example:

C]rack accounted for a substantially greater percentage of primary admissions than powder cocaine in all [surveyed] sites.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

InfoFacts Nationwide Trends. The National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2003. http://www.drugabuse.gov/Infofax/nationtrends.html.

The Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2003. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/index.html.
View Full Essay

Biological Psychology Activity 1 Biological

Words: 1006 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60634730

An early report that was conducted by British physicians claimed that they had found irreversible brain damage in ten male marijuana users -- all of whom had been referred to them for medical treatment because of psychiatric illness, neurological symptoms, or drug abuse problems (Zimmer & Morgan 1997). These researchers used a brain imaging technology and forced air into the patients' brains through the spinal column, then reporting that they saw "abnormalities consistent with cerebral atrophy -- actual brain tissue shrinkage" (1997). The researchers methods were criticized and it was concluded within just a few short years that the brain imaging technique that they use was medically "risky and unreliable" (1997). Using more modern brain imaging technologies today, researchers have not found any evidence of brain damage in human marijuana users, even in those humans who smoke an average of nine marijuana cigarettes a day (1997).

Today there is the…… [Read More]

References

Earleywine, Mitch. (2005). Understanding marijuana: a new look at the scientific evidence. Oxford University Press; 1st edition.

Fox, Steve. & Armentano, Paul. (2009). Marijuana is safer: so why are we driving people to drink?

Chelsea Green Publishing; 1st edition.

Rosenthal, Ed. & Kubby, Steve. (2003). Why marijuana should be legal. Running Press; 2 Sub-edition.
View Full Essay

Counseling Assessment Candy Barr Client

Words: 2228 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44900672

This writer would like to know if Ms. Barr ever felt the need to cut down on drinking or to stop and couldn't. This writer would like to know if Ms. Barr takes any other drugs or medication in order to sleep or make her feel better and if so how much, and how often.

Mental Health Symptoms:

Mental Status: This writer would like to ask Ms. Barr if she ever thought of harming herself or someone else. If yes, did she have a plan and when was the last time she thought about harming herself or someone else? This writer would like to know if she has ever harmed anyone intentionally. If yes, does she have a plan and when was the last time she harmed someone else. This writer would observe if Ms. Barr's physical characteristics such as clothing, hair color, eye color, mannerisims, interaction with her and…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse a Psychoactive

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66395000

Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse

A psychoactive substance refers to any chemical which both impacts the central nervous system and the way the brain functions. Psychoactive substances refer to stimulants (cocaine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine), sedatives and analgesics (alcohol, heroin), hallucinogens (PCP, psychoactive mushrooms). As stated in the DSM-III "psychoactive substance abuse is given the definition of being "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous" (Nordegren, 2002, p.11).

Social Effects

The social impact of psychoactive substance use and abuse on widespread scale is enormously detrimental to society. "In a 2005 report issued by the Department of Health and Human Services indicated that alcohol was associated with 100,000 preventable deaths each year and that it cost taxpayers nearly $185…… [Read More]

References

Aspen. (2011). The Impact of Trauma On Teenage Addiction. Retrieved from Crchealth.com:  http://aspeneducation.crchealth.com/articles/article-trauma/ 

Becvar, D. (2013). Handbook of Family Resilience. New York: Springer Science Publishing.

Dennison, S. (2011). Handbook of the Dually Diagnosed Patient: Psychiatric and Substance Use. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.

Dick, D., & Agrawai, A. (2008). The Genetics of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence. Alcohol Research and Health, 111-118.
View Full Essay

Human Service Professional in the Helping Process

Words: 1134 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15444137

human service professional in the helping process has many dimensions. One of the most important of these, according to Murphy and Dillon (2012) is the ethical aspect, because "ethical codes stress the primacy of the service obligation to the client, confidentiality, integrity, and follow-through." The needs of the client should be the primary concern of the human service professional, which is why years of training and practice are required before they are truly qualified and fully prepared to take on the responsibility of helping other individuals who are in crisis.

Adherence to strong ethical codes is of crucial importance in this profession. Having a clear and specific set of ethical guidelines is essential because human service professionals are human beings with their own personal values. They have sets of beliefs which may be deeply engrained, including prejudices formed from their cultural, social, and educational backgrounds. These are sometimes so deeply…… [Read More]

References

Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th

Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Murphy, E., & Dillon, C. (2012). Interviewing in action in a multicultural world (4th Ed.).

Cengage Learning.
View Full Essay

Narrative Story

Words: 2043 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6803351

Psychology Narrative

It is the intention of this paper to explore the methods utilized which resulted in the transformation of not only the behavior of a teenage boy but also in the transformation of his very life. Many methods have been utilized in attempting to modify behavioral-patterns in problem children and teens.

This paper will look at the changes in a young man whose name is Reuben, the elements that contributed to those changes and the viewpoint of Reuben as he tells us the story of his new outlook and life view.

This is a story told by Ruben about his life. It is a candid look at the manifestations of anger, frustration, rebellion against authority, and it is a story that gives voice to the possibilities of transformation or change within an individual. Further Ruben will reveals the conditions, or change of conditions in the environment that is conducive…… [Read More]

View Full Essay

Ethics for Criminal Justice Professionals

Words: 3047 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20025092

Criminal Justice

Ethical Dilemmas In Criminal Justice

Ethical dilemmas permeate almost all organizations globally. Members of an organization often find themselves in challenging situations that require the adoption of the most effective solution that meet the needs of the conflicting parties or situations. One of the organizations that often face the challenge of ethical dilemmas is the criminal justice organization. The criminal justice organizations have been known to perform activities that ensure safety of the population. Most of the ethical dilemmas focus on decisions that organizations can adopt with the aim of fostering the safety of the victims, convict, and the society. Significant evidence shows that ethics play a significant role in an organization. It ensures the recognition of the rights and freedom of the individual alongside prioritizing the safety of individuals in the society (oberson & Mire, 2010).

Therefore, this research paper analyzes different ethical issues that face the…… [Read More]

References

Hudson, B. (2003). Justice in the risk society challenging and re-affirming justice in late modernity. London: SAGE.

Roberson, C., & Mire, S. (2010). Ethics for criminal justice professionals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.
View Full Essay

Section 1983 Claims for Police Excessive Use of Force

Words: 1559 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1406648

Excessive Force Liability

The International Association for the Chiefs of Police (IACP) has maintained an updated model policy on the use of force for over two decades (Hough & Tatum, 2012). A number of 'use of force' policies implemented by policing agencies can be found online, but the basic tenets are the following: (1) use only the minimum amount of force necessary to bring a situation under control, (2) deadly force should only be used to prevent death or serious injury to the officer or bystanders (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985), and (3) the determination of an imminent threat of death or serious injury should be based on objective and reasonable evidence (IACP, 2006; Graham v. Conner, 1989). Officers should also warn the intended target that deadly force will be used if they failed to comply when possible (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985).

Based on these guidelines, Officer Jones was not justified…… [Read More]

Reference

Baldwin, L. (2014). Aggravated battery laws and penalties. Retrieved from  http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/crime-penalties/federal/Aggravated-Battery.htm .

Estate of Davis v. City of Richland Hills, No. 04-10036, 406 F.3d 375 (5th Cir. 2005).

Graham v. Conner, No. 87-6571, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).

Hough, R.M. Sr. & Tatum, K.M. (2012). An examination of Florida policies on force continuums. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(1), 39-54.
View Full Essay

Narcoterrorism and the Future

Words: 18088 Length: 70 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91167730

Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…… [Read More]

References

Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact

sheet/.

Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.

drugenforcementedu.org/delaware/wilmington/.
View Full Essay

United States Enjoys the Dubious

Words: 1617 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39190434

Spending more on prisons means spending less on other public purposes" (2008, p. 120). The area most affected by the ex post facto application of the revised sentencing guidelines would be northern Virginia where almost 900 inmates (fully twice as many as any other region of the nation) would become eligible for early release (McCabe, 2011). The retroactive application of the revised sentencing guidelines in this area alone would realize more than $1 billion in cost savings and help reduce the overcrowded conditions of Virginia's prisons (McCabe, 2011).

Conclusion

The research showed that previous sentencing guidelines for crack cocaine-related offenses were far harsher than comparable penalties for other preparations of the drug. The research also showed that the revised sentencing guidelines contained in the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 address these disparities but the question remains whether to apply these provisions retroactively to currently incarcerated crack cocaine offenders. Proponents maintain…… [Read More]

References

A step backward on sentencing. (2011, June 11). Corpus-Christi Caller-Times, A8.

Get out of jail early. (2011, June 11). The Wall Street Journal, A12.

McCabe, S. (2011, June 2). Crack law could spring 1,200 D.C.-area criminals. The Examiner, 37.

Welch, W.N. & Harris, P.W. (2008). Criminal justice policy and planning, 3rd ed. Anderson
View Full Essay

Criminal Justice Policy Practice Determine Morality Higher

Words: 2487 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88567007

Criminal Justice Policy Practice Determine Morality

Higher Than Utilitarianism

The passing and reformation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, also known as the so-called "crack law," is one of the most controversial pieces of legislation to be considered within the criminal justice system and its policy during the past two years. There are several aspects of this legal mandate that present a plethora of interesting situations and questions in regards to the morality of this particular issue, which has been at the forefront of mass media outlets ever since there were significant amendments passed to it in 2010. Interestingly enough, a fair amount of those changes may be attributed to the notion of morality revolving around this legal code, which was largely responsible for the rapid and prolonged imprisonment of minorities -- particularly African-Americans and Latino offenders. One of the most efficacious means of determining whether such a law may be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bentham, Jeremy. "Offenses Against One's Self: Paederasty Part 1." Journal of Homosexuality. Volume 3 (4). 389-406. 1978. Print.

Benthan, Jeremy. An Introduction To The Principles Of Morals And Legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Kosman, Maxwell Alie Halpern. "Falling Through The Crack: How Courts Have Struggled to Apply The Crack Amendment To "Nominal Career" And "Plea Bargain" Defendants." Michigan Law Review. Volume 109. 785-812. 2011. Web. http://www.michiganlawreview.org/assets/pdfs/109/5/kosman.pdf

Hartley, Richard., Maddan, Sean., Spahn, Cassia. "Prosecutorial Discretion: An Examination of Substantial Assistance Departures in Federal Crack-Cocaine and Powder-Cocaine Cases." Volume 23. Issue 3 382-407. 2007. Web. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820701485379
View Full Essay

Columbian Drug Problem and Its Political and Economic Ramifications and the United States Recourse

Words: 2979 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45899797

Columbian Drug Trade

If Americans know nothing else about Colombia, they know that it is a place where people grow and package cocaine for use on the world market. This is, of course, a highly biased view of the country because Colombians do many things other than make and sell drugs and most Colombians are not involved in the drug trade at all.

However, it remains true that much of the world's cocaine does originate in Colombia, which has important consequences for that nation's standing in the world as well as for its relationship with the United States. This paper examines some of the consequences for the relationship between the two countries of the ways in which political and economic life in Colombia have become linked to the trade in cocaine.

We must begin this assessment with some basic facts about both Colombia and the drug trade.

It is certainly…… [Read More]

References

http://www.colombiaemb.org/colombian_economy.htm

http://www.globalexchange.org/colombia/spTimes120201.html

http://www.gwu.edu/~clai/Commentary%20on%20Colombia.htm

 http://www.mapinc.org/tlcnews/v02/n101/a03.htm?203
View Full Essay

Drug Usage the Use Drugs

Words: 4084 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41436016

Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).

Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).

In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Goldman, Erik. (2005 July 01). Genetic tests could improve future drug abuse treatment. Family Practice News. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Heroin Addiction Cuts Across All Social Boundaries, Caron Foundation Study Reports.
View Full Essay

Female Substance Use Disorder Gender

Words: 2505 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21550261

..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."

In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.

Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…… [Read More]

References

Conrad, Patricia J., Pihl, Robert O., Stewart, Sherry H., & Dongier, Maurice. (2000). Validation

Of a System of Classifying Female Substance Abusers on the Basis of Personality and Motivational Risk Factors for Substance Abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(3),

Markoff, Laurie S., Finkelstein, Norma, Kammerer, Nina, Kreiner, Peter, & Prost, Carol a.

2005). Relational Systems Change: Implementing a Model of Change in Integrating
View Full Essay

Parenting Program for Women and

Words: 41621 Length: 150 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12171638

There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.

Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.

Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.

Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.

Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.

Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
View Full Essay

Methods of Domestic Drug Trafficking

Words: 1857 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62087702

Domestic Drug Trafficking

The illegal drug market in the United States is one of the most profitable in the world, and attracts the most sophisticated and aggressive drug traffickers (Drug pp). According to U.S. Customs Service, sixty million people enter the United States on more than 675,000 commercial and private flights, and another 6 million enter by sea, and some 370 million by land (Drug pp). Moreover, 116 million vehicles enter by crossing the Canadian and Mexican borders, and more than 90, 000 merchant and passenger ships dock at U.S. ports carrying more than 9 million shipping containers and 400 million tons of cargo, with an additional 157,000 smaller vessels docking at various coastal towns (Drug pp).

Amid all this trade, drug traffickers conceal cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine shipments for distribution into U.S. neighborhoods (Drug pp).

The traffic and distribution of illegal drugs involves diverse groups (Drug pp). Criminal…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Sesin, Carmen. Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job: Colombian aids forgotten victims. NBC News. May 25, 2994. Accessed from MSNBC.com web site on May 05, 2005.

http://msnbc.msn.com/id/5050399/

Humbles, Andy. Dealers get creative when hiding their drugs. The Tennessean.

February 15, 2004. Accessed from The Tennessean web site on May 05, 2005.
View Full Essay

Effects of Psychoactive Drugs on the Brain Stress and Sleep

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9262158

Psychoactive Drugs

The drug chosen is Cocaine, and it is listed to be "… a psychomotor stimulant, this class of drug produces their effect on the brain by simulating the actions of certain neurotransmitters, such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin." (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010) These effects would be known as the "pleasure" aspect of the drug, but there is also a second aspect to the drug's effects that are responsible for the addiction, called "plasticity" (Amaro et al.). A drug-induced plasticity is "tolerance, sensitization and physical dependence" on the drug cocaine (Amaro et al.). The part of the brain that cocaine targets is the amygdala, specifically the reward pathways found in the brain. Cocaine effects the reward pathways by inhibiting the reuptake of dopamine into nerve terminals (Emery, & Oltmanns, 2010). Specifically cocaine reacts with dopamine, and would be considered an antagonist because it is similar enough to occupy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emery, R.E., & Oltmanns, T.F. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Huffman, K. (2007). Psychology in action (8th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (n.d.). Drug Abuse Among Hispanics: A brief evidence-based guide for providers (1.4 ed.) [Brochure]. Amaro, H., Cortes, D.E., Castro, F.G., Lopez, B., & Molina, P.E., et al. Retrieved March 17, 2011, from http://store.samhsa.gov/shin/content/SMA07- 4288/SMA07-4288.pdf

Weiten, W. (2005). Psychology themes & variations: briefer edition (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
View Full Essay

Neural Correlates of Drug Relapse Propensity Refraining

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69666237

Neural Correlates of Drug elapse Propensity

efraining from Drug Use

Treating drug addiction requires experience and skill, because no single approach has broad efficacy (reviewed by Bauer, Covault, and Gelernter, 2012). High inter-individual variability of contributing factors and a lack of knowledge about what causes treatment failure (reviewed by Walton, Blow, and Booth, 2001), helps explain a relapse rate between 40% to 60% (NIDA, 2011). For this reason, researchers have been trying to identify what factors contribute to addictive tendencies and influence treatment success.

To better understand why some substance abusers are successful in overcoming their drug addictions and others are not, this essay will examine the neural correlates of drug relapse behavior. Particular attention will be paid to environmental and genetic factors and how they influence brain function on an anatomical and cellular level.

Neural Correlates of Environmental Triggers

Environmental triggers have long been known to increase the risk…… [Read More]

References

Bauer, L.O., Covault, J., and Gelernter, J. (2012). GABRA2 and KIBRA genotypes predict early relapse to substance use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 123, 154-159.

NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse & Addiction). (2011). The science of drug abuse and addiction. DrugAbuse.gov. Retrieved 22 Oct. 2012 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/media-guide/science-drug-abuse-addiction.

Potenza, Marc N., Hong, Kwang-ik A., Lacadie, Cheryl M., Fulbright, Robert K., Tuit, Keri L., and Sinha, Rajita. (2012). Neural correlates of stress-induced and cue-induced drug craving: Influences of sex and cocaine dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 406-414.

Preston, Kenzie L. And Epstein, David H. (2011). Stress in the daily lives of cocaine and heroin users: Relationship to mood, craving, relapse triggers, and cocaine use. Psychopharmacology, 218, 29-37.
View Full Essay

Five Major Street Drugs

Words: 2087 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34743528

flow of drugs into the United States, where the drugs are coming from, in what forms they come in and the general attitudes that are taken against the practice by both the United States law enforcement agencies in particular and the United Nations drug control treaties. The author of this report will answer all of those questions in detail and provide the proper sourcing and citations for the same. While some modest successes are made when it comes to the "war on drugs," the United States law enforcement collective is losing the battle and there is a difference of strategy when it comes to a comparison between the United Nations and the United States.

The first question is fairly specific and brief. For each of the five major illicit drugs that are available and that are used in the United States, there will be a summary of what each one…… [Read More]

References

DEA. (2011). Drugs of Abuse - 2011 Edition (pp. 1-79). Washington DC: Drug

Enforcement Agency.

Ferner, M. (2015). Colorado Introduces Major Shift In Its Marijuana Program. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/01/colorado-marijuana_n_5548620.html

Murphy, G. (2015). Have We Lost the War on Drugs?. WSJ. Retrieved 23 August 2015,
View Full Essay

Substance Abuse A Summary The

Words: 677 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59164026

Furthermore, the study focused only on a population of children of one particular stage of life. However, the test methods are fairly comprehensive and indicate valid outcomes.

c. Design and Methods: Mothers and children were taken into a room and told to play. There were a number of toys available for the play session. After some time playing, mothers were removed from the room and the children's behavior observed for a period of 2 minutes, before the mothers were returned. Various tables denoted the results of these interactions in terms of verbal interaction, separation reactions, and other variables.

d. Method of Analysis: The data were analyzed by means of a comparative table. The group of mothers were divided into two main groups: those who exposed their unborn children to cocaine, and those who did not. The group who did use the drug during pregnancy were further divided according to the…… [Read More]

Limitations: The main limitations of the study lie in the population size and age group of the children. While there is no great difference in the interactions themselves, deeper studies could be conducted to quantify the true long-term effects of exposure for children, as well as their environmental risks as a result of the mothers' addiction.

An important factor in terms of future study is the long-term environmental risks of households where one or both parents are substance abusers. The study, in spite of its limitations, provides valuable grounds for further investigation, in order to help the victims of addiction, as well as their families.

Ukeje, Ikechukwu, Bendersky, Margaret and Lewis, Michael. (2001, May). Mother-Infant Interaction at 12 Months in Prenatally Cocaine-Exposed Children. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Database: FindArticles.com http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0978/is_2_27/ai_78917479
View Full Essay

Product The Redux Corporation a

Words: 852 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58884982

Which means that there is a greater adrenaline rush for product users?

ompetition:

The main difference between ocaine and other competitors is product placement; it has done a wonderful job of providing an underground advertising campaign that has caused even more people to become interested in it. Its current strategy of providing limited supplies has also helped to create greater hype for the product as it is only accessible through Peer to Peer websites such as Ebay and their primary sales website. Another strong factor in its favor is its increased dosage of caffeine. With 280 mg of caffeine per 8.5 ounce bottle, it easily outclasses the majority of competitors on the market. However, this high dosage may in fact work against the company in the future, as numerous doctors have come to the fore to attest to the health risks of drinking such much caffeine in one sitting.

What…… [Read More]

Cocaine. (2007, January 18). Retrieved January 21, 2007, from  http://www.drinkcocaine.com/ 

SOWRY, M. (2006, September 18). The Ultimate Energy Drink: Cocaine? Retrieved

January 21, 2007, at http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=2459718&page=1
View Full Essay

Representative System of Government Has Motivated a

Words: 3360 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32468859

representative system of government has motivated a vital chain of discussions in the literature about police workers administration and representation of women and racial minorities. The serious questions in this study are: (a.) Does the under oath police force rationally mirror a cross section of the groups being monitored? And (b.) hat aspects are measured in representation of women and minority police officers in law-enforcement agencies? Black and Hispanic depictions on police forces are strongly associated with its incidence in community populations. Regions differ in the quantity of female and minority illustrations, blacks being better characterized in southern police forces than in another place; women are better characterized in the northwest. Nevertheless, findings disclose that men, more often than not whites, maintain to hold unreasonably more sworn positions in the largest part of law-enforcement agencies. The data sets of female and minority representation also demonstrate the extent of female and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ayres, Ian, and Steven Levitt. Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 2008, 43-77.

Bahrke, Mike, and Bob Hoffman. Identifying the Fitness Needs of Law Enforcement Officers. Working Paper, Fit Force, 2007.

Coate, Stephen, and Glenn Loury. Will Affirmative-Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes? American Economic Review, 2003, 1220-40.

Donohue, John J, and Steven D. Levitt. The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime. Working Paper, Stanford University Law School, August 2009.