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(osow, 1994, p. 797)
From this review there is a clear sense that success with regard to community college students is determined by their ability to successfully complete the first term of study, as well as by their ability to receive financial aide that adequately covers costs. Additionally, offering culturally diverse social interactions through both official and unofficial means also assists the minority student in achieving success through peer relations and potentially through recognition of role models.
In an experimental group establishing a residential learning community overall success in academic performance as well as satisfaction of first year attendance was achieved by students in this group. The group set out to establish early connections in college through a collective that allowed them greater opportunity for peer and mentor access, a situation that would likely greatly benefit the Latino student, inside or outside the Hispanic college community. (Johnson & omanoff, 1999,…
Baltimore, L. (1995). Collaboratives: Helping Hispanic students succeed. Thought & Action, 11, pp. 67-85.
Byrd, K.L., & Macdonald, G. (2005). Defining College Readiness from the Inside Out: First-Generation College Student Perspectives. Community College Review, 33(1), 22.
Chavez, L. (1991). Out of the Barrio: Toward a New Politics of Hispanic Assimilation. New York: Basic Books.
Dembo, M.H. (2000). Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success a Self-Management Approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Community College Course
Teaching a class at the community college level, particularly when there is a wide age range among adult students, presents different challenges from teaching in grades K-12. Adults approach learning differently than do children; they have varied reasons for wanting to learn and bring a range of perspectives and experiences to the classroom. Malcolm Knowles gained prominence for his attempts to develop a distinctive conceptual basis for adult learning based on andragogy (Smith, 2002). Androgogy is a self-directed approach, wherein learning is a response to real-world problems. Knowles' work represented a significant departure from the notion of "teaching people" toward "helping people learn."
There are biological differences in the range of learners for the hypothetical course that is the subject of this paper. Students who range in age from seventeen to their mid-twenties are maturing into full frontal lobe development. Their ability to see "the big picture"…
Jarvis, P. (1997). From pedagogy to andragogy. Adult Learning 9(5), 23.
Knowles, M.S. (1980). My farewell addres…andragogy -- no panacea, no ideology. Training and Development Journal 34(8), 48-50.
Ross-Gordon, J. (2011). Research on adult learners: Supporting the needs of a student population that is no longer traditional. Peer Review 13(1), pp. 26-29.
Smith, M.K. (2002). Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and andragogy.
Also, many are unprepared to complete tasks unique to community college such as teaching diverse students. Those faculty members in rural areas not only have to deal with those challenges, but also sometimes have difficulty adjusting to living and working in a rural area. Among those having difficulty, workload and students' abilities were cited as common disappointments in the work; however, most community college instructors have a high level of satisfaction in their jobs, which is usually caused by simply working with students.
How Community Colleges Understand the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning" discusses community colleges' focus on teaching as their primary goal, rather than research and scholarship, which is generally the main focus of universities. The American Association of Higher Education (AAHE) Carnegie Teaching Academy has suggested that community colleges focus on the scholarship of teaching and learning. Community colleges that change their focus from teaching as their primary…
Boggs, G.R. (2004). Community colleges in a perfect storm. Change, 36(6), 6-11.
Evelyn, J. (2004). State spending on community colleges is up, but so is tuition, survey finds. Chronicle of Higher Education, 51(11), 24.
Fields, C. (2004). Troubling times for community colleges. Change, 36(6), 4-5.
Floyd, D.L. (2003). Distance learning in community colleges: leadership challenges for change and development. Community College Journal of Research & Practice, 27(4), 337-347.
(North Carolina Community College, system 2004, critical success factors)
However, it must be mentioned that North Carolina is for the main part a public sector state, and it has a strong and a very well respected group of private Four-year colleges, and Community Colleges. While the four-year colleges in the state serve about 39% of all the undergraduates, the public Community Colleges serve about 43% of all students of the state. An important factor in North Carolina's Community Colleges is that the rate of tuition is very low, and at the same time, the state has been quite slow in building need-based state grant programs, because of their basic presumption that the needs of the economically backward students were being met by the Community Colleges. However, when the rats of tuition were hiked up during the 1990's, North Carolina was able to create a grant program for the students of…
Adult and Community College Education" Retrieved at http://ced.ncsu.edu/acce/ . Accessed 14 November, 2005
American Association of community Colleges Competencies for Community College Leaders"
Retrieved at http://www.ccleadership.org/resource_center/competencies.htm . Accessed 14 November, 2005
Basic Skills." North Carolina Community College System. Retrieved at http://www.ncccs.cc.nc.us/Basic_Skills/. Accessed 12 November, 2005
In both historic times as well as modern day era, the higher education institutions faced several financial challenges. After the WWII, the interest in the schooling department decreased significantly and so does today. Despite initial growths, various changes in the macroenvironment have forced stakeholders to switch their attention to other fields. Another recurrent problem is that of shortages in educational staff members. The matter can be explained by the simple fact that, due to reduced financial gains in the field, professors are often willing to turn their attention to other sectors. They for instance choose to work in the private educational sector, or to renounce education for all and practice what they used to teach. This matter is directly linked to the lack of sufficient financial resources, which also generates other shortages as well.
Historically as well as modernly, educational institutions have intensified their efforts to attract more and more…
Coming of Age in American Higher Education as a Troubled Giant, 1970 to 2000
Community college students are now able to use computer software, CD-ROMS, E-mail, and the Internet to enhance their foreign language skills. Over the past few years, it has become common for colleges and universities to update their technology to offer the best learning experience for the students and also to assist the teachers. Computers can increase productivity for school staff, helping them to organize administrative data and also to create and utilize lesson plans. Students and teachers alike are able to communicate and access information instantly, from anywhere. It is important to train language experts in the use of this technology so that the foreign language classes do not get left behind.
E-mail, a form of asynchronous communication, allows for free long-distance communication, and also the convenience of communicating outside of business hours and reading the messages at one's convenience, leading to increased communication between students and instructors. Synchronous communication,…
Using the World Wide Web for research and guided instruction is also beneficial. Students can use computers to create multimedia presentations for their assignments. Teachers need to study the technology that is available and reasonably guide the students into using it. Teachers must also be prepared to change their teaching methods and accept the new ways of utilizing information in the classroom.
Calderon-Young is very correct in her statement that there is wonderful technology available to schools and that it should be utilized. She is also correct in her evaluation of what benefits can be reaped from using computers and technology within the learning process. It is extremely surprising to me that readers today might find this article to be new or innovative, and in fact I found it to be almost humorous and absurd how these everyday technologies were being treated like alien concepts -- it almost read like satire. By 1999 when this article was written, use of computers and the Internet in an education setting should have already been the standard. Even in the 1980's, many classrooms found it to be standard to have access to at least one computer for student use. By the 1990's, The Internet was well established and part of mainstream culture. Today, it is considered to be the norm to have access to e-mail, Instant Messenger, and the Web -- many people don't even know their own phone number because they only communicate online. It is pathetic when, to this day, teachers will tell students not to use Internet sources, even when most journals and newspapers can now be found archived online, and these sources are just as "real" as ones printed on paper. It is also ridiculous that some teachers still tell students not to turn in typed papers because they may have cheated and used spell-check. Computers, The Internet, and technology are here to stay, and they should be integrated in every way with the educational experience immediately and fully.
Personally, as an instructor, I would make full use of any technology the school fit deem to provide. I would also constantly be petitioning the school to provide more funds for technology. While administrators may be spending money on paper, pens, postage, phone bills, text books, and other vital classroom supplies, all of these can be replaced by use of technology, which will save money in the long run after the initial investment. I would hope that every student would leave my class having full knowledge of how to use The Internet, E-mail, Word Processors, and Multimedia presentation software, and that their learning experience would be greatly heightened and made more enjoyable by use of these tools. Students are more than ready for technology, and it is only fair that the teachers and administrators catch up.
The strength of a multi-level analysis is its ability to analyze how higher levels of variables mediate the relationship between lower levels of variables. Thus, Hypothesis II is as follows: the more 'supportive' a community college is toward vocational education (along the lines described above for Hypothesis I), the smaller the race, gender, and SES gap in wages and use of training on the job."
8. Is the specific research design identified and described.
The research design is identified and discussed in great length, including identification of the independent and dependent variables. The dependent variables were wages and use of training student; and the independent variables were identified as: enrollment size, faculty (part-time/full-time), vocational emphasis, and availability of student services. The researcher used student transcripts and GPAs to construct the variables. Gender and race were not included on the list of independent variables, however these demographic factors were incorporated in…
Mobley, C. (2001, April) The impact of community colleges on the school-to-work transition: a multilevel analysis. Community College Review, 28, 1-30
Although community colleges have yet to be central to the debates over strengthening elementary and secondary education, some educational leaders have seen a role for them in strengthening American secondary education." (Baker, Dudziak, and Tyler 9)
Baker et al. further report that Dale Parnell, former president of the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), has advocated that community colleges work with area high schools to develop new, intensive technical education programs. These programs consist of two years of science and technology preparatory work in the high school followed by specialized technical training in the community college. In a similar vein, the American Association for Higher Education has sponsored a number of two-year and four-year college partnerships with high schools to strengthen the articulation of curricula and students between the cultures of secondary and higher education. (13)
Therefore, though society as a whole may not agree on whether or not community…
Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Brint S., and J. Karabel. 1989. The diverted dream: Community colleges and the promise of educational opportunity in America, 1900- 1985. New York: Oxford University Press.
Clowes DA., and B.H. Levin. 1989. Community, junior and technical colleges -- Are they leaving higher education?. Journal of Higher Education 60: 349-55.
Cohen A.M., and F.B. Brawer. 1989. The American community college. 2d ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The legislature then established the Community College Coordinating Board, which was later abolished in favor of the State Board of Community Colleges. Florida community colleges had become an important part of the post high-school education system. The FEPFA, the Florida Educational Facilities Planners' Association, Inc., was established in the 1960s to promote relationships and exchange of ideas between the Office of Education and FEPFA. The community colleges were asked to participate and attend meetings with this group and then become members (FEPFA History, 2004), signifying the importance of the community college. The name Junior College was dropped in favor of Community College by most colleges.
Florida's community colleges have gone a step further in serving the citizens of Florida. Some of the community colleges have initiated baccalaureate degrees, particularly in education, nursing and applied science. More community colleges in the state of Florida are requesting permission to do this. Additionally,…
Albertson, H. (2004). Chronological History of the Florida Community College System.
Retrieved November 15, 2004, at http://www.facc.org/historyfl.ccs.pdf
History. (2004). FCCDLC - Community College History. Retrieved November 15, 2004, at http://www.fldcl.org/org/consortnav/history.htm
History. (2004). Florida Educational Facilities Planners' Association, Inc. Retrieved November 15, 2004 from www.fefpa.org/history.htm
California Community Colleges serve an extremely diverse population; according to the report entitled "Achieving the Diversity Commitment" by the California Community College Trustees (CCCT), statistics show that there is no majority ethnic group in the state. Therefore, the CCCT is responsible for promoting and maintaining policies, pledges, and programs that will foster diversity and make California Community Colleges accessible and acceptable for all persons. As it stands now, African-Americans, Hispanics, and males in general fair poorer on academic assessments; moreover, people of color are underrepresented on the faculty and staff at California Community Colleges. Therefore, several measures are needed to address these diversity issues.
The report directly states the goals of the CCCT league, which range from employing special services and programs to ensuring that meetings, conferences, and workshops include content pertaining to improving the quality of diversity on school campuses. Additionally, public policy and research changes are required…
One, in particular, Edison State College, in Florida, is a two-year college that has an outstanding curriculum, and highly qualified staff. The college cooperates with a number of four-year colleges, affording students the opportunity to complete baccalaureate degrees in some majors while taking classes at Edison State. Many of the colleges are impressive, like the University of Florida, Florida State University, Nova Southeastern University, and others. These partner colleges and universities are all accredited, and have rules of performance and grade averages that students must meet and maintain in order to be accepted into those institutions. This, too, would suggest that Cohen and Brawer are flawed in their assessment of students who choose to attend two-year colleges.
Cohen, Arthur M., Brawer, Florence B., and Lombardi, John R. (Foreward by) (2008),
The American Community College, 5th Edition, Jossey-Bass, Inc., Publishers, NY, NY.
Edison State Community College, Baccalaureate Partners (2009),…
Cohen, Arthur M., Brawer, Florence B., and Lombardi, John R. (Foreward by) (2008),
The American Community College, 5th Edition, Jossey-Bass, Inc., Publishers, NY, NY.
Edison State Community College, Baccalaureate Partners (2009), found online at http://www.edison.edu/universitycenter/offering.php, retrieved 8 January 2009.
Community Colleges & Universities -- Comparisons
hat are the major differences between community colleges and four-year colleges and universities as far as financial and academic appropriateness for students? For millions of Americans, community colleges have an enormous advantage over four-year colleges and universities -- but what are those advantages? This paper will examine those and other issues relating to the community college vs. A four-year college / university.
Community Colleges and Universities - Comparisons
There are an estimated 2,604 four-year colleges and universities in the United States, according to data in U.S. News & orld Report. There are an estimated 1,151 community colleges in the U.S. As well. Of those, about 1,000 are public community colleges, and the remainder are funded through private channels (American Community Colleges).
The original intent of a community college (in the past they were called "junior colleges" but that title had a slightly un-dignified sound…
American Community Colleges. "Consider a Community College When Studying in the United
States." Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.americancommunitycolleges.com .
de Vise, Daniel. "More university students taking advantage of cheaper community college courses." The Washington Post. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from http://www.washingtonpost.com .
Community colleges are well suited to provide many of these basic courses, both for students who will later leave for a larger college and those who attend community college for other reasons.
When it comes to who decides what courses should be offered at the community college, college administrators and teachers are better suited than students in the matter. Educators and administrators have a greater view of what students need to succeed in a job and at other schools. They are more likely to understand the trends within certain fields. Additionally, as advisors and educators, they have a responsibility to turn out graduates who are able to successfully find jobs based on their skills. While students may feel like they understand what they are doing and where they are going, many students simply do not have the perspective needed to guide their own educations.
While community colleges must offer courses…
Dual enrolment has become a popular phenomenon in the education realm in the last one decade. Community colleges are increasingly collaborating with high schools to enable high school students undertake college-level courses while still in high school. This prepares high school students for the realities of college education and socialises them into the norms, attitudes, behaviours, and expectations of college life, in addition to reducing the time and cost of college education. However, challenges such as difficulties in credit transfer, little or no confidence in dual credit courses on the part of colleges and faculty members, lack of a strong policy framework, and ensuring equitable participation abound. These are concerns that college administrators must handle if dual enrolment is to be more successful. It is particularly important for the leaders of community colleges to adjust structures, processes, and practices at their institutions if the fairly new collaboration between secondary and…
Price -- The community college's evening program should market its product to the target audience by giving discounts to recently laid-off workers and to those whose return to formal education is necessitated by circumstances attributable to the current economic recession.
Place -- The community college's evening program should include distance-learning (or virtual learning) opportunities in addition to traditional, on-
site classroom formats. In addition to lowering overhead costs whose savings can be passed along to customers within the framework of the Price elements, they also increase the flexibility of the programs to allow more potential customers to fit education into their busy lives.
Promotion -- The community college's evening program should be promoted most aggressively through online media, especially those linked to Internet job-search websites. That is because the Internet is fast becoming the primary way that people look for jobs.
C) What environmental factors (uncontrollable variables) must the college…
Minority Transfers to Four-Year Universities
In California today, over 70% of public school students and 50% of those in community colleges are black and Hispanic and the entire education system suffered greatly because of budget shortfalls in the last three years. Community colleges have an open admissions policy, unlike four-year universities, but also have a high drop-out rate for poor and minority students. According to the UCLA Civil Rights Project, in California, over 70% of minority students in community colleges failed to transfer to four-year universities in six years (Tlatenchi 2012). Most of these students are also low income and from schools that perform poorly at preparing students for university level work, and the education cutbacks have affected them the most, limiting their access to higher education even further. Old affirmative action policies always had the reputation of admitted unqualified students to universities, but new federal rules that still permit…
Tlatenchi, Fredy. "UCLA's Civil Rights Project Reports how Minorities can Transfer to Four-year Universities Quicker." Daily Sundial, March 7th, 2012.
Wong, Linda. "Rule Changes That Could Boost Minority College-Going," January 15, 2012. Think USC.
The administrations, however, had not really planned for this type of cultural change. Authors Locke and Guglielmino provide a broad overview of materials that focus on the types of sociological and cultural change and adaptations necessary that will enhance the experience within both subcultural groups and American students.
These changes have prompted many community colleges to reexamine their purpose, role, and ultimate mission statement to meet emerging challenges and capitalize on new opportunities. It is really more of a relationship between integration and organizational culture that will need to handle significant change without any adverse effects. For example, American students should be able to take advantage of opportunities to interact with students from other cultures, but the level of instruction should not be diminished in classes that have large groups of non-English speakers. In order to maintain a standard that contributes to the higher academic needs of both the university…
Cited in: http://www.aifsfoundation.org/pdf/Globalization.pdf
McJunkin, K. (2005). "Globalization of the American Community College."
Community College Journal of Research and Practice. 29 (4): 329-34.
National Commission on Community Colleges, (2008). "Winning the Skills Race
And Strengthening America's Middle Class: An Action Agenda for Community Colleges. Center for Innovative Thought, College Board.
A typical example of a recent high school graduate is that of Erica Espinosa, age 18, a graduate of Northwest High School in Germantown, Maryland. Erica was accepted at the University of Maryland at College Park, which costs $21,163 for tuition, fees and housing and several other four-year schools but chose a full scholarship honors program at Montgomery College, where she can attend school for free and live at home. Her twin sister Ivone will study at a community college as well. "It's a way to save money and have money to pay for the next two years and not come out with a big debt," said Erica, "It's too risky now to try anything else" (Strauss 2009). Right beside Erica are students from the financial industry, seeking to enter sectors of the job market with greater growth potential, such as that of healthcare and education. Community colleges enable adults…
Onaran, Yalman. (2008). Colleges flunk economics test as Harvard model destroys budgets. Bloomberg.com. Retrieved June 19, 2009 at http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601010&sid=aoglHAxZffTI
Strauss, Valerie. (2009, May 31). Community colleges get student influx in bad times/
The Washington Post. Retrieved June 19, 2009 at
I am a 26-year-old male community college student. I live in an Francisco, California, but was born in Korea and lived there until I was 22. I am an international student majoring in the Health ciences. I decided that moving to the United tates and pursuing my educational and career goals would offer me a chance to expand both personal knowledge and gain greater insight into a different cultural experience. Certainly, this has been the case. Not only are customs completely different in the United tates, but communication and expectations are as well. While an Francisco is a major city, and at times crowded, it is nothing like the wall-to-wall experience of people in Asia. Additionally, I know from my studies that America is considered a large "melting pot," but I was certainly never prepared for there to be so many different ethnicities and diverse people all grouped together in…
La Bier, D. (30 November 2010). How Volunteering Affects the Volunteer. Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/douglas-labier/how-volunteering-affects-_b_788584.html
Austin Community College is an institution designed to help prepare students through higher learning. The community college was established in 1972 with nearly 2,400 students. By 1991, through rapid expansion, the community college had over 40 facilities and over 23,000 students. Although this growth in the overall enrollment of the community college was impressive, it was not without its difficulties. For one, Austin Community College had lackluster facilities with the communities in which it operated in. Although ACC operated 40 facilities, these facilities were quickly becoming obsolete due to rapid depreciation. In addition, many of these facilities were not owned outright by ACC. Instead, many of these facilities were leased from third-party venders. As a result, the facilities were not created to handle a rapidly growing student population. The cramped space within the facilities created high demand for larger more user-friendly accommodations. The problem faced by ACC was on of…
1) Charlotte Christiansen et. al, The Risk Return Trade-off in Human Capital Investment, 14 LABOR ECON. 971, 984-85 (2007)
2) Ewell, P.T. (1999). Assessment of higher education and quality: Promise and politics. In S.J. Messick (Ed.), Assessment in higher education: Issues of access, quality, student development, and public policy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum
3) Haley, K., Hephner LaBanc, B., & Koutas, P. (2011). New school, new job, and new life: Transitions of graduate assistants in student affairs. Journal of College Orientation and Transition, 18(2), 5-19
4) Kasper, H.T. (2002). The changing role of community college. Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 46(4), 14 -- 21
hat are the most significant student demographic changes at this school over the past ten years?
The most significant changes at the school include Edison's expansion of its child care facilities and its single parent assistance program. These have been instrumental in enabling more women with children to attend the school and helped more women make the transition from stay-at-home motherhood back or into the workforce. Also, Edison has grown more professional in its orientation, and attracted a wider range of people studying for their Bachelor's because of its expanded course offerings. Its demographics remain constant in some ways: according to the College Board, 96% of students are in-state, 78% are hite/Non-Hispanic, 9% are Hispanic, and 8% are Black, with less than 1% Asian/Pacific Islander, American or Alaskan native, and 1% unreported. However, Edison has become more diverse in other ways. During the 1990s, Edison's expansion of its physical space…
Current students." (2008). Edison Community College. Edison Community College. Retrieved Sept 2008 at http://www.edison.edu/current/
Edison College." (2008). College Board. Retrieved Sept 2008 at http://collegesearch.collegeboard.com/search/CollegeDetail.jsp?collegeId=544&type=qfs&skey=Edison
History of Edison Community College." (2008). Edison Community College. Retrieved 9 Sept 2008 at http://www.edison.edu/about/history/history.php
Diversity in employment within community colleges seems higher than that of four-year colleges and universities on the national level. Research indicates community colleges engage more actively in recruiting and retaining more women and minorities than that of four-year colleges. Recent literature (within the last five years) explains some of the steps communities and community colleges have taken to become more inclusive. This shows not only that community colleges are willing to hire more minorities and women, but that there is also a climate more accepting of hiring minorities and women.
Community colleges undertake a variety of tasks for the satisfaction and success of their students. That is why diversity in faculty may help community colleges achieve their goals. In an article by Hughes, the author explains the need for community colleges to adapt strategies to not only recruit diverse faculty, but also retain them. He also states the inherent challenge…
Education - Theory
Addressing etention Issues in Community CollegesUsing Transition and Ecological/Environment Theory
Many community colleges face serious retention issues that affect student performance, persistence, and learning. The rationale employed in identifying alternative assessments involves overriding standardized test validities and predictive reliability issues. However, there are concerns regarding the derived holistic understanding among student outcomes. The goal of providing college educators through alternative supplemental approaches facilitate standardized testing of various evaluative measures as introduced. The issues of student self-assessment and social and value-added assessments, evaluations, and personal growth portfolios within community colleges had increased. The design suggests an institution of the writing and implementation of parallel outcomes in the studies are linked to different fundamental questions serving as subjects of confirm relevance to campus dynamics and student success.
The levels involved in making the students leave or stay are informative points on student engagement. This includes social and academic connection…
Braxton, J.M., & Doyle, W.R. (2013). Rethinking College Student Retention. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological Models of Human Development. International Encyclopedia of Education, vol. 3, 2nd ed., 131-214.
Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guido-DiBrito, F. (2010). Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.
Forney, E., & DiBrito, G. (1998).Student Development in College: Theory, Research, and Practice. pp. 111-114.
To train those college students who aim to join the teaching profession;
To provide the teachers with a wide spectrum and grounds for exploration so that they can apply their knowledge and ability in a way that boosts the overall educational standards of the institution and the students;
To design a schedule and academic profile that aims to purely heighten the academic and social growth of the students; and to support and carry out studies that will in eventuality help escalate and improve the educational standards at not only the school level but also the college and university levels.
Harkavy (1998) believes that the partnership between the school, community and the university is far more complex and inter-dependent that believed by the masses. In his study he brings forth new theories and explanation of his statement with the help of annals and current studies and examples. He feels…
Anderson, B.D., & Stetler, E.G., & Midle, T. (2006). A case for expanded school-community partnerships in support of positive youth development. National Association of Social Workers, 28(3), 155-163.
Beaumont, J.J. & Hallmark, D.L. (1998). Introduction: School-university partnerships in urban settings. Urban Education, 32(5), 557-560.
Beaumont, J.J. (1998). Administrator and researcher: Conflicting dual roles in directing a school-university partnership. Urban Education, 32(5), 645-660.
Becker, J. (1999). Partnerships with families promote TRIO student achievement. (ERIC Document 432197)
Community College Leadership
Specializing as a community college leader is a good opportunity to enhance my degree path in Education. By obtaining a doctorate in education and specializing in Community College Leadership, I can address some of the issues that impact students coming into the university for the first time as well as issues that affect other students who are looking for direction and needing assistance with applying their education to the real world (in terms of finding a career, for instance, or in just finding the right path forward for them). Community colleges are known for being smaller-scale higher education settings as compared to larger universities that are famous across the nation for having high profile athletics programs or high reputation academic programs. Community colleges tend to offer more affordable rates of tuition to students who are simply seeking an education at the university level without the fanfare of…
Dobbs, D. (2011, October). Beautiful brains. National Geographic, 220(4), 36-59.
Jimerson, S., Renshaw, T. (2012). Retention and social promotion. Principal Leadership: 12-16. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tyler_Renshaw/publication/271652282_Retention_and_Social_Promotion/links/54cf21780cf29ca810fd8eeb.pdf
Lickona, T. (1993). the return of character education. Educational Leadership, 51(3):
University of Washington will give me a cherished opportunity to meet many of my academic and personal goals. I have always had a passion and interest for my intended major of interior design. In many ways, this stems from the fact that drawing and painting give me with a powerful and effective method to communicate with others. Though painting and the use of lines, I can communicate feelings that are often difficult to express in other ways. Even as a child, I was been blessed with the gift of artistic ability, and learned to reach others through this gift. I am excited to be able to attend an interior design program at the University of Washington, where I can continue to reach others through this gift. I look forward to learning more about art, and combine my abilities and gifts with new skills.
I have a passion about art. I…
Consequently a student when graduate is already under debt thousands of dollars. Most of the time those students are awarded aid that are need-based but quite a number of students are entertained based on academic merit, sports ability or musical talent rather than financial need. Universities gave almost half of their $14.5 billion in scholarship money in 2000 to students based on merit or ability.
Students gaining admissions and financial aid could still display poor result as shown by the 1996 study of UCLA according to which there were less than 40% students who finished their degree in the first four years of joining university, a decline by 7% from 20 years ago.
As the large some of public money goes into the higher education system public definitely do take cognizance of who is taking advantage of the scheme and how much is been spent. Majorities say it's important to…
1]the state constitution of 1974
http://senate.legis.state.la.us/Documents/Constitution/Default.htm Accessed March 8, 2007
http://www.publicagenda.org/research/research_reports.cfm Accessed March 8, 2007
Through internships, students get an insider's view of the many facets of the criminal justice field, which is under the supervision of a full-time faculty member. The major in this particular field also offers a summer study abroad program that offers credit for the opportunity to study other countries' criminal justice systems.
In addition, most of the colleges and universities offer bachelor's degrees in criminal justice. hile, many colleges also offer graduate degree programs. A bachelor's degree in criminal justice is received generally in four years. hile, two-year programs in criminal justice is offered by majority community colleges, which can be transferred to a four-year college or university. Furthermore, graduate programs take from two to five years after bachelor's degree (Hobsons College View). Most people with graduate degrees become high-level administrators or professors.
Also, criminal justice programs provide extra training for students who are already occupied in correctional administration, security…
Area of Study: Criminal Justice. Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. September 2004. www.acjs.org
Criminal Justice Studies. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Criminal Justice Studies. Hobsons College View.
Troubled Youth and Aged Individuals: Contemporary Community Case Study
There are two age groups in the present population with specific needs required to fulfill and direct them at a pivotal moment in their life's development when paired together represent reciprocal provision of care during a critical stage in the lives of each of these two representative groups of contemporary society. The two age groups at focus in this study are today's youth and the present aged population in the community. Youth are disproportionately characterized as having behavioral problems and the community elders are a reservoir of guidance for these youth who in return have much to offer the aged as well.
The research proposed in this specific study involves collaboration with teacher, the school board, and counselors to prepare a method of providing school credits in return for volunteer work on the part of students who are also categorized as…
A Year's Worth of Mentoring Activities: 52 Ideas -- One for Each Week of the Year, Legacy Project. Retrieved from: http://www.legacyproject.org/valentinekit/part1/yearsworthmentoring.pdf
Bosak, SV (nd) Effective Mentoring. Retrieved from: http://www.legacyproject.org/guides/mentors.html
Elements of Effective Mentoring Practices (nd) Legacy Project. . Retrieved from: http://www.legacyproject.org/valentinekit/part1/effectivementoring.pdf
MENTORING INITIATIVES: An Overview of Youth Mentoring. A Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Conference and Meeting Document. April, 2000. Retrieved: http://www.nationalfamilies.org/parents/mentor.pdf
Community Colleges in America
In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…
Altbach, Philip G., Gail P. Kelly, and Lois Weis, eds. Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.
Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Diaz, David P., and Ryan B. Cartnal. "Students' Learning Styles in Two Classes Online Distance Learning and Equivalent On-Campus." College Teaching 47.4 (1999): 130-135.
Miller, Richard I., Charles Finley, and Candace Shedd Vancko. Evaluating, Improving, and Judging Faculty Performance in Two-Year Colleges. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.
Money can help bring about the truly necessary elements, however, and without proper funding the ability to give a good public education to eth hundreds or thousands of students most serve becomes a true practical impossibility. There are numerous elements of providing an education that require an investment of financial resources, and like most things in this world you get what you pay for when it comes to education. A higher price tag doesn't guarantee a successful and high-quality education, but a low price tag all but guarantees a poor one.
One of the ways in which underfunding makes it almost impossible for a good education to be delivered is in the selection of educators. If the overall employment arena can be viewed as a market system, and it is very common and very reasonable to view it in just this manner, then job seekers will tend to seek out…
Denney, John. Colorado Education Underfunded by 'Unconscionable' Billions, Judge Rules. Huffington Post. (2011). Accessed 4 May 2012. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/12/12/colorado-education-underf_n_1143753.html
DiCarlo, Matthew; Johnson, Nate, and Cochran, Pat. Survey and Analysis of Teacher Salary Trends 2007. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers, 2007.
This discussion will cover community-based business, overview of sustained community- based business, social enterprise, weaknesses of community-based business and success and failures of social enterprises.
A sustainable business can be referred to as a business that is operating within a friendly environment or take part in green activities in ensuring that every products, processes as well as manufacturing activities address the current environmental concerns adequately in as much as the profit margin is maintained. The description can be narrowed to; business that meets the needs of the current world while having no compromise on the future generation's ability so that they meet their own needs; or a process of assessing ways of designing products that are going to take advantage of the recent situations of the environment as well as the degree at which products of the company perform with renewable resources.
Some reports emphasize sustainability to be…
Berkes, F., and I.J. Davidson-Hunt, (2007). Communities and social enterprises in the age of globalization. Journal of Enterprising Communities 1:209-221. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from http://www.thecommonsjournal.org/index.php/ijc/article/view/206/107
David Kam 2008"Threadless - Community-Based Business" Ezine article. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from http://EzineArticles.com/1340820
Lionais, D. (2002). Mondragon: Experiment in Cooperatives or Community business? Canadian Association of Studies in Cooperatives Annual Conference 2002, Congress of the Social Sciences and Humanities, Toronto, Ontario.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (1984). Obstacles and aids to the development of community business ventures. Community business ventures and job creation: Local initiatives for employment creation. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Community esponse to ace and Criminal Justice
The Georgia Department of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), in Decatur, GA was chosen for this assignment. The department is responsible for serving the state's youth offenders up until the age of twenty-one. The organization's mission as stated on their web page is: "Our Mission is to protect and serve the citizens of Georgia by holding young offenders accountable for their actions through the delivery of services and sanctions in appropriate settings and by supporting youth in their communities to become productive and law-abiding citizens" (http://www.djj.state.ga.us/AboutUs/AboutUsOverview.shtml). Cathy Dravis, the Juvenile Program Manager was interviewed. Below is a summary.
When asked how they view the issue of the disproportionate amount of African-American males arrested for drug distribution vs. Caucasian and Hispanic males, the response was that the person's environment that they grew up in plays a large role in shaping their adult lives. Many…
DJJ - About Us. (n.d.). DJJ Internet Home. Retrieved May 16, 2012, from http://www.djj.state.ga.us/AboutUs/AboutUsOverview.shtml
Grunwald, H., Lockwood, B., Harris, P., & Mennis, J. (2010). Influences of neighborhood context, individual history and parenting behavior on recidivism among juvenile offenders. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 39(9), 1067-1079. doi:10.1007/s10964-010-9518-5
Ryberg, J. (2011). Racial profiling and criminal justice. Journal Of Ethics, 15(1/2), 79-88. doi:10.1007/s10892-010-9098-3
Western, B. (2010).Decriminalizing poverty. Nation, 291(26), 12-14.
The "Sport for All" program was initiated by the reformist Labour Government during the 1970s. Its aims and objectives included the increased community involvement of underrepresented groups (such as the unemployed) and the breaking down some of the exiting barriers to participation in sports. To a large extent, those initiatives consisted of financial and other resource investment in large-scale sports facilities. Unfortunately, the comparative absence of sports development structures within those facilities has greatly reduced their ability to provide the benefits envisioned for their communities, notwithstanding the dedication and professional experience of facility managers.
Explain difference in the roles of the Community Sports Development Officer and the traditional Sports Development Officer.
In keeping with the fundamental purpose of community sports development in general, the role of the community sports development officer relates substantially to the use of sport as a means to achieve other (i.e. non-sport-related) objectives. Conversely, the role…
Citizen Film (2010). Maquilapolis - Promotoras. Retrieved Dec 1, 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nVWsBVoSGdo [VIDEO
Community Advocacy Program (2009). Beyond Medicine: Removing Legal Barriers to Health. Retrieved Dec 1, 2011 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=egrm6csKERg&NR=1 [VIDEO]
The basic theme of both programs is a micro view of health care and the ability to see how the environment that surrounds the poor can contribute to healthcare issues. The poor not only cannot afford insurance or it is denied them, the circumstances surrounding the environmental issues the poor are subject to are primary in terms of disease prevention. While this population group needs to take responsibility for healthcare, there should be no reason in the 21st century why factory work is unsafe, the environment toxic, and there be no access to care as needed. Instead, the Promotera model allows work to be done at the grassroots level, where we have seen through the Civil…
Community esearch and Action
Organizations for Participatory esearch: Society for Community esearch and Action (SCA) and WK Kellogg Foundation (WKKF)
In this comparative analysis of two organizations that are involved in participatory research, a field I am particularly interested in, the Society for Community esearch and Action (SCA) and W.K. Kellogg Foundation (WKKF) can be considered at the forefront in promoting this kind of research in the academic and social communities they work with, respectively. The question-and-answer type of discussion below discusses the organizations' respective Code of Conduct or documents available in their websites that discusses how their members are expected to behave within the organization:
How extensive are the codes from the two organizations/associations?
SCA has published in its website a page dedicated to its Vision-Mission, Goals, and Guiding Concepts, while WKKF has a Code of Ethics that briefly states specific codes of conduct for its members and partners.…
Society for Community Research and Action Official Website: http://www.scra27.org/about
WK Kellogg Foundation Official Website: http://www.wkkf.org/who-we-are/code-of-ethics.aspx
Kellogg Company Official Website: http://www.kelloggs.com/en_US/home.html
ather than treating their problems, the community attempts to punish them for their behaviors, placing them in systems where they rarely have access to the type of treatment that will teach them how to avoid engaging in further antisocial behaviors (Thomas & Penn, 2002). In fact, the overrepresentation of mental illness in the juvenile delinquent population as compared to the normal population suggests that the shifting of ill kids to the criminal justice system is commonplace.
Even more troubling is the idea that juveniles who are not involved in the criminal justice system but who experience significant mental health issues may not have access to mental health care. Out-of-pocket expenses for residential mental health treatment for adolescents are exorbitant, even for parents with health insurance. Copays can literally be thousands of dollars a week. However, parents who cannot afford those costs may find the state unwilling to help them; parents…
Texas Department of State Health Services. (2010, December 21). Mental health. Retrieved May 15, 2013 from State of Texas website: http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/mentalhealth.shtm
Thomas, C.R. & Penn, J.V. (2002). Juvenile justice mental health services. Child Adolesc
Psychiatr Clin N. Am, 11(4), 731-48.
It would be helpful to have public awareness campaigns designed to help community residents be aware of the need to test their homes and their bodies for radon content. Funding from federal, state, and local sources might be available to establish a public awareness campaign. In fact, a public awareness campaign related to radon might be sponsored by a public health organization including but not limited to the Environmental Protection Agency. The National Institutes of Health might also provide the means by which to devise effective public health awareness campaigns as well as specific intervention programs. In fact, the National Institutes of Health also offer materials that I could publish in lieu of a community-specific guide. These documents offer general information that homeowners might be happy to have, and they are available in Spanish as well as English (National Institutes of Health, 2013). I might need to analyze the demographics…
Description: A court-ordered sanction that puts the offender back into the community but under the supervision of a probation officer. Probation can be assigned to follow jail time (provided good behavior while incarcerated), and it may include having the offender pay a fine, do restitution, and perform community service activities as well (www.pwcgov.org)
Advantages: a) Instead of serving time in prison or a county jail the offender gets an opportunity to return to the community albeit under stringent requirements; b) it is basically like a second chance for the offender, and if he or she takes advantage of the opportunity and follows the rules, it can be a blessing for the offender and a savings of money for the correctional system
Disadvantages: a) This is not technically a "disadvantage" but if the terms of the probation are not met (for example, if the person on probation fails to…
Findlaw. (2010). Restitution. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://criminal.findlaw.com .
Prince William County, Virginia. (2010). What is Probation? Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.pwcgov.org .
U.S. Department of Education. (2011). Community-Based Correctional Education. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ovae/pi/cclo/index.html .
U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Electronic Monitoring Reduces Recidivism. Retrieved February 18, 2013, from http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov .
Middle school officials have been reporting a rash of mysterious absences recently. Upon examining information given by those officials and corellated by health department staff there appears to be a pattern to the absences. In the month of April there were only minor similarities in time and occurence of these absences in two schools. In contrast, in the month of May there were quite a few absences in two of the schools, Jackson and Truman, but not in the others.
The similarities first appear in the period of late April to early May, but those are few in number. The spike in absences occurs in May, from the 19th to 25th. There are two hypotheses for these occurences. The first hypotheses is that the absences are due to something as simple as the common cold. The second hypotheses for the spike in absenses is food poisoning or a…
Community Health dept. Intranet Kaplan.edu
Food Poisoning. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.livestrong.com/article/17793-common-causes-poisoning/#ixzz1E6UcQg57
West Nile Virus. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm
Community participation is a key ingredient of any powerful community. The life blood (citizens) of the community is pumped by the heart, called as participation. Community participation is a requirement as well as a condition. It is a condition for raising resources and achieving more results. It engages the citizens deeply in work of the development of community. Community participation is about performing activities for the benefits of any community. The partners of the community follow certain rules and posses unique elements. They have a goal to achieve. This topic has various aspects; the purpose of writing this case study is to explore the minor and major aspects of community participation among kids and adults, both. This case study begins with the background of use of community participation as a tool, its strengths and weaknesses, the role of government in expanding this tool and the ways of communication used for…
10. Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, "The Wellbeing of Young Australians: Technical Report," Journal of Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, no.7 (2008):117.
11. Chen, S, "The transition from juvenile to adult criminal careers," Crime and Justice Bulletin, New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, no. 86 (2005): 9-11.
12. Arnstein, S. "A ladder of citizen participation," Journal of the American Institute of Planners, no. 4 (1969): 216 -- 24.
Community Plan of Action
There are many responsibilities that have to be met to satisfy the needs for personal satisfaction, and this may need changes in work schedules and adjustments. The objective here is to judge the possibilities of obtaining satisfaction from three different types of activities that can be conducted -- helping pregnant teenagers, teaching the methods of care to individuals who have recently found out that they are diabetics, and helping the elderly get on with their daily lives. The first of these is the problem of teenage pregnancy, and the best method to help such teenage children in not getting pregnant. Once they are pregnant, then a lot of other social questions come up and the most important of that is that we should not interfere in the personal lives of people. For teenagers not to get pregnant, they require close monitoring. (Teen Pregnancy Prevention)
Lauerman, John. F. "The Prescription Paradox" Brown Alumni Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.brown.edu/Administration/Brown_Alumni_Magazine/99/3-99/features/paradox.html Accessed 10 September, 2005
"Medications and Older People" (September-October, 1997) FDA Consumer Magazine.
Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1997/697_old.html
Accessed 10 September, 2005
Community-Based Policing, Problem-Solving History and esults
The objective of this study is to examine community-based policing, problem-solving history and results. Towards this end, this work will review literature in this area of study.
The Bureau of Justice Assistance document entitled "Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action" states that community policing is, "in essence, a collaboration between the police and the community that identifies and solves community problems." Additionally stated in the Bureau of Justice Assistance work is that problem-solving "is a broad term that implies more than simply the elimination and prevention of crimes. Problem-solving is based on the assumption that 'crime and disorder can be reduced in small geographic areas by carefully studying the characteristics of problems in the area and then applying the appropriate resources…" and on the assumption that "Individuals make choices based on the opportunities presented by the immediate physical and social characteristics of an…
Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action. Bureau of Justice Assistance. August 1994. Retrieved from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf
Philosophy and Principles of Community-Based Policing (2006) SEESAC 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.seesac.org/uploads/studyrep/CBP_ENG_3rd_edition_FINAL.pdf
Eck, John E., and William Spelman, et al. (1983) Problem Solving: Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News. Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum. 1987:pp.xvi -- xvii. See also Clarke, Ronald V. "Situational Crime Prevention: Its Theoretical Basis and Practical
Scope." Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, eds. Michael Tonry and Norval
'In New York City, the controls are better. Since Sept. 11, as police are looking for terrorists and those who mail anthrax, the controls have increased. So crime continues to go down. Everyone is much more alert.'" (NewsMax Wires)
Queens, NY has also become really diverse with people from different ethnic and racial backgrounds coming in and living there. There are large numbers of Hispanics, Asians and African-American in Queens. However there is a difference in the drop of crime rate in Queens and Brooklyn. "Year to date, overall crime is down 7.1% in Queens, 5.6% in Brooklyn" (Anonymous). However the overall general change is that in both communities, crime rates have plummeted and there is increased safety for the civilians. Normally in areas where there is a wide diversity of people living, there is an increased rate in crime and although there has been unemployment in the entire city…
1) U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Estimates Program, Population Division, "Counties Ranked by Black Population in 1998" (Table CO-98-16), September 15, 1999.
2) Anonymous - The Tipping Point. [Online website] Available at http://www.gladwell.com/1996/1996_06_03_a_tipping.htm [Accessed on: 15/09/2005]
3) Randy Bergmann - New York City: Few places can match Brooklyn's imprint on American culture. [Online website] Available at http://www.phillyburbs.com/pb-dyn/news/170-11122002-120.html [Accessed on: 15/09/2005]
4) NewsMax Wires - NYC Crime Rate Continues To Drop. [Online website] Available at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/3/20/60653.shtml [Accessed on: 15/09/2005]
Community Power and Social Distribution: A Debate Over Social Stratification and Elitism from Hunter Onwards
Floyd Hunter was a sociologist whom identified himself as part of the early stages of a movement to enact greater systems of localized, community social justice. Such movements were to later grip the American nation during the 1960's. However, as early as the 1950's, Hunter sought to quantitatively and qualitatively measure who had 'political power' in the community of Regional City in the American South over the course of the early 1950's. Hunter stated in his text Community Power Structure that in Atlanta, ostensibly a regional power base of the time, he had 'found' an elite whom formed the core of the local political power nexus, an elite that was not institutional in nature, but personal. In other words, through Hunter's social excavation over the course of his doctorial dissertation, Hunter discovered a hidden elitist…
Bachrach, Peter and Morton Baratz, (December 1962). "Two Faces of Power." American Political Science Review. Volume 56. December 1962. Pp.947-952.
Hunter, Floyd. Community Power Structure. (1953). Chapter 4: The Structure of Power in Regional City.
Polsby, Nelson. (1980). Community Power and Political Theory. Second Edition. Chapter 5: Power and Social Stratification: Theory or Ideology?
Stone, Clarence N. (1980). "Systemic Power in Community Decision Making: A Restatement of Stratification Theory." American Political Science Review 74: 976-90
Community Oriented Policing
new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:
For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems.…
Gordon: Community Policing: Towards the Local Police State?: Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987, p. 141.
O'Malley and D. Palmer: Post-Keynesian Policing, Economy and Society: 1996, p 115.
Bright: Crime Prevention: The British Experience: The Politics of Crime Control: Sage, London, 1991. p. 24-63.
MacDonald: Skills and Qualities of Police Leaders Required of Police Leaders Now and in the Future: Federation Press, Sydney, 1995. p. 72
Using the support and mailing list channels of a neighborhood association can be important for gaining the credibility necessary to succeed as a charity organization.
Local radio and television are two additional avenues which must be considered.
For purposes of charity and community orientation in particular, most local radio programmers and DJs are quite accessible. It may not be that difficult to retain the support and endorsement of those which direct access to the radio airwaves. This can help the program to reach a very wide and diffuse audience, serving most directly the goal of creating a more widespread knowledge of the food bank's existence. Extending beyond the orbit of its own local community, the radio can help bring the food bank in touch with other communities and agencies that may be of use, or to whom the food bank may in turn be of use.
For television as well,…
Deinstitutionalization refers to releasing a mentally handicapped person from an institution whose main purpose was to provide treatment into a community with the intent of providing services through the community under the supervision of health-care professionals. There have been some positive outcomes from deinstitutionalization trend for society but there have also have been a wide array of drawbacks limiting care provided to these individuals. Among other things, crime, violent crime, and homeless are among the major consequences of releasing some of these patients to the public. Much of the trend began in the 1950s and the 1960s and the deinstitutionalization of institutional patients has been a trend that has impacted society on many levels and continues to this day.
There were a number of factors that were responsible for the reversal of the institutional framework that was built nationally to house the mentally damaged. After the Second…
Torrey, E.E., Geller, J., Stanley, J., & Jaffe, D. (N.d.). The Shortage of Public Hospital Beds for Mentally Ill Persons. The Treatment Advocacy Center, 1-17.
The company's board believed they could not find a replacement for Chaney by the date of his intended departure, and so the directors put the company up for sale. In March 1996, the New York-based investment banking firm Merrill Lynch was hired to generate interest in the company, and a suitable buyer was found, a New York-based private investment firm named Forstmann Little & Co. This company was headed by Theodore Forstmann, a leveraged buyout specialist. Forstmann's firm had more than $20 billion invested in 20 companies and made its living by acquiring companies and selling them for a profit. Forstmann Little acquired Community Health in 1996, and this was the firm's first purchase of a healthcare company. The firm paid $1 billion for Community Health, which at the time operated 38 hospitals in 18 states, and this change in ownership made Community Health a privately held company. In January…
Adams, D. (1996, March 20). Buy materials management systems, or pray you can swim. Health Management Technology, 63-65.
Community Health Systems Inc. scales back on risk (2004, November 23). Ioma.com, retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BCRC?vrsn=157&locID=longbeach&ste=5&n=25&docNum=A131272544 .
Community Health may seek other deals (2001, February 2). Philadelphia Business Journal, v19 i51, 10.
Career opportunities (2007), retrieved May 29, 2007 at http://www.chs.net/career_openings/corporate.html .
Community Safety and Crime eduction: An Evaluation of the ole of New Technology
ecent technological advances have effectively changed the way we conduct business, secure our borders, fight our wars, diagnose diseases, etc. Indeed, thanks to advances in technology, the world as we know it today looks very different from the world of yesteryears. The fact that technology continues to have a significant impact on almost every facet of our lives is undeniable. One of the areas in which recent advances in technology remains most visible is security. Today, unlike two or three decades ago, there are a wide range of hi-tech security devices that have been specifically developed to help in fighting crime. From CCTV cameras to alarm systems to GPS tracking and even software designed to examine online chat records, the fight against crime has surely gone high-tech. It is however important to note that the utilization of…
Alarid, L.F. And Carmen, R.V.D., 2010. Community-Based Corrections. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Barak, G., 2007. Battleground: Criminal Justice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 2012. Latest Crime Stats: Annual Crime in the U.S. Report Released. [online] Available at: < http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2012/october/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released > [Accessed 8 January 2013].
Grolle, S., 2009. CCTV to Prevent Crime? To What Extent Does CCTV Prevent Crime and How Does it Effect the Life in Our Cities. Munich: GRIN Verlag.
Community outreach and counterterrorism with efforts towards exploitable weaknesses.
Community Outreach and Terrorism
International and domestic terrorism have reached levels previously believed to be impossible. hether fueled by profits they get from trafficking drugs or whether they are fueled by religious ideologies, a series of communities express particular interest in wanting to get actively involved in performing activities characteristic to terrorist organizations. Many governments have the tendency to focus on fighting them directly and fail to understand the significance of addressing factors that influence these people to take up arms against the system. Focusing on underlying concepts encouraging individuals to become terrorists is likely to destabilize terrorist institutions and to make it increasingly difficult for them to recruit people.
The intelligence community in the contemporary society plays an important role in detecting terrorist threats and in making it less likely for individuals to engage in terrorist acts. Even with…
Coolsaet, R. (2011). "Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalisation Challenge: European and American Experiences." Ashgate Publishing.
Johnson, J.A. Ledlow, G.R., & Cwiek, M. (2005)."Community Preparedness and Response to Terrorism: Communication and the media." Greenwood Publishing Group.
Nikbay, O. & Hancerli, S. (2007). "Understanding and Responding to the Terrorism Phenomenon: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective." IOS Press.
Spalek, B. (2012). "Counter-Terrorism: Community-Based Approaches to Preventing Terror Crime." Palgrave Macmillan.
I understand that there could be a veteran who could possibly need assistance at the time that I would be gone, but the Vet Center is a comfortable, welcoming place for them to wait out of the weather and the staff knows where I keep all of the food for those who might need it. Additionally, there is another service officer for those veterans who might need assistance with their benefits or in filing for a copy of their discharge papers. The director of the Vet Center, Ralph Yunkey, has told me that they support the idea and his staff will assist in any way they are able. The time away would not be excessive and the number of veterans served could increase by many. The requirements to keep a program open, according to the director of the homeless veterans programs, is to serve at least 35% of the estimated…
Community Recreation Centers & Sports
hat are the benefits for a community when sports on a recreational level are offered? How does a community benefit from having a community recreation center? These issues are reviewed in this paper.
Reasons why a recreation center would benefit a community
An example of a community that is seeking to put together the resources for a community center is in Port Orchard, England. According to a story in the Port Orchard Independent, Port Orchard did not have a recreation center in 2008, but there were numerous community sports being played in various venues. In order to have a place for youth and adults to meet and enjoy sports together, the community was hoping that a $16 million 20-year bond issue would provide that space for those sports.
The recreational sports that would be available in a future recreation center would be: indoor basketball courts;…
California State Parks. (2005). The Health and Social Benefits of Recreation / An Element of The California Outdoor Recreation Planning Program. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from http://www.parks.ca.gov/planning .
Morton, J. (2008). 21 Reasons why a recreation center would benefit community. Port Orchard
Independent. Retrieved October 2, 2012, from http://portorchardindependent.com .
Watson's origin of human life is tied to notions that one's soul possesses a body that is not restricted by objective space and time. The lived world of the experiencing person is not well-known by external and internal notions of time and space, but shapes its own time and space. "Nursing is a human science of persons and human health-illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic, and ethical human care transactions. The process of nursing is human care" (Fawcett, 2002).
The main concept of Watson's theory is transpersonal human caring which is best understood within the concepts of three subsidiary concepts: life, illness and health.
Human life is defined as spiritual, mental and physical being which is continuous in time and space.
Illness is not automatically a disease. Illness is turmoil or disharmony with a person's inner self or soul at some level or disharmony within the…
Fawcett, Jacqueline. (2002). Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Retrieved July 28, 2009,
from DeSales University Web site: http://www4.desales.edu/~sey0/watson.html
Obesity. (2009). Retrieved July 28, 2009, from MedicineNet.com Web site:
Community Outing isk eport: Touring Old Mesilla
The outing proposed needs to be a four hour tour for a group of 20 individuals with varied backgrounds, experience, and physical abilities. It needs to be an outdoor activity. The people in the group include four people in the 60-70-year range (three males and one female) two females over the age of 75, both of whom have health problems, four children between the ages of six and ten years old (one with chronic asthma and one with a severe peanut allergy), six people between the ages of 35 and 40 (three males and three females; one of the females is pregnant), and four people between the ages of 16 and 18 (2 males and 2 females). Furthermore, while everyone in the tour group is an English speaker, English is not the first language of the elderly members of the group (those age…
ABQ Webmaster, 2011, National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office: Albuquerque, NM.
Available from: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/abq/?n=prephazards
ISO, 2009, ISO 31000: 2009. Available from:
The selective type would enable me to make optimal use of the specific factors that are relevant to my target group. This IOM type would also enable me to identify cases of prior and current drug use, and to refer these to specialized groups and programs for help. The selective type is therefore optimal for the specific sector of society that I want to target.
Best Practice Program
From the "Best Practice Programs," I chose "Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid teroids: The ATLA Program," because it specifically focuses on high school athletes as a target group. While it focuses mostly on one particular kind of drug, I would perhaps modify it to address the specific problems, risks and protective factors of my target group.
The ATLA program focuses on male high school athletes and aims at reducing the risk factors involved in the use of anabolic steroids and other…
CASAT. Best Practice: Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program
Institute of Medicine. Projects: Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development http://www.iom.edu/CMS/12552/35625.aspx
Community Space and Youth
There are many benefits for young people when public space is made available, or when citizens work together to both pressure government and work with government and business to establish quality space. Public access should not be denied to young people and as a youth says on page 7 of Another inter, Another Spring (Social Planning Toronto -- SPT), "Schools shouldn't be charging for the use of space." In hitehorse, volunteers proved that with a firm goal in mind, change can be accomplished and young people can be afforded quality space for their activities. The volunteers have worked within the system -- embracing members of the business community and others from government to establish a space for the visual and performing arts (Canadian Case Studies).
Today there is a well-functioning Yukon Arts Centre, open year-round, hosting theatre presentations, music events, and even training for young would-be…
Canadian Case Studies.
Raphael, Dennis, Renwick, Rebecca, Brown, Ivan, Phillips, Sherry, Sehdev, Hersh, and Steinmetz, Brenda. (2001). Community Quality of Life in Low-Income Neighborhoods:
Findings From Two Contrasting Communities in Toronto, Canada. Journal of the Community Development Society, 32(2), 310-333.
Social Planning Toronto. Another Winter, Another Spring: Toronto Youth Speak Out about
Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish, Louisiana
Description of Caddo Parish, Louisiana
With about a quarter of a million residents, Caddo Parish, Louisiana is a fairly older community with almost two-thirds of its population aged 25 years or older. Most of the residents of Caddo Parish (82.3%) are high school graduate or higher and 22.3% have a bachelor's degree or higher compared to the national averages of 84.6% and 27.5%, respectively. There are slightly more females than males in Caddo Parish, and median family incomes are slightly lower than the national average at $48,522; per capita income is also slightly less than the national average at $22,323. There are also slightly more whites than blacks (50.3% compared to 46.4%, respectively) in Caddo Parish. ecent relevant statistical data for these and other areas of interest are presented below.
Biophysical Considerations: Caddo Parish
About the Parish of Caddo. (2011). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://
Annual report. (2007, 2010). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://www.caddo.
It is important, therefore to understand the different frameworks by which the ethics of an act can be evaluated.
The art of citizenship, as identified by Barber (no date), must taught as part of one's education. It also holds that practical experience is the best way to teach the art of citizenship. People learn about the consequences of their actions by attaching themselves to those consequences physically. In my case, the sheer volume of shoes that I had to sort made the point clear -- I was helping people clothe themselves. Every box of children's shoes I sent was a child that I helped to live a better life. e have a responsibility, Barber argues, to understand the implications of our actions on our communities.
The different approaches to ethics can also be studied through practical experience. It is social interaction that illustrates for us the outcomes of our actions,…
Barber, B. (no date). A model program: Education-based community service at Rutgers University. In possession of the author.
CharityNavigator.org (2011). World Vision. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm?bay=search.summary&orgid=4768
Daniels College of Business. (2011). Daniels today and tomorrow. University of Denver. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.daniels.du.edu/aboutus/missionvisionvalues.html
Fukuyama, F. (1999). Social capital and civil society. International Monetary Fund. In possession of the author.
If a Community Corrections participant is questioned by police for any crime whatsoever they can be violated simply for being questioned. If their officer decides not to violate them they still have to report the questioning within 12 hours of its occurrence or face violation.
Following several months on the program the participant is moved to phase two at which time he or she is allowed one pass a week. The pass must be pre-approved and under no circumstances can the participant be out after 9 p.m.
Following several months on that program without incident the participant can move to the curfew phases. This is a time period in which the participant has graduated curfews of 7 p.m. And 9 p.m. For the remainder of time in the program (Evans, 1996).
Throughout the program probation officers do surprise house checks to be sure the participant in indeed in the house…
Evans, Donald (1996) Defining community corrections.