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Cocaine is synthesized from the leaves of the coca plant. These plants grow in Bolivia, Peru, Columbia, Africa, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Formosa. The leaf contains between 0.5% and 1.5% cocaine and the processing methods extract pure cocaine from the leaves.
In the late 15th century, the Incan people thought coca leaves were direct gifts from the gods in order to help them through the brutal physical abuse of working long days and nights in the gold and silver mines at very high altitudes. These people used the leaves during their burial ceremonies and religious rituals; they were controlled as a very special blessing from supreme beings. By mixing the coca leaf with lime or ash, the chewers could "graze" for days - offsetting the effects of physical and mental exhaustion.
Invaders to the Incan and Andean cultures were divided over the "permitted" use of the coca leaves…
Honer, W.G., Gewirtz, G., Tuey, M. "Psychosis and violence in cocaine smokers." Lancet 288:451.
Budd, R.D. "Cocaine abuse and violent death." Am J. Drug Alcohol Abuse 15:375(1989):82.
Licata, A., Taylor, S., Berman, M., et al. "Effects of cocaine on human aggression." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 45 (1993):549-552.
There is no valuable sustenance in crack or cocaine, and is used mainly as a recreational drug by many. This, in some ways, leaves the inner cities and crime and moves to the wealthier middle and upper middle classes who use the cocaine and not the crack version for recreation. This is the society of Jay McInerney's seminal 1980s fictional tale of New York 20-something lives, "right Lights, ig City."
Cocaine users have and have had their "scene" for quite some time, and for the, the currency is still money, rather than the drug itself. That is how recreational cocaine users differ from the crime-influenced hunger satisfier described in the proletariat hunger killer definition. There is not the sense of urgent necessity outside of the biological influence of the drug itself, of course.
In other words, recreational cocaine users may indeed get addicted and the drug may indeed replace their…
Canadian Drug Addiction Information:
Cocaine.org's Web page:
Cocaine Addiction and Effects
Cocaine may not be a problem in itself but its overdose and consistent abuse leads to numerous behavioral and psychological changes, which are often undesirable. Cocaine alters chemical processes in the brain giving the person an illusion of happiness and well-being. This is dangerous since a person needs to maintain a proper perspective on things in his life but cocaine can hide the pain, keeping the person in a state of elation. However this effect doesn't last very long and there comes a stage when cocaine stops producing this effect on brain but by then it is impossible to quit since one becomes addicted to it. National Institute on Drug Abuse states:
"As cocaine abuse continues, tolerance often develops. This means that higher doses and more frequent use of cocaine are required for the brain to register the same level of pleasure experienced during initial use.…
1) Cocaine Abuse and Addiction Retrieved online 17th Dec 2004: http://www.focusas.com/Cocaine.html
2) National Institute on drug Abuse: Research report: Retrieved online 17th Dec 2004: http://www.nida.nih.gov/ResearchReports/Cocaine/Cocaine.html
The good news for those keeping an eye on the health of students in secondary school is that there has been a "…significant decline in the 30-day prevalence of powder cocaine use among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders from its peak use in the late 1990s" (nida).
Author Paul Earley writes in the Cocaine Recovery Book that cocaine stimulates the part of the brain that stirs a sexual feeling along while decreasing a person's inhibitions. So, given the heightened sexual arousal, and a decrease in inhibition, the cocaine addict can become addicted to sexual behaviors that can be "…compulsive and bizarre… [and hence the person may] progress from compulsive and ritualistic sex to shame and remorse" (Earley, 1991). In fact Earley asserts that some male cocaine addicts try to get females addicted to the drug, engendering "…a dual addiction to sex and cocaine" (147).
Treatments for Cocaine Addiction…
Drugabuse.com. (2012). What are the short-term effects of cocaine use? Retrieved April 25,
2013, from http://www.drugabuse.gov .
Drugabuse.com. (2012). What is Cocaine? Retrieved April 25, 2013, from
Part of the reason for cocaine's rise in popularity was due to the fact that early on, many people didn't understand that the drug could have harmful side effects for those who use it. It wasn't until the early 1970's that the drug was made illegal and by that time there was already millions of Americans who were using cocaine. This allowed drug dealers such as those in Colombia to set up cartels that operated out of Colombia and made huge profits from the drug trade throughout the 70's and 80's and even continuing in to the present. Although the United States Government has done a lot in the past few decades to educate the public and restrict cocaine's distribution, I believe it's popularity and marketability before that time has made it a major player in the financing of the nation's overall drug market throughout the years.
COCAINE USE FACTS…
Brecher, Edward. Front Line. A Social History of America's Most Popular Drugs.
Licit and Illicit Drugs. Pg 282.
Business Heroes. John Stith Pemberton: The Inventor of Coca Cola. Pgs. 4-6. 1998.
Drug Facts. Study Conducted by the Office of National Drug Control Policy. June 2005. http://www.cocaine.org .
African-American street gang members, primarily affiliates of Bloods and Crips, distribute crack cocaine and marijuana in the HIDTA region. Asian street gangs dominate distribution of MDMA and high-potency marijuana at the retail level.[footnoteRef:10] Members of the OMGs, most notably Hells Angels Motorcycle Club (HAMC), are the ones that are really known to distribute powder cocaine, methamphetamine, and marijuana at the midlevel and retail level. [9: Vega, .A., Alderete, E., Kolody, B., & Aguilar-Gaxiola, S. "Illicit drug use among mexicans and mexican-Americans in california: The effects of gender and acculturation." Addiction 12.9 (2009): 12-54.] [10: "The Pursuit of Oblivion: A Global History of Narcotics." Davenport-Hines, Richard. New York City .. Norton & Company; First edition, 2002. 1-576.]
The Central Valley HIDTA region is considered to be a regional and regional-level distribution center for ice methamphetamine and cocaine created in the region as well as ice cocaine, marijuana, and heroin trafficked…
Callaghan, R.C., Cunningham, J.K., Allebeck, P., Arenovich, T., Sajeev, G., Remington, G., Kish, S.J. "Methamphetamine use and schizophrenia: A population-based cohort study in california." The American Journal of Psychiatry 19.5 (2012): 23-28.
"The Pursuit of Oblivion: A Global History of Narcotics." Davenport-Hines, Richard. New York City W.W. Norton & Company; First edition, 2002. 1-576.
Forster, G. "Quotas in the drug war." Policy Review 29.9 (2004): 21-28.
Hernandez, M.T., Sanchez, M.A., Ayala, L., Magis-RodrAguez, C. "METHAMPHETAMINE AND COCAINE USE AMONG MEXICAN MIGRANTS IN CALIFORNIA: THE CALIFORNIA-MEXICO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE PILOT." AIDS Education and Prevention 21.9 (2009): 34-44.
Cocaine is a crystalline alkaloid obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. It is a stimulant, appetite suppressant and a sodium channel blocker that causes it to be an anesthetic at low doses. It is highly addictive because of its effect on the brain's reward pathways. Cocaine is more dangerous than many other stimulants because of its effect on the sodium channel in the body's chemistry, which, under higher dosages may cause sudden cardiac arrest. Cocaine is unique as a molecule because it has pockets that allow it to cross the blood-brain barrier quite quickly and easily (Sommers, 2008). High dosages or repeated use may also cause a breakdown in the blood-brain barrier, allowing the user to experience greater psychoactive episodes from other substances (Sharma, H., et al., 2009).
Historical Background - From a historical perspective, the use of cocaine and other psychoactive substances is neither novel nor new.…
Anthenelli, D. (2010). Vaccine for Cocaine Addiction: A Promising new Immunotherapy. Current Psychiatry, 9(9), 16-19.
Clarke, P., & Myers, J. (2012). Developmental Counseling and Therapy. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 34(4), 23-37. Retrieved from Journal of Mental Health Counseling.
Goldbaum, E. (2012, May 9). Chronic Cocaine Use Triggers Changes in Brain's Neuron Structure. Retrieved from University at Buffalo News Center: http://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2012/05/13420.html
Gootenberg, P. (2008). Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
To cope with the FDA uproar, Cocaine was forced to add a "humorous slogan…explaining that the beverage did not contain the illegal drug cocaine" (Thompson 2012: 1).
But although government regulations have occasionally thwarted Cocaine, other developing conditions have enhanced its appeal. It has a vibrant social media presence. Its ability to engage with users, posting pictures of people getting Cocaine under a Christmas tree or making edgy status updates that play upon the company name, has been a boon to the company. Also, given that availability has been challenging in some areas, given that Cocaine has been pulled from the shelves by retailers who have had customer complaints about the name, social media enables loyal patrons to more easily find where Cocaine is being sold.
The driving tangible reason that consumers buy Cocaine is primarily its caffeine content. Taste is hardly an issue, given that many loyalists…
"Cocaine Energy Drink." Amazon.com reviews. [2 Apr 2013]
"FDA finds Cocaine energy drink illegal." CADCA. 2007. [2 Apr 2013]
These therapies are widely used to overcome patients with drugs problems which include male or female patients. These are psychological and medical treatments to decrease the use of cocaine and sedative drugs in the patient. These include therapies, and use of the medical drugs to reduce the patients impulsive desire to use cocaine regularly. Female patients could not treat in the case of pregnancy positive test results. Patients treated with vigabatrin therapies were reported more positive result compared to other similar available therapies.
Cocaine is sedative drug which causes brain damage and nervous blockage. Many studies have been done on cocaine addiction, which are very promising these days across different countries of the world. The two widely used treatments are vigabatrin and placebo therapies. These are psychological and medical treatments to decrease the use of cocaine and sedative drugs in the patient. These include therapies, and use of the…
Brodie J.D., Figueroa E., Laska E.M. And Dewey S.L. Safety and efficacy of gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG) for the treatment of methamphetamine and/or cocaine addiction. Synapse 2005; 55:122 -- 125
Brodie J.D., Figueroa E. And Dewey S.L. Treating cocaine addiction: from preclinical to clinical trial experience with gamma-vinyl GABA. Synapse 2003; 50:261 -- 265
Jonathan D. Brodie, Brady G. Case, Emilia Figueroa, Stephen L. Dewey, James a. Robinson, Joseph a. Wanderling, Eugene M. Laska. Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Vigabatrin for the Treatment of Cocaine Dependence in Mexican Parolees
Outpatients With Depression and Cocaine Dependence
Outpatient Programs, Mental Depression, Cocaine Dependence, Treatment
Increasing Treatment Adherance Among Outpatients with Depression and Cocaine Dependence: esults of a Pilot Study
This research study by Dennis C. Daley et.al (1998) was conducted to examine the effect of a modified motivational therapy intervention on outpatient treatment adherence and completion for patients with co morbid depressive disorder and cocaine dependence. This study was located using EBSCOhost, data: academic search premier, field: TI -- title, key words; outpatient, cocaine, dependence.
The significance of this study lies in the finding that an outpatient program combining individual and group motivational therapy sessions holds promise for improving treatment adherence and completion among depressed patients with cocaine dependence. Depression is common among cocaine-dependent patients and poor adherence with outpatient treatment among cocaine-dependent patients is well documented. The majority of these patients drop out within 1 month of treatment. Cocaine-dependent patients…
Daley, D.C., Salloum, I.M., Zuckoff, A., Kirisci, L., & Thase, M.E. (1998, November) Increasing treatment adherance among outpatients with depression and cocaine dependence: Results of a pilot study. American journal of psychiatry, 155:1611-1613. Retrieved September 19, 2011, from http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/155/11/1611
They are the ones who handle jobs that require expertise. Their job itself is difficult that not everybody can accept the responsibility. With this continuously growing number of addicts and/or substance-abused people, indeed, we need to have more and more credible substance abuse counselors to somehow alleviate this problem.
Block I, Ghoneim. MM 1993. Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology 100(1-2):219-228,
Brook JS, Balka EB, Whiteman M. 1999.: The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. Am J. Public Health 89(10):1549-1554
Fisher. Gary, Harrison, T. 2004. Substance Abuse: Information for School Counselors, Social Workers, Therapists, and Counselors (3rd Edition). Allyn and Bacon.
Gruber, AJ, Pope HG, Hudson HI, Yurgelun-Todd D. 2003. Attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users: A case control study. Psychological Medicine 33:1415-1422.
Lehman WE, Simpson DD. 1992. Employee substance abuse and on-the-job behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology 77(3):309-321.
Marijuana and Health. 2001.…
Block RI, Ghoneim. MM 1993. Effects of chronic marijuana use on human cognition. Psychopharmacology 100(1-2):219-228,
Brook JS, Balka EB, Whiteman M. 1999.: The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use. Am J. Public Health 89(10):1549-1554
Fisher. Gary, Harrison, T. 2004. Substance Abuse: Information for School Counselors, Social Workers, Therapists, and Counselors (3rd Edition). Allyn and Bacon.
Gruber, AJ, Pope HG, Hudson HI, Yurgelun-Todd D. 2003. Attributes of long-term heavy cannabis users: A case control study. Psychological Medicine 33:1415-1422.
Different routes of cocaine administration can produce different adverse effects. egularly snorting cocaine, for example, can lead to loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds, problems with swallowing, hoarseness, and an overall irritation of the nasal septum, which can lead to a chronically inflamed, runny nose. Ingested cocaine can cause severe bowel gangrene, due to reduced blood flow. Persons who inject cocaine have puncture marks and tracks, most commonly in their forearms. Intravenous cocaine users may also experience an allergic reaction, either to the drug, or to some additive in street cocaine, which can result, in severe cases, in death. Because cocaine has a tendency to decrease food intake, many chronic cocaine users lose their appetites and can experience significant weight loss and malnourishment. The human liver combines cocaine and alcohol and manufactures a third substance, cocaethylene, which intensifies cocaine's euphoric effects 3. The mixture of cocaine and alcohol is the…
1. Quaglio G, Lugoboni F, Pajusco B, Fornasiero a, Mezzelani P, Lechi a. [Clinical manifestations of cocaine abuse]. Ann Ital Med Int. Oct-Dec 2004;19(4):291-301; quiz 302-293.
2. White SM, Lambe CJ. The pathophysiology of cocaine abuse. J Clin Forensic Med. Mar 2003;10(1):27-39.
3. Velasquez EM, Anand RC, Newman WP, 3rd, Richard SS, Glancy DL. Cardiovascular complications associated with cocaine use. J La State Med Soc. Nov-Dec 2004;156(6):302-310; quiz 311.
4. Sofuoglu M, Kosten TR. Novel approaches to the treatment of cocaine addiction. CNS Drugs. 2005;19(1):13-25.
drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.
History of Drug Use & Availability
The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.
Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://www.deamuseum.org .
Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.
Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
It is a matter of opinion as to whether this is actually accurate, but it does appear to be logical (Payne, 1997).
This is an important analogy because of the fact that many individuals who are targeted for a particular reason will often attempt to find a disparity issue that they can use to insist that they have been treated unfairly. In drug use or sale issues, these people are targeted because of the offense that they have committed, but when sentencing is handed down, those who feel that they received too harsh of a sentence will work to find reasons that they believe their sentencing to be unfair.
Race is only one reason that these individuals use. Others include gender, age, and whether the amount of drug that they had is a felony or should be a misdemeanor instead. Some of the speculation into why some individuals feel that…
Banks, C. (2004). Criminal Justice Ethics: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
Blumstein, a. et. al. (1983). Research on sentencing: The Search for Reform.
Drug Use Trends. (1997, September-October). Slow development in "crack babies" may be caused by conditions of urban poverty, says new study. Retrieved at http://www.ndsn.org/sepoct97/poverty.html
Education Reforms and Students at Risk: A review of the current state of the art. (1994, January). Chapter 2: Student Background. Retrieved at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/edreformstudies/edreforms/chap2a.html
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
In fact, he repeatedly told officer Friday that he had no interest in doing so. In Sherman v. United States, the Court held that "a line must be drawn between the trap for the unwary innocent and the trap for the unwary criminal." 356 U.S. 369, 375. Furthermore, in Sorrells v. United States, the decision that officially established the entrapment defense, the Court asked "whether the defendant is a person otherwise innocent whom the government is seeking to punish for an alleged offense which is the product of the creative activity of its own officials." 287 U.S. 435, 451. Looking at the facts as developed at trial, it is clear that Billy Bob's agreement to take the drugs on consignment and distribute them was the product of Friday's creative activity, and that Billy Bob was otherwise innocent of possession with intent to distribute.
Interestingly enough, although entrapment would apply in…
Hampton v. United States 425 U.S. 484 (1976).
Sherman v. United States, 356 U.S. 369 (1958).
Sorrells v. United States, 287 U.S. 435, 451 (1932).
United States v. Russell, 411 U.S. 423 (1973).
Social issue alcohol drugs consider a social issue interested. It human freedom, sexuality, deviance, crime, social mobility, poverty, education, aging, similar issues. Select a specific social issue investigate assignment.
Social issue: Drug abuse
The social problem of drug addiction is a long-standing one, yet the causes of addiction and the best way to treat addiction still remain difficult questions to answer. One contentious issue pertains to whether addiction is a 'crime' or an 'illness,' although an increasingly large body of medical research indicates long-term abuse fundamentally rewires addicts' brains and changes their perceptions of reward and punishment. Drugs stimulate dopamine receptors. Dopamine is a chemical in the brain that generates a sense of positive well-being: "Just as we turn down the volume on a radio that is too loud, the brain adjusts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine (and other neurotransmitters) by producing less dopamine or by reducing the number…
Cratty, Carol. (2011). New rules slashing crack cocaine sentences go into effect. CNN.
Drugs and the brain. (2012). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved at:
A. Supporting details (Give citation)
Crack is a powerful central nervous system stimulant that can increase risk for cardiovascular incidents, strokes, and other deadly effects (National Institute on Drug Abuse 2009).
B. Supporting details (Give citation)
Addicts may even use crack cocaine while pregnant, severely harming their children. "Fetal cocaine effects include premature separation of the placenta, spontaneous abortion, premature labor, low birthweight and head circumference at birth, greater chance of visual impairment, mental retardation, genitourinary malformations, and greater chance of developmental problems," (American Council for Drug Education 2001).
C. Supporting details
Crack addiction is associated with high-risk sex, and therefore increases the risk of contracting deadly STDs and AIDS (American Council for Drug Education 2001).
A. estatement of thesis
Addiction to crack is both a cause and an effect of underlying social, political, and economic issues.
B. Wrap up of major ideas
Crack has affected poor communities…
American Council for Drug Education (2001). Basic facts about drugs: cocaine. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://www.acde.org/common/Cocaine.htm
Baumer, E. (2007). Poverty, crack, and crime: A cross-city analysis. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 31, No. 3, 311-327
Cowen, T. (2005). Crime and crack. Out of the Crooked Timber. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://crookedtimber.org/2005/05/23/looking-forward/
Crack Addicts Face Added Stigma in Housing (2007). Join Together. Retrieved Nov 17, 2009 from http://www.jointogether.org/news/headlines/inthenews/2007/crack-addicts-face-added.html
entrapment' and 'outrageous Governmental conduct'. Entrapment is usually permitted within confines of the law even though it contradicts the fourth and fifth amendments. It refers to entrapping the suspect into a situation where it is clearly seen that he was willing and ready to violate the law. 'Outrageous Government conduct,' on the other hand, refers to cases when the Government's conduct was so egregious that it provoked the accused into committing the transgression. Usually conducted out of undue zeal, particular Government official(s) can be egregious in their 'entrapment' conduct and generally, although not always, consequent in running afoul of the law.
The distinction between 'entrapment' and 'outrageous government conduct' is illustrated by the following fictitious case history, "Alabama vs. Billy Bob," where, on the grounds of 'Outrageous Governmental conduct', I appeal to the Judge to exonerate Mr. Bob.
There is no doubt in my mind that, firstly, Mr.…
Bardhan, P. (1997). Corruption and Development: A Review of Issues Journal of Economic Literature, 3. pp. 1320-1346.
Coleman, Stephen (2004). When Police Should Say "No!" To Gratuities. Criminal Justice Ethics, p. 33-50.
Drug legalization is a highly controversial issue, which has been given top priority in political agenda. Many oppose legalization of cocaine but there are just as many people favoring legalization on various grounds. It is important to study both sides of the problem to see if legalization is practical or not. Those who oppose legalization of drugs maintain that cocaine is a dangerous drug which if legalized will send the wrong message that "it is OK to try such drugs" (Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea: 17 A). Opponents maintain that it is the responsibility of law enforcement agencies and other authorities to maintain stricter control over drug use in order to maintain "a delicate balance on drug initiatives." (Hemenway, 2002)
Drug legalization is a sensitive issue that many regard as problematic and believe that it is not in the jurisdiction of United States to allow or disallow legalization…
Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea., USA Today, 10-11-1999, pp 17A
HEMENWAY, D. Alexandria Arguments against states legalizing drugs, Arguments against states legalizing drugs., The Washington Times, 11-08-2002.
Marion Barry on Political Perceptions in D.C.
This paper examines the political life of Marion Barry, former mayor of Washington D.C. And current member of Washington's city council. Barry was arrested and convicted of possession of crack. He has also been linked to a number of other political and personal scandals. This paper attempts to determine: the impact Barry's contemporaries believed his actions would have on his political career; the impact that his actions have had on his political career; how Barry remains politically relevant after a criminal conviction; the role that race plays in Barry's continued political viability; and what Barry's continued political viability say about the current state of racial relations in the United States.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Framing the Problem
Chapter 3. Study Questions
Chapter 4. Data Collection, Composition, and eporting
Chapter 5. Discussion
Chapter 6. Conclusion
Chapter 1: Introduction…
A&E. (2013). Marion S. Barry, Jr. Retrieved April 9, 2013 from Biography website:
Ashley, J. (1990, January 21). The Barry years: Triumphs and troubles. Retrieved April 9,
2013 from The Washington Post website:
From the study of treatment for mothers on crack, 50 experts in drug dependency as well as 150 addicted women identify components which they believe are important in the treatment of women effectively. Some of the features that they had identified that are always not present within the current programs are: comprehensive health care such as family planning, prenatal as well as prevention of HIV; service for children such as play therapy, day care, parental training and developmental monitoring of a child; an advocacy role such as contact with protective services of a child as well as welfare; and appropriate staffing such as non-confrontational, female staffing as well as cultural and racial sensitive.
As evident in the finding of the study, there is preference within experts and women for a program that combines medical, drug treatment and therapeutic services for the child and the mother, job training and education, long-term…
MacGi-egor, (1989). Cocaine and prenatal Outcome. Obstetrics and Gyllecology.
Murphy. S.. & Rosenbaum. M., (1999). Pregnant women on drugs: Combating Stereotype.. New York: Guilford Press, 1999.
Reuter, (1994). Setting Priorities: Budget and Program Choices for Drug Control. Reprint h-om Toward a Rational Drug Policy. The University of' Chicago Legal Forum,1994, pp. 14S 173.
Weisdorf, T. Parran. TV., Graham, A. & Snyder, C., (1999). Comparison of pregnancy-specific Interventions to a Traditional treatment Program for Cocaine-addicted Pregnant Women. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment,1999, pp 16(1), 39-45.
Letting the Big Ones Get Away
One of the most common tools that is used by prosecutors is the plea bargain. This is when the defendant will plead guilty to a lesser crime in exchange for immunity or reduce charges. In nearly all court cases, prosecutors are willing to make some kind of plea deal. The reason why, is they believe that this will save time, reduce costs and it will serve justice. However, like with any kind of deal, the focus of the prosecution will be focused on a single person or group of individuals. As this information will more than likely be used to solidify the government's case against the defendant. ("Bargaining Justice," 2012)
The situation involving the known drug kingpin and his girlfriend is problematic. This is because the drug kingpin has been known for successfully avoiding prosecution in the past. The main reason is from the…
Bargaining Justice. (2012). St. Louis Today. Retrieved from: http://www.stltoday.com/suburban-journals/illinois/bargaining-justice-the-impact-of-plea-deals/article_a8bf0604-01ef-57fe-ac6d-07c53c6f1ddb.html
Plea Bargain. (2012). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved from: http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/plea_bargain
Larson, A. (2000). How Plea Bargaining Works. Expert Law. Retrieved from: http://www.expertlaw.com/library/criminal/plea_bargains.html
Rhodes, W. (1979). Plea Bargaining. The Journal of Criminal Law 70 (3), 360 -- 375.
If this is indeed the case, Leach is within his rights to appeal for an overturn of his conviction. The Fourth Amendment protects travellers from unwarranted police searches, which appears to be what happened in this case.
The Fourth Amendment then protects the rights of individuals to reasonable expectation of privacy. While Archibald Leach voluntarily yielded his luggage for investigation, the search itself was not conducted in a legal manner if there was neither warrant, reasonable suspicion or probable cause. The case does not mention any of these, based upon which the conclusion can be that Leach has sound grounds for appeal.
Criminal Law Lawyer ource. (2009). earch Warrant. http://www.criminal-law-lawyer-source.com/terms/search-warrant.html
Farlex, Inc. (2009). Probable Cause. The Free Dictionary. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Probable+cause 'Lectric Law Library's Lexicon. (2009). "Confession." http://www.lectlaw.com/def/c274.htm
Rice, Beverly. (2009). When can the police stop and frisk you on the street? upreme Court Articles. http://www.legalzoom.com/legal-articles/when-police-frisk-you.html
Walker, Jayme . (1998, Dec…
Criminal Law Lawyer Source. (2009). Search Warrant. http://www.criminal-law-lawyer-source.com/terms/search-warrant.html
Farlex, Inc. (2009). Probable Cause. The Free Dictionary. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Probable+cause 'Lectric Law Library's Lexicon. (2009). "Confession." http://www.lectlaw.com/def/c274.htm
Rice, Beverly. (2009). When can the police stop and frisk you on the street? Supreme Court Articles. http://www.legalzoom.com/legal-articles/when-police-frisk-you.html
Walker, Jayme S. (1998, Dec 1). Moving and touching stowed or checked luggage: Fourth Amendment considerations. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-53590199.html
Crime handling by Police officer
In the given case scenario, there are several triggers that would dictate the way the police officer would handle the involved men in the fight. First, if one or both of the men involved would display a continues aggressive behavior even in the presence of the law enforcement officer, this would be a reason for the officer to respond with reasonable force to end the duel. The disregard for the instructions that the officer may give, for instance to put their hands up or freeze would as well call for use of assistive tools like the Taser gun to incapacitate the suspects for arrest. Worse still, if one or both suspects would turn violent towards the officer, he may have to use any means possible in self-defense. The suspects may also opt for the use of human shield to avoid arrest and in…
Carter W.H., (2003). Ethical issues in using a cocaine vaccine to treat and prevent cocaine abuse and dependence. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from http://jme.bmj.com/content/30/4/337.full
Division of State Police, (2014). The 1950s. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from https://www.troopers.ny.gov/Introduction/History/1950s/
Jackman T., (2010). Police fear crime increase as recession saps forces. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/09/29/AR2010092907447.html
Kirsch S., (2014). The Six Key Lessons of 911. Retrieved October 15, 2014 from http://www.skirsch.com/politics/iraq/Lessons911.htm
everal authors like ullivan (2001) point out the hypocrisy in drawing arbitary lines around certain classes of drugs. In fact, all drugs are potentially harmful. Even caffeine is bad for health when abused. Legally acquired pharmaceutical drugs can be lethal, whereas marijuana has no known cases of overdose. The discrepancy in laws and sentencing policies should be eradicated in order to create a more just society. As Walsh & Hemmens (2008) point out in the chapter on "Law and ocial Change," the prohibition on drugs is no different than the prohibition on alcohol. Both have caused the proliferation of organized crime and neither solved the underlying issues related to mental and physical health. One of the main reasons to legalize drugs is to reduce the market power of organized crime syndicates. Prohibition of alcohol "literally kick-started organized crime in the United tates, and ushered in a decade of gang wars…
Sullivan, a. (2001). The Distinction betwen legal and illegal drugs is arbitrary. In Rolleff, Tamara L. 2004. The War of Drugs: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Walsh, a. & Hemmens, C. (2008). Law and Social Change. Walsh & Hemmens.
Wisher, R. (2001) Illegal Drugs Should Not Be Legalized. In Rolleff, Tamara L. 2004. The War of Drugs: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
Mapp V. Ohio
Over the centuries, there has been considerable debate as to the application of the Bill of ights when it comes to the states. This is because a series of court cases decided it was only relevant when it came to the federal government (i.e. Barron v. Baltimore and United States v. Cruickshank). However, with the passage of the Fourteenth Amendment, these states were obligated to follow them. This has shifted the debate as to if this aspect of the Constitution is relevant to state and local officials. To determine if this is correct requires examining a fictional case in contrast with Mapp V. Ohio. This will be accomplished by carefully studying the facts of the case, the Fruit of the Poisonous Tree Doctrine (under Mapp V. Ohio), the application of the rule of law and discussing how this would affect the ruling from the fictitious scenario. Together,…
Barron V. Baltimore. (2007). Constitution.org. Retrieved from: http://constitution.org/ussc/032-243a.htm
The Fourth Amendment and the Exclusionary Rule. (2012). Find Law. Retrieved from: http://criminal.findlaw.com/criminal-rights/the-fourth-amendment-and-the-exclusionary-rule.html
Mapp V. Ohio. (2010). Cornell School of Law. Retrieved from: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0367_0643_ZO.html
US V. Cruickshank. (2010). Find Law. Retrieved from: http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=92&invol=542
Studies conducted by Doughty et al. (2004) suggest that panic disorders, potentially exacerbated by the panic-inducing qualities of drug usage, are significantly associated with bi-polar disease, and Long finds that panic disorders are generationally related to bi-polar. Therefore, the well-known panic- and anxiety-related effects of drug usage have been shown to be related to bipolar disorder, so that both diseases correlate. Further, chemical responses that drive the bi-polar are complicated by the chemical effects of drug addiction, making treatment difficult to sort out. The associated risk of suicide, already high with sufferers of bi-polar disorder, is heightened. Care and treatment, both physical and mental, must be approached in an integrated fashion.
Drug and chemical treatments for dual diagnosis patients have attempted to sort out the effects of each disorder. However, because the brain centers that are impacted by drug abuse and addiction are often driven by the same or similar…
Doughty, C., Wells, J., Joyce, P., Olds, R., & Walsh, A. (2004). Bipolar-panic disorder comorbidity within bipolar disorder families: a study of siblings. Bipolar Disorders, 6(3), 245-252. doi:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2004.00120.x.
Long, M. (2005). Bipolar Disorders. Retrieved from http:/ / www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-md02.html. Internet Mental Health.
Michael's House. n.d. 10 important facts about dual diagnosis and bipolar disorder. Retrieved from http://www.michaelshouse.com/dual-dual-diagnosis/about-dual-diagnosis-bipolar-disorder .
Whitten, L. (2008). Aripiprazole prevents rats from resuming cocaine seeking. Nida Notes, 22(2), 4-5. Retrieved from CINAHL database.
(Bendersky, Alessandri, Gilbert & Lewis, 1996)
Many teratogens, however, have much more subtle effects that may not be noticeable at birth. Sometimes months or even years, pass before the damage is recognized. For example, prenatal infection with the parasite Toxoplasma can lead to subtle visual impairment and/or learning disabilities that may not be detected until school age. A pregnant woman may have no noticeable symptoms from toxoplasma infection or just have nonspecific flu-like symptoms. Since the diagnosis of congenital infection with toxoplasmosis can only be confirmed in the newborn period, it is impossible to make a diagnosis in a school-aged child. Therefore, many children who have suffered brain damage from prenatal exposure to damaging agents will remain undiagnosed. (Strom, 1990, p. 71)
Drugs (or teratogens) produce the greatest danger to prenatal development if they are consumed prior to the 45th day after conception, when cell specialization and organ development are…
Bendersky, M., Alessandri, S., Gilbert, P., & Lewis, M. (1996). Characteristics of Pregnant Substance Abusers in Two Cities in the Northeast. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 22(3), 349.
Boling, P. (Ed.). (1995). Expecting Trouble: Surrogacy, Fetal Abuse, and New Reproductive Technologies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Bopp, J. (Ed.). (1985). Human Life and Health Care Ethics (Vol. 2). Frederick, MD: University Publications of America.
Coull, B.A., Hobert, J.P., Ryan, L.M., & Holmes, L.B. (2001). Crossed Random Effect Models for Multiple Outcomes in a Study of Teratogenesis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 96(456), 1194.
Rule: Any out-of-court statement offered to prove the truth of the matter asserted is generally inadmissible as hearsay. (801-802) However, hearsay may be admitted, in a prosecution for homicide or in a civil case, if the declarant, while believing the declarant's death to be imminent, made the statement about its cause or circumstances. (804(b)(2).
Application: Here, the defense attorney's objection is premised on the fact that the deceased Sam's statements are I inadmissible as hearsay, as an out-of-court statement by a person unavailable for trial, offered to prove that the other driver was driving on the wrong side of the road. However, Trooper Jones may offer this statement because it falls under the (804(b)(2) hearsay exception, as a statement in a civil case that the declarant made while his death was imminent.
Conclusion: The basis for the defense attorney's objection is hearsay because the deceased Sam's statement is an out-of-court…
First Case. No. The passenger's motion to suppress the seized evidence should not be granted. An accurate description of the apprehension by the two police officers and the rocks of crack cocaine they confiscated from the passenger's pocket and body are fundamental evidence of illegal drug use. The passenger cannot claim any right to suppress the evidence because the actual substance was found in his personal possession and constitutes direct evidence against him. Moreover, the apprehension happened in a high-crime neighborhood where drug use is inherent or quite likely. y omitting or suppressing the direct evidence and presenting an incomplete or misleading account or description, the police officers or judge will commit obstruction of justice.
The driver was not arrested because no such evidence was found in his personal possession. The woman who leaned into the passenger's window and handed him an object was not arrested, either, because…
1. Atheism. Fallacies of Presumption: Suppressed Evidence. About, Inc., 2005. http://atheism.about.com/library/FAQs/Skepticism/faq_fall_suppressed.htm
2. Carroll, Robert Todd. The Fallacy of Suppressed Evidence. The Skeptics Dictionary. http://skepdic.com/refuge/ctlessons/lesson7.html
3. Medawar, Charles, interviewee. The Conspiracy of Silence: the Suppressed Evidence About Anti-Depressants. Multinational Monitor, July-August 2004. vol 25 (7 & 8). http://multinationalmonitor.org/mm2004/july-aug04/interviewmadewar.html
4. Soil Association. U.S. Public Interest Attorney Uncovers Suppressed Evidence of Potential GM Food Health Risks, February 28, 2000. http://www.soilassociation.org/web/sa/saweb_nsf/0/81256ad8005545498025689006614e1?OpenDocument
However, a different kind of problem may arise, when the counselor himself was a user and an addict, and has recovered fully from his addictions, to move on to become a legal counselor of others like him. (NIDA, Introduction and overview)
Take for example, the case of when a drug abuse and substance abuse counselor was among the fifteen people who were arrested recently in Harlem. The police charged this particular individual with being a part of a fifteen-member gang of cocaine and crack distributors on Long Island. Andrew J. Maloney, the United States Attorney for the Eastern District of New York, identified the counselor as Al ichardson, 40 years old, who was allegedly a distributor in a drug-selling ring, in which each 'runner' in the enterprise, or in other words, the individual who makes the actual sale of the drug, cocaine or crack, sold as much as $2,000 a…
ACA Code of Ethics: The ACA Governing Council." Retrieved at http://www.cacd.org/ACA_2005_Ethical_Code10405.pdf. Accessed 20 August, 2006
ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of practice" Retrieved at http://www.cacd.org/codeofethics.html. Accessed 20 August, 2006
Boren, John J; Onken, Lisa Simon; Carroll, Kathleen M. "NIDA, Introduction and overview"
Retrieved at http://www.nida.nih.gov/ADAC/ADAC2.html . Accessed 20 August, 2006
Medical Marijuana Legislation and Civil Liberties
When the historic passage of legislation permitting medical marijuana use in states like Arizona (2010), Delaware (2011) and Massachusetts (2012) is considered in conjunction with the fact that 13 other states have similar legislation or ballot measures pending, the traditional conception of marijuana ingestion as a criminal act is being reexamined on a societal level. Further bolstering this assertion is the legal situation in California, Colorado and Washington, where marijuana has been decriminalized entirely and permitted for recreational sale by licensed dispensaries, providing the platform for a restoration of basic rights in these jurisdictions. With approximately half of the states in the union already affording citizens with medical needs the liberty to seek relief in the form of marijuana, while the federal government's ostensible ban on the substance remains in effect, the stage has been set for a national debate over the merits of…
Mill, J.S., Smith, J.M., & Sosa, E. (1969). Mill's Utilitarianism: Text and criticism. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
This chapter points out how early environmental influences, however, are also part of the nurture equation, something that is often forgotten. A baby who is picked up when he or she cries, is given stimulation in the nursery, and is given good nutrition will have a better start in life than a baby who is given none of these advantages, even if the deprived and enriched infants in this hypothetical scenario may have relatively the same genetic material. Nurture, in other words, begins very early on, and nurture can affect the later biology of the brain just as much as genetics.
From birth, it seems as though humans are predisposed to communicate, and to make meaning out of sounds and gestures. Yet despite this apparent hard-wiring to create language, culture also has a profound influence on individual's communication styles, from the words that are used to nonverbal cues.…
Berger, Kathleen Stassen. The Developing Person through Childhood and Adolescence. 6th Ed.
Worth Publishers, 2004.
Interoffice Memorandum of Law
Case: Joe Lee Simmons, Appellant v. State of Texas, Appellee
Docket number: 01-07-00543-C
Office file number
e: Issue  was there evidence of possession of cocaine weighing four or more grams but less than 200 grams given the evidentiary requirements of TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 38.35(d)(1);  the validity of a motion to suppress based on the officer's failure to report all offenses committed in his jurisdiction to the magistrate, as required by TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 2.13(b)(3); and  the sufficiency of an indictment under TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 28.10.
The appellant contends that the trial court erred in admitting the testimony of the State's forensic chemist, who performed a chemical analysis on the controlled substance found in appellant's shirt pocket, because the chemical analysis was not accredited at the time of the analysis; appellant challenges the trial court's denial of…
TEX. JUR. 3d § 23 Sufficiency of Indictment (2006).
It is the appellant's responsibility to show error on appeal, and if the record fails to show error, then it should be assumed that the trial court acted correctly.
"It is generally presumed on appeal that the court ruled correctly and that the appellant must show error" (Hall v. State, 829 S.W. 2d 407, 410-411).
"It is appellant's burden to not only preserve the alleged error for review, but to present a record of the alleged error sufficient for us to review it and determine if it was error and if so whether the defendant was harmed" (Montoya v. State, 43 S.W.3d 568, 572).
S.A., there is bound to be more problems relating to criminality as well as social problems. For instance legalization of drugs will lead to even more violence across the U.S. Mexico border with each cartel trying to control as much of the market as possible. It will be a magnification of what is currently experienced in the drug deals.
Factually, criminals will not stop being criminals because a drug has been legalized and start be law abiding citizens, paying their taxes and upholding moral standards within the society. This is in light of the fact that the drug dealers don't deal in drugs due to the challenge of making a proper sale but because that is what makes them more money and they will not change just because it is now legal.
Apparently the legalization of drugs will lead to more organized gang crimes like those in Mexico. These are…
Denis C., (1999). Zero-tolerance policies lack flexibility. U.S. Today. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/educate/ednews3.htm
Drug Enforcement Administration, (2013). Speaking out Against Drug Legalization. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://www.justice.gov/dea/pr/multimedia-library/publications/speaking_out.pdf
Drug Policy Alliance, (2013). Zero Tolerance Drug Policies. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://www.drugpolicy.org/zero-tolerance-drug-policies
Holemberg J., 2009). Narcoterrorism. Retrieved May 30, 2013 from http://traccc.gmu.edu/pdfs/student_research/HolmbergNarcoterrorism.pdf
Drug Law Reform (Pro)
According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), the United States' policy on illegal drugs is threefold: stopping drug use before it starts, healing the country's drug users, and disrupting the market. The United States' war on drugs has been going on for at least the last three decades. Given the duration of this war, some have questioned the effectiveness of it, wondering if the money spent is really making a difference and bringing about results.
Actually, the effects of this policy on illegal drugs have been mixed. According to a study conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) covering current and emerging trends in drug abuse for 21 major U.S. metropolitan areas, some drugs are decreasing in use while others are increasing. For example:
C]rack accounted for a substantially greater percentage of primary admissions than powder cocaine in all [surveyed] sites.…
InfoFacts Nationwide Trends. The National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2003. http://www.drugabuse.gov /Infofax/nationtrends.html.
The Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2003. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/index.html .
An early report that was conducted by British physicians claimed that they had found irreversible brain damage in ten male marijuana users -- all of whom had been referred to them for medical treatment because of psychiatric illness, neurological symptoms, or drug abuse problems (Zimmer & Morgan 1997). These researchers used a brain imaging technology and forced air into the patients' brains through the spinal column, then reporting that they saw "abnormalities consistent with cerebral atrophy -- actual brain tissue shrinkage" (1997). The researchers methods were criticized and it was concluded within just a few short years that the brain imaging technique that they use was medically "risky and unreliable" (1997). Using more modern brain imaging technologies today, researchers have not found any evidence of brain damage in human marijuana users, even in those humans who smoke an average of nine marijuana cigarettes a day (1997).
Today there is the…
Earleywine, Mitch. (2005). Understanding marijuana: a new look at the scientific evidence. Oxford University Press; 1st edition.
Fox, Steve. & Armentano, Paul. (2009). Marijuana is safer: so why are we driving people to drink?
Chelsea Green Publishing; 1st edition.
Rosenthal, Ed. & Kubby, Steve. (2003). Why marijuana should be legal. Running Press; 2 Sub-edition.
This writer would like to know if Ms. Barr ever felt the need to cut down on drinking or to stop and couldn't. This writer would like to know if Ms. Barr takes any other drugs or medication in order to sleep or make her feel better and if so how much, and how often.
Mental Health Symptoms:
Mental Status: This writer would like to ask Ms. Barr if she ever thought of harming herself or someone else. If yes, did she have a plan and when was the last time she thought about harming herself or someone else? This writer would like to know if she has ever harmed anyone intentionally. If yes, does she have a plan and when was the last time she harmed someone else. This writer would observe if Ms. Barr's physical characteristics such as clothing, hair color, eye color, mannerisims, interaction with her and…
Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse
A psychoactive substance refers to any chemical which both impacts the central nervous system and the way the brain functions. Psychoactive substances refer to stimulants (cocaine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine), sedatives and analgesics (alcohol, heroin), hallucinogens (PCP, psychoactive mushrooms). As stated in the DSM-III "psychoactive substance abuse is given the definition of being "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous" (Nordegren, 2002, p.11).
The social impact of psychoactive substance use and abuse on widespread scale is enormously detrimental to society. "In a 2005 report issued by the Department of Health and Human Services indicated that alcohol was associated with 100,000 preventable deaths each year and that it cost taxpayers nearly $185…
Aspen. (2011). The Impact of Trauma On Teenage Addiction. Retrieved from Crchealth.com: http://aspeneducation.crchealth.com/articles/article-trauma/
Becvar, D. (2013). Handbook of Family Resilience. New York: Springer Science Publishing.
Dennison, S. (2011). Handbook of the Dually Diagnosed Patient: Psychiatric and Substance Use. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Dick, D., & Agrawai, A. (2008). The Genetics of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence. Alcohol Research and Health, 111-118.
human service professional in the helping process has many dimensions. One of the most important of these, according to Murphy and Dillon (2012) is the ethical aspect, because "ethical codes stress the primacy of the service obligation to the client, confidentiality, integrity, and follow-through." The needs of the client should be the primary concern of the human service professional, which is why years of training and practice are required before they are truly qualified and fully prepared to take on the responsibility of helping other individuals who are in crisis.
Adherence to strong ethical codes is of crucial importance in this profession. Having a clear and specific set of ethical guidelines is essential because human service professionals are human beings with their own personal values. They have sets of beliefs which may be deeply engrained, including prejudices formed from their cultural, social, and educational backgrounds. These are sometimes so deeply…
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy (8th
Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Murphy, E., & Dillon, C. (2012). Interviewing in action in a multicultural world (4th Ed.).
It is the intention of this paper to explore the methods utilized which resulted in the transformation of not only the behavior of a teenage boy but also in the transformation of his very life. Many methods have been utilized in attempting to modify behavioral-patterns in problem children and teens.
This paper will look at the changes in a young man whose name is Reuben, the elements that contributed to those changes and the viewpoint of Reuben as he tells us the story of his new outlook and life view.
This is a story told by Ruben about his life. It is a candid look at the manifestations of anger, frustration, rebellion against authority, and it is a story that gives voice to the possibilities of transformation or change within an individual. Further Ruben will reveals the conditions, or change of conditions in the environment that is conducive…
Ethical Dilemmas In Criminal Justice
Ethical dilemmas permeate almost all organizations globally. Members of an organization often find themselves in challenging situations that require the adoption of the most effective solution that meet the needs of the conflicting parties or situations. One of the organizations that often face the challenge of ethical dilemmas is the criminal justice organization. The criminal justice organizations have been known to perform activities that ensure safety of the population. Most of the ethical dilemmas focus on decisions that organizations can adopt with the aim of fostering the safety of the victims, convict, and the society. Significant evidence shows that ethics play a significant role in an organization. It ensures the recognition of the rights and freedom of the individual alongside prioritizing the safety of individuals in the society (oberson & Mire, 2010).
Therefore, this research paper analyzes different ethical issues that face the…
Hudson, B. (2003). Justice in the risk society challenging and re-affirming justice in late modernity. London: SAGE.
Roberson, C., & Mire, S. (2010). Ethics for criminal justice professionals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press/Taylor & Francis.
Excessive Force Liability
The International Association for the Chiefs of Police (IACP) has maintained an updated model policy on the use of force for over two decades (Hough & Tatum, 2012). A number of 'use of force' policies implemented by policing agencies can be found online, but the basic tenets are the following: (1) use only the minimum amount of force necessary to bring a situation under control, (2) deadly force should only be used to prevent death or serious injury to the officer or bystanders (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985), and (3) the determination of an imminent threat of death or serious injury should be based on objective and reasonable evidence (IACP, 2006; Graham v. Conner, 1989). Officers should also warn the intended target that deadly force will be used if they failed to comply when possible (Tennessee v. Garner, 1985).
Based on these guidelines, Officer Jones was not justified…
Baldwin, L. (2014). Aggravated battery laws and penalties. Retrieved from http://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/crime-penalties/federal/Aggravated-Battery.htm .
Estate of Davis v. City of Richland Hills, No. 04-10036, 406 F.3d 375 (5th Cir. 2005).
Graham v. Conner, No. 87-6571, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).
Hough, R.M. Sr. & Tatum, K.M. (2012). An examination of Florida policies on force continuums. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 35(1), 39-54.
Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…
Delaware fact sheet. (2014). Friends of Narconon, International. Retrieved from http://www.friendsof narconon.org/drug_distribution_in_the_united_states/delaware_drug_facts/delaware_fact
Drug threats in Wilmington. (2014). Drug Enforcement Edu.org. Retrieved from http://www.
Spending more on prisons means spending less on other public purposes" (2008, p. 120). The area most affected by the ex post facto application of the revised sentencing guidelines would be northern Virginia where almost 900 inmates (fully twice as many as any other region of the nation) would become eligible for early release (McCabe, 2011). The retroactive application of the revised sentencing guidelines in this area alone would realize more than $1 billion in cost savings and help reduce the overcrowded conditions of Virginia's prisons (McCabe, 2011).
The research showed that previous sentencing guidelines for crack cocaine-related offenses were far harsher than comparable penalties for other preparations of the drug. The research also showed that the revised sentencing guidelines contained in the Fair Sentencing Act of 2010 address these disparities but the question remains whether to apply these provisions retroactively to currently incarcerated crack cocaine offenders. Proponents maintain…
A step backward on sentencing. (2011, June 11). Corpus-Christi Caller-Times, A8.
Get out of jail early. (2011, June 11). The Wall Street Journal, A12.
McCabe, S. (2011, June 2). Crack law could spring 1,200 D.C.-area criminals. The Examiner, 37.
Welch, W.N. & Harris, P.W. (2008). Criminal justice policy and planning, 3rd ed. Anderson
Criminal Justice Policy Practice Determine Morality
Higher Than Utilitarianism
The passing and reformation of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act, also known as the so-called "crack law," is one of the most controversial pieces of legislation to be considered within the criminal justice system and its policy during the past two years. There are several aspects of this legal mandate that present a plethora of interesting situations and questions in regards to the morality of this particular issue, which has been at the forefront of mass media outlets ever since there were significant amendments passed to it in 2010. Interestingly enough, a fair amount of those changes may be attributed to the notion of morality revolving around this legal code, which was largely responsible for the rapid and prolonged imprisonment of minorities -- particularly African-Americans and Latino offenders. One of the most efficacious means of determining whether such a law may be…
Bentham, Jeremy. "Offenses Against One's Self: Paederasty Part 1." Journal of Homosexuality. Volume 3 (4). 389-406. 1978. Print.
Benthan, Jeremy. An Introduction To The Principles Of Morals And Legislation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Kosman, Maxwell Alie Halpern. "Falling Through The Crack: How Courts Have Struggled to Apply The Crack Amendment To "Nominal Career" And "Plea Bargain" Defendants." Michigan Law Review. Volume 109. 785-812. 2011. Web. http://www.michiganlawreview.org/assets/pdfs/109/5/kosman.pdf
Hartley, Richard., Maddan, Sean., Spahn, Cassia. "Prosecutorial Discretion: An Examination of Substantial Assistance Departures in Federal Crack-Cocaine and Powder-Cocaine Cases." Volume 23. Issue 3 382-407. 2007. Web. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820701485379
Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).
Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).
In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…
Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Goldman, Erik. (2005 July 01). Genetic tests could improve future drug abuse treatment. Family Practice News. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Heroin Addiction Cuts Across All Social Boundaries, Caron Foundation Study Reports.
..in their view, rather than promoting wholeness and recovery, the experience recreated the secrecy of abuse and fed the stigma associated with each of the three issues."
In the hopes of a more well-organized approach to providing these key services to women, the WELL project instituted a mechanism for promoting strategy and collaboration changes at the state, regional, and local levels. The WELL project also recommended an open dialogue between agencies as to better systems to put in place, and suggested giving individuals within each area of service "freedom to make change at any given moment" when a better approach can be taken by a trained professional healthcare provider.
Predominantly Female Caseloads: Identifying Organizational Correlates in Private Substance Abuse Treatment Centers, a piece in the Journal of Behavioral Health Services & esearch (Tinney, et al., 2004), speaks to the issue of the need for healthcare providers to be meeting "distinctive…
Conrad, Patricia J., Pihl, Robert O., Stewart, Sherry H., & Dongier, Maurice. (2000). Validation
Of a System of Classifying Female Substance Abusers on the Basis of Personality and Motivational Risk Factors for Substance Abuse. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 14(3),
Markoff, Laurie S., Finkelstein, Norma, Kammerer, Nina, Kreiner, Peter, & Prost, Carol a.
2005). Relational Systems Change: Implementing a Model of Change in Integrating
Columbian Drug Trade
If Americans know nothing else about Colombia, they know that it is a place where people grow and package cocaine for use on the world market. This is, of course, a highly biased view of the country because Colombians do many things other than make and sell drugs and most Colombians are not involved in the drug trade at all.
However, it remains true that much of the world's cocaine does originate in Colombia, which has important consequences for that nation's standing in the world as well as for its relationship with the United States. This paper examines some of the consequences for the relationship between the two countries of the ways in which political and economic life in Colombia have become linked to the trade in cocaine.
We must begin this assessment with some basic facts about both Colombia and the drug trade.
It is certainly…
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
Domestic Drug Trafficking
The illegal drug market in the United States is one of the most profitable in the world, and attracts the most sophisticated and aggressive drug traffickers (Drug pp). According to U.S. Customs Service, sixty million people enter the United States on more than 675,000 commercial and private flights, and another 6 million enter by sea, and some 370 million by land (Drug pp). Moreover, 116 million vehicles enter by crossing the Canadian and Mexican borders, and more than 90, 000 merchant and passenger ships dock at U.S. ports carrying more than 9 million shipping containers and 400 million tons of cargo, with an additional 157,000 smaller vessels docking at various coastal towns (Drug pp).
Amid all this trade, drug traffickers conceal cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine shipments for distribution into U.S. neighborhoods (Drug pp).
The traffic and distribution of illegal drugs involves diverse groups (Drug pp). Criminal…
Sesin, Carmen. Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job: Colombian aids forgotten victims. NBC News. May 25, 2994. Accessed from MSNBC.com web site on May 05, 2005.
Humbles, Andy. Dealers get creative when hiding their drugs. The Tennessean.
February 15, 2004. Accessed from The Tennessean web site on May 05, 2005.
Neural Correlates of Drug elapse Propensity
efraining from Drug Use
Treating drug addiction requires experience and skill, because no single approach has broad efficacy (reviewed by Bauer, Covault, and Gelernter, 2012). High inter-individual variability of contributing factors and a lack of knowledge about what causes treatment failure (reviewed by Walton, Blow, and Booth, 2001), helps explain a relapse rate between 40% to 60% (NIDA, 2011). For this reason, researchers have been trying to identify what factors contribute to addictive tendencies and influence treatment success.
To better understand why some substance abusers are successful in overcoming their drug addictions and others are not, this essay will examine the neural correlates of drug relapse behavior. Particular attention will be paid to environmental and genetic factors and how they influence brain function on an anatomical and cellular level.
Neural Correlates of Environmental Triggers
Environmental triggers have long been known to increase the risk…
Bauer, L.O., Covault, J., and Gelernter, J. (2012). GABRA2 and KIBRA genotypes predict early relapse to substance use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 123, 154-159.
NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse & Addiction). (2011). The science of drug abuse and addiction. DrugAbuse.gov. Retrieved 22 Oct. 2012 from
flow of drugs into the United States, where the drugs are coming from, in what forms they come in and the general attitudes that are taken against the practice by both the United States law enforcement agencies in particular and the United Nations drug control treaties. The author of this report will answer all of those questions in detail and provide the proper sourcing and citations for the same. While some modest successes are made when it comes to the "war on drugs," the United States law enforcement collective is losing the battle and there is a difference of strategy when it comes to a comparison between the United Nations and the United States.
The first question is fairly specific and brief. For each of the five major illicit drugs that are available and that are used in the United States, there will be a summary of what each one…
DEA. (2011). Drugs of Abuse - 2011 Edition (pp. 1-79). Washington DC: Drug
Ferner, M. (2015). Colorado Introduces Major Shift In Its Marijuana Program. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 23 August 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/01/colorado-marijuana_n_5548620.html
Murphy, G. (2015). Have We Lost the War on Drugs?. WSJ. Retrieved 23 August 2015,
Furthermore, the study focused only on a population of children of one particular stage of life. However, the test methods are fairly comprehensive and indicate valid outcomes.
c. Design and Methods: Mothers and children were taken into a room and told to play. There were a number of toys available for the play session. After some time playing, mothers were removed from the room and the children's behavior observed for a period of 2 minutes, before the mothers were returned. Various tables denoted the results of these interactions in terms of verbal interaction, separation reactions, and other variables.
d. Method of Analysis: The data were analyzed by means of a comparative table. The group of mothers were divided into two main groups: those who exposed their unborn children to cocaine, and those who did not. The group who did use the drug during pregnancy were further divided according to the…
Limitations: The main limitations of the study lie in the population size and age group of the children. While there is no great difference in the interactions themselves, deeper studies could be conducted to quantify the true long-term effects of exposure for children, as well as their environmental risks as a result of the mothers' addiction.
An important factor in terms of future study is the long-term environmental risks of households where one or both parents are substance abusers. The study, in spite of its limitations, provides valuable grounds for further investigation, in order to help the victims of addiction, as well as their families.
Ukeje, Ikechukwu, Bendersky, Margaret and Lewis, Michael. (2001, May). Mother-Infant Interaction at 12 Months in Prenatally Cocaine-Exposed Children. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Database: FindArticles.com http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0978/is_2_27/ai_78917479
Which means that there is a greater adrenaline rush for product users?
The main difference between ocaine and other competitors is product placement; it has done a wonderful job of providing an underground advertising campaign that has caused even more people to become interested in it. Its current strategy of providing limited supplies has also helped to create greater hype for the product as it is only accessible through Peer to Peer websites such as Ebay and their primary sales website. Another strong factor in its favor is its increased dosage of caffeine. With 280 mg of caffeine per 8.5 ounce bottle, it easily outclasses the majority of competitors on the market. However, this high dosage may in fact work against the company in the future, as numerous doctors have come to the fore to attest to the health risks of drinking such much caffeine in one sitting.
Cocaine. (2007, January 18). Retrieved January 21, 2007, from http://www.drinkcocaine.com/
SOWRY, M. (2006, September 18). The Ultimate Energy Drink: Cocaine? Retrieved
January 21, 2007, at http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=2459718&page=1
representative system of government has motivated a vital chain of discussions in the literature about police workers administration and representation of women and racial minorities. The serious questions in this study are: (a.) Does the under oath police force rationally mirror a cross section of the groups being monitored? And (b.) hat aspects are measured in representation of women and minority police officers in law-enforcement agencies? Black and Hispanic depictions on police forces are strongly associated with its incidence in community populations. Regions differ in the quantity of female and minority illustrations, blacks being better characterized in southern police forces than in another place; women are better characterized in the northwest. Nevertheless, findings disclose that men, more often than not whites, maintain to hold unreasonably more sworn positions in the largest part of law-enforcement agencies. The data sets of female and minority representation also demonstrate the extent of female and…
Ayres, Ian, and Steven Levitt. Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 2008, 43-77.
Bahrke, Mike, and Bob Hoffman. Identifying the Fitness Needs of Law Enforcement Officers. Working Paper, Fit Force, 2007.
Coate, Stephen, and Glenn Loury. Will Affirmative-Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes? American Economic Review, 2003, 1220-40.
Donohue, John J, and Steven D. Levitt. The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime. Working Paper, Stanford University Law School, August 2009.
Gould, judicial systems have to address the concerns about disparate treatment and its affect on sentencing outcomes (pg.1 paragraph 1).
In 1989 the National Consortium of Task Forces and Commissions of Racial and Ethnic Bias in the Courts (the Consortium) was established. Its primary goal was to encourage judicial authorities to investigate the treatment of minorities in the court. The Consortium was challenged to understand if disparate treatment existed and affected sentence outcomes.
According to the author, The Consortium not only wants to know if racial disparities exist, but want to know the reasoning behind the existence. The author goes further to say that imperative data should be assessed in order to reach a fair conclusion. The Consortium should obtain information on the litigants' background, characteristics of the case, type of representation and demographics of tier of fact.
The litigants' background should be assessed for things such as household income,…
Brewer, R., Heitzeag N. The rationalization of crime and punishment. Retrieved November 27,
2009 from www.wayne.edu/libraries
Bureau of Justice Statistics. The nation's prison population continues its slow growth up 1.9
percent last year. Retrieved November 27, 2009, from www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs
"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()
Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.
Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.
Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Cross-National Drug Policy / Full publication date: Jul., 2002 / Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Political and Social Science (2002): 134-48. Print.
Council on Hemispheric Affairs. "Low Taxation Perpetuates Insecurity in Central America." 2011. May 5th 2012. .
Drugs on the Economy
History of drugs in the United States
How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively
How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand to lessen the burden on tax-payers
Wonder drugs like morphine, heroine, and cocaine to mention but a few pose a lot of problems to the entire American society. Americans have had to grapple with the deleterious effects of drug abuse and addiction. estrictions were imposed at the beginning of the 20th Century through domestic and overseas law enforcement to contain the drugs epidemic. Such enforcements were initiated to limit opium and cocoa crops (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2012). This term paper seeks to give a brief history of drugs in the United States of America and subsequently outline how drug use affects the American economy both positively and negatively. The paper also endeavors to list how decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stands…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011). Prisoners in 2010 (revised). Retrieved June 22, 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2230
Drug Enforcement Administration. (2012). Illegal drugs in America: A modern
History. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.deamuseum.org /museum_ida.html
Easton, S. (2009). Legalize Marijuana for Tax Revenue. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2010/03/legalize_mariju.html