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Criminal Justice Leadership trategies and Practices
The Role of Planning in Criminal Justice Organizations
In general, planning is one of the five essential functions of organizational management, along with organizing, staffing, coordinating and controlling (afir, 2003). In some respects, planning is the most important of the five functions of management because it involves aspects of all of the other management functions. That is also the case within criminal justice organizations. More specifically, planning in criminal justice relates to strategic, operational and tactical-level leadership decision making (afir, 2003).
At the strategic level, planning allows organizational management to shape the long-term mission and objectives of the organization and ensure that the short-term goals of the agency support those long-term missions and objectives. Typically, strategic planning involves analyzing the needs of the community being served by the organization in conjunction with applicable local and state requirements and consideration of federal issues. While state…
Burnett, E. (2007). Crime Analysis Reporting and Mapping for Small Agencies: A Low-
Cost and Simplified Approach. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 76(10)..
Ellison, J. (2006). Community Policing: Implementation Issues. FBI Law Enforcement
improving long-term school-community relations on behalf of Bay Meadows High: Interest-based negotiation, community service programs, and student on-loan positions. Two strategies for improving short-term school-community relations will also be presented: Monthly summit meetings, and job shadowing.
Interest-based negotiation. The first approach is an overarching strategy that will facilitate the development and implementation of the other strategies. Interest-based negotiation is an approach to mediating the disparate interests of, typically, disputing parties. However, like most negotiation strategies, interest-based negotiation has application beyond the courtroom, the mediation center, the corporate meeting room, or the property line fence of two backyards. Interest-based negotiation begins with the premise that the parties participating in a disagreement -- whether formal or informal -- bring to the table interests that are particular to their perspective. Unlike conventional negotiation strategies -- where the goals of each side are not disclosed in order to reduce vulnerability to strategic negotiation by…
The increased danger of wildfires in the undeveloped land surrounding and within El Dorado County, and directly bordering the community of El Dorado Hills, is one of the major perennial concerns both of the community of El Dorado and of the fire department operating within this community (EDC Fire 2010; EDH Fire 2010). Dry summers and the irregular terrain that is conducive to brush growth very easily catches fire from a variety of ignition sources, and because of the fact that the wild areas so prone to the fires border directly on business and residential communities there is a special risk for damage to both property and individuals form these wildfires (EDC Fire 2010). Home and business owners whose property directly borders on or lies close to the actual line of the Wildlife-Urban Interface are especially concerned by this threat every year, and the fire department is itself well aware…
El Dorado Hills Fire. (2010). Accessed 7 September 2010. http://www.edhfire.com/
El Dorado County Fire. (2010). Accessed 7 September 2010.
Ethics and Community Relations
Ethical Issues in Corrections
a) Identify and provide a brief explanation of the common restorative justice programs. Once completed, identify the one that has the best probability of success in your community (obviously this is more of an opinion-based question, but do your best to support it).
There is considerable variability among existing programs due in part to varying interpretations of conflict and different perspectives on how such conflict is addressed and resolved. The main categories of programs are (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2006):
(a) victim offender mediation;
(b) community and family group conferencing;
(c) circle sentencing;
(d) peacemaking circles;
(e) reparative probation and community boards and panels.
In our community, I personally feel that the reparative probation and community boards and panels model would be effective in many offenders; especially youth offenders. The underlying goal behind restorative justice is to identify and…
Schrader, M. (2015, June 22). Colorado officials praise progress of restorative justice programs. Retrieved from Gazette: http://gazette.com/colorado-officials-praise-progress-of-restorative-justice-programs/article/1554190
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2006). Handbook on Restorative Justice Programmes. Retrieved from United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime: https://www.unodc.org/pdf/criminal_justice/06-56290_Ebook.pdf
Zimbardo, P. (2012). A Simulation Study of the Psychology of Imprisonment Conducted at Stanford University. Retrieved from Stanford Prison Experiment: http://www.prisonexp.org/
Rodney King Documentary
Policing and society have changed as a result of the Rodney King incident in the sense that society and the media are much more sensitive to how police interact with individuals, especially African-Americans. However, that does not mean violence has stopped or diminished because every year it seems there is another scandal about an African-American shot by a white police officer. Still, the Rodney King video of the beating helped to usher in a new awareness throughout society in the sense that every individual now carries a camera on the phone and can record everything at a moment’s notice. Even police are wearing body cameras now to help cut down on the risk that can arise when one feels that “no one is looking”—so that is one positive development.
Police-community relations are both better and worse. One the one hand, there is more community input…
Describe how police-community relations originated as a separate operational concept.
Surely because of the idea that the police nor the community acts in a vacuum. What the police do (or are perceived as doing) or are not doing (or perceived as not doing) affects the community. Similarly, what the community is or is not doing will affect how the police responds. As such, any community/police paradigm has to keep all of this in mind. For example, if a police officer shoots and kills someone that and that person is black, justified by the circumstances or not, there will almost certainly be an uproar. Similarly, if there are a lot of crimes in a given area of a community, the police will surely respond by beefing up police presence in that area.
Describe the difference between police-community relations and police-public relations.
They are part of the same paradigm but they are…
Answer the following questions for each video in paragraph form. Also for each video, provide a thought provoking question of your own for discussion and attempt to provide a response to it.
Video one: Bill of Rights Overview
Which amendment do YOU value most?
I consider Amendment I the most crucial aspect of the Constitution's Bill of Rights.
Amendment I safeguards the five most fundamental freedoms: speech, religion, assembly, press and the right of petitioning governmental bodies for righting any wrongs. The above safeguards were missed most by Antifederalists within the novel Constitution (Feinberg, 1987).
Is our justice system better or worse than other systems around the world today?
Accessible reports and scholarly works reveal that the American justice system is neither the most effective nor the most unsuccessful justice system of all. Some nations (e.g., Scandinavian nations) enjoy a more superior system while others (e.g., Middle Eastern…
The "Sport for All" program was initiated by the reformist Labour Government during the 1970s. Its aims and objectives included the increased community involvement of underrepresented groups (such as the unemployed) and the breaking down some of the exiting barriers to participation in sports. To a large extent, those initiatives consisted of financial and other resource investment in large-scale sports facilities. Unfortunately, the comparative absence of sports development structures within those facilities has greatly reduced their ability to provide the benefits envisioned for their communities, notwithstanding the dedication and professional experience of facility managers.
Explain difference in the roles of the Community Sports Development Officer and the traditional Sports Development Officer.
In keeping with the fundamental purpose of community sports development in general, the role of the community sports development officer relates substantially to the use of sport as a means to achieve other (i.e. non-sport-related) objectives. Conversely, the role…
Community Policing: Successful Implementation of Change
The adoption of a community policing strategy within police agencies is often a change that is instituted with much protest and unrest among officers. In order for community policing to be successful however, it has to be presented to organizations and individual police agents as a mechanism of positive change and law enforcement improvement.
Community policing is often in fact adopted by police agencies as a mechanism for improving internal and external relations and delivering optimal service to communities within a given area (Fielding, 1995). According to Fielding (1995) community policing can "evoke images of police-community relations in stable, consensus based and homogenous neighborhoods where crime is a mere irritant" (p.25). However, it is sometimes met with resistance among agents and officers alike.
Thus a suitable environment for change has to be created in order to ensure successful implementation of community policing aims. A…
Davis, J.J. & Gianakis, G.A. "Reinventing or repackaging public services? The
Case of community-oriented policing." Public Administration Review, 58(6): (1998)485
Fielding, N.C. "Community policing." Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1995.
Hartnett, S. & Skogan, W.G. "Community policing, Chicago style." New York: Oxford
The History and Concept of Community Policing in the U.S.
Community Policing Origins
Community Policing Philosophy
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services
Community policing is as much a philosophy as it is a practice. At the heart of the concept lies a deep level of collaboration between the community and the police. However, to form such a relationship many intermediary goals must first be achieved. Most likely, one of the primary values that must be established is a sense of trust between both the community and the police force. If the community perceives the police force as corrupt or ineffective then will generally remain apathetic to the goals of community policing. At the same time, if the police force is not fully engaged with the public then are not likely to benefit from the communities assistance. Therefore, to establish effective community policing efforts a balance between…
AA County Police. (2007, July 7). POLICE DISCRETION & ALTERNATIVES TO ARREST. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Police Rules and Regulations: http://www.aacounty.org/Police/RulesRegs/Sections01-06/0105.2DiscretionAlternArrest.pdf
Bureau of Justice Assistance. (1994, August). Understanding Community Policing. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from U.S. Department of Justice: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf
COPS. (2011). Community Policing Defined. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Community Oriented Policing Services: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?item=36
Sherman, L. (1990). POLICING FOR CRIME PREVENTION. American Journal of Police, 43-74.
The term community is used for the settlements like town, villages and farms. The concept of community is considered as an inclusive one because it promotes collectivism rather than individualism. The term community can be understood in two broad categories. One category deals with its sociological perspective while other deals with its biological perspective. Its sociological perspective will be considered as a domain of the discussion. Community depicts the real picture of the society (Hampton, 2011). Those communities which have the capability of converting the raw information into some particular knowledge are considered as those which can create competitive advantage and contribute towards the development of the nation (Bartle, 2010). The talent of the people also comes forward when they live in community because there are many people who can identify the talent and promote it accordingly. The concept of community has become very much a colonial one. This…
Bartle, P. (2010, September 22). Elements of Community Strength. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from http://cec.vcn.bc.ca/cmp/modules/mea-ele.htm
Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata. "Theorizing Community Development." Journal of the Community Development Society 34.2 (2004): 5+. Questia. Web. 11 Sept. 2011.
Gallant, K., Smale, B., & Arai, S. (2010). Civic Engagement through Mandatory Community Service: Implications of Serious Leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(2), 181+. Retrieved September 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5043554643
Hampton, J. (2011, January 31). Principles of Community . In http://www.community4me.com/ . Retrieved September 13, 2011
Community participation is a key ingredient of any powerful community. The life blood (citizens) of the community is pumped by the heart, called as participation. Community participation is a requirement as well as a condition. It is a condition for raising resources and achieving more results. It engages the citizens deeply in work of the development of community. Community participation is about performing activities for the benefits of any community. The partners of the community follow certain rules and posses unique elements. They have a goal to achieve. This topic has various aspects; the purpose of writing this case study is to explore the minor and major aspects of community participation among kids and adults, both. This case study begins with the background of use of community participation as a tool, its strengths and weaknesses, the role of government in expanding this tool and the ways of communication used for…
10. Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, "The Wellbeing of Young Australians: Technical Report," Journal of Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, no.7 (2008):117.
11. Chen, S, "The transition from juvenile to adult criminal careers," Crime and Justice Bulletin, New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, no. 86 (2005): 9-11.
12. Arnstein, S. "A ladder of citizen participation," Journal of the American Institute of Planners, no. 4 (1969): 216 -- 24.
Community Oriented Policing
new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:
For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems.…
Gordon: Community Policing: Towards the Local Police State?: Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987, p. 141.
O'Malley and D. Palmer: Post-Keynesian Policing, Economy and Society: 1996, p 115.
Bright: Crime Prevention: The British Experience: The Politics of Crime Control: Sage, London, 1991. p. 24-63.
MacDonald: Skills and Qualities of Police Leaders Required of Police Leaders Now and in the Future: Federation Press, Sydney, 1995. p. 72
Community outreach and counterterrorism with efforts towards exploitable weaknesses.
Community Outreach and Terrorism
International and domestic terrorism have reached levels previously believed to be impossible. hether fueled by profits they get from trafficking drugs or whether they are fueled by religious ideologies, a series of communities express particular interest in wanting to get actively involved in performing activities characteristic to terrorist organizations. Many governments have the tendency to focus on fighting them directly and fail to understand the significance of addressing factors that influence these people to take up arms against the system. Focusing on underlying concepts encouraging individuals to become terrorists is likely to destabilize terrorist institutions and to make it increasingly difficult for them to recruit people.
The intelligence community in the contemporary society plays an important role in detecting terrorist threats and in making it less likely for individuals to engage in terrorist acts. Even with…
Coolsaet, R. (2011). "Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalisation Challenge: European and American Experiences." Ashgate Publishing.
Johnson, J.A. Ledlow, G.R., & Cwiek, M. (2005)."Community Preparedness and Response to Terrorism: Communication and the media." Greenwood Publishing Group.
Nikbay, O. & Hancerli, S. (2007). "Understanding and Responding to the Terrorism Phenomenon: A Multi-Dimensional Perspective." IOS Press.
Spalek, B. (2012). "Counter-Terrorism: Community-Based Approaches to Preventing Terror Crime." Palgrave Macmillan.
Watson's origin of human life is tied to notions that one's soul possesses a body that is not restricted by objective space and time. The lived world of the experiencing person is not well-known by external and internal notions of time and space, but shapes its own time and space. "Nursing is a human science of persons and human health-illness experiences that are mediated by professional, personal, scientific, esthetic, and ethical human care transactions. The process of nursing is human care" (Fawcett, 2002).
The main concept of Watson's theory is transpersonal human caring which is best understood within the concepts of three subsidiary concepts: life, illness and health.
Human life is defined as spiritual, mental and physical being which is continuous in time and space.
Illness is not automatically a disease. Illness is turmoil or disharmony with a person's inner self or soul at some level or disharmony within the…
Fawcett, Jacqueline. (2002). Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring. Retrieved July 28, 2009,
from DeSales University Web site: http://www4.desales.edu/~sey0/watson.html
Obesity. (2009). Retrieved July 28, 2009, from MedicineNet.com Web site:
The selective type would enable me to make optimal use of the specific factors that are relevant to my target group. This IOM type would also enable me to identify cases of prior and current drug use, and to refer these to specialized groups and programs for help. The selective type is therefore optimal for the specific sector of society that I want to target.
Best Practice Program
From the "Best Practice Programs," I chose "Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid teroids: The ATLA Program," because it specifically focuses on high school athletes as a target group. While it focuses mostly on one particular kind of drug, I would perhaps modify it to address the specific problems, risks and protective factors of my target group.
The ATLA program focuses on male high school athletes and aims at reducing the risk factors involved in the use of anabolic steroids and other…
CASAT. Best Practice: Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program
Institute of Medicine. Projects: Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development http://www.iom.edu/CMS/12552/35625.aspx
To train those college students who aim to join the teaching profession;
To provide the teachers with a wide spectrum and grounds for exploration so that they can apply their knowledge and ability in a way that boosts the overall educational standards of the institution and the students;
To design a schedule and academic profile that aims to purely heighten the academic and social growth of the students; and to support and carry out studies that will in eventuality help escalate and improve the educational standards at not only the school level but also the college and university levels.
Harkavy (1998) believes that the partnership between the school, community and the university is far more complex and inter-dependent that believed by the masses. In his study he brings forth new theories and explanation of his statement with the help of annals and current studies and examples. He feels…
Anderson, B.D., & Stetler, E.G., & Midle, T. (2006). A case for expanded school-community partnerships in support of positive youth development. National Association of Social Workers, 28(3), 155-163.
Beaumont, J.J. & Hallmark, D.L. (1998). Introduction: School-university partnerships in urban settings. Urban Education, 32(5), 557-560.
Beaumont, J.J. (1998). Administrator and researcher: Conflicting dual roles in directing a school-university partnership. Urban Education, 32(5), 645-660.
Becker, J. (1999). Partnerships with families promote TRIO student achievement. (ERIC Document 432197)
IV. A Multidisciplinary Approach
The work entitled: "Campus Threat Assessment Training: A Multidisciplinary Approach" states that it t has been recommended by the Florida Gubernatorial Task Force for University Campus Safety as follows: "That each college and university develop a multidisciplinary crisis management team, integrating and ensuring communication between the university law enforcement or campus security agency, student affairs, residential housing, counseling center, health center, legal counsel, and any other appropriate campus entities to review individuals and incidents which indicate "at-risk" behavior. The team should facilitate the sharing of information, timely and effective intervention, and a coordinated response when required." (Community Policing Dispatch, 2009) Colleges and universities in the United States are "recognizing the particular applicability of community policing in the campus environment. The community policing model helps to create the framework for a productive relationship between the officers and those whom they serve." (Wilson and Grammich, 2009)…
Campus Threat Assessment Training: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2009) Community Policing Dispatch. Vol. 2 Issue 4 April 2009. Online available at: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/April_2009/campus_threat.htm
Campus Watch Program (nd) College of Lake County, Illinois. Online available at: http://www.clcillinois.edu/depts/sec/CampusWatchBrochure.pdf
Godfrey, Steven (nd) Assessing the Success of Community-Policing (Neighborhood Watch Program) Online available at: http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v&q=cache%3AUvBqWMSAHI0J%3Awww.emich.edu%2Fcerns%2Fdownloads%2Fpapers%2FPoliceStaff%2FCommunity%2520Policing%2FAssessing%2520the%2520Success%2520of%2520Community%2520Policing.pdf+colleges+and+universities%3A+community+watch+volunteers&hl=en&gl=us&pli=1
Gummere, Sara Lippincott (2003) Making a Better Place: Planning, Implementing & Managing a Student Volunteer Program. University of Oregon June 2003. Online available at: http://aad.uoregon.edu/icas/project_thesis_pdf/gummere_s.pdf
Community Health Scenario
Death is an inevitable destiny of life. It is essential to be able to provide the best care that a patient may need during his last days, when all medical treatment fails. Frequently, the battle of life and death leads one to formulate a concept or an analogy of these two processes. This concept is bound to interfere with what one does in life. As a nurse, my idea of death and dying has an impact on the quality of care I provide to patients undergoing this process.
The ideal attitude of a nurse's care for terminally ill patients involves the criteria of flexibility in interpersonal relations, effective communication about critical issues, such as in Mrs. Thomas's case, and psychological stability and mindedness in relation to dying patients their families. (A oberta and A. olland. Nurses' attitudes about end-of-life referrals. 2009).
According to the Journal of Medicine…
Bottarf, JL. (1995). Comforting: exploring the work of cancer nurses. School Of Nursing. 22(6), 1077-84.
Dunn, K.S., Cecilia, O. & Stephans, E. (2005). Nursing experience and the care of dying patients. Oncology Nursing Forum. 32(1), 97-104.
Gloria, W. (2004). Basic geriatric nursing. Philadelphia: Library of Congress.
Matzo, M. And Witt Sherman, D. (2010). Palliative care nursing: quality care to the end of life. Springer Publishing Company: New York.
Community Power and Social Distribution: A Debate Over Social Stratification and Elitism from Hunter Onwards
Floyd Hunter was a sociologist whom identified himself as part of the early stages of a movement to enact greater systems of localized, community social justice. Such movements were to later grip the American nation during the 1960's. However, as early as the 1950's, Hunter sought to quantitatively and qualitatively measure who had 'political power' in the community of Regional City in the American South over the course of the early 1950's. Hunter stated in his text Community Power Structure that in Atlanta, ostensibly a regional power base of the time, he had 'found' an elite whom formed the core of the local political power nexus, an elite that was not institutional in nature, but personal. In other words, through Hunter's social excavation over the course of his doctorial dissertation, Hunter discovered a hidden elitist…
Bachrach, Peter and Morton Baratz, (December 1962). "Two Faces of Power." American Political Science Review. Volume 56. December 1962. Pp.947-952.
Hunter, Floyd. Community Power Structure. (1953). Chapter 4: The Structure of Power in Regional City.
Polsby, Nelson. (1980). Community Power and Political Theory. Second Edition. Chapter 5: Power and Social Stratification: Theory or Ideology?
Stone, Clarence N. (1980). "Systemic Power in Community Decision Making: A Restatement of Stratification Theory." American Political Science Review 74: 976-90
'In New York City, the controls are better. Since Sept. 11, as police are looking for terrorists and those who mail anthrax, the controls have increased. So crime continues to go down. Everyone is much more alert.'" (NewsMax Wires)
Queens, NY has also become really diverse with people from different ethnic and racial backgrounds coming in and living there. There are large numbers of Hispanics, Asians and African-American in Queens. However there is a difference in the drop of crime rate in Queens and Brooklyn. "Year to date, overall crime is down 7.1% in Queens, 5.6% in Brooklyn" (Anonymous). However the overall general change is that in both communities, crime rates have plummeted and there is increased safety for the civilians. Normally in areas where there is a wide diversity of people living, there is an increased rate in crime and although there has been unemployment in the entire city…
1) U.S. Bureau of the Census, Population Estimates Program, Population Division, "Counties Ranked by Black Population in 1998" (Table CO-98-16), September 15, 1999.
2) Anonymous - The Tipping Point. [Online website] Available at http://www.gladwell.com/1996/1996_06_03_a_tipping.htm [Accessed on: 15/09/2005]
3) Randy Bergmann - New York City: Few places can match Brooklyn's imprint on American culture. [Online website] Available at http://www.phillyburbs.com/pb-dyn/news/170-11122002-120.html [Accessed on: 15/09/2005]
4) NewsMax Wires - NYC Crime Rate Continues To Drop. [Online website] Available at http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/3/20/60653.shtml [Accessed on: 15/09/2005]
Frequent town meetings where residents can air concerns to representatives of the force likewise fosters a sense of community empowerment.
Finally, it goes without saying that officers must, to establish trust, always seem ethical and not act as if they are above the law. Not abusing police privileges, not accepting things 'on the house' such as free food, upholding the law when engaging in searches, stops, and seizures, and including ethics training as a part of the education of new officers are all positive steps in this direction. Having a strong and impartial internal affairs department within the force and minimizing events that can generate bad publicity and erode community trust and damage relations with community leaders is likewise essential.
School Safety." (2008). COPS: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jun 2008 at http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?Item=106
Newman, Grahame. (2008). "Check and Card Fraud." COPS: U.S. Department of Justice.
School Safety." (2008). COPS: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jun 2008 at http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?Item=106
Newman, Grahame. (2008). "Check and Card Fraud." COPS: U.S. Department of Justice.
Retrieved 22 Jun 2008 at http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/files/RIC/Publications/e07042442.pdf
Police integrity." (2008). COPS: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 22 Jun
In the wake of numerous public complaints as well as allegations within the last two years that point towards excessive use of force by police officers in the apprehension of suspects within the city, there is need to develop a brief that explores the various measures that could be adopted in seeking to enhance our officers’ relations with the community while at the same time attempting to minimize instances of unnecessary aggression and use of force. In essence, in seeking to effect arrests, officers should utilize force that is not only commensurate with the risk posed, but also objectively reasonable. The relevance of formulating blueprints and implementing strategies meant to address the use of force as well as promote or advance the de-escalation of scenarios that turn violent cannot be overstated. In seeking to comprehensively address the issue raised by members of the public regarding the use of force…
Functions of Public Relations
The line between organizational and societal functions of public relations is increasingly becoming blurred. For the purposes of this assignment, marketing communications and employee relations have been grouped into the organizational function while social responsibility and community relations have been grouped into the societal function. These segmentations have been derived primarily be examining direct links to profits and how much a company has focused on either inward or outward activities. However, companies that seek better profits are now realizing that they are tied to what they can do for the welfare of the members of society. Along with this realization comes a tighter linkage between organizational and society functions of public relations to achieve a new business vision called corporate social responsibility (CSR).
Marketing communications is more aligned with organizational functions because it helps meet the internal needs of promotion to advance sales of products and…
Global Alliance For Public Relations And Communications Management. Retrieved August 13, 2005 from Web site: http://www.globalpr.org/news/features/csr_statement_280604.asp
Pantelleva, M. Public relations and public responsibility. Retrieved August, 13, 2005 from Web site: http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:fwlnzBXEQdAJ:www.eprn.org/EuropeanPRNews2/Milena_Panteleeva.pdf+%22public+relations%22+%22social+responsibility%22& hl=en
Public relations FAQ. Retrieved August 13, 2005 from Web site: http://www.personal.psu.edu/faculty/a/m/amm17/pr.html
Riesterer, T. Accountability marketing. Retrieved August 13, 2005 from Web site: http://www.marcommwise.com/articlecat.phtml?c=Marcomm%20Measurement
Video One: Can Volunteers Protect Communities?
Is this a "Police-Public Relations" or "Police-Community Relations" program? Explain why.
In a sense, it is. While the people in question are volunteers and are thus not members of the police force. Even so, the volunteer force is a manifestation of a group that has at least somewhat good intentions when it comes to the crime rates involved.
Is this the answer in these tough fiscal times?
It can be given that having more and more police on hand costs money and this is not the easiest thing to do when budgets are stretched thin due to recession, over-use of resources and so forth.
Is this a good idea? Yes? or No? Explain why.
Only if it is properly limited and controlled. It can be good in that the volunteers can be extra sets of eyes and ears and this can in many…
he function of marketing communications is also the integral part of any new product introduction process in a company as well. In fact, oshiba America, known for their laptop computers, has the product launch and introduction managed as a project inside marketing communications to provide for greater coordination and synchronizing with other departments. Marketing communications acts in many companies as the activity hub for all strategies, as this department is often serving the sales force, product management, product marketing, service, finance, and very often the executive managers who are the spokespeople for strategies and products.
Societal functions of Public Relations
In a sense government agencies and their constituents, the citizens of a given region or nation, are "customers" of the services of the societal institutions and governments. he only difference is of course that to shop between governments is to have to move, while consumers can choose between organizations by…
Two functions that define the societal role of public relations are consumer relations and community relations.
Perhaps no other set of nations in the world has a more thorough set of laws to protect its citizens from shoddy and unsafe merchandise, services schemes that defraud them or foods that don't pass certain health criteria than the United States and several other westernized nations. The reason is that the laws surrounding products, services, foods, drugs and even transportation have been created to protect the consumer. In the context of public relations, the societal function that influences the most amounts of people is consumer relations.
From a societal context, consumer relations fulfills the role of both coordinator of information flow between manufacturers, the government, and the consumer, ultimately looking out for what's best for the consumer and their well-being. This is a critical step in many countries as the function can expose risks to consumers of unsafe products. During the 19th century for example, Upton Sinclair (2002) and his classic book, the Jungle, showed the many practices in the meat processing and packing industry that needed overhauling to
Employee Relations Plan: Starbucks, Inc.
Most companies assert to prospective employees that the corporation offers excellent benefits and a good salary. But few corporations make such assertions part of its corporate, core mission statement. According to Starbucks, the motto of the international, Seattle-based coffee company is that "Our success depends on your success." This statement is not simply directed at Starbuck's customers, but to its employees as well. (Starbucks, "Job Center," Official ebsite, 2004)
hat does this effusive corporate motto and mission statement really mean? Starbucks is unique as a franchise restaurant in that it offers a variety of employment opportunities, such as retail store manager, as advertised upon the Internet. Despite jokes about the shame being a barista after graduating from a prestigious university, the Starbucks Support Center in Seattle credibly offers "career opportunities span a wide range of functions and departments, including not only openings behind the coffee…
Starbucks (2004) "Community Relations." Retrieved on August 18, 2004 at Retrieved on August 18, 2004 at http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/csr.asp
Starbucks. (2004). "Job Center." Official Website. Retrieved on August 18, 2004 at http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/jobcenter.asp
Starbucks. (2004) "Mission Statement." Official Website. Retrieved on August 18, 2004 at http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/environment.asp .
Starbucks. (2004). "Starbucks Coffee International." Retrieved on August 18, 2004 at http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/international.asp
According to ohe and his colleagues, though, "Over time, however, there has been a tendency for departments to expand their programs to involve a larger number of officers and to cover wider geographic areas. Besides these special units, a number of police departments also expect all of their officers to embrace the principles of community policing and to undertake at least some community problem-solving activities" (ohe et al., 1996, p. 78).
Constraints to Implementation study by Sadd and Grinc in 1994 concluded that, of all the implementation problems these programs faced, "the most perplexing... was the inability of the police departments to organize and maintain active community involvement in their projects" (p. 442). Hartnett and Skogan suggest that because every community is unique, the implementation problems will likewise be local in nature but there have been some consistent problems reported with implementation across the country that can serve as a…
Bass, S. (2001). Policing space, policing race: Social control imperatives and police discretionary decisions. Social Justice, 28(1), 156.
Comey, J.T., Hartnett, S.M., Kaiser, M., Lovig, J.H., & Skogan, W.G. (1999). On the beat: Police and community problem solving. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Davis, G.J., III, & Gianakis, G.A. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Fielding, N. (1995). Community policing. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
The committee should investigate new curricular models that empower students and which especially promote inclusion. Transforming our public schools is an essential first step toward eliminating many of the social problems extant in Joliet and in the country as a whole.
Second I would help create more small business development opportunities in Joliet. An organization or collection of organizations that can help minorities and the poor receive funding would be a tremendous help for the community and individual residents. Not only would small business development create jobs, it would enrich and uplift Joliet by enhancing prosperity. Instead of attracting outside investors like big box corporate entities who offer nothing more than insecure low income jobs, small business development creates creative, self-sustaining, and empowering opportunities for local growth. I therefore believe that small business development is a key to easing race relations and eliminating social injustice. Small business ownership is empowering…
strong sense of external community correlate with exceptional company performance?
Large multinationals are well-known for their involvement in supporting the community they work in and also for their support for sports, humanitarian and social causes. The profitability and high visibility of these companies in external community activities certainly makes one believe that external community involvement and exceptional company performance go hand in hand.
A closer analysis of the community relation exercise shows that in many cases such involvement is an extension of business activities. The multi-billion dollar profits, of course give the exceptional performers the ability to buy the goodwill of political parties, news media, and the community in general to look after their present and future interests.
Whatever the motives, external community involvement shows that the company is performing well and has greater ambitions. External community involvement is also a result of increased social awareness and there are cases…
1. 'Corruption and Bribery', a Business for Social Responsibility Report, retrieved from Internet on 26 May 2005, http://www.bsr.org/CSRResources/IssueBriefDetail.cfm?DocumentID=49621
2. CEO Forum, Retrieved from Internet on 18 October 2005, http://www.ceoforum.com.au/CEO Dialogue.htm
3. China: The Ancient Road to Communism, Retrieved from Internet on 18 October 2005, http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/sgabriel/prcancient.htm
4. Donnelly, S., Gamble, A., Jackson, G., Parkinson, J. (2000). The public interest and the company in Britain and Germany. London, England: Anglo-German Foundation for the Study of Industrial Society. Retrieved September 17, 2005, http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=The+Community+Interest+Company& ; ie=UTF-8& oe
Police: Building Trust Between Police and Communities
Building Trust between Police and Communities: Police
Police Trust, Integrity and Ethics in Bridging the Gap in Community elations
The death of Eric Garner in the hands of New York police, and the shootings of 12-year-old ice Tamir and Michael Brown in Ohio and Missouri respectively, have and continue to brew a wave of public mistrust in the police service. Such incidences often spur massive public protests that eventually destroy relations between police and the communities they serve. A study conducted by euters on 3,600 citizens between December 2014 and January 2015 found that a significant 27.6% of adult Americans do not trust the police to be fair and just (euters, 2015). In December, 2015, President Barrack Obama signed an executive order creating the Task Force on 21st Century Policing, whose primary aim is to build confidence and trust in the local police.…
IACP. (2010). Building Trust between the Police and the Citizens they Serve. The International Association of Chiefs of Police (ICAP). Retrieved from http://www.theiacp.org/portals/0/pdfs/BuildingTrust.pdf
Miller, L. & Hess, K. (2007). Community Policing: Partnerships for Problem-Solving (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Raines, J. (2011). Ethics in Policing: Misconduct and Integrity. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Reuters. (2015). Do Americans Trust their Cops to be Fair and Just? New Poll Contains Surprises. Reuters.com. Retrieved from http://blogs.reuters.com/great-debate/2015/01/15/one-third-of-americans-believe-police-lie-routinely/
In creating a brand it is impossible for Pr campaigns to lie. People however tend to divide PR in good and bad. A PR campaign trying to convince people to wear the seatbelt fastened while driving is considered good, a PR campaign trying to discredit a political candidate's opponents is considered bad. If the former case is pretty clear, the latter one makes s wonder where the border between ethics and efficiency is. We must always keep in mind the fact PR has become and ethical profession therefore regardless of its final purpose it must respect a code of ethics which is universally valid (doing otherwise would compromise it, its very success depends on this).
One example of an extremely efficient PR campaign is the one initiated by the candidate to be president arack Obama. The campaign included all the possible media, press, TV, radio, advertising and the internet. Through…
Bernays, E 1998, 'Counselling not communications', International Public Relations Review, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 28-32.
Gower, K 2008, 'U.S. corporate public relations in the progressive era', Journal of Communication Management, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 1-19, .
Heath, RL 2001, 'Shifting foundations: public relations as relationship building', in RL Heath & GM Vasquez (eds.), Handbook of public relations, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California, pp. 1-9.
Ledingham, JA 2003, 'Explicating relationship management as a general theory of public relations', Journal of Public Relations Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 181-198, EBSCOhost, Communication & Mass Media Complete
Police Community elations
Does it eally Exist?
The policing organizations throughout the United States have been the subject of vast amounts of negative publicity in recent years. Although these relationships have always perceived as tense, especially by minority groups, in recent years many instances of police brutality have been digitally recorded and shared throughout many forms of media, including social media. The advancement of technology has allowed for most people to be able to create their own videos on demand, typically with the use of smart phones, which has created a situation in which many questionable acts by police officers have been documented. Because of this relatively recent development, it is unclear if there is actually a rise in occurrences of issues such as police brutality, or if there are just more examples of such instances that are being documented and shared.
ecently, the U.S. Justice Department's Office of Community…
Gest, T. (2015, October 2). DOJ Slams St. Louis County Cops on Community Relations. Retrieved from The Crime Report: http://www.thecrimereport.org/news/inside-criminal-justice/2015-10-cops-on-st-louis-county
Weitzer, R., Tuch, S., & Skogan, W. (2008). Police -- Community Relations in a Majority-Black City. Journal of Research in Crime & Deliquency.
community's main demands and the company's responses, we need to briefly discuss the three main categories of concern that the Manchester community has brought forward. These basically refer to pollution concerns, safety concerns and overall communication with the company's representatives.
The pollution concerns include both phonic and chemical pollution. As a chemical plant, Rhone - Poulenc transports out of the company impressive quantities of chemical waste. Additionally, preparing sulfuric acid, the company's main endeavor, implies the release into the atmosphere of hazardous residues that can only prove harmful to the citizens' health. The examples of cancer and other diseases are numerous in the area, although, as an observation, Rhone-Poulenc is not the only factory operating in the area. Pollution also includes phonic pollution, as numerous transport facilities, notably trains, ensure a noisy day.
In terms of safety, living next to a chemical plant means that one never knows what to…
Wheeler, Michael. Negotiating the Right to Know: Rhone-Poulenc and Manchester, Texas (A-2). Harvard Business School. May 1998. Page 2.
Ibid. Page 3
In the shifting views about the health effects of marijuana, there is a general trend for states to relax the rules around this substance across the nation. Some states have already lifted the ban against marijuana for recreational purposes. The state of California set the pace in this discussion and shifting perceptions when it passed a proposal now popularly known as proposal 215 to allow possession of small amounts of the substance for medical uses (Murphy and Carnevale 2016). Other states have followed suit. The most notable among these states are the District of Columbia and six other states. They represent about 6% of the population of the nation. They have all allowed possession of marijuana; not for medical use only, but for recreational purposes.
There are several contributing factors to this phenomenon. One of the most outstanding reasons is that the much-touted war on drugs across the nation has…
Troubled Youth and Aged Individuals: Contemporary Community Case Study
There are two age groups in the present population with specific needs required to fulfill and direct them at a pivotal moment in their life's development when paired together represent reciprocal provision of care during a critical stage in the lives of each of these two representative groups of contemporary society. The two age groups at focus in this study are today's youth and the present aged population in the community. Youth are disproportionately characterized as having behavioral problems and the community elders are a reservoir of guidance for these youth who in return have much to offer the aged as well.
The research proposed in this specific study involves collaboration with teacher, the school board, and counselors to prepare a method of providing school credits in return for volunteer work on the part of students who are also categorized as…
A Year's Worth of Mentoring Activities: 52 Ideas -- One for Each Week of the Year, Legacy Project. Retrieved from: http://www.legacyproject.org/valentinekit/part1/yearsworthmentoring.pdf
Bosak, SV (nd) Effective Mentoring. Retrieved from: http://www.legacyproject.org/guides/mentors.html
Elements of Effective Mentoring Practices (nd) Legacy Project. . Retrieved from: http://www.legacyproject.org/valentinekit/part1/effectivementoring.pdf
MENTORING INITIATIVES: An Overview of Youth Mentoring. A Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Conference and Meeting Document. April, 2000. Retrieved: http://www.nationalfamilies.org/parents/mentor.pdf
Josephine Lawrence (name changed to protect anonymity) has been a community health nurse employed by the city for almost five years. Working in the public sector is radically different from working in a private healthcare institution, notes Lawrence, who had practiced as an RN for ten years prior to her career change. When asked what precipitated the change. Lawrence said that a lot of it had to do with the way her mind works. She always preferred “big picture” issues, as she put it, recognizing the need for greater community activism, empowerment, and advocacy.
Changes to the Profession
According to Lawrence, the profession has not changed appreciably over the past four to five years. The most important changes to healthcare in general have been due to legislation and policy, with the Affordable Care Act having less of a bearing on community health operations than on the budgets and management…
Community policing arose from dissatisfaction with traditional policing. According to Brogden (1999), traditional police work focuses primarily on fighting serious crime. Proponents of community policing claim that this framework of policing has failed to serve the needs of the community and that traditional police work ignores the factors that most communities regard as priority. Fleming (2005) adds that traditional crime control methods failed to adequately address crime. Brogden (1999) explains that traditional policing "has been faced with several inter-linked crises -- of operations (policing practices are highly ineffective at dealing with crime): of efficiency in crime prevention, especially in the failure to enlist the potential of citizens and communities in this process of crime prevention, and in dealing with the symptoms rather than the causes of crime; of professionalism (the lack of relations between higher police pay, codes of conduct, and effectiveness); and of accountability" (p. 173). Fleming (2005) adds…
Alldredge, P. (2009). The Contradictions of Neighborhood Watch: The Growth and Success of a Failed Crime Prevention Strategy. Conference Papers -- American Sociological Association, 1. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Bennett, T., Holloway, K., & Farrington, D. (2006). Does neighborhood watch reduce crime? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2(4), 437-458. doi:10.1007/s11292-006-9018-5
Brogden, M.M. (1999). CHAPTER 10: Community Policing as Cherry Pie. In, Policing Across the World (pp. 167-186). Taylor & Francis Ltd. / Books. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
U.S. Department of Justice. (2011). Community policing. Office of Justice Programs: Bureau of Justice Statistics. Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=81#terms_def
hat makes a community, and how are individuals positioned within a community? hat challenges are part of belonging to a community and what are the challenges associated with membership in a community? Answers to these and other questions will be presented in this paper.
The Literature on Community
Among the key questions addressed in social work is this one: how is your role as a social worker influenced by the community you participate with and live within? Moreover, how does the social worker establish his or her identity within the framework of community and social work?
Lori Thomas and colleagues write in the Journal of Social ork Education that because of the attention paid to the concept and position of a "community organizer" during the last presidential election, it provided social work educators with an opportunity to "revisit and enhance community practice" (Thomas, 2011, p. 337). After all, Thomas…
[Chapter 1] "Importance of Community"
[Chapter 2] "Introduction to Community Development"
Thomas, Lori M., Netting, Ellen F., and O'Connor, Mary Katherine. (2011). A Framework for Teaching Community Practice. Journal of Social Work Education, 47(2), 337-354.
Transcript: Miawpulek First Nation.
Etymology of a "Community"u
Community is a group of people that share similar values and interests, work towards similar goals and support each other. There are many different types or groups of people that qualify as a "community." A community does not have to be a particular size to qualify as a "community" although generally most communities consist of a group of people that is roughly a dozen or more (Smith, 2001). The neighborhood most people live in and work in is generally considered a community.
Smith (2001) quotes Hoggett (1997) in stating that since the late 19th century, the "use of the term community has remained to some extent associated with the hope and the wish of reviving once more the closer, warmer, more harmonious type of bonds between people vaguely attributed to past ages" (p. 5). Most people consider the term community a "positive" term, meaning they…
Cohen, A.P. (ed). 1982. Belonging. Identity and social organization in British rural cultures,
Manchester: University of Manchester Press. u
Lindeman, E.C. 1921. The Community. An introduction to the study of community leadership and organization. New York: Association Press.
Putnam, R.D. 2000. Bowling alone. The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
A community of practice in the procurement department
The procurement of materials and equipment such as schoolbooks and construction materials by government officials for the construction of public services and infrastructure involves contracting agencies that provide such services. These processes are often plagued with wastage of public resources, mismanagement, corruption, and graft. In this regard, Community-Led Procurement (CLP) allows local communities to control and implements the procurement process. They achieve this by creating groups that lead to accountability and openness, improved value of money, reduced wastage, and corruption, better quality of services and works and increased use of local contractors and workers. CLP also assists local community members to develop according to their vision (Alvesson & Karreman, 2007).
All government procurement programs have been plagued by waste and inefficiencies. The local communities have been lacking knowledge in terms of actors, processes, and costs involved. Cumbersome and slow systems…
Abrahamson, E. (2006). Management fashion. New York: ProQuest.
Alvesson, M. & Karreman, D. (2007). Odd couple: making sense of the curious concept of Knowledge Management: Journal of Management Studies, 38(7), 995-1018
Baym, N. (2005). Tune in, log on: soaps, fandom and online community. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Making and emaking Neighbourly elations
For many residents, the idea of have a neighbourhood with a sense of community is very important. It is often the kinds of things that those interested in selling properties uses as a means of reassuring prospective buyers of the 'great neighbourhood' and the sense of solidarity neighbors can provide although interactions within neighbourhoods is not as clearly defined. esearchers assert that in the process of being neighbours in representing the relational identity of neighbor there is an ongoing process, both physical and ideological, of developing, modifying, and infracting and rebuilding boundaries between what is deemed public and private, and the home and street.
According to scholars, individual relationships with neighbours are contingent upon a number of factors inclusive of cultural background, socioeconomic stratification, age, and length of residency, individual preferences and social characteristics (Taylor, Hunchliffe, Clarke & Bromley, 2009). One of the…
Attwood, C., singh, G., Prime, D., Creasey, R. et al. (2003) 2001 Home Office Citizenship
Survey: People, families and communities, London, Home Office.
Crow, G., Allan, G., and Summers, M. (2002), 'Neither busybodies nor nobodies: managing proximity and distance in neighbourly relations', Sociology, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 127-45.
Harris, K. And Gale, T. (2004) Looking out for each other: Manchester Neighbourliness Review [online], community Development Foundation.
Constructing a Cooperative Community in Education
In a drama film "12 angry men" of 1957, one can draw some vital lessons that can help manage a community as well as an organization. The film explores various techniques on consensus building, and the difficulties a person encounters when managing a large number of people. When managing a large number of individuals, one cannot escape the fact that there is a variation of personalities to control. The film centers on an 18-year-old boy accused of stabbing his father to death. The judge in the case informs the jury that a guilty verdict will include a mandatory death sentence. The team of jurors retires to a private room before proclaiming their verdict.
They take a vote on the case, and majority members of the team have already taken a guilty stand except juror 8. However, the vote of juror 8 annoys other jurors…
Johnson, C.E. (2007). Ethics in the workplace: Tools and tactics for organizational transformation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Johnson, C.E. (2012). Meeting the ethical challenges of leadership: Casting light or shadow. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Kouzes, J.M., & Posner, B.Z. (2011). Credibility: How leaders gain and lose it, why people demand it. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass.
Nicholi, A.M. (2002). The question of God: C.S. Lewis and Sigmund Freud debate God, love, sex, and the meaning of life. New York: Free Press.
Halfway House Programs: Community esistance and Possible Solutions
Halfway houses are Community-Based esidential Facilities or Community esidential Centers. Additionally, volunteers or correctional officer's head this halfway house programs in a community-based setting. Halfway house programs provide an important role between institutional care and the community (Sechrest, 1991). This is because they offer rehabilitative and residential services to the designated community. In addition, they provide a chance for exceptional and creative programming aimed at solving the needs of the community and its residents at large.
In addition, the use of these programs is not a new idea because most of the offenders under observation, they are supervised in the community. Some of the offenders who receive community supervision include offenders under probation, those who receive a conditional sentence, and people who are gradually in the process of release into the community through a parole or a statutory release (Lindsay, 1991). It…
ICCA. (2010). Siting Community Corrections Facilities. ICCA. Retrieved 29 September, 2013
Krause, J.D. (n.d) Community opposition to correctional facility siting: Beyond the "NIMBY"
explanation. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 17(1&2), 239-262.
("hite House Drug Policy: Funding." (2006) Office of National Drug Control Policy) The lack of medical resources, however, currently available through most CAPs may make it difficult for CAPs to provide meaningful medical aid to addicted individuals. Most of the aid is likely to be directed towards hosting counseling and support groups. However, unlike federal drug efforts, CAPs, by allying themselves with faith-based community partnerships can provide psychological support by directing persons in need towards the potentially beneficial role that faith and spirituality play in the prevention of drug and alcohol abuse as conveyed through programs designed to treat and promote recovery from substance abuse such as Alcoholics Anonymous and Narcotics Anonymous. ("Faith Based and Community Initiatives," 2006, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration)
Relationship between CAPs and HIV / AIDS
CAPs would seem ideal to fight AIDS, given that CAPs can deploy "community-oriented primary care," or an approach…
About Us: Community Action Agencies (CAA)." (2006). Community Action
Partnership (CAP). Retrieved 2 Dec 2006 at http://www.communityactionpartnership.com/about/about_caas/default.asp
Community Action Agencies and Faith-Based Organizations: A Legacy of Productive partnerships." 2000). Community Action Partnership (CAP). Retrieved 2 Dec 2006 at http://www.communityactionpartnership.com/research/CAAs-FBOs.pdf
Community Action Agencies and Local Youth: Building a Future Together." (2003).
My approach can now be summarized and classified into one of the COI's subdivision categories which definitely helps me simplify my academic approach. Having an anchor point that corresponds to Frontier's philosophy essentially gives me a new way of communicating any topic to anyone who can understand the basic tenets of both COI and Frontier. It is essentially like speaking a different language that is specific to our line of thought.
Overall the experience at Frontier Bound really opened my eyes not only at ways that I can succeed and get better, but also introduced me to the serious problems that I will soon face. Learning about the conditions of our community can be a little disheartening at times, but with support of both my school and classmates, it appears I am part of something bigger than myself and can draw strength from this source. This new perspective of community…
As a group, the 3 groups in this study showed significant increases on both the school-level accountability indicators like performance and progress and the core content indicators like reading, math, and writing for the 3-year period. This was expected and likely due to the importance placed on academic reform throughout the entire state educational system. Holding time constant, the level of implementation was an important factor, particularly on the reading and math indicators. Schools implementing CSHP at a low level had a considerably lower proportion of students meeting both the reading and the math standards than schools implementing CSHP at a high level.
Interestingly, schools implementing CSHP at a low level also had a considerably lower proportion of students meeting both the reading and the mathematics standards than those schools not implementing CSHP at all. This finding was not surprising given that for academically struggling schools, upholding fidelity across multiple…
Rosas, S., Case, J., & Tholstrup, L. (2009). A Retrospective Examination of the Relationship
Between Implementation Quality of the Coordinated School Health Program Model
and School-Level Academic Indicators Over Time. Journal of School Health, 79(3),
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…
Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.
Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-
Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
Therefore the pubic relations specialist has to be conscious and fully aware of his or her role as intermediary between the organization and the public. This is particularly true of P specialists who work for government and organizations affecting health and the environment.
An example of social responsible P marketing is marketing that;
Identifies areas where the firm can make a positive difference.
Makes sure local media are aware.
Informs and involve employees.
Invests in advertising and public relations to highlight the firm's efforts.
Public elations, egulations and Sponsorship Programs)
In terms of the external responsibilities and functions of the P officer in an organization, media relations often take priority. The P specialist is trained to communicate and to enable the media to write and present the organization in a light that is conducive to the good image of the company.
In order to achieve these functions the public relations…
Public Relations Specialists. Retrieved 18 February, 2007, at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos086.htm
Public Relations, Regulations and Sponsorship Programs. Retrieved 18 February, 2007, at http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:eLqM0aWlAxgJ:www.cob.sjsu.edu/vitale_r/clowch13Selected.ppt+social+function+of+Public+relations&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=35&gl=za
Virtual Communities - Social Implications of Public Relations. Retrieved 18 February, 2007, at http://wiki.media-culture.org.au/index.php/Virtual_Communities_in_Public_Relations_-_Social_Implications
V. Government System RARPA
The government introduced the RARPA Program which is abbreviated for the:: "Recording and Recognition of Progress and Achievement Summary of the Evaluation Report" in relation to the Pilot Projects April 2003 to March 2004 Learning and Skills Development Agency National Institute of Adult Continuing Education 2004 August. Since 2002 the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) has focused its efforts on establishing an appropriate method of recognizing and recording the progress and achievement of learners that is non-accredited in nature. Development of a model called the 'Staged Process." The RARPA consists of the application "of an explicit and common staged process to the recognition and recording of progress and achievement, together with the validation of this process through a range of judgments about its consistent and effective application." The background of the project is stated to be that LSDA and NIACE were involved in preparation of work…
McCallum, Myra K. (1999) "Strategies and Activities to Stimulate Adequate ESOL Instruction in Content Area Courses and Increase Honest Effort and Motivation Among ESOL Students Dekalb County School System, Decatur, GA 1999 November U.S. Department of Education: #FL026093.
Your Guide 2 Skills For Life Policy and Strategy (2005) Skills and Education Network March Online available at: http://senet.lsc.gov.uk/guide2/skill sforlife/G2skillsforlifeG028.pdf
English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Case Studies of Provision, Learner's Needs and Resources, National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy Online at www.nrcd.org.uk ISBN 0 95456492 Kings College London, University of Leeds, Institute of Education, University of London and Lancaster University.
Fogel, H. & Ehri, L.C. (2000). Teaching elementary students who speak Black English Vernacular to write in Standard English: effects of dialect transformation practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25.
Facebook is operating on the communication and social segment of the it industry. In this sense, it is offering a multitude of services to its clients, which include, besides the actual chat or forum-like services, photo and video sharing and, increasingly, the capacity to generate an entirely customized and personalized page for the user. From this point-of-view, we can identify primary competitors, competing in the social segment of the industry, but also secondary competitors, who focus on partial components, such as photo or video sharing.
In terms of the primary segment, the most important competitor that Facebook has is Myspace. Myspace has successfully benefited from being launched earlier so as to attract an additional 30 million users, ranking at 100 million users before Facebook's 70 million. Bebo and Blackplanet also provide important competition on the primary market, however, the ain competition is between Facebook and Myspace. Both sites try…
The negative aspect of the matter however, is the limited breakthroughs made at the practical level, as most discussions end in declarative aims, yet no timeline for an actual implementation of them. On the one hand, the European Union did not present itself as very willing to offer economic incentives and aid to the ailing Russian Federation, and on the other hand, Russian opposition forces who argue against a westernization of the country encourage a limited enthusiasm towards an increased cooperation partnership. In this way, both parties, although are engaged in a partnership, act in such a manner as to discourage any advancements of talks.
The stalemate that has continuously characterized the Partnership was obvious in many instances. One moment that was of great importance for the European Union and to which the Russian Federation more or less opposed was the 2004 enlargement process. In that context, "Russia has transmitted…
Baranovsky, Vladimir. "Russia: A Part of Europe or Apart from Europe?" International Affairs Vol. 76, No. 3, Europe: Where Does it Begin and End?. (Jul., 2000), pp. 443-458.
BBC. "EU-Russia relations 'at low ebb'." BBC News. 20 April 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/6574615.stm (accessed 13 December 2007)
Emerson, Michael, and Irina Kobrinskaya. "Russia and the West." Working Paper 2004. European Security Forum. Center for European Policy Studies. International Institute for Strategic Studies.
European Commission. "EU-Russia: Preparations for the Summit on 26 October." European Parliament. Strasbourg, 24 October, 2007. http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=SPEECH/07/653&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en (accessed 13 December 2007)
Sooner than expected, the place became populated with variation of races - natives and whites.
The place, now called as the New Brooklyn has the following characteristics (Hampson, 2003 pp 14):
Big area which can accommodate more or less 100,000 residents
The population is fast growing, with a 110% growth rate
The populace are racially and ethnically diverse
These characteristics of the area provided positive and negative impact to the people living in it. First, the hugeness of the face offers more housing and business spaces for the people. This would of course ensure that every family will have a place to own. In the same manner, this will also ensure that a number of employment opportunities will be opened to the public. However the hugeness of the place could also mean that there are more issues that people could fight about. The populace can fight about land ownership. Unhealthy…
Dakst, D. "New Americans Fresh off the Presses," the NY Times Washington Street Journal, Pp 3-11, Spring 2003.
Gonzales, D. "At 40-year Bronx Beach Party, Who Needs Sand?" NY Times, pp 17-19
Hampson, R. "New Brooklyn's Replace White Suburbs," USA Today, pp 14-16, 19 May 2003.
Kinzie S. "Conflicting Images of Amish Life," the Washington Post, pp 9-10, 28 July 2004.
Ideas to Build Rapport Between Police and Residents in a Community
The police force is ultimately accountable to the public in one manner or another. Therefore, not only must the police justify its policies and actions relative to the public service of the community, but the community will also be the most important critic of their actions as well. Various policing organizations have come under intense scrutiny and have received a great deal of negative publicity through the mainstream and social media channels. The relationship between a police force and the community they serve is often tense, but with the massive spread of smartphones and portable cameras, the levels of animosities have reached new heights in some jurisdictions due to improper use of force in many cases. The friction between public servants and the community are experiencing vast amounts of friction because of such instances and the publicity…
Gest, T. (2015, October 2). DOJ Slams St. Louis County Cops on Community Relations. Retrieved from The Crime Report: http://www.thecrimereport.org/news/inside-criminal-justice/2015-10-cops-on-st-louis-county
U.S. Department of Justice. (2007, November). Building Trust Between the Police and the Citizens They Serve. Retrieved from COPS: http://www.theiacp.org/portals/0/pdfs/buildingtrust.pdf
Weitzer, R., Tuch, S., & Skogan, W. (2008). Police -- Community Relations in a Majority-Black City. Journal of Research in Crime & Deliquency.
When you really think about the P blunders over the past 25 years, it strikes me that more accurately we should be calling them failures in management, not failures of P," says Professor Broom, co-author of the books, "Effective Public elations" and "Using esearch in Public elations." Surely, the failures have the effect of damaging an organization's relationships with its publics but the P function often is not part of management," says Broom (Garcia, 1990)."
It will be important to measure the constant success or failure of this new strategy. Using all of the above methods to reach new members and reassure current members will provide the church with a solid growth foundation. This will allow the church to move forward and work toward expanding its building program in the next five years.
The Differences Between Marketing, Advertising, and Public elations.(Industry Trend or Event)
OfficeSolutions; 12/1/2000; Hart, ebecca
The Differences Between Marketing, Advertising, and Public Relations.(Industry Trend or Event)
OfficeSolutions; 12/1/2000; Hart, Rebecca
Search for more information on HighBeam Research for "public relations" and strategy.
PR bloopers. (failed public relations programs) (International Association of Business Communicators: 1970-1990: Section 3: A Era Ended)
In 1981, President onald eagan fired many striking air traffic controllers employed by Federal Aviation Administration. In the face of various challenges confronting labor unions, the union membership drastically, continue to decline. Since support from political party has declined, many workers believe that union's ability to protect their interests has drastically declined, and thus, many private workers belief that it is no longer necessary to be union members.
oberts, (1997) argue that labor unions have faced hard times and sustained membership loss. The hard times ranging from diminishing influence of bargaining to the intense of global competition and technological changes.
Added to the political influence that contributes to the decline of the union, there are other external dynamics affecting labor unions. Globalization has been identified as the one of the external dynamic that has impact on the unions' strategies.
External Dynamics affecting the Labor Unions
One of the external dynamics…
ASHHRA (2010). The Workplace Multigenerational Strategies & Solutions for healthcare employers. American Society for the Administration of Healthcare Human Resources (ASHHRA)
Devinatz V.G.(2011). U.S. Trade Unionism Under Globalization: The death of Voluntarism and the Turn to Politics. Labor Law Journal. 62 (1).
Estreicher, S. (2010). Trade Unionism Under Globalization: The Demise of Voluntarism. Saint Louis University Law Journal .54: 415-426.
Griswold, D. (2010). Unions, Protectionism, and U.S. Competitiveness. CATO Journal. 30 (1): 181-196.
Public elations (Corporate social responsibility)
The term 'Corporate Social esponsibility' refers to the social responsibility that a Company must honor towards the public, especially those people who have direct contact with and are therefore directly affected by the policies and actions of the company. The feeling that the social responsibility of multi-national companies are not of such standards that would satisfy the general public has lead to widespread protests and demonstrations against these companies at almost every free-trade meeting at the regional and national as well as the multi-national levels. The protests are also generally against worldwide globalization. Almost all major multinational companies are found lacking in their responsibilities towards the public. It is not at all sufficient for a company to satisfy its shareholders and investors and employees and the community in which they function from; in fact, these companies are expected to be aware of and take an…
CEO's Message" HP Standards of Business Conduct. Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/sbcbrochure.pdf . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" 2004. Retrieved at http://www.takingitglobal.org/themes/csr/ . Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Corporate Social Responsibility" Retrieved at http://www.hp.com/hpinfo/globalcitizenship/csr/. Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Danng, Lyng. 2004. "Who is monitoring the multinational?" 17th May. Retrieved at http://www.vibewire.net/articles.php?id=2671Accessed on 7 September, 2004
Bioecological Theory and the Family and Community Resource Conceptual Framework)
The Case History
"Kerry" has twin girls who are now 4 years old. he had been living with her defacto "Dean" for the past 6 years. he is a qualified beautician and has previously run a small business from home before the birth of the twins. he undertook schooling until year 12 (equal to UA high school diploma) at a public school, is one of two children herself and has supportive parents in a middle income suburb. he left her defacto 10 months ago after two years of domestic violence brought on by the use intravenous "speed." he has an AVO (Aggravated Violence Order) on "Dean" for 12 months. During the previous two years "Kerry" was subjected to physical and psychological trauma, the twins witnessed this abuse. "Dean" is on a fly in fly out basis working in the mines…
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Caspi, J (2008). Building a Sibling Aggression Treatment Model: Design and Development Research in Action, Research on Social Work Practice, 18: 575
Paquette, D & Ryan. J (2001). Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory
Prochaska, J.O., & Norcross, J.C. (2007). Systems of Psychotherapy: A Trans-theoretical Analysis, Sixth Edition. Belmont, CA: Thompson Brooks/Cole.
U.S. And Int'l. Relations
International Relations Theories and the Role of the U.S. In the Middle East
A Short Analysis of U.S. Culture Theories and Interventions
intervention in the Middle East has had very divergent consequences for both Iraq and the United States, with the lasting outcome being undetermined as of yet. The two countries are polar opposites in many ways, including vastly different cultures, different work ethics, and different histories. The divide between the Western Liberalized world and the world of Muslim dictators has always been troublesome in relations between the two populations. Lessons may be learned from the African Union in how to unite deeply divided states, as the institution has been successful in their attempt to unite states divided by religion, ethnicity, language, and culture. The African Union may also learn lessons from the U.S. intervention in Iraq, as the International Relations Theory pursued by the United…
However, the speech is rather vague and filled with generalities and idealistic views. Precisely because it is not clear and directed against a named aggressor it does not have the strength to create a major change in our foreign policy. The speech should rather be analyzed as a sign of where our security policy is headed than as a clear statement of foreign policy. Perhaps the President's speech could have had a bigger impact if the aggressors were named. It is clear that Japan, Italy and Germany can be portrayed as aggressors, but the Chicago speech does not identify any country. From this it is simple to draw the conclusion that this is the first step towards taking measures against aggressors.
The quarantine of the aggressor nations represents an alternative for America's current foreign policy and the president showed support for forming alliances against aggressive nations. The Chicago speech marks…
Roosevelt, Franklin D., Quarantine the Aggressor, October 5, 1937, available at http://www.presidentialrhetoric.com/historicspeeches/roosevelt_franklin/quarantine.html ;
Quarantine Speech, available at http://www.answers.com/topic/quarantine-speech ;
Reactions to Roosevelt, October 18, 1937, available at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,758266-1,00.html .