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But by the year of the revolution, the "various forces of discord between Britain and American had combined, and," Adams continues on page 84, the result of those forces of discord "…did not take the direction which would have found a place for the thirteen colonies within the British Empire Commonwealth" (Adams, 84). The Trade acts and Navigation acts were "extremely galling," Adams comments on page 85, and King George III was "an obstinate man." Not all authors believe the division between the colonies and England was irreconcilable. Edwin J. Perkins writes that "…the degree of economic regulation and the level of imperial taxation were not significant causes of the ar for Independence" (alton, 1981). He is of course entitled to his own scholarship, but the vast majority of the literature leads to the opposite viewpoint.
Question FOUR: Did your understanding of colonial families and the communities they created become…
Adams, Randolph Greenfield. (1922). Political ideas of the American Revolution: Britannic-
American contributions to the problem of imperial organization, 1765 to 1775. Hartford, CT:
Henry, Patrick. (2008). Common Sense. Digitized by Amazon.com / Google.
History.com. (2006). Colonial American Economy. Retrieved June 29, 2012, from http://www.history.com/topics/print/colonial-economy.
His narrative takes place during a period where religious dogmatism eventually changed towards tolerance. Through his direct actions, religious toleration expanded within new England as colonials recognized the need to create greater religious acceptance beyond Puritanism. In his essays, Roger Williams expresses his disgust at the inability of the colonies to deal with religious toleration. He is especially frustrated that Puritans, who were persecuted for their religious piety in England would do the same to condemn other religions in New England. He writes, "It is the will and command of God, that a permission of the most Paganish, Jewish, Turkish, or Antichrisitan consciences and worships, be granted to all men, in all nations" (Williams, npg). Williams identified the key contradiction within Puritan logic, the need to be strictly sectarian in the new world. When in fact, the concept of Colonialism depended on the granting of freedoms which could not be…
Strandness, T.B. Samuel Sewall: A Puritan Portrait. Michigan State UP, 1967.
Elliott, Emory. ed. American Colonial Writers 1606-1734. Detroit: Gale, 1984.
QUAKER JOURNALS, (Varieties of religious experience among Friends), Howard H. Brinton, Pendle Hill Publications, 1972.
Freedom of speech has been compromised, CCAPA contends; librarians and others who keep public records may be prosecuted if they "tell anyone the government subpoenaed information related to a terror investigation." The right to legal representation has now been watered down as the Patriot Act allows government to monitor conversations between attorneys and clients in federal prisons "and deny lawyers to Americans accused of crimes." The constitutionally guaranteed freedom from unreasonable searches (Fourth Amendment) is no longer enforced, according to CCAPA's research, as under the Patriot Act the warrant-less search and seizure of any person records (including phone calls and bank records) may be conducted at the whim of the executive branch. Right to a speed trial: Americans may now be jailed "indefinitely without a trial," according to CCAPA. And further, the presumed right to liberty is also compromised as Americans can be (and have been) jailed "without being…
Associated Press, Knight-Ridder Newspapers 2003, 'The Patriot Act in a Nutshell',
Concerned Citizens Against the Patriot Act, Retrieved March 30, 2009, from http://www.scn.org/ccapa/pa-meta.html .
Langly, Jennifer Tennile, Munger, Michael, Litteral, Kenneth, & Camper, Stephen.
(2001). The University of North Carolina at Pembroke. Retrieved March 30, 2009
3. Most early colleges were always on the "edge of extinction." Why? There are several reasons why the early colleges hovered on the age of extinction. One of the more plausible is the fact that they college life did not appeal to many of the working class, which made up most of the Unite States. Numerous of these saw no practical reason for the college or university. In addition, institutions of higher learning were at the mercy of financial and natural disasters.
4. Did the American people not value education enough to support their emerging colleges? While the American people did value the college and university experience, Americans quickly created for themselves an identity that was different from the English identity. This different identity required a different kind of university. This is what prompted University of Nashville President Philip Lindsley to say, "our busy, restless, speculating, money-making people' required colleges…
Colonial life was like in two different areas. The writer compares and contrasts the way of life experienced during colonial times in the Chesapeake area and the new England area during Colonial America. The writer used ten sources to complete this paper.
Each year as Thanksgiving approaches students throughout the nation dress in traditional colonial garb and put on skits and meals to portray colonial life in America. While this has become a tradition for American students it has also become a blended generic portrayal of colonial life with little attention paid to area differences and similarities. Colonial times shared many similar facets as the nation of America began to build its foundation, but within that era there were also region and culture specific differences that set populations apart from each other. The new England Colonial life and the Chesapeake area colonial life can be held side by side to…
Life in Colonial America
In New England
Why were the Northern colonies settled?
Much of the conventional wisdom around slavery rightly centers around the issue of racism. To many Europeans, the darker skin and different culture of the African peoples indicates the latter's inferiority and lesser level of development. Many Europeans justified colonization based on the idea of bringing civilization to the savage heathens. Others believed that the inferiority of the African races also meant that slavery was a natural social order.
A closer look at the history of colonialism and slavery, however, indicates forces at work other than racism. There were four distinct colonial periods in from the 16th to the late 20th century, and the actions of colonial powers such as Portugal and Spain were not always explained simply by skin color.
This paper reflects on the other forces that underlay the European colonization efforts.
It looks at the role played by patriarchy and religion in the colonial experience.…
Sub-Saharan Africa: Colonial History." Sub-Saharan Africa:. 11 September 2002. PBS Online. 28 October 2003 http://www.harpercollege.edu/mhealy/g101ilec/ssa/afh/afcol/afcolfr.htm .
The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America Narrative. 1999. PBS Online. 28 October 2003 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/narrative.html .
American History: Rights and Freedoms of Women in the 1600's
In the early 1600's the ritish King made grants of charters were granted for settlements that were to become established colonies in the New World or America. y the 1700's 13 colonies had been established namely Massachusetts, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Rhode Island. The Constitution was not yet and Freedom not yet won and the rights of women varied from area to area.
This paper intends to explore what rights women possessed in the different areas of settlement in the early America as well as the difference of women's rights in other race and cultural groups in that time period. Further to understand what freedom was held by "Free Colonial Women" as well as what motivated the white and black women of that time to either declare…
Reader's Companion: Encyclopedia of North-American Indians (nd) located [Online] available at: http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/index/html/topic/colo.htm
"Colonial History of Maryland" (nd) excerpt from: Our Country Vol.1 1800's [Online] available at:
Colonial and Post Colonial Short Stories
In the 19th and 20th centuries, much of the world was divided and compartmentalized. Empire nations colonized lands all over the world creating cultures which were based upon differentiation and racial inequality. In a colonized nation, the population would be comprised of the colonizers who were the ethnic and racial power and the colonized that would be considered ethnically inferior. In the short stories "Going to Exile" by author Liam O'Flaherty and "The Day They Burnt the Books" by Jean Rhys, the authors relate brief narratives which reflect the racial prejudices and conflicts that were bubbling beneath, and often times above, the surface of colonized countries.
In colonial literature, one of the dilemmas that come up most often is the question of identity. People who are colonized are forced to create for themselves a dual identity. At one they have their innate cultures, but…
O'Flaherty, Liam. "Going into Exile." Ed. Baldwin, Dean R., and Patrick J. Quinn. An Anthology
of Colonial and Postcolonial Short Fiction. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2007. 283-291.
Rhys, Jean. "The Day They Burnt the Books." Ed. Baldwin, Dean R., and Patrick J. Quinn. An Anthology of Colonial and Postcolonial Short Fiction. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2007. 452-457. Print.
Among the first major nations to have their people leaving for America were the Irish and the Germans. Life in Europe during the seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries had been difficult, with the lower classes living in extreme poverty. As a result, people saw the opportunity of establishing themselves in a place where they would escape their problems. People coming to America from countries other than England generally received harsh treatments because the English felt that North America mostly belonged to them.
hile white people coming to America did so in search of freedom and riches, black people had a totally different fate in store for them. Black people were brought into America as slaves and could have no dreams since they knew that freedom was an inaccessible concept.
The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries have been a period in which women were still regarded as not being qualified to fulfil…
1. Berlin, Ira, "Many thousands gone," Harvard University Press, 2000.
2. Middleton, Richard, "Colonial America," Wiley-Blackwell, 2002.
3. "Puritanism in America," Retrieved April 19, 2009, from Wake Forest University Web site: http://www.wfu.edu/~matthetl/perspectives/three.html
"Puritanism in America," Retrieved April 19, 2009, from Wake Forest University Web site:
The lasting impact of colonial settlement
The colonialism is taken to be a political and economic experience which paved the way for the European to explore, conquer, settle and exploit large areas of the world. The era of modern colonialism started during 1400 A.D with the European discovery of sea route around Africa's southern coast during 1488 and that of America during 1492. They made provisions to transfer the sea power from that of the Mediterranean towards the Atlantic and to the emerging new nation-states at that time which were Portugal, Spain, Dutch epublic, France and that of England. The initiation for discovery, the desire to conquer and settlement led these nations to expand their territories and to colonize over the world, extending the European institutions and culture to other parts of the world. The competition continued among the European nations for colonization across the world. Such colonies…
Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763. Retrieved from http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/colonial/colonial.html
Accessed 21 September, 2005
Exploration. Retrieved from http://regentsprep.org/Regents/global/themes/movement/exp.cfm
Accessed 21 September, 2005
People can feel more comfortable if their sense of safety results from a strong national security. Political leadership in cohesive-capitalist countries typically has a firm grip on the labor force, albeit sometimes the leadership becomes "repressive and authoritarian" and leaders are known to use nationalism (extreme patriotism) as a driver to keep people believing in the state.
A states that Kohli identifies as having pursued a cohesive-capitalist approach to economy and governing is South Korea under Park Chung Hee. Another country that has historically exhibited a cohesive-capitalist approach is Brazil. Both of those countries have experienced some success, Kohli goes on.
The fragmented-multiclass states have policies that lie somewhere between the two extremes previously mentioned. The leaders in fragmented-multiclass states are held accountable for more dynamics in their societies than others in the previous two state descriptions. For example, on page 215 Kohli states that India and Brazil during several…
Chu, Yun-han. "State Structure and Economic Adjustment of the East Asian Newly
Industrializing Countries." International Organization 43.4 (1989): 647-672.
Kohli, Atul. "States and Economic Development." Brazilian Journal of Political
Economy 29.2 (2009): 212-227.
William Penn, a Quaker whose father had been an Admiral in the King's oyal Navy, was given a large piece of land as payment for a debt owed by the Crown to his father. Penn had suggested naming the new territory Sylvania, meaning wood, but the King added his surname, Penn, as a tribute to William's father (Uden). Penn considered his venture a "Holy Experiment" and sought to establish a society based on religious freedom and separation between religious and governmental authorities,
Under Penn's governorship, Pennsylvania became a safe haven for all persecuted religious groups like the Quakers. He instituted a ballot system that intended to allow all members of Pennsylvania to have an equal say in their own governance. Some of the provisions of equality and religious tolerance in the charter that he drafted for Pennsylvania would eventually be incorporated into other charters, including the U.S.
Constitution (Uden). Perhaps…
Bower, J. (1997) the Oxford Dictionary of World Religions
Fenton, E. (1969) a New History of the United States. Holt: New York.
Furlong, P., Margaret, S., Sharkey, D. (1966) America Yesterday: A New Nation (Revised). Sadlier: New York.
Nevins, a., Commager, H.S. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States 9th Ed.
hile Indian women and those of mixed races were certainly lower class citizens, they could easily become elite through their marriage to a white male of Spanish decent (Mabry 1990). Marriage was often seen to transcend any race or class issue, and thus prompted many women to act in non-virtuous ways in order to secure a future (Johnson 1998).
This difference in virtuous intent also relates to the very real danger for women in Bahia who committed acts considered to be sexually outlandish or improper, whether married or single. For married women, the punishment for adultery could include death until 1830. Prior to that time, men who killed their adulterous wives were often acquitted, since they were defending their honor in the eyes of the social system of the time (Caulfield 2000). Further, even single women found to be concubines could be killed by their families, to prevent a loss…
Arrom, Silvia Marina. 1985. The Women of Mexico City, 1790-1857. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
Burns, Kathryn. 1999. Colonial Habits: Convents and the Spiritual Economy of Cuzco, Peru. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Caulfield, Sueann. 2000. In Defense of Honor: Sexual Morality, Modernity, and Nation in Early-Twentieth-Century Brazil. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Fisher, John. 2003. Bourbon Peru, 1750-1824. Liverpool, England: Liverpool University Press.
Admittedly, these two teams were faced with a daunting challenge in acquiring and interpreting those works of art that were most appropriate for their exhibition goals, and interpretive efforts must use some framework in which to present the resources in a fashion that can be understood and appreciated by the targeted audiences.
Nevertheless, there is little or no discussion concerning the fusion of artistic styles in the two catalogs, with a preference for a neat and orderly, date by date, presentation of representative works that typify the points being made by the exhibition. Despite these shortcomings, both catalogs were shown to be authoritative references that were supported by relevant citations and imagery. Likewise, both catalogs provide useful overviews of the materials that are being presented preparatory to their interpretation, helping place the information in its historical context.
The research showed that interest and appreciation in colonial Latin American art…
Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Introduction in Art of Colonial Latin America. New York: Phaidon
Paz, Octavio. Metropolitan Museum of Art: Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries. Los Angeles: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Pierce, Donna, Gomar, Rogelio R. And Bargellini, Clara. Painting a New World: Mexican Art
The Great Awakening brought people together (though it did also divide them), but its influence on what the United States would later become is great. First of all, it forced people to have their own religious experience and it decreased the heavy hands of the clergy; new denominations also would come to be because of the Great Awakening as a direct result of the importance that was put on personal faith and views on salvation. The Great Awakening also brought the American colonies together and though there was also some division, there was more unification than ever before in the colonies.
The Great Awakening is so significant in the shaping of American and what it would later become because it gave individuals the freedom to find their own peace with life and God as it pertained to their earthly life -- and also to their later salvation. The United States…
Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1565 -- 1776. Wiley-Blackwell; 3rd
Geiter, Mary K., & Speck, W.A. Colonial America: From Jamestown to Yorktown.
Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
Post Colonial India and South Asian Identity
"Pakistan is often perceived as merely one of those far-away places that serve as breeding grounds for extremism and violence," yet this is not a clear image of the truth (Perner 23). Pakistan is in the midst of an internal conflict, with those who want to embrace globalism and those fighting to get rid of it for a misguided view of life before international influence. In many ways, Hamid's novel Moth Smoke is much different than other post-colonial literature in the idea that the west is not entirely responsible for the divides in cultural identity in regional politics. Rather, the west simply brought with it new tools to help distinguish those with access to the elite social circles and those without. Still, Hamid does show some positive benefits from a globalized identity in the image of a much stronger female role within an…
Hamid, Mohsin. Moth Smoke. Penguin. 2012.
Jay, Paul. "The Post-Post Colonial Condition: Globalization and Historical Allegory in Mohsin Hamid's Moth Smoke."
Perner, Claudia. "Tracing the Fundamentalist in Mohsin Hamid's Moth Smoke and the Reluctant Fundamentalist." Ariel: A Review of International English Literature, 42(3-4), 23-31.
Yaqin, Amina. "Mohsin Hamid in Conversation." Wasafiri. 2008.
Colleges in the colonial period were significantly different from colleges in the modern learning environment. Most of these schools were focused on preparation of ministers and were largely extent seminaries given that they were founded by several church groups. During the early 1700s, colonial colleges were primarily meant to be schools of higher culture for laymen ministers. The colonial colleges were founded through cooperation between the state or government and the church. Actually, 70% of colonial colleges prepared students for ministry before embracing new things into the curriculum such as Greek and Latin lessons.
equirements to Gain Admission into College of hode Island
The College of hode Island was founded in 1764 through cooperation between the state and the church with the goal of increasing Baptist ministers. In light of its goal to increase Baptist ministers and strong link to the church, the college ensures that sectarian differences…
"Colonial Colleges, 1636-1789." (n.d.). Geeky Artist Librarian. Retrieved January 29, 2015,
Wright, B. (1988). "For the Children of the Infidels"?: American Indian Education in the Colonial Colleges. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 12(3), 72-79.
Women, lacks and Indigenous People in Colonial Latin America
Colonial Latin America was a diverse country, though it largely consisted of women, blacks and indigenous peoples. The manner of life for these groups was not always the same, as class could be divided between slaves and owners; and even in the work, there was diversity according to region. For example, in various urban areas, women "administered bakeries and worked in wax and tobacco factories."[footnoteRef:1] Thus, women's work depended upon social and ethnic orientation, with "some being considered more appropriate for the urban non-affluent white woman, and others most commonly carried out by Indians, castas or blacks."[footnoteRef:2] This paper will discuss the ways in which these particular groups worked and lived in Colonial Latin America. [1: Asuncion Lavrin, "Women in Spanish American Colonial Society," in The Cambridge History of Latin America, edited by Leslie ethell (UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 330.]…
Burkholder, Mark; Johnson, Lyman. "Population and Labor" in Colonial Latin America.
UK: Oxford University Press, 2008
Hemming, John. Red Gold. MA: Harvard University Press, 1978.
Lavrin, Asuncion. "Women in Spanish American Colonial Society," in The Cambridge
Massachusetts and Virginia
The Colonial period saw the English established a number of colonies in America. These colonies were not only divided by geography, but also by such things as religion, economics, and other factors. Far to the north, in an area called "New England," lay the colony of Massachusetts, a religious-based society founded by members of a strict religious sect as a refuge from persecution. In the south lay Virginia, settled by a company, for economic purposes, and where religion did not dominate every aspect of society. These two English colonies were both English and Protestant., but could not be more different.
During the early 17th century there was "bitter persecution in England of those whose religious views differed from the Church of England." ("Massachusetts Colony") Among these were the Puritans, who wanted to purify the Church of England from harmful doctrines that were too similar to Roman Catholicism.…
"Massachusetts Colony." Colonial Ancestors- Colonial Genealogy Records and History. Web. 16 June 2011. http://colonialancestors.com/ma/colony.htm
"Puritan Life." Ushistory.org. Web 16 June 2011. http://www.ushistory.org/us/3d.asp http://www.usahistory.info/southern/Virginia.html
"Virginia" History of the U.S.A.: Converted from Henry William Elson's History of the United States. 1904. Web 15 June 2011.
British Imperialism Be Explained?
In the colonial period, Africa became the land of opportunity for Europeans who exploited the people and resources for profit. When Europeans went to Africa, home of black skinned people, they looked at the land as available to use as they wished. They never considered that this land belonged to its original inhabitants. Neither did they consider themselves thieves. They did not bother to think of black natives as human beings, but rather sought every way possible to use them to make money. Rather than openly admit their mercenary motives, whites assumed an attitude of superiority and declared that they were acting out of generosity to bring civilization and Christianity to primitive peoples. The thesis of this essay is that the colonial period in Africa was characterized by the arrogance of whites and atrocities committed against blacks. The focus will be on the British Empire and…
Jonathan Edwards' "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" and Benjamin Franklin's "Advice to a Young Tradesman."
The writings of Jonathan Edwards and Benjamin Franklin represent two opposite extremes of Colonial thought. Edwards' "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" is an example of the "Hellfire" religious revivalism that exercised such strong appeal during the period. Thousands turned out to be converted and save at great mass meetings. These people place their absolute trust in God, believing that He alone could save them from the eternal torments of Hell. Only through trust in Him, could any of their endeavors be truly blessed. According to such beliefs, men and women were not masters of their own fate -- all lay in the Hands of God. In contrast, to the extent that Franklin's piece, "Advice to a Young Tradesman" does touch on religion at all, it is a very different…
olonial Merchants and the American Revolution: 1763 to1776 by Arthur M. Schlesinger. (New York: Facsimile Library, Inc., 1939), 647, (381.0973).
This book covers a part of history that is often forgotten - the economic history of the U.S. As it headed into the Revolutionary War. While most people know part of the reason Americans wanted to break from England was outrageous tariffs on imports and exports, the merchants who dealt in these commodities are often forgotten or overlooked. In addition, there were trade sanctions that stated American goods could only be shipped out of England, and this reduced the effectiveness of commerce. This book delves into the reasons the olonials were angry about the British tariffs and duties, and what they did to overcome fiscal obstacles. ommerce was king in the colonies before the Revolution, and the merchants were not above smuggling to get around the strict British system. The…
Critically, this book is quite comprehensive in its' scope and value. The author presents his evidence clearly and forcefully, while constructing a vivid picture of the people of America and their worries before the Revolutionary War. He captures a country on the brink of independence, and illustrates the forces active within, and how they shaped the will of most of the people, (but certainly not all). The style of writing is a bit dated, but so is the copyright, and it fits the subject of the book quite well. The book is worthwhile, but the reader might wonder what new information has been unearthed since this book was written that might shed additional light on the subject. The author originally wrote the book in 1917, and it seems there must be new data and research uncovered since then that might add to the scope and presence of the book. The strongest point of this book is the research done by the author, and his clear understanding of the subject and his purpose in writing. The weakest point of the book may be its' age, updating might make this book even stronger.
Schlesinger, Arthur M. Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution 1763 to 1776. New York: Facsimile Library, Inc., 1939.
Approaching the complexities of the colonial or post-colonial situation has been a major theme in drama for as long as colonialism has existed: Shakespeare wrote his Tempest on the heels of the very first English efforts to establish overseas colonies in the Americas and in Ireland. If we expand our definition of the colonial situation to comprise any ideologically-tinged cross-cultural encounter, we can even trace the roots of the theme all the way back to the earliest extant "estern" drama, the Persae of Aeschylus. To a certain extent, these well-established canonical examples may only represent a desire to place "otherness" onstage for the sake of spectacle -- the elements of masque and pageantry in each of those examples are most likely what spoke to their initial audiences, rather than any kind of analytical or critical stance regarding the colonial situation itself. But contemporary writers cannot approach the issue…
MacLeod, Joan. Amigo's Blue Guitar. Winnipeg: Blizzard, 1992.
Wertenbaker, Timberlake. Our Country's Good. London: Methuen, 1991.
1800-1914 is characterized by the rapid development of capitalist and market relations in both hemispheres of the globe. In the 19th century most of the European states already had a developed system of colonialism in Africa and Asia that was essential for the development of industry, as the colonies became the customers of the metropolitan products produced on the base of raw materials brought from colonies. The struggle for the suppliers of the raw materials was essential during that epoch, because the existence of suppliers would guarantee the prosperity of industrial production and goods exchange.
The development of production and market relations are integral components of each other and with the growing wealth of business, their interests began to penetrate into politics as well, because they have to get the support and ensure their stability and prosperity from the side of government. This was relatively new for the 19th century…
The limitation of slave movement, was an action in response to the growing threat related to fugitive slaves (Selected records relating to slavery in early Virginia, n.d.). The conditions at the time and the harsh regulations concerning black slaves made them go in search for a different life, especially in Northern states (Petition to Governor, Council, and House of epresentatives of Massachusetts, 1773). Therefore, the Southerners were reluctant to offer any liberty that would somehow enable black people to gather and possibly plan insurrections or escape attempts. In addition, the tensions between the slaver states and the free ones were constantly growing because Free states were accusing slave ones of trying to use the slave population to increase its influence in the federal legislative body. In this sense, Northern states were somewhat ready to assist runaway slaves from South states.
Yet another reason, which influenced the way in which slaves…
Africans in America. (n.d.) "From Indentured Servitude to Racial Slavery." The Terrible Transformation. Available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1narr3.html
Galenson, David W. (1984). "The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis." The Journal of Economic History, Vol. 44, No. 1. pp. 1-26.
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Selected records relating to slavery in early Virginia. N.d. Available at http://www.fiu.edu/~woodk/vadocs.html
Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export oom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, ureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.
Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.…
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2002 DVD-edition for Macintosh.
Williamson, E. (1992). The Penguin History of Latin America.
Gods of fertility were highly prized in the Aztec religion, and Tatloc was worshiped almost as strongly as the sun god. One of the most important temples in the Aztec religion was dedicated to Tatloc, as this was believed to help ensure the fertility of the Aztec women and therefore ensure the continuation of the Aztec race. It is easy to see, based on the way that Smith (2003) presents it, that there is strong evidence for the beliefs that the Aztecs were said to have had.
This is one of the reasons why Smith's (2003) book is so significant to research into the Aztecs and pre-colonial Mexico today. There is more to the book than just what the Spaniards had recorded. While their work was very important and should not be discounted, the Aztecs were the only ones who really know what they did and why - what was…
Smith, Michael E. (2003). The Aztecs. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, UK. Series: "The Peoples of America."
Baghdad (Importance in Abbasid Period as a Muslim Cultural Center)
The Muslim world is comprised of various ethnic groups, nationalities, customs and traditions, languages and races. Muslims all over the world have a common belief in the Oneness and Supremacy of Allah, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), and the Holy Quran. On the contrary, they all have different versions and interpretations of their religion, Islam. Thus, the theological traditions they follow are dissimilar. The Muslim world possesses an extensive political, social, economic, and geographical landscape which signifies a "kaleidoscope of historical and cultural experiences." Despite of the differences, however, the contemporary Muslim world today has inherited a highly triumphant and exultant civilization. Muslims are the heirs of a successful civilization that was larger and more productive than the greatest empires in the history including Greek, oman, Byzantine, and Sassanid (Ahmad 2007).
After the demise of the prophet Muhammad (peace…
Abbasid. 2009, In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press, Retrieved December 30, 2011, from Questia database: .
Ahmad, I. 2007 The Muslim World: Its Time, Continuity and Change, Social Studies Review, 46, 33+. Retrieved December 29, 2011, from Questia database: .
Background Note #3: The Philosophical/Scientific Contribution. 2007, Pattern in Islamic Art [online], accessed December 31, 2011 from: .
Baghdad. 2009, In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.), New York: Columbia University Press, Retrieved December 30, 2011, from Questia database: .
The different understandings of the world are indicative of differences in class just as they are a cause for racism, and again the characters of Solibo Magnificent have found a way to work in this system rather than resisting it.
In addition to systems of class distinction and outright racism, other instances of general discrimination can be found throughout these texts. The Tempest has only one character that is necessarily female (Ariel is somewhat ambiguous), and the way she is treated along with her degree of disenfranchisement seems to suggest a definite gender discrimination at work. Miranda seems to sense this to some degree, and ultimately takes some agency in her romance with Ferdinand, whereas the musician described early in Solibo Magnificent is seen in a discriminatory light that shows no promise of changing: he is treated a certain way and even called a certain name because of "his notorious…
Chamoiseau, Patrick. Solibo Magnificent. New York: Anchor.
Shakespeare, William. The Tempest. Accessed 16 March 2011.
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
interactions of the Europeans and the Native Americans during the days of the colonists. In addition the author looks at Natice American lifestyles and traditions that have survived the building of America and still exist today. There was one source used to complete this paper.
Then and Now
Students throughout the nation, study the beginning effects of the Europeans arriving on American soil and the reactions both to and of the Native Americans who had already been here for many years (Cronon, 1984). However, after the land dividing was over, and the native Americans and the Europeans began to live as peacefully as could be expected considering the circumstances, that is where most studies stop. Following the initial period however, there was a transitional period that occurred between the Native Americans and the European colonists that is a vital part of our land's history. William Cronon detailed this transition in…
"The shift from Indian to European dominance in New England entailed important changes (Cronon, 1986)." Because of the way the Europeans settled in the animal and plant population were negatively affected. Before the colonists arrived the Native Americans would hunt and work one area, then move on to another area. This gave areas they left a chance to re-grow and repopulate for future use. The colonists moved here and stayed in one place. In time they depleted much of the animal and plant life that had been a natural part of the eco system. This caused them to have to change the way things were done and to grow new food and raise new animals. Instead of letting the natural system take its course as the Native Americans had always done, the colonists took over the course and force fed it. This set the pattern that we still live with today.
The Native Americans took part in the destruction of the eco system as well. They were intrigued with metal and the utensils that were made with metal so they killed more animals than they would normally have killed for the ability to trade. All in all both sides contributed to the change in the system and the changes that caused to the land.
Few Native American traditions pertaining to the land have survived the years. However, the idea of planting in one area, then moving to another and letting the first area regain its health has been adopted by farmers all over the nation. The changes that were forced upon our lands set in motion a system that we are bound by today. But along the way we did adopt some of the Native American elements of respecting the land and the Native Americans adopted some of the European ways of settling in one place.
Dolor Sit Amet
After a day of nearly warlike conditions in the French capital, a massive crowd of Revolutionaries took to arms and toppled the symbol of French monarchy. The Bastille -- a medieval era tower building that was used as a prison -- was set ablaze all day yesterday. The number of people in the Revolutionary mob is estimated to be around 1000; the numbers of casualties have yet to be determined. What does this mean for London? Is a revolution of our own brewing?
Continued on Here comes the sun!
American Tariff Act: Will it work?
Could this be the new French flag?
Houses for Sale!
With a revolution brewing in France, what are the possible outcomes of the strife? Could France emerge unscathed, or will the nation crumble? Analysts say that if France had a new flag, it would look like this one. The red…
What is America's role in the world? Considering that America was in many ways founded experimentally, it is only natural to imagine that outside observers are constantly looking to America as an example or a source of guidance. In particular, America's early status as an experiment in religious tolerance has led to the popularity of the phrase and image of "the city on a hill." Derived from Jesus Christ's Sermon on the Mount -- where Christ tells his followers "You are the light of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hidden" (Matt. 5:14) -- the notion of America as both a model and a source of immense scrutiny is popular even to this day. In this paper I would like to examine three ways in which the notion of America as a "city on a hill" was persuasive in the period of…
Further, while some upward mobility did exist, competition among small business entrepreneurs and economic instability caused by depression and financial panics created just as much downward mobility (Ibid. At 58).
Housing among the poor in the cities usually consisted of multiple families (as many as 8) living in homes designed for just one. The price of rent was disproportionately high because the numbers of immigrants in the teeming cities kept demand higher than supply (Ibid. At 132). As a result, slum housing developed and the risk of fire and disease became a daily risk for the urban lower class.
The middle class enjoyed much better conditions. hile downward mobility was always possible, the middle class could typically expect rising wages and could afford moderate consumerism, that is, purchasing magazines, clothing, books and some of the new manufactured goods becoming more and more available. A basic middle class characteristic was the…
Chudacoff, Howard P. And Judith E. Smith. The Evolution of American Urban Society. Prentice Hall, Inc.: Upper Saddle River, NJ (2000).
Goodfriend, Joyce D. Slavery in colonial New York City. Urban History, Vol. 35
(2008), pp. 485-496.
Tomlins, Christopher. Reconsidering Indentured Servitude: European Migration and the Early
In addition to these external factors, Thomson (202) notes two colonial and post-colonial economic policies and developmental strategies that proved to be erroneous in the long-term, having an ultimately damaging effect upon the ability of African countries to make sound, profitable investments. The first of these is that African governments focused excessively upon import substitution, while the second is that too much revenue was invested in the expansion of state institutions. This paradigm emerges from the success of European and other Western economic developments. However, such strategies were far from suitable for the African continent, as it resulted in a lack of investment in Africa's richest resources: agricultural and mineral development.
Maponga and Maxwell (97) mention the concentration of national economies as a further factor that may lead a lack of concomitant growth for countries (and in particular African countries) that are rich in natural resources. In addition to the…
Maponga, Oliver & Maxwell, Philip. Are Abundant Mineral and Energy Resources a Catalyst for African Development? (Issue 6). Minerals and Energy, 2001.
Thomson, Alex. An Introduction to African Politics. London & New York: Routledge, 2004.
Questions On World Regional Geography
Generally speaking, African colonies during the colonial period were seen as expensive liabilities by the great European powers, especially in relation to trading concessions. Toward the end of the 19th century, the attitudes of these powers altered as rival industrial nations like Great Britain, Germany, France and Belgium, attempted to locate and develop overseas markets for their goods. In 1885, the Berlin Conference was convened to resolve conflicts of interest in Africa by allotting areas of exploitation to these colonial powers. As a result, the so-called "scramble for Africa" began in which these powers sought to establish their "rightful" claims to vast expanses of land.
When this conference was convened, most of Africa was under colonial control and was subsequently broken up into numerous states, made up of some fifty separate countries with very irregular geographical boundaries. One major problem linked to this break-up…
Secondly, this different approach also led the American society to experience a distinct social evolution. The fact that the ritish colonists were less reluctant to encourage social mobility offered the new settlers the change to become an important member of the society despite his eventual modest origin. Consequently, the highest level of the social scale was that of the colonial aristocrats, represented by wealthy planters and merchants, the middle class was represented by the land owning farmers, while the hired help made up the lower class. Indeed, there were racial frictions as well, which forced African-Americans to be considered the least important in the society. Nonetheless, despite this hierarchy, the geographical conditions enabled every man to go in search of wealth and thus improve his social conditions.
The Spanish and Portuguese colonial empires, although they offered a different social structure for their colonies, they left little mobility between classes. The…
Lewis, Laura. "Spanish ideology and the practice of inequality in the New World." Racism and anti-racism in world perspective. Ed. Benjamin Bowser. London: Sage Publications, 2002.
Loury, Glenn C., Tariq Modood, and Steven Michael Teles. Ethnicity, social mobility, and public policy:comparing the U.S. And UK. London: Cambridge UP, 2005, 22-25.
Blommaert's analysis however is not pictorial. It is linguistic due to his analysis of handwriting in History of Zaire
Tshibumba shows how the forms of genre can work to offer space for Tshibumba to define himself as a historian by being a produce of ordered and organized knowledge. His writing style was generically regimented, reflecting Tshibumba's pictorial style of historical representation. It is not so much fact as voice (interpretation). This goes as well for Tshibumba's paintings (Blommaert, 2004, 6).
Given the criteria laid down by Blommaert and Moten, we can now further analyze painting number 34 where Tshibumba is giving voice to the suffering man. hether or not a single living person that can be given a name is represented here, it is an archetype of a whole people's sufferings over the whole modern history of the Congo. Rather, what is historically true is the suffering of the Congolese…
Blommaert, J. (2004). Grassroots historiography and the problem of voice: Tshibumba's histoire du zaire. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 14(1), 6-23.
Moten, F. (2003). Not in between: lyric painting, visual history, the postcolonial future. The Drama Review, 47(1), 127-148.
hy could Africa be considered on of the richest continents on Earth? Discuss some of sub-Saharan Africa's Assets. Then address why, despite these facts, the majority of African states remain poor. Be sure to include several factors relation to this region's unique physical geography, complex human geography, history.
The spectrum of environments which exist in Africa spans entire moisture and temperature gradients, from perhaps the most arid to among the well-watered places on earth, from the coolness of the Cape to the furnace that is the Sahara. This environmental diversity is mirrored in the proliferation of its fauna and flora, for Africa has seemingly every conceivable combination of climatological, geological, and pedological factors; the plant and animal communities have evolved over time to reflect this heterogeneity. Moreover, it is an ancient continent that has provided a cradle for a wide range of taxonomic groups, from among the very…
1. Chen-Young, et al. Transnationals of tourism in the Caribbean. London: Commonwealth Secretariat. 2001.
2. Richard Wiffin, William Phettipace, Anas Todkill; Imagining Distance: Spanish Explorers in America. Early American Literature, Vol. 25, 1990.
3. Stephen Zunes; The United States and the Western Sahara Peace Process. Middle East Policy, Vol. 5, 1998.
The most significant revolution began and continued from Socorro (in Santander). It was stimulated by the imposition of new taxes by the viceroy and later by actions of a regent, Juan Francisco Gutierrez de Pineres. The rebels, expressed their loyalty to the king and the church while calling for a cancellation of the new taxes and a modification of government monopolies, especially on tobacco and rum. The government wanted new revenues to wage war with England (Blutstein, 1991).
The rebels at first appeared to achieve a victory by getting government representatives to agree to abolish the war tax, the taxes for the maintenance of the fleet, customhouse permits, and the tobacco and playing-card monopolies and to reduce the tribute paid by the Indians and the taxes on liquor, commercial transactions, and salt. The rebels also asked that those born in the New World be given preference in appointments to certain…
Blutstein, Howard I. 1991. Colombia: Chapter 3B. Characteristics of Colonial Administration. Countries of the World. Bureau Development, Inc.
Therefore, they had to work within this system to develop ways to identify with their group and their way of life that recognized the realities of their enslavement.
One of the chief means of identification that slaves utilized was through music and language (Morgan, 1998). Having a shared cultural heritage which emphasized wordplay, story-telling, and narrative expressions, black slaves developed an ability to communicate communal identification and inculcate communal lessons through song, ritual, and other expressive displays. Field songs were used to tell the news to other slaves and to entertain, even as they served to regulate work through rhythmic repetition. Physical culture generally was used to promote health, cultivate values, and maintain identity. Linguistic devices were developed to allow the slaves to communicate with their fellow slaves even in the face of white oppression and suspicion, even given the fact that slave communities were often made up of different…
Davis, D. (1999). The Problem of Slavery in the Age of Revolution, 1770-1823 (Oxford UK: Oxford University Press).
Genovese, E. (1976). Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York: Vintage).
Horton, J., and Horton, L. (2005). Slavery and the Making of America (Oxford UK: Oxford University Press).
Johnson, C., and Smith, P. (1999). Africans in America: America's Journey Through Slavery (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt).
acism has always been a defining feature of the American criminal justice system, including racial profiling, disparities in arrests convictions and sentencing between minorities and whites, and in the use of the death penalty. acial profiling against blacks, immigrants and minorities has always existed in the American criminal justice system, as has the belief that minorities in general and blacks in particular are always more likely to commit crimes. American society and its legal system were founded on white supremacy going back to the colonial period, and critical race criminology would always consider these historical factors as well as the legal means to counter them. From the 17th Century onward, Black Codes and slave patrols were used to control the black population, and keep them confined to farms and plantations. Blacks did not have the right to trial by jury or to testify against whites, and the law…
Capital Punishment (2011). Bureau of Justice Statistics.
Cooper, S. (2006). "A Closer Look at Racial Profiling" in S.J. Muffler (ed). Racial Profiling: Issues, Data and Analyses. Nova Science Publishers, pp. 25-30.
Garland, D. (2010). Peculiar Institution: America's Death Penalty in an Age of Abolition. Harvard University Press.
Slavery pattern in North America took a funny trend since initially the blacks had some social positions and had a voice in the running of the community. his however later changed and the North also started to own slaves at a higher rate. here are several factors that led to this change in events in the north that made it to fancy slavery just as much as the South was with its plantations.
It is worth noting the background of the slavery trend in order to fully comprehend the drastic shift in slavery from the class servitude to racial slavery which was predominantly in the late 17th century and early 18th century. he black laborers and white laborers from the working class used to work on the same level and the Europeans used to be allowed to have slaves from the non-Christians population regardless of the color. he class determined…
The Emancipation Proclamation was a categorical document that sought to spell out the status of the U.S.A. As concerns slavery. It was to declare the people who had hitherto been held as slaves, free and forever would remain free and be protected by the executive and the military and the naval authority of the U.S.A., as well as being granted the freedom and not suppressed just like any other American who was not a slave there before. It however had the exemption states in the south where the slaves were not immediately emancipated but the proclamation was a beginning to the quest for the freedom of the slaves.
The South and their leaders believed that each state had a right just like the nation to manage its domestic affairs without external influence and one of these is the issue of slavery, that each state must be given the chance to decide whether slavery is good for their state or not, actually he advocated for the autonomy of each state to decide their internal matters independently without external influences, (National Park Service, (2007).
4. From the early colonial period to the Civil War, enslaved people -- who were descended from many African nationalities and ethnicities -- managed to construct a broadly common culture and ethnic identity of their own. Explain how they did this, what cultural resources they drew on, and what the main forms of this culture were. Evaluate the importance of the emergence of African-American culture under slavery to the history of African-Americans and to the U.S.
Foreign Monetary System
A monetary system is any structure initiated by the government and mandated to issue currency, acknowledged as the medium of exchange by its citizens and governments of other nations. The central bank manages the monetary system of a country; this same bank has the responsibility of printing money and controlling the economy. Since the colonial period, coins from the European colonies had circulated in all the colonies. The Spanish coins gained dominance due to the scarcity of coins, during this time; the main form of trade was barter trade. The trade-involved items such as rice, tobacco, or animal skins, which took the form of money paper and notes, had varying rates of discount in different colonies rendering them of very low value (onald & Wright, 2006).
The high population in the U.S. called for increased trade and commerce. This forced the United States government to look for…
Ronald, M. & Wright, R.E. (2006). Development of the U.S. Monetary Union. Journal of Financial History Review, 13(1), 19-41.
Anonymous, (2011). Challenges and risks of the International Monetary System. Journal of Economic Review, 22(5), 768.
Eichengreen, B.J. (2008). Globalizing capital: A history of the international monetary system.
Princeton: Princeton University Press.
The colonial time however was shaped by international events as well. The Cold War played a crucial role in the development of the Angolan state. Despite the fact that Angola is not a big country in terms of size and population, the battle for influence was related particularly to the strategy of the Cold War and that of the strategic zones in the world.
There are several issues to be taken into account when addressing the perspectives of the society as opposed to that of the government in reference to the future of Angola. The first one is the constant and ongoing civil disruptions over the diamond trade.
The UN sanctions imposed on UNITA, the ones responsible for most of the illegal trade diamond had no consistent effect because the trade embargo was not respected, as the Canadian Ambassador mentioned on one occasion
. In this sense, the social constraints…
African Activist Archive, http://kora.matrix.msu.edu/files/50/304/32-130-5BF-84-african_activist_archive-a0b3n5-a_12419.pdf (accessed November 23, 2010)
Allafrica.comCampaigning Journalist Scrutinizes Angola's Elites http://allafrica.com/view/group/main/main/id/00012117.html (accessed November 23, 2010)
allafrica.com Angola: UN Relief Official Presses for Probe Into Reported Abuse of Deportees. 201 0 http://allafrica.com/stories/201011110078.html (accessed November 23, 2010)
Brasio, Antonio. Monumenta Missionaria Africana Lisbon: Agencia Geral do Ultramar, 1952
Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica
Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.
Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.
In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…
Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)
Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.
(Adjaye 1994, 57)
The Post-Colonial World Outlook in Africa: From Colonialism to Neocolonialism?
During the colonial era, vast regions of Africa and Asia were taken over and subsequently dominated by the more powerful western nations. In essence, the main agenda of colonialism was exploitative – with economically stronger nations seeking to exert control over weaker and less developed countries so as to exploit both their human and natural resources. Also, colonial powers deemed their colonies as viable markets for their products. The cultural and social aspects of the subjugated countries were affected and adapted in significant ways, with the said countries being forced to embrace the cultural, religious, as well as social ideals of the colonial countries. Most of the dominated countries got their independence back by way of concessions, compromise, or force – giving way to the post-colonial era. During the postcolonial era, former colonies attempted to claim their autonomy back,…
omen's Roles in Early America (1700-1780)
hat were the roles of women in the early American period from roughly 1700-1780? Although a great portion of the history of families and people in early America during this period is about men and their roles, there are valid reports of women's activities in the literature, and this paper points out several roles that women played in that era.
The Roles of omen in Early America -- 1700 -- 1780
In the "Turns of the Centuries Exhibit" (TCE) relative to family life in the period 1680 to 1720, the author notes that colonial societies were organized around "…patriarchal, Biblically-ordained lines of authority." Males basically asserted the authority over their wives, their children, their servants and any other dependents that may have been in the household. One reason for the male dominance in this era was do to the fact that "…law did not…
Breneman, Judy Anne. (2002). The Not So Good Lives of New England's Goodwives. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from http://www.historyofquilts.com/earlylife.html.
Cody, Cheryll Ann. (2003). In the Affairs of the World: Women, Patriarchy, and Power in Colonial South Carolina. Journal of Southern History, 69(4), p. 873.
Letters of Abigail Adams. (2002). Letters Between Abigail Adams and her Husband, John
Adams. Retrieved February 23, 2012, from http://www.thelizlibrary.org/suffrage/abigail.htm .
...[p. 41] Reasons may be given, why an Act ought to be repeal'd, and yet obedience must be yielded to it till that repeal takes place.
The intent of most colonists, was to create change through the proper channels, as has been described by the Philadelphia congress, as having occurred over the ten years bridging the two previous declarations.
A consummate expert on the War of Independence, writing in the early twentieth century, Van Tyne, stresses that the development of the ideal of democratic representation, was seeded in the ideals of Puritan politics which were spurned by the exposure of ministers to the ideas of John Locke and John Milton, who demonstratively effected the ideas of the American colonists as well as many others all over the colonial world. The idea of a fierce fight against tyranny and unchecked despotism was an essential standard of the day and at some…
Bancroft, Hubert H.. American war for Independence: Early Causes. 2002-2003. http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/The_Great_Republic_By_the_Master_Historians_Vol_II/americanw_bb.html .
Leach, Douglas Edward. Roots of Conflict: British Armed Forces and Colonial Americans, 1677-1763. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1943.
Morison, S.E., ed. Sources and Documents Illustrating the American Revolution, 1764-1788, and the Formation of the Federal Constitution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
It is evident that in his case, he tried to improve his condition by looking at his captors as providing him with guidance, and it is in this perception that Equiano's journey becomes meaningful, both literally and symbolically, as he eventually improved his status in life by educating himself after being a free man.
Bozeman (2003) considered Equiano's experience as beneficial and resulted to Equiano's changed worldview at how he looked at slavery and British society (his 'captors). Bozeman argued that Equiano's worldview became "fluid," wherein
…he is exceptional among his contemporary British brethren: not only is he able to stand both on the inside and outside of the window of British society, Equiano can move efficiently between the two…Accepting the essence of who Equiano is, in the end, is to acknowledge the reality he was a living oxymoron perpetuating a simply complex life (62).
It is this "fluid" worldview…
Bozeman, T. (2003). "Interstices, hybridity, and identity: Olaudah Equiano and the discourse of the African slave trade." Studies in Literary Imagination, Vol. 36, No. 2.
Burnham, M. (1993). "The journey between: liminality and dialogism in Mary White Rowlandson's captivity narrative." Early American Literature, Vol. 28.
Carrigan, a. (2006). "Negotiating personal identity and cultural memory in Olaudah Equiano's Interesting Narrative." Wasafiri, Vol. 21, No. 2.
Derounian, K. (1987). "Puritan orthodoxy and the "survivor syndrome" in Mary Rowlandson's Indian captivity narrative." Early American Literature, Vol. 22.
In fact, the American evolution may have served to assert the natural rights of some people, but those people were limited to a class of white males.
It is important to keep in mind that one of the ideological underpinnings of the evolution was a challenge to imperialist ideals, and race-based oppression and slavery had long been major parts of the imperial system. Despite that, it is unfair to characterize Britain as pro-slavery, as the British began to embrace abolitionist sentiments prior to the evolution. In fact, British Imperialists struggled with the concept of slavery, because of the fact that denying the right to own slaves was viewed as economic oppression by many white colonists, because, without slavery, the cash crops that made colonies profitable were difficult, if not impossible, to harvest (Brown, 1999). They began by attempting to limit the import of slaves into the colonies, something that they…
Appleby, J. (1976). Liberalism and the American Revolution, New England Quarterly, 49(1), 3-
Brown, C.L. (1999). Empire without slaves: British concepts of Emancipation in the age of the American Revolution, the William and Mary Quarterly, 56(2), 273-306.
Freehling, W.W. (1972). The founding fathers and slavery, the American Historical Review,
Rhodesia and parts of the French Maghreb have been ravaged by terrorism and guerilla warfare.
One of the main aftermaths suffered by the African countries which have been colonized is poverty. Most colonial powers have exploited their colonies to the maximum, enslaving locals and stealing their resources.
Another repercussion that a great numbers of Africans have sustained after the colonial period is the fact that their countries are being devastated by the continuous wars fueled by money coming from the sale of diamonds. The 1994 massacre from Rwanda is believed to have had its roots in the colonial period, when groups of people had been discriminated.
1. Ahluwalia, D. Pal S., Ahluwalia, Pal. "Politics and post-colonial theory: African inflections." Routledge, 2001.
2. Leonard, Thomas M. "Encyclopedia of the developing world." Taylor & Francis, 2006.
Leonard, Thomas M. "Encyclopedia of the developing world." Taylor & Francis, 2006.
1. Ahluwalia, D. Pal S., Ahluwalia, Pal. "Politics and post-colonial theory: African inflections." Routledge, 2001.
2. Leonard, Thomas M. "Encyclopedia of the developing world." Taylor & Francis, 2006.
Leonard, Thomas M. "Encyclopedia of the developing world." Taylor & Francis, 2006.
Ahluwalia, D. Pal S., Ahluwalia, Pal. "Politics and post-colonial theory: African inflections." Routledge, 2001.
In these very conservative Islamic countries, and even those less conservative like Jordan and Egypt, we see symbols of capitalism. This gives rise to the question of whether or not these countries can in fact be a part of a world economy without surrendering their theocratic rule to more liberal forms of democratic rule; or whether they reject - as Iran has done - Westernization completely.
At this point the outcome is unknown, but this does help explain the conditions in the Middle East today, and why the situation in Iraq has become so violent. The question becomes one of whether or not the fundamental principles of Islam can survive against the fundamental principles of democracy; the answer is predictably no. This is what has given rise to Islamic fundamentalism in the region; those Muslims who - and perhaps rightfully so - under stand the threat of over exposure to…
Atkinson, .C. & Shiffrin, .M. (1968). "Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes." in, Spence, K. & Spence, J. (Eds), Advances in the Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 2(1): New York: Academic Press.
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Campbell, J., Kyriakides, L., Mujis, D. & obinson, W. (2004). Assessing teacher effectiveness: Developing a differentiated model. New York: outledge Falmer.
Field, K., Holden, P. & Lawlor, H. (2000). Effective subject leadership. London:
Hoban, G.F. (2002). Teacher learning for educational change. Buckingham: Open
Likert, . (1961). New patterns of management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Loughran, J. & Wallace, J. (2003). Leadership and professional development in science education: New possibilities for enhancing teacher learning. London: outledge Farmer.
MacBeath, J. (1998). Effective school leadership. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.
Maslow, a.H. (1943). "A…
Atkinson, R.C. & Shiffrin, R.M. (1968). "Human memory: A proposed system and its control processes." in, Spence, K. & Spence, J. (Eds), Advances in the Psychology of Learning and Motivation, 2(1): New York: Academic Press.
Bailey, a.J. (1986). Policy making in schools: Creating a sense of educational purpose.
Balshaw, M. (1991). Help in the classroom. London: David Fulton Publishers.
Campbell, J., Kyriakides, L., Mujis, D. & Robinson, W. (2004). Assessing teacher effectiveness: Developing a differentiated model. New York: Routledge Falmer.
In colonial America, formal education for girls historically has been secondary to that for boys. In colonial America girls learned to read and write at dame schools. They could attend the master's schools for boys when there was room, usually during the summer when most of the boys were working. (Women's International Center)
During the latter half of the Republic Era, rapid economic growth presented new opportunities for northern white women. Previously limited to homework or to household-related jobs like cleaning and cooking, some young women now became school teachers or mill workers. One destination for young farm women was the Lowell mills in Massachusetts, at the falls of the Merrimac River. An unnamed rural crossroads in 1823, Lowell by 1830 boasted ten mills and three thousand operatives, nearly all of them female. (oyer)
eginning in the 19th century, the required educational preparation, particularly for the practice of medicine, increased.…
Boyer, Paul S. "Early Republic, Era of the." 2001. encyclopedia.com. 20 February 2009 http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-EarlyRepublicEraofthe.html .
Do History. "Who Was Martha Ballard?" n.d. Do History. 19 February 2009 http://dohistory.org/martha/index.html .
Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Women and Work in Early America." n.d. about.com. 20 February 2009 http://womenshistory.about.com/od/worklaborunions/a/early_america.htm .
PBS. "Martha Ballard's Diary." n.d. PBS. 19 February 2009 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/midwife/gallery/index.html .
economic basis of American cities change from colonial era to 1860 and why did it change.
here is little doubt that there were a significant amount of economic changes taking place within the fledgling United States of America from its inception during colonial time to the year preceding the Civil War, 1860. hose changes were widely facilitated by advancements made during the Industrial Revolution and those pertaining to the practice of chattel slavery in the southern portion of the country. As such, the economics for American cities reflected these two principle sources of change, which were also underscored by a chief point of division in American social, political and economic life up until the Civil War: the distinction between autonomy and states' rights and circumscribed freedom and a strong federal government. he reality is that the latter of these two choices were good for capitalism and for the U.S. As…
The true way that the economies of American cities changed was along the lines of labor sources. Because the cities in the south were populated by plantations and wanton, ruthlessly exploitative slave labor, the economic power was concentrated in the hands of a tiny few who were able to assert political power (especially at the federal level) to enact legislation that maintained slavery -- in new territories -- to keep them in economic control. In the North, however, the Industrial Revolution had spawned a manufacturing industry in which immigrant workers were able to make a living for themselves largely because they were able to stave off the process of cheap slave labor from populating these areas. What is interesting about these developments is that they conflicted with one another. The South's free labor from the backs of slaves was creating an unfair economic advantage with which the North could not compete. The plight of the Caucasian workers in the South -- in which they were marginalized and destitute because the wealthy plantation owners could forsake them in favor of cheaper slave labor -- was threatening to extend itself to the capitalist system in the country's north. Therefore, it is critical to note that the cutoff period for this assignment ends the year before the Civil War, since this martial encounter was largely fought to transform the collective economy of the nation's cities from one of agriculture to one of industry and to preserve the union in the process.
It is necessary to note the role that transportation played in the economic development of cities in the U.S. within the greater context of the changing labor supplies and their effects on both national and global capitalism. The Industrial Revolution helped to facilitate greater access to and means of transportation, particularly in the form of steam powered ships (which plied up and down the Mississippi River and in other parts of the country) and in terms of the railroad, which progressed increasingly westward. As a result, there were several terminus towns that sprouted up and came to become some of the country's most thriving cities such as Chicago, Cincinnati, and Buffalo. As a result of the railroad's foray into the western portion of the country, rudiments of the American system took place in which the West was used to supply raw materials for the North to refine and make into the finished products.
Essentially, the economies of American cities changed from the colonial period to 1860 due to developments in the Industrial Revolution and slavery which changed the labor supplies in the North and South of the countries. These changes resulted in a capitalist system which advantaged the South (with its free labor) to the disadvantage of the North -- which eventually resulted in the waging of the Civil War.
" (Pettersson, 2006) Oral and written verbal art languages are both used for the purpose of information communication as well as information presentation with the reader and listener receiving an invitation to consider the information.
The Narrative & the Symbolic
The work of Abiola Irele (2001) entitled: "The African Imagination: Literature in Africa & the lack Diaspora" states that Hampate a "...incorporates the essential feature of the oral narrative at significant points in his work in order to reflect their appropriateness to situations and for special effects. Their conjunction with the narrative procedures sanctioned by the Western model thus enlarges their scope and give them an unusual resonance. At the same time, although he writes with conscious reference to this Western model, he does not feel so constrained by the framework of its conventions that he is unable to go beyond its limitations. His departures from the established codes of…
Aggarwal, Kusum. Amadou Hampate Ba et l'africanisme. De la recherche anthropologique a l'exercice de la fonction auctoriale. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1999.
Dielika Diallo "Hampate Ba: the great conciliator." UNESCO Courier. FindArticles.com. 30 Sep, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1992_Jan/ai_11921818/ . UNESCO 1992. Online available at:
elder Thomas King's Green Grass, Running Water world "bent" "fix." This task explore ways American Indian literature helps imagine ways fix bent things world explain findings matters world.
Most people are likely to acknowledge that society has severe problems and that urgent action needs to be taken in order for it to be able to recover from a moral point-of-view. Powerful bodies have always had the tendency to persecute minorities and groups that have generally been unable to stand up for themselves. Thomas King's 1993 novel "Green Grass, Running Water" discusses in regard to how the world is bent and describes particular characters as they vainly try to fix it. It is very probable that the writer wants his readers to accept the impossibility related to changing human nature and uses satire with the purpose of having them considering accept that society is broken. Similarly, Joseph oyden's manuscript "Three Day…
Buzo, Adrian, The Making of Modern Korea (New York: Routledge, 2002)
Cox, James H., "All This Water Imagery Must Mean Something": Thomas King's Revisions of Narratives of Domination and Conquest in "Green Grass, Running Water,"
American Indian Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 2 (Spring, 2000)
Scott, Jamie S., "Colonial, Neo-colonial, Post-colonial: Images of Christian Missions in Hiram M. Cody's the Frontiersman, Rudy Wiebe's First and Vital Candle and Basil Johnston's Indian School Days," Journal of Canadian Studies 32.3 (1997)
Thus, the term "a new start" came to embody a lofty ideal and it was considered to be more important from the simple fact that the respective period in history dealt with the particular issues addressed by people such as Thomas Paine. For instance, he tried, through his writing to give a new incentive for the people fighting for the independence from Britain and from this point-of-view he is remembered as an important figure of the era (Philip, 2005).
Without a doubt there are periods in history that are dominated by certain interpretations of the notion of "a new start." This is precisely due to the fact that the American literature, it its attempt to escape the influence and the stereotypes of the British creations, have searched for new sources of inspiration. In this sense, while in the British Isles the romantic view of the world was still predominant, in…
Funston, Judith E. (1990) "Authority, Autonomy, and Representation in American Literature, 1776-1865." By Mark R. Patterson. Review. The Journal of American History, Vol. 77, No. 2., pp. 650-651.
Kwok, Gordon. (2001) Civil War Poetry. 13 Feb 2008. http://hometown.aol.com/gordonkwok/cwpoetry.html
Larkin, Edward. (2008). Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution. Cambridge University Press.
Outline of American Literature. (2006). Democratic Origins and Revolutionary Writers, 1776-1820. USINFO.STATE.GUV website. 13 Feb 2008. http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oal/lit2.htm
Postcolonial Ed Lit
Education, Death, and Postcolonial Literature
The peculiarities of the postcolonial struggle for identity and independence are entirely unique to the historical occupation and colonization that ended, at least ostensibly, in the middle of the twentieth century. Peoples that had full histories and rich cultures prior to the arrival of Europeans or European-descended individuals from the New World found themselves largely without the foundations of these cultures to support themselves once these Europeans had departed, yet also unable to achieve the promises of the Western cultures that had arrived on their shores. Former value systems and ways of life had been eradicated, and nothing substantial was put into place to subsidize what was lost. Instead, the indigenous peoples of the world had to find methods of combining the old and the new in attempts to carve out new identities and self-directed histories in a way that had never…