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" "ealia" refers to the use of bona fide materials such as magazines, newspapers, signs and advertisements; they can also include maps, graphs, pictures, charts and symbols. Classroom activities are mostly planned to finish tasks that engage students in sharing of information and communicative processes, interaction and negotiation of meaning argues Akerlind 322()
As much as the social cultural factors within a society cannot be easily changed, there is a need for freedom in the Libyan classes such that the students are able to communicate effectively with their teachers, ask questions without fear of victimization of being branded as rude and the one who lack respect for the teachers emesal 28.
The society needs to realize that when you fear your teachers, one learns very little to them and one only takes instructions from the teachers, these limits even the basic communication.
Akerlind, G. "Variation and Community…
Akerlind, G. "Variation and Community in Phenomenographic Research Methods. 24(4), P. 321-334." Higher Education Research & Development. 24.4 (2005): 321-34. Print.
Angelides, P., T. Stylianou, and P. Gibbs. "Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Cyprus. 22, P.513-522." Teaching and Teacher Education, 22 (2006): 513-22. Print.
Carless, D. "Implementing Task-Based Learning with Young Learners." ELT Journal, 56.4 (2004): 389-96. Print.
Cohen, L., L. Manion, and K. Morrison, . Research Methods in Education 5th Ed. London: Routledge, 2000. Print.
wikipedia.org/wiki/Communicative_language_teaching#Overview_of_CLT,2005). This means that successfully learning a foreign language is assessed in terms of how well learners have developed their communicative competence, which can loosely be defined as their ability to apply knowledge of both formal and sociolinguistic aspects of a language with adequate proficiency to communicate. Communicative language teaching is usually characterized as a broad approach to teaching, rather than as a teaching method with a clearly defined set of classroom practices (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communicative_language_teaching#Overview_of_CLT,2005).
Communicative language teaching makes use of real-life situations that necessitate communication. The teacher sets up a situation that students are likely to encounter in real life. Unlike the audiolingual method of language teaching, which relies on repetition and drills, the communicative approach can leave students in suspense as to the outcome of a class exercise, which will vary according to their reactions and responses (Orellana, 1997). The real-life simulations change from day-to-day, and the…
Al-Arishi, a. (1994). An integrated approach to the use of technology in communicative language teaching. Language Quarterly, 32 (3-4), 175-191.
Anonymous author. (2005). Historical overview of the development of the notion of communicative competence" Retrieved July 12, 2005 at http://www.ne.jp/asahi/kurazumi/peon/ccmodel.html
Carel, S. (1997). Communicative Competence at Issue in Foreign Language Education.
Retrieved July 12, 2005 at http://www.edb.utexas.edu/mmresearch/Students97/Carel/#sectionI
A. In Literature. Thus, 25% of the participants within the study did not have an academic background in education, and had focused on literary structure and analysis rather than education as a major staple in their own training. These teachers had more of a critical evaluation background in comparison to teaching methodologies. Having a Literature background has been shown to impact the teaching methodologies and strategies implemented in language learning, especially with teachers that are non-native speaking themselves (Braine, 1999).
The questionnaire showed that overall, teachers with a literature background actually thought much differently in regards to the importance of grammar. These participants averaged a response of 1.15 in regards to the importance of grammar being the crucial element to judge understanding and competence of a language. This shows that these participants believed there were other more important criteria that would show language competency. Moreover, these participants highly disagreed with…
Communicative Language Teaching the Best Methodology to Prepare Students for the Cambridge First Certificate Exam?
Based on its emphasis on authenticity and relevancy to students' lives, it has been argued that the communicative language teaching approach may represent the best methodology to prepare students to take the Cambridge English: First for Schools (also known as First Certificate in English or FCE for Schools), which demonstrates student progress in second language acquisition for work and/or study applications. To determine if the FCE is in fact the best alternative approach for this purpose, this paper reviews the literature to provide a detailed outline of the communicative language teaching approach, a description of the Cambridge FCE, an analysis of what the FCE exam appears to be assessing and how, followed by an analysis concerning the degree to which communicative language teaching is an appropriate methodology for the FCE exam preparation class. A summary…
Broughton, G., Brumfit, C., Flavell, R., Hill, P. & Pincas, A. 1990 Teaching English as a Foreign Language. New York: Routledge.
Burke, B.M. 2007 'Creating Communicative Classrooms with Experiential Design.' Foreign
Language Annals, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 441-443.
Byram, M. 2000 Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. London:
As an analytic method it varies from the syntactic syllabus in simliar way as the practical and procedure syllabi, particularly in the supposition that the learner learns best when using language to converse about something. TBLT also is different from the two other logical curricula in a lot of ways. It differs from the procedural syllabus in that it stresses the importance of carrying out a needs analysis prior to instruction.
Identifying likely bases of task complexity certainly is an essential precondition for making ethical choices regarding the grading and sequencing of functions, upon which many of the worth of the TBLT will rest. Grading and sequencing of pedagogic errands is certainly a chief test for the task-based syllabus creators.
Principles and features of task-based language teaching.
Prabhu's observations, stated at the beginning of the project, guide to the first belief of task-based interaction that "language is a basically just…
Alex, J., 2001. Recognizing Task Designs. Journal of Education, 2(5), pp. 23-34.
Breen, M., 2004. Process syllabus for the language classroom.. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Breen, M., 2005. Learner contributions to task design.. Chicago: Penguin.
Candlin, C.N., 1984. Syllabus design as a critical process, ELT Documents. Cambridge: Pergamon & the British Council.
Further, it is in this stage that instructors have the ability to widen the instruction significantly to incorporate many activities that allow students to practice their new knowledge in a variety of different ways and with focus on a variety of different subject matters.
In viewing the basic theoretical and practical-use background of the Natural Approach of Language Teaching and Learning, one can understand that basic functions that allow students the ability to hone new skills in a non-threatening environment. However, despite significant praise in the teaching community regarding the success of the Natural Approach, the method's critics still exist. Due to this, it is crucial to understand the advantages as well as the disadvantages that exist when the Natural Approach is employed in a language learning environment, especially in dealing with English as a second language.
Advantages and Disadvantages
In beginning to understand the overall value of the Natural…
Canale, Michael and Swain, Merrill. 2002. "Theoretical Basis of Communicative
Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing," Applied Linguistics: 1(1): pp. 1-47. Retrieved from: https://segue.atlas.uiuc.edu/uploads/nppm / CanaleSwain.80.pdf [Accessed on 17 February 2012].
Clandfield, Lindsay and Meldrum, Nicola. 2012. "One-to-one methodology: advantages and disadvantages for students." Retrieved from: http://www.onestopenglish .com/business/teaching-approaches/teaching-one-to-one/methodology/one-to-one-methodology-advantages-and-disadvantages-for-students/144655.article [Accessed on 19 February 2012].
Gebhard, J., Gaitan, S. And Oprandy, R. 1990. "Beyond Prescription: The Student
Traditional Methods of Language Teaching
The paper discuses the various traditional methods of language teaching, namely:
Grammar Translation Method
The Audio-lingual Method
The Direct Method
The Silent Way
The Communicative Approach
Cognitive code learning
The Natural Approach
Functional-Notional Approach and The task-based approach
The paper discusses each approach in details and describes its various chief principles and how it helps both teachers and students to teach, understand, learn, and practice all the skills they learn through these approaches.
Grammar Translation Method
This method involves the learner to spend a lot of time in understanding the language structure. Though both listening as well as speaking suffer because of it. However, grammar and vocabulary are being stressed throughout the teaching method.
The grammar translation method has been derived from traditional approaches to the teaching of Latin and Greek in the nineteenth century (Selected Lesson Plans). It was originally used to…
Benstein, Patricia. Explaining concepts behind the Silent Way. Wanadoo Communiquer. www.wanadoo.fr
Communicative language teaching. Sil International.
Capes - History of Language Teaching 2. Club Internet.
Applying the Communicative Approach to TESOL Classrooms
The communicative approach is a style of teaching language that focuses on interaction as the ultimate goal of study and also the means with which it is carried out (Mitchell, 1994; ichards & odgers, 2001). While some call it a teaching method, many argue that it is not a method but a broad approach (ichards & odgers, 2001). There are no clearly defined sets of practices that are used in the classroom in this approach, which encourages the students to speak to one another and interact in the language they are learning, overlooking issues such as incorrect grammar or other difficulties (Whong, 2011). While it may seem simplistic, it serves to help learners become much more comfortable interacting in a new language, as opposed to forcing them to study grammar rules and other guidelines before they can actually start to practice…
Bowern, C. (2008). Linguistic fieldwork: A practical guide. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education. London: Routledge.
Denzin, N.K. (2012a). Collecting and interpreting qualitative materials. Thousand Oaks, CA; London: Sage.
Denzin, N.K. (2012b). Strategies of qualitative inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA; London: Sage.
Communicative Theory of Biblical Interpretation
Any theory is a composite of residual aspects of earlier theories and fresh compositions illuminated by the present context. The several theories that have been applied to the study of Scriptures are no exception, and this discussion will explore how several theories have come to coalesce in the communicative theory of Biblical interpretation. The relation of literary criticism, structural criticism, and reader-response criticism to the Biblical interpretation as seen through the lens of communicative theory will be discussed. Aspects of contextualization, relevance theory, and speech-act theory are explored with regard to the influence of these constructs on the development of modern communicative theory.
Communicative theory. The written word is a special form of communication -- a mysterious way for people to experience the inner thoughts of another being. The Bible, as a written record of the experiences and history of ancient Israelites and Christians, provides…
Allen, R. (1984). Contemporary Biblical interpretation for preaching. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.
Brown, J.K. (2007). Introducing Biblical hermeneutics: Scripture as communication. Ada, MI: Baker Academics.
Definition of reader response criticism. Critical Approaches. VirtuaLit - Interactive Poetry Tutorial. Retrieved http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/virtualit/poetry/critical_define/crit_reader.html
Fish, S. (1970). Literature in the reader: Affective stylistics. New Literary History, 2 (1), 123-162.
1 million today, Smith explains. About 79% of ESL students have Spanish as their native language, and hence, Smith insists, "there is an urgent need for as many teachers as possible to be skilled in and passionate about working with ESL students" (Smith, 2008, p. 5).
The mentor (an ESL specialist) needs to apply "professional knowledge to actual practice" when working with another teacher, Smith explains. There are two components to Smith's mentoring suggestions: a) the ESL specialist shares his or her "best of ideas"; and b) but by mentoring, the ESL specialist is "supporting the professional and personal growth of the teacher" (Smith, 6). Smith breaks down her mentoring program ideas into six conversations, or specific aspects, of how to relate to ESL students. This mentoring is for new teachers, who need to be submerged in diversity and inclusion quickly, and for existing teachers, that have perhaps avoided becoming…
Conroy, Paula Werner, Rude, Harvey, and Phillips, Jacqueline S. (2006). Rural Challenges to Educating English Language learners with Visual Impairments. Rural Special Education
Quarterly, 25(4), 16-24.
Duncan, Arne. (2011). Preparing Students with Disabilities for Success: Secretary Duncan's
Remarks to the American Association for People with Disabilities. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved June 28, 2011, from http://www.ed.gov .
Language and culture are inextricably linked. The ways in which one's culture is directly attributed to language development are well documented in the academic literature, though there seems to be little consensus on the processes involved in language acquisition and the ways that culture is manifested in both socialization and language development. One assertion, however, seems widely accepted; culture is a learned attribute that language helps convey to others. Because people use language to impart cultural beliefs and societal mores, the nexus between language and culture is an important consideration in the field of education and communication, especially concerning the varied pedagogical theories of child development. Much of what has been studied in the field of both communications and education concerning the connection between language and culture is attributed to a ussian born educator named Lev Vygotsky.
Vygotsky believed that children developed and acquired knowledge through the assistance…
Kyratzis, A. (2005). Language and Culture: Socialization through Personal Story-Telling Practice. Human Development, 48(3), 146-150.
Miller, P.J., Hengst, J. Alexander, K., & Sperry L.L. (2000). Versions of personal storytelling/versions of experience: Genres as tools for creating alternate realities. In K. Rosengren, C. Johnson & P. Harris (eds.), Imagining the impossible: The development of magical, scientific, and religious thinking in contemporary society (pp. 212 -- 246). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Miller, P.J., & Mehler, R. (1994). Personal story-telling, socialization, and self-construction at home and in kindergarten. In A. Haas Dyson & C. Genishi (eds.), The need for story: Cultural diversity in classroom and community. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Problems of Method (pp. 52-75). In Mind in Society. (Trans. M. Cole). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Language and Religion
I visited the Anglican Church in my community, who congregates every Sunday at 10am. To gain access, I telephoned the Secretary of the church, who explained to me that services were open to any members of the public. She indicated that I would be most welcome and she sounded very friendly as well. She invited me to also speak to the Reverend and gave me his number. I followed her advice and telephoned the Reverend with my request and the reasons for wanting to attend the assembly. Like the Secretary, the Reverend was extremely friendly and open to my request. He asked a few questions about my research as well, and seemed interested in what I had to say. He struck me as a very warm person who truly believed in what he was doing. So, the following Sunday, as decided, I woke up early, dressed according…
speaking in the target language is the expectation that a proficient speaker will sound like a native speaker. Is this an appropriate or realistic expectation?
Not a long while after the emergence of the subject of second language acquisition (SLA), which most of the scholars think came around the time of initial years of 1970s, there has been a need to develop ways by which to measure the development of the second language, aside from the usage of detailed homogeneous skill tests which were mostly appropriate to fulfill other objectives.
As per Freeman's (2009) information, the first declaration of this need was made by Kenji Hukuta (1976). Kenji Hakuta was concerned in knowing the path of his subject Ugusiu's English language development over a period of time. Besides the aforementioned practitioners, other L1 acquisition scholars had carried out for the pupils learning English as a national language. In the research…
Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dornyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations? Pragmatic vs. grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 233 -- 259.
Bialystok, E. (1991). Achieving proficiency in a second language: A processing description. In R. Philipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith, & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research: A commemorative volume for Claus Faerch (Vol. 64, pp. 63 -- 78). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Bialystok, E. (1993). Symbolic representation and attentional control in pragmatic competence. In G. Kasper & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 43 -- 59). New York: Oxford University Press.
Bouton, L.F. (1988). A cross-cultural study of ability to interpret implicatures in English. World Englishes, 7(2), 183 -- 196.
In forty-five hours of teaching percussion, I have learned to apply various learning theories to my work. I believe a greater understanding of these theories has improved my pedagogy and enhanced communications and interpersonal connections with my students, who are both male and female and range in age from child to adult. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on my own learning experience as a teacher, including application of learning theories, effective communication techniques, use of formative and summative assessments, and incorporating language literacy and numeracy in the lessons. By reflecting on the teaching experience, I hope to gain insight that will inform my approach in the future and help me better meet the needs of all my students.
For many of my students, I use the London College of Music series that has a graded course (1-8) for drum kit. Each handbook includes…
Cook, G. (1988). Teaching Percussion, New York (USA): G. Schirmer.
Criswell, C. 2009, 'Drum circles and the national standards', Teaching Music, vol. 16, no. 4, pp.
Fidyk, S. 2010, 'Percussion: Adapting drumming for students with special needs', Teaching
2002, 108)." By 1996 the teaching of English in Thailand was compulsory for all primary children from the first grade.
Teaching English as a Second Language in Thailand
Although the teaching of English as a second language has been present in Thailand for quite some time, there are still many issues that arise as it pertains to teaching English in Thailand. In some ways it may appear that English language pedagogy is still in its infancy. For instance many people in Thailand have low degrees of proficiency in English (Laopongharn & Sercombe, 2009). This is particularly true as it pertains to the speaking and writing of English. The problems present in Thailand as it pertains to Teaching English as a foreign language has many different causes (Laopongharn & Sercombe (2009). For the purposes of this discussion, Thai culture will be explored as an impediment to the teaching of English as…
Adamson, J., 2003. Challenging beliefs in teacher development: potential influences of Theravada Buddhism upon Thais learning English. Asian EFL journal, 5 (3), 1-21.
Adamson, J., 2005. Teacher development in EFL: what is to be learned beyond methodology in Asian contexts?. Asian EFL journal, 7 (4), 74-84.
Chou, C. 2000. Chinese Speakers' Acquisition of English Conditionals: Acquisition Order and L1 Transfer Effects. Second Language Studies, 19(1), pp. 57-98
Forman R. (2008) Using notions of scaffolding and intertextuality to understand the bilingual teaching of English in Thailand. Linguistics and Education 19-319 -- 332
Using CALL in Teaching Listening
In order to use computer-assisted language learning or CALL to teach listening skills, teachers should first understand what CALL actually is and that they should aim to "establish a methodology for benchmarking speech synthesis for computer-assisted language learning." (Zoe, 2009) CALL is a modern form of computer-based learning that has two features that make it distinctive from other forms of computer-based learning. The first is called bidirectional learning and the second feature is simply the idea of individualized learning. CALL as a process is good for listening skills because of the fact that just giving a speaker one's undivided attention in order to understand the speaker's point-of-view is fine but that equates to only a single directional activity. Active listening makes great listeners. Active listening is more than paying attention and it is bidirectional just like the CALL process. Because the concept of…
Kilickaya, Ferit. (2009). "The Effect of A Computer-Assisted Language Learning Course On Pre-Service English Teachers' Practice Teaching." Educational Studies (03055698). October, Vol. 35 Issue 4, p 437-448, 12p, 4 charts.
Liu, Min. (1994). "Hypermedia Assisted Instruction and Second Language Learning: A Semantic-Network-Based Approach." Computers in the Schools. Vol. 10 Issue 3/4, p 293, 20p, 2 charts, 3 diagrams.
Schwienhorst, Klaus. (2002). "Why Virtual, Why Environments? Implementing Virtual Reality Concepts In Computer-Assisted Language Learning." Simulation & Gaming. June, Vol. 33 Issue 2, p 196, 14p.
Son, Jeong-Bae (2006.) "Using Online Discussion Groups in a CALL Teacher Training Course." RELC Journal. April, Vol. 37, Issue 1, p 123-135, 13p.
Age and Learning a New Language
hat is the ideal age for a person to be able to learn a new language? hat are the dynamics (besides age) that contribute to SLA? This paper delves into those subjects using scholarly articles as resources.
The Literature on Learning a New Language and Age
"…Early beginners, through their longer exposure to L2, reach the necessary competence levels in their two languages sooner to allow transfer in both directions…" (Djigunovic, 2010).
hy are very young students especially gifted to pick up new languages quickly? The scholarship shows that younger learners "…have no awkwardness or inhibitions with the new language" and don't get too upset when they make mistakes (Cenoz, 2003, p. 77). As to whether or not younger learners "…soak up new languages" simply because the soak up information like a sponge soaks up water, Cenoz has his doubts. Indeed studies show younger…
Cenoz, Jasone. (2003). "The Effect of Age on Foreign Language Acquisition in Formal
Contexts. In Age and the Acquisition of English As a Foreign Language, M. Mayo, and M.
Lecumberri, Eds. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
Cummins, Jim, and Davison, Chris. (2007). International Handbook of English Language
Based on these standards, the researchers used nineteen competence indicators from four areas for their qualitative analysis. Following the qualitative analysis of each week's postings, the researchers also used a quantitative analytical approach to evaluate changes in participants' communicative competence as assessed the above-described ESL Standards during the administration of the three activities. The variables used in the quantitative paired sample t-tests analyses were the frequencies of children's use of language coded using the specific indicators in the ESL Standards. Subsequent qualitative analyses were also conducted to evaluate participants' improvements in their use of English through the three consecutive activities.
Data collection instruments. As noted above, the messages were captured using NVivo 2.0 as a data collection tool.
Explanation of the adequacy of the following:
Data analysis procedures. The use of both qualitative and quantitative data analysis procedures helps to improve the trustworthiness of research findings (Owen &…
Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Owen, P.S. & Demb, a. (2004). Dynamics and leadership in technology implementation.
Journal of Higher Education, 75(6), 636
Zha, S., Kelly, P., Park, M.K. & Fitzgerald, G. (2006, September). An investigation of communicative competence of ESL students using electronic discussion boards. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(3), 349-367.
Pinker maintains that evolution follows a branching, rather than linear pattern. Many species develop concurrently, each with their own survival instincts. Humans, and their survival instinct of language, are just one branch of the evolutionary process rather than a pinnacle rung.
Holding the belief that we can, or might someday communicate with animals creates empathy, which leads to humane treatment of animals. A belief that animals cannot communicate with us due to inferiority leads to a sense of dominion over them.
This is also a pattern of belief and behavior that is seen with regard to humans who are perceived to have inferior languages or grammars. They are somehow less human, and therefore less deserving of humane treatment.
Pinker states that it is ridiculous to attempt to teach human language to animals. They are not biologically configured for human speech or sign. They have no need for human language as…
Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1994.
Thus, children with autism do not pick up on social cues in the environment.
Francke, and Geist 125)
Despite the varied understandings of the disorder and its varied presentations, much success has been seen with intensive educational intervention, that involves awareness and understanding as well as concrete developmentally strong intervention strategies that help the environment rather than the child adapt to learning.
Breakey, Christine. The Autism Spectrum and Further Education: A Guide to Good Practice. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley, 2006.
This full length book provides a good overview of various approaches to treating autism in the field of education.
Bregman, Joel D. "Chapter 1 Definitions and Characteristics of the Spectrum." Autism Spectrum Disorders: Identification, Education, and Treatment. Ed. Dianne Zager. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005. 3-39.
This article describes in greater detail the varied nature of the disorder, including definitions and degrees of affect associated with it.
Breakey, Christine. The Autism Spectrum and Further Education: A Guide to Good Practice. Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley, 2006.
This full length book provides a good overview of various approaches to treating autism in the field of education.
Bregman, Joel D. "Chapter 1 Definitions and Characteristics of the Spectrum." Autism Spectrum Disorders: Identification, Education, and Treatment. Ed. Dianne Zager. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005. 3-39.
This article describes in greater detail the varied nature of the disorder, including definitions and degrees of affect associated with it.
Learner-centered curriculum' in TESOL
The most important learning processes in any school anywhere in the world involve the use of several different means of communication. The communication methods may be verbal or non-verbal. Verbal communication involves the use of oral and written symbols that can communicate a message to the student, and non-verbal involves the use of, primarily, among other means, body language. Without communication there can be no means of telling the other person what one person wants or needs, and communication is used between teachers and parents, between groups, between the parents and the community, and also for the formation of interpersonal relationships and as the medium of instruction in a school. Any sort of behavioral problems in school would be dealt with by effective means of communication, and it can be stated that without communication there would be no education.
However, the culture or the background of…
Bacon, Suzanne. "Communicative Language Teaching" Retrieved From
http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/comlangteach/index.htm Accessed on 15 November, 2004
Counihan, Gerard. (July 1998) "Teach students to interact, not just talk" The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IV, No. 7. Retrieved From
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Counihan-Interaction.html Accessed on 15 November, 2004
e. cursing, swearing) and not using discriminatory language or language that is "racist, sexist, ageist" (Caldwell, 2004) or so forth. The concept of 'communicative competence" (Caldwell, 2004) is described as grammar that "relates to the nature of language teaching" in an approach." (Caldwell, 2004) that is fairly universally advocated in L2 teaching." (Caldwell, 2004) the mistakes that are made may either be in "form" due to lack of knowledge or through use of irregular past tense forms implying that grammar should be descriptive or mistakes in 'use" or knowing when the present perfect or the simple past tense should be used implying that grammar should be descriptive.
It is suggested by Tomlin (1994, pp. 141-42) that teaching communicative language in inclusive of (1) systematic attention to functional and structural aspects; (2) Situational and contextualized use of language in class; (3) Teaching and Learning being made transparent through representational support; (4)…
DeRolf, Judith D. (1995) English Communication Through Practical Experiences Kanto Gakuin Univeristy, Yokohama Japan 1995 March No. 24.
Brotoluzzi, Maria (2005) Blurring the Boundary Between Spoken and Written Language in EFL. Online available at http://iteslj.org/Lessons/Bortoluzzi-Boundary.htm.
Chou, Yen-Lin (nd) Promoting Learner's Speaking Ability by Socioaffective Strategies. Online available at http://iteslj.org/Articles/Chou-Socioaffective.html .
Greenbaum, S. (1996) the Oxford English Grammar, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
TESOL: Materials and Course Design
A situation analysis, giving all details availale efore the course egins:
New comers of the TESOL school scheme will e assessed for their English language proficiency y the teachers assigned y TESOL (Teaching of English to speakers of other languages). Programming system will e run under this teacher - memer of TESOL (Dorr, 2006).
This TOSEL teacher is assigned to assist and teach student in estalishing sound understanding of English language, coping with the required skills and academic strategies to assist the process of gaining firm proficiency in English language as necessitated y the course design and classroom environment (Dorr, 2006).
Teacher assigned y TESOL is also a memer of programming system as a support memer, the team of which is designed to develop a close relation with students and collaoration with other related groups including programming team, parents, other teachers, administrative staff and counselors…
bibliography of ESL resources: Suggestions for selecting materials & ircs top choices. Illinois Resource Center.
Hamayan, E., Marler, B., Sanchez-Lopez, C. And Damico, J. (2007). Special Education Considerations for English Language Learners: Delivering a Continuum of Services. Caslon Publishing.
Kieffer, M.J. (2008). Catching up or falling behind? Initial English proficiency, concentrated poverty, and the reading growth of language minority learners in the United States. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 851-868.
Linse, C. (2008). Language Issue or Learning Disability? Essential Teacher, 5/4, 28-30.
Roessingh, H. (2006). Early language and literacy development among young ELL: Preliminary insights from a longitudinal study and the dual language book project. [Power Point Presentation Slides] Retrieved online November 20, 2011 at https://webdisk.ucalgary.ca/~hroessin/public_html/Early%20language%20and%20literacy%20development%20among%20young%20ELL.%20old%20word.ppt
Teaching in the Self-Contained Classroom
Music, Art and Phys. Ed. In Self-contained classroom
In 1996, the United States Department of Education mandated laws that required school districts to create inclusive programs to integrate students with various disabilities into the general school population.
However, a study conducted by the National Council on disabilities in 2000 showed that most school districts have not transitioned into full mainstream classes. Instead, an estimated 20% of children with disabilities continue to spend their schooldays in self-contained classrooms, apart from the general school population (right and right).
Proponents of the self-contained classroom, however, believe that such settings can be advantageous, particularly for students with hearing impairments, mental retardation and those with physical or learning disabilities.
This paper examines how students in total or semi-self-contained classrooms can benefit from instruction in art, music and physical education. It looks at the challenges of teaching such classes and how…
Boyer, Lynn and Christine Lee. "Converting Challenge to Success: Supporting a New Teacher of Students with Autism." The Journal of Special Education, 35(2). Summer 2001. Wilson Database.
MacDonald, Victoria and Deborah L. Speece. "Making Time: A teacher's Report on Her First Year of Teaching Children with Emotional Disabilities." The Journal of Special Education, 35(2). Summer 2001. ProQuest Database.
Shapiro, Deborah R. And L. Kristi Sayers. "Who Does What on the Interdisciplinary Team: Regarding Physical Education for Students With Disabilities?" Teaching Exceptional Children, 35(6). July/August 2003. Wilson Database.
Wexler, Alice. "Painting their Way Out: Profiles of Adolescent Art Practice at the Harlem Hospital Art Studio." Studies in Art Education, 43(4). Summer 2002. ProQuest Databse.
" Shin (2006) Shin also states that the CMC literature "illustrates shifts of focus to different layers of context." Early on, research relating to CMC in language learning and teaching looked at the linguistic content of CMC text to examine how language learners could improve certain communication functions and learn linguistic figures through CMC activities (lake, 2000; Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995; Ortega, 1997; Pellettieri, 2000; Smith 2000, Sotlillo, 2000; Toyoda & Harrison, 2002, Tudini, 2003; Warschauer, 1996) Recent studies of "tellecollaborative projects have examined how language learners jointly construct the contexts of their CMC activities, as part of their focus on tensions among intercultural communication partners. (elz, 2003, 2003; Kramsch & Thorn, 2002; O'Dowd, 2003; Ware 2000, War & Kramsch, 2005) IN the study of Shin (2006) which was "informed by Ware's (2005) examination of a tellecollaborative communication project between American college students and German students" Shin (2006) looks into…
Introduction to Computational Linguistics (2006) Computer-Assisted Language Learning http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/ling361/ling361_call.html .
Lusnia, Karen B. (1000) Teaching Teachers Long-Distance: A Paradigm-Shift for the Teacher-Planner in Mexico - Applied Linguistics. Paper presented at the International Conference on Language Teacher Education.
Bakhtin, M.M. (1981). Excerpts from discourse in the novel. In M. Holquist (Ed.), The dialogic imagination: Four essays by M.M. Bakhtin. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Bateson, G. (2000). Steps to an ecology of mind: Collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Chicago, IL: University Of Chicago Press.
Journal for Lems Book (Chapter 1)
I would like to choose the "language-based learning theory," "English and new language: four domains and fifth domain," and the factor of "motivation" for second language acquisition (SLA). Second language acquisition has never been easy for any new learner of the second language and according to the language-based learning theory, there is a process including interrelated areas: learning language, learning content through language, and learning about learning (Wells, 1994, p. 42). The researcher affirmed that language is a skill and this phenomenon is tested in the classrooms where students need to learn English as a second language. For that, they need to be motivated; however, there can be many types of motivational factors for those students to learn a second language like English, for example, if a student plans to go abroad in an English state and wants to work over there, he or…
Al-Ghamdi, A.M. (2014). The role of motivation as a single factor in second language learning. ARECLS, 11. Retrieved from research.ncl.ac.uk/.../The%20Role%20of%20Motivation%20as%20a%20Single%20Fa...
Dornyei, Z. (1998). Motivation in second and foreign language training. Language Teaching, 31. Retrieved from www.zoltandornyei.co.uk/uploads/1998-dornyei-lt.pdf
ESL Kids Stuff. (n.d.). Lesson plans for ESL kids teachers. Retrieved from http://www.eslkidstuff.com/esl-kids-lesson-plans.html#.V3EDm1R941K
Furnham, A. (2015, January 10). What is body language. Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/sideways-view/201501/what-is-body-language
Speaking in the Target Language Is the Expectation That a Proficient Speaker Will Sound Like a Native Speaker
One of the most important aspects when talking about the impact of class size, level, student age and purpose of class in Iraq is the concept of 'willingness to communicate' between and amongst the teachers and students in the L2 setting. Research on WTC within the context of France, have previously been based around initial testing of teachers and students' enthusiasm in learning a L2 are more predisposed to depend on information gathered at one point of time, often gathering through a sole instrument and to regard only numeric conclusions. For instance, the wide cross sectional research by MacIntyre et al. (2002) which sought to identify the impacts of age and sex on WTC, employed a questionnaire that required the respondents to rank themselves on eight scales. It was carried out with…
In recent times, researchers and practitioners are focusing more and more in understanding the role of meta-cognition in reading. This is evidenced by the opinions proposed by researchers like Brown and Palinscar and Gracia and Pearson. As there exists dissimilarity between teachings of distinct expertise and making learners conscious of the inner processes that are carried on in the mind through meta-cognition, this field of research is significant on the whole. Individual readers, more frequently, encounter trouble in gathering together the right tactics to acquire holistic comprehension of text even though they may be able to carry out distinct abilities such as skimming and scanning, tolerating ambiguity, finding meanings from context and drawing inferences. eciprocal Teaching is one technique that has established to counteract this trouble and internalize the process of comprehension. (amaiyah, 1992)
What is eciprocal teaching?
For training students to develop into active readers, reciprocal teaching…
Davis, Chris. (Fall/winter, 2000) "Literacy in the Social Studies Classroom" Center X Forum. Vol: 1; No: 1. Retrieved from http://www.centerx.gseis.ucla.edu/forum/fall00/socialstudies.htm
Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Edwards, Julie. (Winter, 1995) "Reciprocal Teaching in the Fourth-Grade Science Program" Retrieved from http://education.umn.edu/carei/Reports/Rpractice/Winter95/reciprocal.htm Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Hartman, H. (1997) "Reciprocal Teaching: Human Learning & Instruction" Retrieved from http://condor.admin.ccny.cuny.edu/~hhartman/Reciprocal%20Teaching.doc Accessed on 18 February, 2005
Foreign Language Education in High School
The world has about 6,000 different languages, give or take a few. Linguists predict that at least half of those may have disappeared by the year 2050, which means languages are becoming extinct at twice the rate of endangered animals and four times the rate of endangered birds. Predictions are that a dozen languages may dominate the world of the future at best. (Ostler, 2002) For Americans, that's probably a good thing, since we are seemingly genetically engineered to maintain an appalling ignorance of other languages, and have narrowed down the choices we offer our young people to approximately one, Spanish, viewed by many to be the easiest foreign language to learn. It has been described in various places as having an 'impoverished vocabulary,' which means less work for Dick and Jane. The American education system so far is doing nothing to reverse the…
Clark, Leon E. "Other-Wise: The case for understanding foreign cultures in a unipolar world." Social Education, Vol. 64, Issue 7, 2000.
Garrett, Nina. "Meeting national needs: the challenge to language learning in higher education.
Change, 1 May 2002
Gramberg, Anne-Katrin. "German for business and economics." The Clearing House, 1 July 2001.
Although further education courses can be at traditional universities, they are generally taught through colleges that are exclusively venues for further education courses. These institutions are sometimes called "community colleges" after the American institutions that are similar. (Although American community colleges offer both post-secondary education as well as further or continuing education classes.) Other institutions that offer further education courses may offer a variety of work-based learning classes while campuses that offer adult and community learning coursework also frequently offer further education coursework.
As is appropriate -- and indeed perhaps necessary -- for further education programs designed to ameliorate the skills of a profession as important as teaching (as well as other professions such as social work, medicine, or law), there is an agency tasked with ensuring that teacher further education aligns with national goals for the profession's standards. The Learning and Skills Improvement Service (the LSIS was formerly titled…
Barbezat, D.A. (1987). 'Salary differentials by sex in the academic labour market', Journal of Human Resources, 22(3), pp. 422-28.
Becher, T. Academic tribes and territories: intellectual enquiry and the cultures of disciplines, Milton Keynes: Open University Press/SRHE. (1989).
Blackaby, D., Booth, A. And Frank, J. (2005). 'Outside offers and the gender pay gap: empirical evidence from the UK academic labour market', The Economic Journal, 115, F81-F107.
Tim Brighouse. "Comprehensive Schools Then, Now and in the Future: is it time to draw a line in the sand and create a new ideal?," Forum 45:1 (2003).
Teacher Gestures Affect Student Problem Solving
Learning is a process of brain development and change that is caused by diverse factors contributing to the learning experience of humans. Such includes mechanisms like speech and gestures.
This paper aims to study and provide information on the role of gesture mechanism in the learning process of students. From written articles and previous studies, this paper aims to gather and analyze data on how gestures affect change and development in the problem solving capabilities of children. It addresses issues on the fundamental role of using gestures in teaching: How are children's problem solving methods and approaches influenced by teachers' gestures?
Speech, naturally, is the very common approach of imparting thoughts and knowledge to anyone. It is the easiest way of expressing ideas, of presenting information, and of allowing the mind to picture what is being explained through verbalized characterization of the subject. Aside…
Begley, Sharon. (1998). Living Hand to Mouth.
Newsweek Vol 132(44), 69.
Flevares, L., Perry, M. (2001). How Many Do You See? The Use of Nonspoken Representations in First-Grade Mathematics Lesson.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 93.
In addition, characterising distance education as the most industrialised form of teaching and learning is also regarded as out of proportion and criticised because it is claimed that this characterisation is obsolete because for some time now we have been in a post-industrialist age (Peters, 3-4)."
Peters does, however, make a good point about the lack of pedagogy on the subject of distance education and learning. There is very little I way of research and analysis on that leads to an understanding as to the progress of distance education and learning as a viable method of education. It would see that, initially, because it was perceived by educators and mainstream universities as a product of "industrialization," little effort was made in the way of pedagogy to study and analyze distance education and learning.
That failure to build a body of pedagogy around distance education and learning has probably done more…
TESOL: Oral Language
Language form, communicative function, and social context all combine to affect students' oral language performance in the classroom, as each plays a part in applying a certain pressure on the student. For example, in the classroom, a student will naturally want to use the correct language form as it is a formal setting. At the same time, the conscientious student may also be aware that formal language is not typically used by peers, so there may be a reluctance to demonstrate a use of language that is not so common, especially if an ELL is having a hard time to fit in. Communicative function is also a factor in the students' performance in the classroom, as it relates to the concept of conveying meaning in whatever way possible. Just as a child will seek to get what it wants through oral commands that are not necessarily grammatically…
Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Peregoy, S., & Boyle, O. (2013). Reading, writing, and learning in ESL: A resource book for teaching K-12 English learners. Boston, MA: Pearson.
Final results reveal far better efficiency in the worksheets for sessions wherein the robot gazed away from, when compared with the session it gazed in the direction of the child, because the child had been entering the worksheets. This had been the situation particularly for the much more tough worksheet elements. These results emphasize the require for cautious execution of social robot conducts to prevent disadvantageous outcomes. Based on Herberg, Feller, Yengin and Saerbeck (2015), outcomes recommend that raising a robot tutor’s interpersonal conducts doesn't inevitably improve children’s studying habits, however at times can in fact hinder children’s learning efficiency. Children success-rate worsened in worksheet words translation activities the moment the robot tutor got involved in watchful conducts, as opposed to when it gazed away. In the worksheets for Latin translation, this kind of watchful drawback impact tended to happen mainly on the more tough elements, with the simpler elements…
Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
EFFETIVENESS OF MUSI ON VOABULARY
The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.
Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. omprehension is a major component of development of vocabulary, reading to learn. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words.…
Chapter IV: Results and Evaluation
The main purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of using music on vocabulary competence, writing, reading comprehension and motivation in English Language Learning in High school students as a part of the learning process in the classroom. Many teachers of English as a second language as well as the learners consider vocabulary as a critical factor in learning the language. Therefore it is important to develop creative and interesting ways of teaching vocabulary in English class. A qualitative study was appropriate for the research for the reason that the objective was exploratory (Creswell, 1998). The significance that was recognized to the singularities of teaching was examined with hermeneutic methods (Creswell, 2002).
In order to give a reply to the answer of the three research questions, mean scores and standard deviations were computed for each of the two groups on each of the three dependent measures at the ending of study. All three of the dependent measures are considered to be the evaluation of the sight-reading, the evaluation of the playing abilit, and the
English for academic purposes approach focuses on the reader, too, not as a specific individual but as the representative of a discourse community, for example, a specific discipline or academia in general. The reader is an initiated expert who represents a faculty audience. This reader, particularly omniscient and all-powerful, is likely to be an abstract representation, a generalized construct, one reified from an examination of academic assignments and texts (aimes, 1991).
Partnership Teaching is not just an extension of co-operative teaching. Co-operative teaching consists of a language support teacher and class teacher jointly planning a curriculum and teaching strategies which will take into account the learning needs of all pupils. The point is to adjust the learning situation in order to fit the pupils. Partnership Teaching is more than that. It builds on the notion of co-operative teaching by linking the work of two teachers with plans for curriculum improvement…
Davison, Chris. (2006). Collaboration Between ESL and Content Teachers: How Do We Know
When We Are Doing It Right? International Journal of Bilingual Education & Bilingualism, 9(4), 454-475.
Grover, Sam. (2009). Methods for Teaching TESOL. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from e-How
Web site: http://www.ehow.com/way_5403572_methods-teaching-tesol.html
Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…
Anderson, RC & Freebody, P 1981. 'Vocabulary knowledge'. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.),
Beck, IL, McKeown, MG & Kucan, L 2002. 'Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction'. New York: Guilford.
Becker, HJ 2000. 'Pedagogical motivations for student computer use that lead to student engagement'. Educational Technology, Vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 5-17. Viewed on 6 Mar 2013, [http://www.crito.uci.edu/tlc/findings/spec_rpt_pedagogical/ped_mot_pdf.pdf]
Brown, HD 2001. 'Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy'. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
There were some interesting results in the answers obtained. First, all six participants were between the ages of 15 and 18 and 100% of them had started studying the English language in grade 5 at home in Iraq. Another observation is that 80% of the Iraqi students reported that they were a full grade level below in Australia; the remaining 20% were two grade levels behind his or her current educational pace in Iraq. This interesting fact demonstrates that the Iraqi school system is behind the Australian school system and the Iraqi learners will need further 2nd language training.
The fourth question delves into the educational background of the Iraqi students parents. A Muslim belief dictates many of the findings because Iraqi females often are not schooled and in some cases are illiterate. Sixty percent of the males have college level education, 40% of the males have a military or…
In his seminal work, Second-Language Acquisition in Childhood, McLaughlin (1985) reports that early research into language acquisition by preschool children suggested that interference between languages is not as inevitable or universal as was once believed. "Contrastive analysis, in its traditional form, was not able to account for the vast majority of errors that second-language learners made; in fact, learners from quite different language backgrounds appeared to make the same types of mistakes in the target language," he adds (McLaughlin, 1985, p. 14).
Since these early studies into language acquisition, other studies have shown that transfer from the first language does take place in the speech of children from certain first-language backgrounds and at certain times during the learning process. Therefore, McLaughlin cautions that, "It is an exaggeration to say that transfer from the first language is minimal and unimportant. The acquisition of phonological, syntactic, and morphological structures in a…
Bakker, P. (1997). A language of our own: The genesis of Michif, the mixed Cree-French
language of the Canadian Maetis. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bialystok, E., & Hakuta, E. (1994). In other words: The science and psychology of second-
language acquisition. New York: Basic Books.
Students then move to advisory to discuss what they learned from the principal, then begins first period science class.
Science is tutorial based, but often broken up into groups of four for lab and experimentation work. Math lab includes a number of different activities that change out regularly.
Following math, the students meet for Art class, which varies daily in activities, social and spatial development.
Lunch and a brief recess follows.
First class after lunch focuses on learning tools combined with independent reading; teacher uses only worksheets as student activity after reading; question worksheet designed to uncover comprehension and vocabulary development
Next class is social studies, work in pairs, teacher uses a number of different strategies and course outlines for variety.
Final period of the day focuses on English, or ESL for international students.
Reviewing a typical day for Ahmad, however, shows some serious disconnects in terms of his continual…
What do Tom and Mary have in common?
Outside of the purview of this essay, but nevertheless vital to the arguments presented when dealing with multicultural education, one must understand that there is a rather hierarchical taxonomy regarding the topic: Conservative multiculturalism, which assumes that unsuccessful minorities come from culturally deprived backgrounds and require ethnicity "stripping" for economic success of the child; Liberal multiculturalism which formats the sameness of all groups and requires manifesting language, but remaining culturally aware of the base culture; Pluralistic multiculturalism that shares features with the liberal view but focuses more on learning about differences and integration of race into simply being part of the individual; Left-Essentialist multicultural that holds that the conservative element uses language and other educational means as a way to control a minority and that essential traits may be romanticized for effect; and Critical multiculturalism that takes race, class, gender and even sexuality and transcends to a larger, more complex, social struggle. See: Kincheloe, J. And S. Steinberg. (1997). Changing Multiculturalism. Open University Press; and D. Campbell (2008). Choosing Democracy, a practical guide to Multicultural education. Allyn/Bacon.
, notes at that there has been a "paucity of studies" on the effectiveness of video in teaching culture through foreign-language programs. Herron investigated whether students retain more ("little c") cultural "practices" or ("big C") cultural "products" by watching video in a second-language program (Herron, 1999, p. 522). Thirty-eight students were given a pretest before watching the 10 videos that were part of the French-language curriculum. Immediately afterward they were given a post-test. Interestingly, in terms of their evolving understanding of French culture, in 8 of the 10 total post-video quizzes, the students gave higher scores to their "little c" (understanding cultural practices) than to "big C" (cultural products). And 84.2% of the 38 students believed that the 10 videos showed "a lot or a vast amount" of little c (cultural practices in France) presented and 42.1% believed that "a lot or a vast amount" of big C (cultural products…
Herron, Carol, Dubreil, Sebastien, Corrie, Cathleen, and Cole, Steven. (2002). A Classroom
Investigation: Can Video Improve Intermediate-Level French Language Students' Ability
To Learn about a Foreign Culture? The Modern Language Journal, 86(i), 36-53.
Herron, Carol, Cole, Steven P., Corrie, Cathleen, and Dubreil, Sebastien. (1999). The
Second, it suggests that once an appropriate curriculum has been compiled -- one that produces the appropriate results -- then this very same curriculum should produce the same results every time it is employed properly. And third, it suggests that language itself cannot be conceived of as anything other than a response to an external stimulus; therefore, we, as teachers, should not be concerned with the internal, conceptual aspects of learning a language, and only with the observable, verbal responses that our teaching techniques produce. Of course, these stand as direct consequences of accepting the theory of behaviorism within the context of teaching ESL; however, my experience has shown that, if anything, the version of behaviorism that allows for consciousness is the most beneficial for developing an efficient and successful approach towards teaching.
Unfortunately for the theory of behaviorism, this phenomenon is not easily explained without the existence of internal…
Cain, M.J. (2002). Fodor: Language, Mind and Philosophy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections on Language, New York: Pantheon.
Cole, David. (2004). "The Chinese Room Argument." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, March. Available:
general education SDAIE or Sheltered English lesson plan based on the approach described in the course Writing Effective Lesson Plan textbook in a content area of history based on both the California English Language Art Standards and English Language Development standards. This paper states appropriate goals and objectives, objectives, outcomes, rationale, describe content presentation methods, instructional strategies, learning activities, technology, assessment techniques and teaching materials.
The lesson is for an 8th grade class of world history at the ABC School. There are a total of thirty students in the class and their ages range from 13-14 years. According to the information that has been provided by the cooperating teacher there are four are English learners in the class, three are re-designated English learners while two of the students have IEP's, from among these two one has auditory memory issues and the other has ADHD.
Crawford, A.N. (2005). Communicative approaches to second language acquisition: From oral language development into the core curriculum and L2 literacy. In C.F. Leyba (ed.) Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework 3rd Edition (pp. 65117). Los Angeles, CA. Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University, Los Angeles.
Cummins, J. (2005). Teaching the language of academic success: A framework for school-based language policies. In C.F. Leyba (ed.) Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework 3rd edition (pp. 3-31). Los Angeles, CA. Evaluation, Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University, Los Angeles.
Echevarria, A., Graves, A. (2007). Sheltered content instruction: Teaching English language learners with diverse abilities. Boston, MA. Allyn and Bacon.
Genzuk, M. (2011). Specially designed academic instruction in English (SDAIE) for language minority students. Center for Multilingual, Multicultural Research Digital Papers Series. Center for Multilingual, Multicultural Research, University of Southern California. Retrieved from http://www.usc.edu/dept/education/CMMR/DigitalPapers/SDAIE_Genzuk.pdf
articles regarding pedagogy to bridge the gap between practice and theory in education. We will see how new teachers can apply their freshly absorbed knowledge in order to benefit them in their fresh classroom environments in the area of ESOL teaching. Increasingly, immersion is seen to be effective in improving ESOL as well as it is in the teaching of foreign languages. What the study discovered is that interaction is the key in training children in ESOL
ESOL Effectiveness Online
In an article in Journal of esearch on Technology in Education analyzes the effectiveness ESOL students in communication using the agency of electronic discussion boards. The study focused on the use of electronic discussion boards equipped with ESOL students who were in grades K-12 in school. There has been a movement within ESL in recent years to concentrate on competency as opposed to grammar and form, hence the format…
Chiodo,, J.J. (2004). Do they really dislike social studies? A study of middle school and high school students. Journal of Social Studies Research, 28(1), 16-26 .
Lowery, N.L. (2002). Construction of teacher knowledge in context: Preparing elementary teachers to teach mathematics and science. School Science and Mathematics, 102(2), 68-83.
Zha, S., Kelly, P., Park, M.K., & Fitzgerald, G. (2006). An investigation of communicative competence of esl students using electronic discussion boards. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38(3), 349-367.
Another theorist with a different view is Chomsky (1988). Chomsky sees the acquisition of language as a process of input-output, what he calls a Cartesian view of language acquisition and language structure. He states: "We have an organism of which we know nothing. We know, or we can discover, what kind of data is available to it, and the first question we must try to answer is: what kind of mental structure does the organism develop when that evidence is presented to it?" (Chomsky, 1988, p. 102). Once we find an answer to this question, we can ask what sorts of processes have intervened leading form the data available to the knowledge that resulted. Chomsky explains:
The input-output situation is this: a child who initially does not have knowledge of a language constructs for himself knowledge of a language on the basis of a certain amount of data; the input…
Aitchison, J. (1998). The articulate mammal: An introduction to psycholinguistics. London:Routledge.
Appel, A. (2005) 'Dinner conversation' proof of ape speech? National Geographic News.
Brown, G. (1958). Words and things. New York: The Free Press.
Brain circuitry involved in language reveals differences in man, non-human primates (2001, September 5). Science Daily. Retrieved December 12, 2006 at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2001/09/010905071926.html .
The word layer is a figurative one in this case, as layers generally refer to more concrete items as in layers of cake or clothing. Similarly, the question about where the tree house landed is also an abstract one. The author never spells out exactly where the tree house landed. That information must be inferred from the text and places an extra burden on the ELL. Ms. Smith asks Elsa why the chapter is titled "Yikes!" when "Yikes!" is a slang word that is rarely used in the spoken language.
To foster Elsa's overall literacy development, Ms. Smith should consider the specific issues raised by this case study. A text like this one using past participle verb forms should be read aloud for better comprehension. Ms. Smith might also consider the advice offered by Lucas et al. (2008) to emphasize "communicative competence over formal accuracy." Because Elsa thrives in social…
Lucas, T., Villegas, A., & Freedson, M. (2008). Linguistically responsive teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education. 59(4). P. 1-9.
How Are Dual Immersion Programs Implemented?
Christian, Howard & Loeb (2000) describe how dual immersion programs are implemented and the effect that they have on students. The goal for these dual immersion programs is to develop a high level of proficiency in both the first and the second language, as well as grade level academic achievement and cross-cultural skills. Dual immersion programs are implemented according to the student population. The features and variations of the program depend on many factors, including local policy, the grade levels that are served, languages that are needed for instruction, and the time spent on each one.
Most dual immersion programs serve elementary level students, also, which is very limiting to the entrance of monolingual students after the third grade. That is due to the difficulty of students who need to catch up with bilingual competence after that grade. Students benefit from dual immersion programs,…
Baker, S.K., & Good, R.H., III. (1994, April). Curriculum-based measurement reading with bilingual Hispanic students: A validation study with second-grade students. Paperpresented at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children/NationalTraining Program for Gifted Education, Denver, CO.
Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development: language, literacy and cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Christian, D., Howard, E.R., & Loeb, M.I. (2000). Bilingualism for all: Two-way immersion education in the United States. Theory into Practice, 39(4), 258-266.
Cochran-Smith, M. (2003). Teacher education and social justice. Teacher Education Quarterly, 30(2), 7-116.
Their anticipated and desired results for their education, personal or practical, may vary widely in unpredictable ways. The attitudes towards educational processes may differ due to the greater and more diverse social and life experiences that color perceptions of classroom life, even more so than the raw educational materials used in the classroom. The teacher must balance addressing individual needs through conferences, personal contacts, and allowing for more independent research, yet also strive even harder to create a coherent class dynamic and unity between individuals with different schedules and belief structures. This may require greater management on a technical level as well as greater personal finesse than might be expected by an educator with experience only teaching undergraduates.
Eskensberger (2001) on the subject of "Action Theory" provides some interesting supporting evidence to address the difficulties posed by a mixed classroom of old and young learners, or adult learners of diverse…
Maps to increase comprehension for ESL's
English as a Second Language Learner
The academic achievement gap between linguistic minority groups and other students is a persistent problem for the American public school system (Thernstrom and Thernstrom, 2003). The pattern of underachievement and a high school dropout rate for Hispanic/Latino students among immigrant groups is particularly pronounced (Wong Fillmore & Meyer, 1992) Of the school-aged English Language Learner (ELL) population, 73% come from Spanish language backgrounds (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002), and their test results in reading are of particular concern as literacy skills are the building blocks for academic achievement. The gap between the test scores of Hispanic/Latino students and white students is a well documented phenomenon, existing throughout grades K-12 in both reading and mathematics (National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2003). According to the NCES (2000), 44% of foreign-born Hispanics fail to complete high school. A much lower percentage…
Alper, L. & Hyerle, D (2006). Thinking Maps: A language for leadership. Cary, NC: Thinking Maps.Inc.
Anderson, S., Yilmaz, D., & Washburn-Moses, L. (2004). Middle and high school students with learning disabilities: Practical academic interventions for general education teachers -- A review of the literature. American Secondary Education, 32(2), 19-38.
Ausubel, D.P. (1960). The use of advances organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful behavior. Journal of Educational Psychology, 51, 267-272
Bahr, G.S. & Dansereau, D.F (2005). Bilingual knowledge maps as a presentation format: Delayed recall and training effects. Journal of Experimental Education 73(2), 101-118
A major goal of learning is facilitation of basic literacy and language skills of difference students, the importance of which stems from a persistent school failure in the United States of students with Hispanic, African-American and American Indian background (Gay, 1994). Multicultural education can ease the tensions by teaching skills in a cross-cultural communication style that emphasizes interpersonal relations, perspective taking, contextual analysis and understanding differing points-of-view and frames of reference (Gay, 1994). Students must learn how their cultural condition may affect values, attitudes and beliefs, as well as preferences, expectations and behaviors (Gay, 1994).
As an experienced administrator working within the U.S. school system, I learned that within U.S. society there also still exists a strong ethnic prejudice as well as "ethnocentric values that are based and driven by cultural beliefs not based on fact; there is in fact a tendency in the U.S. To ascribe attributes and behaviors…
Gay, G. (1994). "A synthesis of scholarship in multicultural education." North Central
Regional Educational Laboratory. October 10, 2004, at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/area/issues/educatrs/leadrship/le0gay.htm
Gorski, P. & Covert, B. (2000). "Defining multicultural education." Multicultural
Pavilion. October 11, 2004, http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/initial.html
supervisor first handed me the stack of medical documents, case studies, and academic papers, my eyes bulged. As I had no formal medical training, much of the jargon looked like gibberish to me. In fact, I felt that I needed my own translator to turn the medial documents into plainer English. I quickly wondered how on earth I would be able to accomplish this task, and wondered if I had gotten in over my head. However, I took a deep breath and relaxed. My supervisor smiled at me, offering me a strong vote of confidence just by the look in her eyes. I smiled back and told her, "Of course!"
That marked the beginning of my successful career as a technical translator. Already a lover of languages and proficient in several, I wanted badly to become a professional translator so that I could channel my talents toward a viable goal.…
Because she knows that she is good in writing and improves consistently, Katya is encouraged to put a large amount of energy into writing. he has also attempted to submit some fiction to magazines, with somewhat limited success. Katya has shown some of her extracurricular articles and stories to teachers. According to her, the teachers have all been positive regarding her skills.
As mentioned above, Katya has always been a good and conscientious student, particularly in terms of language and numbers. he strategizes in terms of time, allocating a specific time per day for each subject that requires her attention. he also allocates this time in terms of the effort level required for each subject. For the subjects in which she has a lower level of interest, such as the natural and biological sciences, Katya attempts to allocate more time than she would to a subject in which she…
California Dept. Of Education (2007). DataQuest. http://dq.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/
Valdes, Guadalupe. (1998, Aug-Sept). The World outside and inside Schools: Language and Immigrant children. Educational Researcher, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 4-18. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1176090
"A Framework For Learning About Your Students."
Appendix A: Interview with ELL student
In "model sheltered instruction courses, language and content objectives are systematically woven into the curriculum of one particular subject area, such as 4th grade language arts, U.S. history, algebra, or life science" (Echevarria & Short 5). Students receive academic support in abstract-level reasoning as well as instruction in ESL. SIOP classrooms are extremely individuated, to take advantage of different levels of academic as well as linguistic proficiency.
Perhaps the most valuable insight of the BICS/CALS model is that it highlights how "problems arise when teachers and administrators think that a child is proficient in a language when they demonstrate good social English" (Hayes 2004, cited by Hernandez). For example, the child of Cambodian immigrants might have great experience in interpreting for their parents, and know how to speak English at a high level to order in a restaurant or to talk to customers at their parent's store, but they may…
Hernandez, Myra. ESL Guide for the mainstream teacher. Trenton k-12.
Retrieved March 26, 2009 at http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/robbins/ESL%20Guide%20for%20the%20Mainstream%20Teacher.htm#BICS%20and%20CALP
Ledbetter, Robin & Jin Seo. BICS/CALS. Cross culture Ed.
Retrieved March 26, 2009 at http://www.crosscultured.com/articles/bicscalp.pdf
Beth B. v. Lake Bluff School District 65
This case involved a determination of the appropriate placement for Beth B., a twelve-year-old girl with ett Syndrome. ett Syndrome, a condition that only affects girls, is generally considered a form of Autism and can significantly or profoundly impact a student's ability to function on several different dimensions. It is believed that her motor skills are somewhere in the five to seven-month range. The extent of her cognitive and communicative abilities are greatly disputed and formed much of the factual disputes underlying the case. The student is unable to speak, which, when combined with her motor deficits, makes it impossible to administer the types of tests that would normally be used to assess cognitive and communicative functioning. The professional educators who work with the student estimate her cognitive abilities to be in the 12 to 20-month range, while her parents and private…
Beth B. v. Lake Bluff School District 65
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 20 U.S.C.S. § 1412(a).
Nemours. (2012). Individualized education programs. Retrieved April 7, 2012 from Kids
Health website: http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/learning/iep.html
God, and the ord was God. So reads the first verse of the book of John, just two in a handful of bible verses I was made to memorize and recite before I was able to read. These verses and the ones preceding and following them were read to me nightly -- and often in the mornings as well -- by my mother, grandmother and grandfather in our home in the small Southern Baptist community of Perry, Georgia. In addition to the bible, I was read bible stories in books with colorful illustrations meant to engage children. The illustrations helped me to associate meaning with the words on the page, while the words themselves struck me as just another way of painting a picture. hen I was asked to recite the verses or stories read to me, remembering the picture the words described often helped me to remember the requested…
Brice, Shirley. Ways with words: language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.
An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…
references during the first half year of life: Evidence from German and French infants." Infant behavior and development 32(3), pp. 262-74.
Laroche, M.; Pons, F. & Richard, M. (2009). "The role of language in ethnic identity measurement: A multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validation." Journal of social psychology 149(4), pp. 513-40.
Nguyen, T.; Ingrahm, C. & Pensalfini, J. (2008). "Prosodic transfer in Vietnamese acquisition of English contrastive stress patterns." Journal of phonetics 36(1), pp. 158.
Turk, a. & Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (2007). "Multiple targets of phrase-final lengthening in American English words." Journal of phonetics 35(4), pp. 445-72.
Wyatt, J. (2007). "Skinner 1, Chomsky 0." Behavior analysis digest 19(4), pp. 13-4.
Why are you applying for a role in your chosen area? (Demonstrate your suitability for the position(s) sought.)
In September of 2002, I graduated with honors with a degree in Civil Electronic Engineering from the Free University of Brussels (V.U.B). Although I enjoyed studying this discipline and pursuing my degree, I have come to realize that my naturally extroverted personality is far more suited and more fulfilled in the fast-paced world of business and finance. This is why I have decided to apply for an entry-level position for the Financial Management Program (FMP) at General Electric.
I do not only seek an education for myself in my new, chosen field. I also believe that my background has given me, as a person, a good deal that I can offer to GE as a company. A civil electronic engineer, such as myself, is often confronted with highly complex mathematical…
IEP for Autistic Child
Although a lot of the work needed to be done will occur in the classroom and at school, it is crucial that Cody's parents remain engaged in the process so that they can continue working with Cody on developing the skills he is learning at school. Empirical research has shown how much more successful strategies are for autistic children when their parents are involved in the process. Thus, Cody's parents need to collaborate with school officials and work in close consort with one another in order to provide the most fruitful atmosphere for Cody's improvement.
First, Cody's family needs to be actively engaged in developing functional skills, including social, behavioral, and language skills. Thus, Cody's parents will be invited to meet the language pathologist, counselor, and special needs assistant that will be working with Cody in the classroom. Each week, the staff's plans for Cody's development…
Thus instrumental condition would rely on the notion that a person generates a response rather than an environmental stimulus. I have found that both people and stimulus may elicit certain behaviors both in and outside of the classroom.
Instrumental conditioning is modeled after animal experiments which showed that the individual's environment can reinforce response controls, thus the best responses occur when reinforcement of a particular behavior is given. This I have learned to be the case in the classroom most assuredly, where students are more likely to exhibit positive behaviors more frequently when they are reinforced immediately for demonstrating positive behaviors. Generally the patterns that emerge from such conditioning are self-directed, meaning that I have found that most students engage in behaviors and continue to engage in behaviors which they find result in a positive response regardless of the environment they are placed in.
With regard to controlling adverse behavior,…
Chang, Min-Yu S. (1998). "Learning Theory and Advertising." CIA Advertising. 23,
October 2004, Available: http://www.ciadvertising.org/studies/student/98_spring/theory/learning.html
Klein, S.B. (2002). "Principles and Applications of Appetitive Conditioning." Mississippi
State University. McGraw Hill. Education. 22, October, 2004, Available:
Competence in AASEC Outcomes
Pesonal Educational Philosophy
AASEC-1 Knowledge Base (CE299-1)
AASEC-2 Child, Family, and Community elationships (CE299-2).
AASEC-3 Observation and Assessment (CE299-3).
AASEC-4 Learning Environments (CE299-4)
AASEC-5 Ethics and Professionalism (CE299-5)
AASEC-6 Individuality and Cultural Diversity (CE299-6).
Use your Unit 1 Project
I am 47-year-old individual who grew up in Brooklyn, New York, in the public school setting. I grew up in the projects and my mother was a teen mother since she was 14-years old when my twin brother and I were born. In addition to loving basketball, my twin brother and I generally grew up in a rough neighborhood or environment.
The educational setting in which I participated was
The educational setting or context in which I participated was similar to normal educational settings. This setting was known as PAL, an afterschool program that assisted me with my school work and playing sports, especially basketball.…
Cherry, K. (2014). What Is Art Therapy? Retrieved from about.com: http://psychology.about.com/od/psychotherapy/f/art-therapy.htm
Riley, S. (2001). Art therapy with adolescents. Western Journal of Medicine, 54 -- 57.
sjcshk.com. (2007). What is Art Therapy? Retrieved from sjcshk.com: http://www.sjcshk.com/Art%20Therapy.html