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Later, as they grow, constipation or diarrhea, bloody or black stool, persistent cramping, gas or abdominal pain may become evident (Colon cancer, 2008, the Mayo Clinic, p.1). Patients may experience a sense of their bowl not completely emptying (Colon cancer, 2008, the Mayo Clinic, p.4). However, many of these symptoms have other origins, yet another reason that early screening to determine that cancer is the cause.
As the disease progresses, weakness and general malaise may result. About 90% of people diagnosed with colon cancer are older than 50 with a history of colitis or other inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases (Colon cancer, 2008, the Mayo Clinic, p.1). It is particularly essential that individuals with a family history of the illness or gastrointestinal disorders are screened for colon cancer, as well as individuals over the age of 50, even if they are not symptomatic.
Colon cancer. (2008). The Mayo Clinic.…… [Read More]
The second option is worth considering for patients with large or multiple liver lesions because this route results in delivery of a higher dose of chemotherapy to the liver metastases. The underlying principle is that liver metastases derive their blood supply primarily through the hepatic arterial circulation, whereas normal liver derives most of its blood supply through the portal vein. The major adverse effect of intraarterial FUD is sclerosing cholangitis, which may be quite severe and may necessitate discontinuation of therapy.
Studies have demonstrated a survival advantage for patients with Dukes stage C. colon cancer who receive adjuvant chemotherapy. The 5-FU-based therapy has been administered in the past according to several schedules, including continuous infusion daily for 5 days every 4 weeks (Mayo Clinic regimen) and weekly for 6 weeks with 2 weeks off (oswell Park regimen).
In terms of patient survival, no study has demonstrated the superiority of daily…… [Read More]
Colon Cancer." (2008). Mayo clinic.com. etrieved on February 27, 2008 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/colon-cancer/DS00035
Colon Cancer Treatment." (2007). National Cancer Institute. etrieved on February 27, 2008 at http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/colon/patient
Lee, Dennis. "Colon Cancer (Colorectal Cancer)" (2007). Medicine net.com. etrieved on February 27, 2008 at http://www.medicinenet.com/colon_cancer/article.htm
Myers, Donna. (2008). "Overview of Colon Cancer Symptoms." About.com: Health. etrieved on February 27, 2008 at http://coloncancer.about.com/od/cancerprevention/a/Cancer_Symptoms.htm
The colon is part of the body's digestive system, which consists of the esophagus, stomach, the small and the large intestines. The first 6 feet of the large intestine are called the colon or the large bowel while the last 6 inches are the rectum and the anal canal.
Blood in stool is not always an indication of colon cancer; it may be the result of hemorrhoids, peptic ulcers or cuts in the anal area.
The connection is not always genetic -- sometimes, cancers within the same family may result…… [Read More]
COLON CANCE CASE STUDY
Colon cancer is popular as rectal or bowel cancer. The condition refers to cancer development of rectum or colon throughout the large intestine. The cancer is caused by abnormal increase of cells with an ability of invading or spreading to subsequent body parts. Symptoms and signs of the cancer include blood in human stool, weight loss, changes in bowel movements, and continuously feeling tired (Young, Hobbs & Kerr, 2011).
The colorectal cancers are formulated based on increasing age and lifestyle factors. A small percentage of the cases result from inherited genetic disorders. Alternate risk factors are inclusive of obesity, diet, smoking, and lack of physical activity. Peterson (2014) shows that alternative forms of dietary factors that cause an increment of risks involve processed and red meat alongside heavy drinking of alcohol. Inflammatory bowel disease is another risk factor that involves ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.…… [Read More]
Statement of the theme
No one really wants to talk about the subject of their colons. We all started out life with one, most of ours are working very well as we sit here today. But though speaking about the colon seems to be dirty or disagreeable, it is very important that we all pay attention to the colon. Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer death in the United States. It is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer among men and women within North America. And I am sad to say that 90% of all the patients who die because of colon cancer could probably have prevented their deaths, though a combination of healthy diet and simple diagnostic testing.
STATEMENT OF THE THEME: Many people think that they are not at risk for colon cancer. It is true that…… [Read More]
Screening using sigmoidoscopy usually results in minimal discomfort as it's quick, biopsy is possible in some cases and cleansing of the colon is not detailed while on the other hand it's disadvantageous in that only the lower colon and the rectum is viewed, minimal risk of perforating the lining of the colon and other procedures maybe required if problems are detected Services, 2011()
Colonoscopy allows for the viewing of the whole colon and rectum plus performance of biopsies is also possible while the risks of perforation are present, the patient in most cases is sedated, colon cleansing is necessary and not all tumors may be detected. Virtual colonoscopy just like colonoscopy allows for the viewing of the rectum and entire colon and there is no risk of tearing the colon since there is no insertion of instruments Services, 2011.
The test may however not detect all tumors, require…… [Read More]
Care of Cancer:
In the past few years, cancer has developed to become one of the major leading causes of deaths across the globe. The disease can be described as the uncontrolled growth or development of abnormal cells in the body even as cancerous cells are also known as malignant cells. Since cells are the building blocks of humans and other living things, cancer develops out of the normal cells within the body. Generally, the normal cells multiply when needed by the body and die when the body does not need them. When the growth of the cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly, cancer appears to occur. Nonetheless, cancer also appears to happen when cells in the body forget how to die.
Causes of Cancer:
There are various kinds of cancer because the disease can develop in nearly every tissue or organ like…… [Read More]
In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:
Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.
Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.
Selenium…… [Read More]
This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).
It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.
The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…… [Read More]
Colon cancer is defined as a cancer that begins in the rectum or colon. The cancers are referred to as colon or rectal cancer with reference to their orientating point. Colon and rectal cancers share different features and ultimate diagnosis procedures. The disorders are discussed collectively in this paper including their treatment approach.
In case cancer forms within polyps, they eventually start growing into the colon or rectal walls. While cancer cells attach to the wall, they continue growing within blood and lymph vessels. The lymph vessels are relatively thin, and tiny channels are carrying away fluid and waste (Acton, 2013). They occasionally drain into subsequent lymph nodes that are bean-shaped structures and contain immune cells to helping fighting the infections. Immediately the cancer cells start spreading to lymph or blood vessels, they travel to the lymph nodes and other distant body parts like the liver. The…… [Read More]
[Donaldson S, 2004] A diet rich in refined sugar creates a high glycemic load. The present culture of eating packaged and fast foods on a regular basis implies the consumption of high levels of refined sugar in our diet. This results in induced dysregulation of glucose metabolism, which is reported as a high risk factor for cancer. [Donaldson S, 2004] A recent European study by Dr. Par Stattin et.al (2007) has confirmed abnormal glucose metabolism as a high risk factor for cancer. Red meat is associated with cancer. Many recent studies such as Bingham SA (2002) and Norat T. et.al (2002) have attested this correlation between red meat consumption and cancer.
In conclusion we can say that the chemopreventive effects of a diet comprising of vegetables and fruits is due to the synergestic effects of many plant-based nutrients. While most of the phytochemicals act as effective antioxidants, some nutrients such…… [Read More]
Care of Cancer
In many cases the sooner cancer is diagnosed and treatment begins the better the chances of a person recovering fully. If one develops cancer they can improve the chance of early detection if they have regular medical checkups and do some self-exams. Doctors often find early cancer during a physical exam or when carrying out routine tests even when there were no symptoms presented.
There are several methods that are used to diagnose cancer .with technological advancement these methods are now better as they help in a better understanding of cancer .there are now many diagnostic tools that can be used in cancer detection. Once cancer I suspected a diagnosis is made by pathologists and oncopathologists and imaging radiologists. The common diagnostic methods are;
This test involves a small tissue sample being taken from the area where cancer is suspected using a fine tipped…… [Read More]
This then leads to the activation of a number of genes whose products trigger cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, or DNA repair" (Lakin 1999, p. 7644).
In research led by Hussain, he investigated the targets of free radicals, which are DNA, proteins, NA, and lipids. He noted that, "mutations in cancer-related genes or post-translational modifications of proteins by nitration, nitrosation, phosphorylation, acetylation or polyADP-ribosylation-by free radiacals or lipid peroxidation byproducts…are some of the key events that can increase the cancer risk" (Hussain 2003, p. 276). Furthermore, changes in DNA occur when the person has been exposed to high levels of nitric oxide or NO. p53 plays a role in that it acts as a mediator to stress but NO "causes p53 accumulation and post-translational modifications that inhibit cellular growth" (Hussain 2003, p. 278). His research has revealed that when exposed to NO during chronic inflammation sans wild-type p53, there might be increased…… [Read More]
Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer
The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.
Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…… [Read More]
According to the National Institute of Health (NIH) "Brazil nuts may contain as much as 544 micrograms of selenium per ounce. They also may contain far less selenium. It is wise to eat Brazil nuts only occasionally because of their unusually high intake of selenium."
The reasons that selenium is so effective in cancer prevention are uncertain, although it has been speculated that it possesses anti-oxidant properties, "especially when used in conjunction with vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene" and "works to block chemical reactions that create free radicals in the body (which can damage DNA and cause degenerative change in cells, leading to cancer)" (Black 2006). Selenium has also been found to prevent damaged DNA molecules from reproducing, thus preventing the development of tumors as well (Black 2006). This is supported by a University of Arizona-Cornell research team which linked low selenium levels in the blood to increased risk…… [Read More]
Health education brochures provide readers with a brief and often comprehensive solution to their general fitness questions. In many instances these health brochures are easily and accessible and provide key facts relevant to the brochure topic. To attract readers, health brochures are typically worded with large bold font, combined with warm, bright colors (Ackland-Snow, 1997). When viewing the Color Cancer brochure, it exhibiting many of these same characteristics and more. The brochure was comprehensive, bright, positive, and easily read irrespective of age level. As the readability scale results below indicate, the brochure was proficient in its use of words and syllables to call the reader to action. Overall, I believe the brochure on colon cancer to be effective in its objective of educating and calling the consumer to action.
To begin, the presentation within the brochure was very welcoming. It presented, many photos of couples and individuals engaging in…… [Read More]
roles do genes play in determining cell structure and function? How is gene expression regulated?
Genes are composed of sequences of DNA which pass on the organism's genetic blueprint through the process of replication. "By serving as the blueprints of proteins in the body, genes ultimately influence all aspects of body structure and function... An error in one of these genes can lead to a recognizable genetic disease" (McCance & Huether 2012: 126).
What is the role of the environment in development of congenital disorders?
Genes have a considerable influence upon the probability of individuals developing particular disorders. For example, not every smoker develops lung cancer; not every overweight person develops type II diabetes. However, genes determine the likelihood that individuals will develop such disorders. The environment can trigger the expression of certain genes or support the conditions that make the manifestation of such conditions more or less likely to…… [Read More]
As a result, it is not stable to say that the balance of benefits and harms of routine use of supplements of vitamins a, C or E; multivitamins with folic acid; or antioxidant combinations for the prevention of cancer or cardiovascular disease (U.S. Preventive Services ask Force (USPSF).
From other evidence, it does not seem that the experiments of this article were not conducted long enough to prove its thesis because supplements do not help with cancer. If they were trying to prove supplements did not help, their testing would be valid. As it can be seen from other evidence, the objective can be proven false because other research prove tat their thesis cannot be accurate.
he Canadian ask Force on Preventive Health Care (CFPHC) concludes that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against the use of routine vitamin E supplementation for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease…… [Read More]
Patient Guide to the Worldwide Web
Mr. Atkins, 64, arrives at the hospital with his wife complaining that he has not had a bowel movement in over a week, and that he has significant pain in his abdomen. Mr. Atkins has an MI which shows a significant blockage in his colon. Surgery is suggested and when this is completed Mr. Atkins is told that he has colon cancer and a mass was removed from his colon along with eight inches of the diseased organ. It is then relayed that the cancer has also metastasized to his liver. The Atkins are farmers who have very little to do with computers other than checking weather reports. They both want to learn about the diagnosis and what can be done, but with their limited knowledge of the internet ask a nurse for help.
The patient is very motivated to learn how to…… [Read More]
Producing a Healthier iscuit: Evidence for Adding Dietary Fiber
The importance of fiber
One common way to improve the health profile of baked goods is to add fiber, usually in the form of whole grain products vs. refined white flour. It is important to note when developing the nutritional profile of the proposed biscuit that not all types of fiber are created equal. There are two basic kinds of fiber: soluble and insoluble. The main difference between the two is that "soluble fiber dissolves in water. Insoluble fiber does not" (Zelman 2012). Soluble fiber attracts water and contributes to the body's sense of fullness, making dieting easier for many people. Insoluble fiber passes through the body undigested and thus is important for regular bowel movements. Oatmeal is a good source of soluble fiber; whole wheat is a good source of insoluble fiber and both could be tasty additions to a…… [Read More]
This has been the traditionally used mode of treatment for non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas, but the fact remains that there have not been many clinical trials conducted that would reveal the benefits of CHOP in comparison to various other chemotherapy options for the treatment of CLL, which is a very slowly growing form of cancer and is therefore conversely very difficult to treat and cure because of the fact that all the traditional methods of treatment, whether chemotherapy or radiation, are meant to quickly and rapidly destroy the fast growing cancerous cells. (Cancer Treatment and Prevention)
Curing a patient with the CLL or SLL forms of cancer is considered to be highly unusual, but it is true that these patients will b able to lead productive lives even after 6 to 10 years after the cancer have been diagnosed for them. A patient when he is making the choice of treatment for…… [Read More]
Carrots and Fiber
I used "carrot fiber" as my search term to find fiber related articles that talked about carrots and fiber. I also used "fiber +disease" to find articles relevant to how fiber helps fight off disease. I found numerous articles, and most were relevant to this assignment, while some were not relevant at all.
In "Crunch time," the author talks about how vegetables like carrots, that contain a lot of fiber are good for the dieter, because they help you feel full longer, and they help slow digestion, too. They help keep you healthy, and they can help fight diseases like obesity if you rely on them as a steady part of your diet. In "High Fiber Cereals," the author states that research has not been conclusive on fiber helping fight diseases like colon cancer, but it is well documented that it helps fight heart disease, diabetes, can…… [Read More]
The "self-portraits" might perhaps be viewed in terms of the artist's own past illnesses: At 37, Taylor-Woods, having already survived both colon cancer and breast cancer, likely understands, on personal level, the state of "suspense" between sickness and health, life and death. he may, then, have been "bound" to breast cancer (the invisible ropes may symbolize the disease), cured of it, and her body "released to freedom." In my opinion, however, an artistic weakness of these pictures is that their esthetics and size make them look less like serious art than fashion advertisements for bras and panties! For me, "elf-Portrait uspended" is the least effective of the three exhibition subjects. The tension in the subject's body also appears to be that of someone hanging from ropes (which she in fact was); the tautness of her body kept me from "suspending my disbelief" (so to speak) that she was hanging in…… [Read More]
Biology -- Patient Scenario
What are the components of physical examination? Describe each component.
Physical examination consists of 5 basic components after obtaining a patient's description of the history of his/her systems. First, the provider observes the patient for physical signs of disease and evaluates such factors as mobility, posture, facial expression, alertness, responsiveness to stimuli and changes in skin color (Jarvis, 2011, pp. 33, 127-9). Secondly, one must take a patient's vital signs, including blood pressure, heart rate, breathing rate and temperature, and compare the patient's results with the reference ranges (Jarvis, 2011, pp. 136-150). Third, one must perform auscultation, using a stethoscope to listen to the patient's lungs, heart and bowel (Jarvis, 2011, p. 118). Fourth, one performs percussion by tapping on the patient's chest and abdomen to listen for sounds indicating normal conditions, fluid, excess air, size of the lungs and size of the affected area (Jarvis,…… [Read More]
Nurses, who have first hand knowledge and understanding of how to live healthy and how to take proper care of themselves, are far better equipped to teach others about these concepts. Certain populations can benefit greatly from prevention, especially those who are prone to specific types of diseases or conditions.
One of the most common behaviors that leads to many chronic and often very damaging health conditions is smoking. Smoking can cause a multitude of diseases and conditions from emphysema to heart disease to lung cancer (Chapman, 2007). The list goes on and on. But smoking is 100% preventable and nurses need to understand not only how to treat these smoking-related diseases but how to more importantly discourage and prevent people from smoking in the first place. Many nurses agree that this behavior leads to many of the worst case scenarios for people with pre-existing chronic conditions. It is therefore…… [Read More]
The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.
The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.
He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…… [Read More]
This teatment, albeit, does not poduce 100% chitosan, but basically poduces a mixtue of 10-15% chitin plus 85-90% pue chitosan, called "pue CC." In the U.S., chitosan constitutes a mixtue of appoximately7% chitin plus appoximately 93% chitosan. Outside of cost-effectiveness, the biological effects of chitin poduced fom each souce appeas identical. "Chitosan oligosacchaides (CO) takes chitosan a big step futhe," Matsunaga (2007 explains. "When CC is ingested, a small amount of it is boken down into vey small molecula paticles by the enzymes of the body, thus poducing CO. CO can also be manufactued by using an enzymatic pocess" (Matsunaga, as cited in Levine, p. 1). The body moe eadily absobs CO, although CO contains less fibe than egula CC.
In Case Histoy 1: Low Pulmonay (Lung) Function, Matsunaga (Levine, 2007) teats his fist patient, also his fathe, with the administation of CC. Pevious teatments had yielded no esults…… [Read More]
Victims of Progress
John Bodley - Victims of Progress
"If we realistically assess the present condition of the culture of consumption, it seems likely that this culture, too, will disappear- also a victim of progress, but after a very brief and preposterous career. The important question is: How will the culture of consumption go? ill it be forced to gradually transform itself into a new primitive culture, or will it go out with a total, catastrophic collapse. leaving a shattered world from which a new primitive culture will painfully evolve? Om either event, it may be predicted that in the long run, if humanity survives, primitive culture will be restored as the most viable human adaptation."
hat exactly does Bodley mean by the term "victims of progress"?
There are many ways in which an individual can be considered a victim of progress. The level of development of society is bringing…… [Read More]
The Feasibility of New Businesses in the Fast Casual Healthy Restaurant Niche
Business Idea Overview
The business idea that is being reviewed is a family owned business that is not a franchised operation. The research will focus on the likelihood that a small start-up that is locally owned and operated restaurant can still make it on their own in competitive market. Many of the local businesses that do well in the market are often affiliated with some national franchise that offer advantages such as training, advertising, and some administrative support services among others. However, there are still many people who wish that they could start a business because the simply love to cook and would like to make a career out of it. It is often the case that people like this underestimate the difficulty in starting their own business and the failure rate for small businesses remains…… [Read More]
In order to understand the implications of reference pricing, the drivers of demand for colonoscopies has to be understood. Colonoscopies are used to detect cancers and precancerous polyps, and they are a recommended technique for this, being that the physician can examine the colon visually. Other techniques are not as effective. The reality is that polyps and even early stage colon cancer are often asymptomatic, but of course early detection has the best outcomes for patients. For this reason, the most effective early detection technique and for the ability to detect and remove precancerous polyps, the colonoscopy is recommended (ACA, 2015). Other techniques exist, but they are not perfect substitutes for a colonoscopy -- the fecal test is not as effective as a colonoscopy and is therefore not a substitute for one. That said, patients do not always make their decisions based on medical data, but economic analysis…… [Read More]
However, bowel movements were more frequent during the high-fiber than during the control diet." (Nutrition Research Newsletter, 2002)
The work of Ruixing, et al. (2007) entitled: "Comparison of Demography, Diet, Lifestyle, and Serum Lipid Levels between the Guangxi ai Ku Yao and Han Populations" states that dyslipidemia is a condition "...in which there is an abnormal lipid or lipoprotein concentration. It is well-known that dyslipidemia is determined by genetic, demographic, and lifestyle factors." (Ruixing, et al., 2007)
It is reported that "...High levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and apolipoprotein (apo) and low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are correlated with the progression of atherosclerosis and a higher incidence of coronary artery disease (CHD). To prevent the development of these diseases, a great deal of research has been focused on determining the relationship between these lipid phenotypes and dietary intake and…… [Read More]
3%) are very satisfied with their health care services, compared to only 41.5% of Canadians; a lower proportion of Americans are dissatisfied (6.8%) than Canadians (8.5%).
Atlas (2009) acknowledge that Americans have much better access to important new technologies like medical imaging than patients in Canada or the U.K. Maligned as a waste by economists and policymakers naive to actual medical practice, an overwhelming majority of leading American physicians identified computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MI) as the most important medical innovations for improving patient care during the previous decade (Fuchs & Sox, 2001). This is justifiable in the presented table showing the most important recent medical innovations, below. Hence, Atlas (2009) claim that the United States has nearly 27 MI machines per million compared to about 6 per million in Canada and Britain.
According to" The U.S. Health Care System as an Engine of Innovation," 2004 Economic…… [Read More]
Nutrigenomics is an important field of study. It finds in roots in modern times, because of the direct relation to advances in science and technology. Nutrigenomics also straddles the nature vs. nurture divide. The publication of the relatively preliminary results of the Human Genome has given greater impetus to the idea of Nutrigenomics. One might assuredly say that the publication of the Human Genome is preliminary because the current versions of the genome are merely representatives of a very select group of individuals. (Lander et al., 2001; Venter et al., 2001) What makes individuals unique of course is the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms or SNPs. It is these SNPs that give each of us our individuality. Hence each individual's genome is his or her genotype. A genotype is an individual's genome -- the genetic coding that identifies the character traits that govern existence. In the context of Nutrigenomics, a…… [Read More]
In modern society, public toilets has become a fixture wherever human activities take place; shopping malls, restaurants and filling stations all provide these places of convenience for travelers, diners and shoppers. However, when considering the nature and function of public toilets, many question their cleanliness and safety for public use. In addition, cultural and gender issues have also played a role in these debates. Women, for example, are obliged to make physical contact with public toilets, while this is not necessarily the case for men. In terms of cultural issues and sanitary concern, critics such as Isbit (2001) have suggested a toilet design whereby the human skin does not need to make any contact with the abode, but where both men and women squat to relieve themselves. To take these concerns into account, the history, background, and design of the public toilet should be considered in detail.
Historical…… [Read More]
Some studies posit that casein consumption has a direct correlation to cancer cell growth, and patients with any form of cancer are counseled not to drink milk, and to limit the consumption of milk products. This is contradicted in terms of using milk to help with certain stomach and colon cancers (Hakkak, 2001). Men who drink large amounts of milk and consume numerous dairy products are at a higher risk for Parkinson's disease, and high levels of calcium intake (6 or more glasses of milk per day), also increase the chance for prostate cancer (Chen, 2007; Giovannucci, et.al. 1998). Additionally, a number of links have been made to digestive disorders such Crohn;'s disease and Hirschprung's disease, which are serious conditions of the digestive system and the bowel ("How Bacteria in Cow's Milk…" 2007).
The idea that the human body requires milk in order to produce calcium and create a stronger…… [Read More]
This is achieved through the increase of metabolic rates and lean body mass while eliminating excess fat and burning calories. hile the required amount of physical activity differs based on the caloric intake and body type, sports can assist an individual to maintain a healthy weight. For people who want to maintain a huge amount of weight loss, high-intensity sports can be the best option while reasonably-intensive physical activity helps in realizing weight stability.
ell-being of Muscles and Bones:
As previously mentioned, bone and muscle injuries are some of the most common health-related risks in sports participation. However, as an individual grows older, there is need for maintenance of the well-being of muscles and bones for proper body functioning. hen an individual takes into consideration the necessary precaution measures, sports and physical activity becomes increasingly for muscles, bones, and joints health. Participation in sports provides people with the required elements…… [Read More]
Obesity is when a person has an unhealthy amount of body fat. It causes a person to be overweight in all aspects of the body. There is a lot of body fat due to being overweight. It is important for every human being to have some body fat. However too much fat can lead to a lot of health problems. There are a lot of factors which contribute to obesity. Experts believe that the high calorie diets of our time are to blame for majority of the cases. A lot of people eat food such as burgers, nuggets, ice cream, cake, chips, candy and other various types of snacks. These snacks are full of fats and calories. Eating fatty foods contributes to obesity. Obesity is also linked to the genetics of a body. It can occur if a person has obesity in the family.
Fast Food's link to Obesity
People…… [Read More]
2011, the state of California has been in a drought condition. ecently, the media has been abuzz due to the governor's legislation to curtail domestic water use. The effort to curtail water use is a noble one. However, the governor needs to focus more on the real culprit: agribusiness. Because the state is the nation's largest agriculture producer by far, the governor of California has not imposed any restrictions on agriculture. Yet something needs to be done to change the methods by which the United States supplies itself with food. Because meat is linked to serious health problems, ethical issues, and environmental problems, a new policy should curtail factory farming.
Agro-Business Causes Drought
The drought in California highlights some of the problems related to food production and processing. Agriculture uses more than 80% of the state's total water (Sherman, 2015). Even if the current drought situation can be managed without…… [Read More]
Arroyo Fresco Community Health Center Case Study
Organization Strategy for Arroyo Fresco Community Health Center
This paper analyzes the major strategic challenges that are confronted by Arroyo Fresco Community Health Center. In addition to that, this paper also develops a new strategy for the organization and puts light on the action plans that would be followed for the attainment of the new strategic goals.
Arroyo Fresco Community Health Center Case Study
Arroyo Fresco community health center is a community healthcare center. The organization operates in western Arizona, where it has 11 clinics and 4 mobile service vans. In the year 2005, the organization generated total revenues of around 29.7 million dollars. The organization has a total of 254,137 visits. Out of these 254,137 visits 192,403 were medical visits, whereas, the remaining 61,734 were dental visits. (Staff Members of…… [Read More]
Tumor Invasion and Metastasis
This is a paper that concentrates on tumor invasion and metastasis. There are five references used for this paper.
Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases faced by mankind today. It is important to look at tumor invasion and metastasis to understand how cancer can spread and ways in which the progress of cancer can be arrested.
A substantial problem in the treatment of carcinoma patients is tumor invasion and metastasis. Approximately "30% of patients with newly diagnosed solid tumors already have clinically detectable metastases (herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514254023/html/x446.html)." The production of "extracellular matrix degrading enzymes, such as serine proteinases, metalloproteinases, cysteine proteinases, threonine proteinases, and aspartic proteinases (herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514254023/html/x446.html)" is linked with tumor invasion.
The transition from "in situ tumor growth to mestastic disease is defined by the ability of tumor cells at the primary site to invade local tissue and to cross tissue barriers…… [Read More]
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…… [Read More]
The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."
The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…… [Read More]
Like most Web sites offering basic consumer information about dietary fiber, the Medline Plus article points out that fiber is actually indigestible. Because fiber cannot be digested, it creates a sense of fullness that may help people lose weight. Moreover, the added dietary bulk or roughage is also good for colon health, overall digestion, and for the relief of constipation. Gas, bloating, and cramps are some of the possible side effects from a too-rapid increase in fiber intake. Therefore, introducing fiber into a diet should be done gradually. The Medline Plus article lists the types of foods that contain high amounts of fiber so that patients learn how to shop better for their dietary needs.
With links to reliable sources like the American Academy of Family Physicians, the Medline Plus article is a valuable resource for patients. Furthermore, the Web site includes Spanish content links. Links to the Department of…… [Read More]
LEADING CAUSES OF MOBIDITY:
Some of the diseases which often result in early death in African-Americans, provided that the go untreated or undiagnosed, include hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, dementia (i.e., Alzheimer's disease), diabetes and certain types of cancer, most notably lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer (in men). Exactly why the morbidity rates for these disease are so much higher in African-Americans than in other ethnic/racial groups include a lack of education, lower incomes and the inability to access professional health care providers and clinics ("Health and Health Care," 2009, Internet). At the top of the list, there is hypertension, coronary heart disease (especially arterial blockage), stroke and some major types of cancer. With hypertension, some studies have shown that if a black male lives in poverty, his chances of being stricken with high blood pressure increases, perhaps because of the stress which goes…… [Read More]
hormones in our agricultural food and the adverse effects it has on the animals and the human consumers. The writer provides an outline of the effect the hormones have both physically and politically on the consumer and the nation's that support the use of hormones. The writer also presents evidence of the health problems hormones are thought to cause as well. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
As the world becomes more crowded the demand for fast growing resources including food increase. The use of growth hormone in cattle has sparked a worldwide controversy as several nation's wrestle with trade organizations mandates against what they believe the hormone treated cows can cause by way of health problems.
The most common hormone used today in the cow industry is Bovine Growth Hormone, which is also referred to as BGH. This hormone is a genetically engineered hormone. It is…… [Read More]
Perception of Pain
Uses of Pain in nursing
Definitions of Pain from Dictionaries
Uses of Pain in psychology
Antecedents and Consequences
CONCEPT ANALYSIS OF PECEPTION OF PAIN
The aim of this paper is to increase the understanding of the perception of pain. The researcher purpose to clarify describe the characteristics of pain and recognize antecedents that effect the idea of pain and the likely outcomes of pain by utilizing Avant's and Walker (2005) theory of study. Also, a model case shows how pain is connected to these serious characteristics contrary case and a borderline case are shown to distinguish the perception of pain from other notions. Empirical referents show the current point-of-view of the perception of pain. (Akyol & Salmond, 2009)
Concept Analysis of Characteristics of Pain
The goal of this paper is to expand the understanding of the concept of…… [Read More]
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Menopause and Its Consequences
Menopause is that inevitable and irreversible time when a woman's reproductive cycle and menstruation periods gradually end, as her ovaries cease to respond to male gonadotropins and her capacity to become pregnant stops (Mayeux, Jr. 1997). This spontaneously occurs between 45 and 55 in American women, with 51 as the median age.
A woman's ovaries at the menopause are nearly empty of primary follicles - which, in child-bearing age, are abundant, mature and can be fertilized by the male sperm cell, resulting in conception and pregnancy. At menopause, the ovaries' production of the hormone called estrogen becomes very minimal, and this altered condition of a lack of estrogen produces many unpleasant symptoms in approximately 70% of all postmenopausal women (Mayeux, Jr.). These symptoms include hot flushes and extreme warmth, profuse sweating, tremor, irritability, and depression. Physically, the female reproductive organs shrink and lose…… [Read More]
Computed tomography, more commonly know as a CT or CT scan, is an X-ray technique that is used to produce very detailed images of internal organs located in various parts of the body, such as the head, chest, and abdomen. Doctors use the images produced through this procedure to help diagnose and treat diseases. Other terms for the technique are also called computerized tomography or computerized axial tomography (CAT). While conventional X-ray exams produce two-dimensional images, CT scans uses an X-ray-sensing unit that rotates around your body and a large computer to create cross-sectional images of the inside of your body. This paper will address vital educational information including a brief history, uses for computed tomography, and the effects that it may have on the patient.
British engineer, Godfrey Hounsfield of EMI Laboratories, England and Allan Cormack of Tufts University in Massachusetts invented computed tomography. Their…… [Read More]
Soon thereafter, she started working with CNN channel in handling their Washington bureau. For the forthcoming seven years, Couric was engaged with CNN bureaus across the nation as a producer and also as an on-air reporter. She returned to Washington in 1987 taking up job as a reporter at an NBC affiliate station. She rose from her ranks to hold the number two position as a reporter at the Pentagon for the Washington bureau of the NBC news. ("Katie Couric Biography," n. d.)
For the next three years she was in charge of covering the U.S. invasion of the Panama as also Persian Gulf War in her Pentagon position as also as a new post at the NBC's morning newspaper, Today. In the early part of 1991, she discharged her role as a co-anchor of Today. Her immense popularity with the viewers was because of her pleasant and charming demeanor…… [Read More]
Conditions Associated ith a Lack of Exercise/Physical Activity
Health is one of the most important things in people's lives, but individuals often fail to focus on this aspect because they concentrate on diverse tasks that they wrongly consider to be more important. As a consequence, many end up suffering greatly as a result of their irresponsible behavior. In addition to causing significant health problems in people's lives, sedentary living is also responsible for costing society billions of dollars every year. The fact that the masses often trick themselves into thinking that they are eventually going to start exercising is extremely worrying and leads to numerous health problems.
Figures associated with sedentary living are alarming, but this is still not enough to influence some people in changing their attitudes concerning the concept. On a yearly basis, "approximately 250,000 people die prematurely because they are inactive" (Corbin & Lindsay 43). Even with…… [Read More]
standing and intense debate as to whether human personality is determined or influenced biologically or psychologically. Those in the pro-biological (or pro-nature) side contend that a person's genes have a stronger or final say about a person's acts and destiny, while those in the psychological (or pro-nurture) side say it is the way the person is/was raised as a child and his peer interaction that determine the personality system that will evolve. Does the human personality derive from nature or from nurture? Is his learning achievement, social or moral formation, habits and viewpoints ingrained in his genes or established by the way he is brought up?
The pro-nature side holds that learning or knowledge acquisition, in particular, is in itself a kind of genetic information that is pre-determined by natural selection (Csongradi 2004). Some of the knowledge a person gains may come from interactions or functionally, but what is genetically…… [Read More]
Population of the City of Atlantis on March 30, 2003 = 183,000
of new active cases of TB occurring between January 1 and June 30, 2003 = 52
of active TB cases according to the city register on June 30, 2003 = 238
The incidence rate of active cases of TB for the 6-month period was: [ONE POINT]
per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population
130 per 100,000 population
183,000 is 183% of 100,000, so the rate per 100,000 would be 52 divided by 1.84...or 28.
The prevalence of active TB as of June 30, 2003, was: [ONE POINT]
14 per 100,000 population
130 per 100,000 population
144 per 100,000 population
264 per 100,000 population
e. none of the above
B -- using the same math as above...except it's 238 / 1.84 -- 129.3
3. Which of the following is an advantage of active surveillance?…… [Read More]
The effects of obesity are numerous and include both physical and psychological factors. The physical effects of obesity include heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol levels, hypertension, respiratory issues, and sleep apnea (Health Consequences). Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the United Sates. In many cases heart disease is preventable or controllable through weight loss and healthy living. Another major effect of obesity is diabetes. Diabetes is a very detrimental disease because it can affect every organ in the body and it is a major cause of blindness in the United States. In addition, many people with diabetes experience kidney failure and even the amputation of limbs as a result of nerve damage and poor circulation (Health Consequences).
Respiratory problems and sleep apnea are also high amongst people who suffer from obesity. Respiratory problems may lead to dependence on oxygen machines. Sleep apnea is particularly…… [Read More]
He is still deeply in love with his wife, as though he just met her . He expresses his love on a daily bases with his wife, with hugs, kisses, and showers her with lavish gifts . They cuddle in the evenings in the family room for an evening of relaxation watching television or reading . Although the sexual physical part of their life as slowed down, they still do have a very high sexual relationship which is shown in different ways or expressions .
Fears / Concerns
Mr. P expressed his biggest concern related to aging is being without his wife one day . He also expressed that he doesn't want to die the same way this mother did with Alzheimer's disease, as it was a horrible experience for anyone to live with and watch a loved die . This has played on his mind as he has aged,…… [Read More]
The evidences presented in this regard explain how different studies and research support that obesity can have profound deteriorating psychological effects as well as health effects on children. The changing eating lifestyles leading to increased consumption of fast foods and sodas have contributed greatly in doing so however; children and parents cannot control obesity if it is genetically engineered. Genetics play a role in the bodily structure. If children are obese due to their genetic constitution, reduced consumption of food cannot help however, physical activities such as exercises have greatly shown results in maintaining their weight. Preventive measures can be taken on a broad level to reduce the spread of obesity among children. In this regard, schools can be helpful to plan a balanced diet for children. At lunch, sodas must be banned and replaced with fruit juices or clean water so that children get accustomed to drinking healthy beverages.…… [Read More]
21). Non-training and development-related actions should be required (Schraeder & Jordan, 2011, p. 6) and should include MMPI testing specifically for XX and generally for all RNs. Employee-development actions will include employee seminars and workshops around developing greater awareness, compassion and acceptance of personal accountability. Based on XX's very low score, I anticipate XX's only slight improvement due to imposed consequences for failing to learn proper policy and procedure; however, those gains will be only slight and probably insufficient (Schraeder & Jordan, 2011, p. 9). Given the hospital's very low score and static categorization, its ability to implement the development action plan will probably be signficantly hampered by the hospital's static approach to health care (Silverman, Pogson, & Cober, 2005, pp. 143-4). The collective effect of XX's well-deserved "unaware" categorization and the hospital's "static" categorization will probably result in small, inadequate changes on XX's part over a long period of…… [Read More]
Hurricanes are frequent in certain parts of the United States like Florida. The most prevalent toxin that can wreak havoc after a hurricane is asbestos. "Asbestos is a naturally-occurring mineral that was used extensively up until its dangers became truly evident in the last quarter century. It was used in nearly all aspects of home and building construction because of its fire-retardant and insulation qualities" ("Asbestos emoval after a Hurricane -- Safe handling of asbestos," 2016). While Asbestos does not present an immediate danger when left undisturbed, after a hurricane, potential flooding could release the particles into the air through structural damage of buildings, floors, and pipes lined with asbestos. When released into the air, the particles become 'friable' and can affect humans in a deadly way through diseases of the lung like mesothelioma.
The exposure limit is 0.1 fiber/cm3TWA 1.0 fiber/cm3 Excursion Limit (30 minutes). The target organs are…… [Read More]
IMPROVING PATIENT SAFETY ITH EVIDENCE-BASED RESEARCH
My workplace is currently experiencing the need for improvement is in the area of enforcing and communicating hospital policies/procedures regarding care of patients requiring special attention. This is illustrated by a recent incident of an elderly cancer patient admitted for unexplained dizziness but then falling and sustaining injuries when left unattended in the hospital. Fortunately, we have a nursing supervisor who is the epitome of a transformational nursing leader. She immediately commenced best practices, exhibited Gardner's leadership tasks and is transforming the unfortunate incident into a valuable learning opportunity.
The most pressing patient safety issues in work setting that need improvement
hile a number of areas would benefit from improvement, a recent incident leaps to mind and underscores the need for better communication and enforcement of hospital policies/procedures. An 87-year-old female diagnosed with Stage 4 colon cancer and admitted to the hospital…… [Read More]
On his weight training days, I would encourage Jack to "shake up" his typical walk by instead doing two or three sessions weekly on a recumbent bicycle. Given Jack's weight and age, a recumbent bike would minimize stress on his joints while adding variety to his aerobic routine. Finally, in older adults in particular, flexibility is key. I would focus on stretches that do not require bending over (to prevent falling), but would spend at least five to ten minutes per session working on stretches that Jack could also perform at home while seated. During each session, I would frequently ask how Jack was feeling to make sure he was not pushing too far past his limits. ith older adults, checking how hard they feel they are working on a scale of one to ten (perceived exertion) helps to prevent injury or worse.
Jack's nutritional strategy would be key to…… [Read More]
This is significant, because it shows how the funding and research provided by HHMI is establishing, scientific breakthroughs that are having a profound impact on the lives of millions of people. Evidence of this can seen with the fact that institute is funding 330 investigators in the United States alone (to include seven Nobel Prize winners). At the same time, they are funding research projects in a number of countries around the world such as: the former Soviet Union and South Africa just to name a few. This is important, because it shows how the fortune of Howard Hughes is being used, to benefit millions of people (who are seeking cures for a variety of diseases). (Leung, 2004)
Discuss some of the benefits and pitfalls of planning?
The benefits of planning are: you can be able to identify changes coming early and it helps you to have more flexibility. These…… [Read More]