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Cynthia Simmons began receiving unwanted communication from an unknown assailant. She did what the experts recommend: she changed her email address, instant messenger identity and other online identifiers, nothing stopped the computer harassment. She believes the offender to be her ex-boyfriend, Jacob Myers, but even searching her computer and comparing the offending emails to that of Jacob Myers, the evidence has not been sufficient to obtain a search warrant to search Jacob Myers' computer.
It appears that Ms. Simmons is the victim of cyberstalking. According the NCSL, "cyberstalking is the use of the Internet, email or other electronic communications to stalk, and generally refers to a pattern of threatening or malicious behaviors." She, Ms. Simmons, has been receiving calls to her home propositioning her for services and she found out that someone had placed her contact information on an escort service website. Stalking is a serious crime, whether…
Epley, C. (June 23, 2010). Cyber-Crimes: An Analysis of Cyber-extortion. Retrieved from http://www.suite101.com/content/cyber-crimes-part-one-cyber-extortion
Greenberg, P. (January 26, 2011). State Cyberstalking, Cyberharrasment and Cyberbullying Laws.
National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Retrieved from http://www.ncls.org/IssuesResearch/TelecommunicationsInformationTechnology/CyberstalkingLaws.html.
As computers and the Internet continue to grow in popularity and the world turns toward globalization, computer crime has quickly become a major concern for businesses, government agencies and individuals.
Computer crimes affect millions of people and cost millions of dollars every day (Wasik, 1990). The victims of computer crimes range from individuals and schools to corporate businesses and government agencies. In this day and age, it seems as though no one is safe from computer crime.
This paper aims to identify the different types of computer crimes and what can be done to prevent them. In addition, it will analyze the issue of child pornography, revealing whether or not pornographic images created on a computer are illegal.
Types of Computer Crime
In this modern information age, the innovation and power of technology tests the ethics of the average person, not just the criminal. As a result, computer…
Associated Press. (1999, January 30). Court Upholds Child Pornography Law.
Cornwall, H. (1986). The Computer Hacker's Handbook. Boston: Century.
Dern, David. (1994). The Internet Guide for New Users. New York: McGraw Hill.
Griffin, Linda and Plato, JoAnn. Child Pornography on the Internet. Retrieved from Internet on 2/26/03 at http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/wp/crime-2002/child.htm.
Cyber crime exerts threats to individuals, organizations & countries across the world. From the above provided descriptions it is comprehended that the computer crime is a serious crime that necessitates immediate attention of the law and of the law enforcement agencies. 0. There prevails no solution except to take strict measures to deal with cyber crimes against the speedy expansion of the communications & information technology and telecommunications networks.
Areheart, Bradley a. (2007) "egulating Cyberbullies through Notice-Based Liability" 117 Yale
L.J. Pocket Part 41, pp: 26-31.
Effects of Anonymity and Pre- Employment Integrity." International Journal of Cyber Criminology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp: 536 -- 549.
Farsole, Ajinkya a; Kashikar, Amruta G; Zunzunwala, Apurva. (2010) "Ethical
Hacking." International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 1, no. 10, pp: 11 -- 17.
Hinduja, Sameer. (2007) "Computer Crime Investigations in the United States: Leveraging
Knowledge from the Past to Address…
Areheart, Bradley a. (2007) "Regulating Cyberbullies through Notice-Based Liability" 117 Yale
L.J. Pocket Part 41, pp: 26-31.
Effects of Anonymity and Pre- Employment Integrity." International Journal of Cyber Criminology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp: 536 -- 549.
These attacks result in billions of dollars in damage to the United States and other global economies.
Although technology is becoming more secure, cybercrime has increased as Internet use has risen. In fact, according to the Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) Coordination Center at Carnegie Mellon University, the number of cybersecurity incidents more than doubled to nearly 53,000 last year. In the first three months of 2002 alone, CERT counted nearly 27,000 incidents.
espite the sharp increase in malicious viruses and network break-ins, many offenders are not held accountable or punished for their crimes. Because the law in the Philippines did not criminalize the intentional release of computer viruses, the individual responsible for the "ILOVEYOU" virus, which caused an estimated $8 billion in damage, was never charged with any crime. Even in the United States, where cybercrime is subject to the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, convicted cybercriminals often serve…
Despite the sharp increase in malicious viruses and network break-ins, many offenders are not held accountable or punished for their crimes. Because the law in the Philippines did not criminalize the intentional release of computer viruses, the individual responsible for the "ILOVEYOU" virus, which caused an estimated $8 billion in damage, was never charged with any crime. Even in the United States, where cybercrime is subject to the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, convicted cybercriminals often serve little or no prison time. Sentences for violations are determined by calculating the actual economic loss, difficult to establish accurately in the context of computer crime, and are limited to 10 years.
Taking cybercrime seriously is even more important in a post-September 11 world. Security experts warn that terrorist organizations and hostile nations may employ hackers to target U.S. commerce, telecommunications and utility grids. The potential consequences are perilous.
In order to curb cybercrime, lawmakers should consider more forceful deterrents. The Cyber Security Enhancement Act of 2002, now before the U.S. House of Representatives, addresses weaknesses in current law by directing the U.S. Sentencing Commission to review and amend Federal computer crime sentencing guidelines. The bill empowers judges to issue appropriately tough sentences for computer crime by allowing them to consider intent, violations of privacy rights and the sophistication of the offense in addition to actual loss. Once enacted, the law will help deter cybercrime by subjecting hackers to real penalties for committing real crimes.
Phishing is another criminal technique used to cull bank account or credit card information. Lovet (2007) describes how simple and potentially lucrative phishing can be: "the total costs for sending out 100,000 phishing emails can be as little as $60. This kind of 'phishing trip' will uncover at least 20 bank accounts of varying cash balances, giving a 'market value' of $200 - $2,000 in e-gold." Most incidents of phishing and identity fraud are more easily carried out in countries with less lax laws regarding computer crime, fraud, embezzlement, and identity theft than in the United States (Lovet, 2007). However, one of the largest cases of consumer identity theft was carried out in the United States this year, when "at least 45.7 million credit and debit cards was stolen by hackers," (Swetenham, 2007).
Especially since September 11, law enforcement officials in the United States have been increasingly concerned about the…
BBC (2004). Hot topics: Computer viruses. November 2004. Retrieved April 18, 2007 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/hottopics/computerviruses/crime.shtml
Lovet, G. (2007). How cybercrime operations work;; and how they make money. Retrieved April 18, 2007 at http://www.crime-research.org/analytics/2524/
McCormack, S. (2006). United States Joins Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime. United States Department of State. Retrieved April 18, 2007 at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2006/73353.htm
Swetenham, R. (2007). Quick links. Retrieved April 18, 2007 at http://www.qlinks.net/quicklinks/comcrime.htm
computer related data on a forensic level. With new advances in technology, there are new opportunities for criminals to commit crimes online and through hacking into computer systems. These crimes committed are often very complex, and take special techniques in order to collect enough evidence to suggest a suspect or even the presence of a crime itself. The paper then goes on to discuss the sensitivity of electronic evidence and the process of collecting, documenting, examining, and packaging anything found in a scan of electronic devices by forensic investigators.
The computer age has brought with it a whole new host of problems for law enforcement. According to the research, "the Internet, computer networks, and automated data systems present enormous new opportunity for committing criminal activity," (U.S. Department of Justice, 2013, 6). Many electronic devices are becoming facilitators for electronic crime. Often, hackers and other criminals use computer systems and the…
Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling yourself the truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to help people change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
Ethical Considerations in Computer Crimes
The study is based on the topic of ethical consideration in computer crimes. The rapid expansion of computer technology has resulted in an extremely sensitive issue of computer crimes. The ethical standards that are applied in other fields cannot be applied to the field of computer technology therefore the paper has discussed various aspects that are crucial for the understanding of the topic.
There are a number of issues that have appeared in the recent times due to the rapid expansion of computer technology and with it, the advancements made in the field of computer crimes. Computer Crimes have been a major threat to the development f the modern technologies and have resulted in a number of financial and security breaches. Financial frauds, phishing, spoofing, piracy, privacy breaches, and a number of other issues come under the domain of ethics concerning computer crimes. [footnoteef:1] [1:…
Balkin, J., Grimmelmann, J., Katz, E., Kozlovski, N., Wagman, S. & Zarsky, T. Cybercrime: Digital Cops in a Networked Environment, New York University Press, New York. (2006)
Halder, D., & Jaishankar, K. Cyber crime and the Victimization of Women: Laws, Rights, and Regulations. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. (2011)
McQuade, S. (ed) The Encyclopedia of Cybercrime, Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. (2009)
Williams, M. Virtually Criminal: Crime, Deviance and Regulation Online, Routledge, London. (2006)
DSS and Computer Crime
lthough there is no single definition for a DSS, in general, a DSS has been defined as follows:
Decision Support Systems (DSS) are a specific class of computerized information system that supports business and organizational decision-making activities. properly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from raw data, documents, personal knowledge, and/or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions" [italics added] ("InformationBuilders.com," n.d.).
ccording to Gupta & Malik (2005), DSS is basically "a system that provides information for making semi-structured and unstructured decisions" (p. 184).
management information system ("MIS") is best defined as a "system or process that provides the information necessary to manage an organization effectively" (Comptroller of the Currency dministrator of National Banks, 1995, p. 2). Stated differently, MIS is a system or process that supports decisions involving quantitative, structured problems (Gupta &…
As noted above, DSS is situation specific in that it does not dictate the outcome of a decision, as does MIS. Since DSS is quick and not based on a rigid format, it can be used to review data and identify trends and patterns to ascertain consumer behavior. Thus, for example, where MIS helps management decide how much raw material needs to be reordered at a specific time and in what quantities, DSS helps the decision-maker review the trends and patterns associated with the consumption of a particular product, which in turn helps the decision-maker better determine the amount of material to re-order -- material that if based purely on an MIS model, may result in unneeded costs.
Computer crime has declined somewhat between 2009 and 2010, although the overall levels of computer crime have been consistently rising. For example, according to the Internet Crime Complaint Center (2009), from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009, there were "336,655 complaint submissions. . . . [A] 22.3% increase as compared to 2008 . . . ." (p. 2). In 2010, however, the Internet Crime Complaint Center (2010) reported that the total amount of complaints of computer crime went down slightly to 303,809 complaint submissions, but that this was still the "second-highest number of complaints" (p. 4). The general rise in computer crime is likely a result of the increased availability and use of computers and electronic equipment in society. Moreover, because not everyone
search and seizure of computers in a criminal case. The paper discuses both the challenges and the instruments and approaches needed in gathering evidence from computers.
Computer evidence is similar to most other kinds of evidence in several ways. Computer evidence is not that different from the evidence to be collected from a car impounded after a car-chase or the scene of crime in a murder case, in the sense that just like any other form of evidence, it ought to have been legally obtained, if it is to be admitted in court (Oppenheimer, n.d). For one, I will first have to get a search warrant before taking any computer evidence. In civil cases, there has to be consideration for procedures and policies. Many companies have their own incident-report plans that ought to be followed. The state and federal laws that are concerned with search and seizure also…
Boddington, R. (2015, March 17). Phys.org - News and Articles on Science and Technology. The challenges of digital forensics. Retrieved November 1, 2015, from http://phys.org/news/2015-03-digital-forensics.html
Oppenheimer, P. (n.d.). Priscilla Oppenheimer. Computer Forensics: Seizing a Computer. Retrieved November 1, 2015, from http://www.priscilla.com/forensics/ComputerSeizure.html
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act was enacted into law in 1986 to deal with the hacking of computer systems operated by the American government and certain financial institutions. Through its enactment, the legislation made it a federal offense to access a protected computer without authorization or to an extent that is beyond the authorized access. However, since it was passed into law, the act has been amended severally in attempts to expand its scope and penalties. In addition, the act has developed to be an important legislation since it's used widely not only by the government to prosecute hackers but it's also used by private corporations to help protect their trade secrets and other proprietary information.
Penalties and Fines in the Law:
The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act is considered as one of the most essential computer-crime laws because it was the first significant federal legislation to offer some protection…
Easttom, C. & Taylor, D.J. (2011). Computer Crime, Investigation, and the Law. Boston, MA:
"United States v. Morris -- Bloomberg Law." (n.d.). Case Briefs. Retrieved December 3, 2012,
Knowledge of e-crime from the perspective of crime science is insufficient in devolution of the problem, which cuts across various sections of social interaction through computers. There is a limitation in the forensic and social / legal exploration of information technology aspects and that is the possible cause of the limitations of the jurisdictions of the computer crime legislation, creating the insufficiency in the fulfillment of its purpose (Tonry 2009 p. 20-350).
The legislation approaches the infringement of the social precepts of technology without any consideration of social remedies. The use of police in regulation of operations is limiting because they may not have the capacity for gauging the extent of computer damage. It is logical considering the sensitivity of pro-social individuals, and their possibility of taking up their responsibilities. Social norms revolve around consideration of others and create a sense of mindfulness and consideration of activities (Humphreys 2007 p.…
'a Comparative Study of Cyberattacks' 2012, Communications of the ACM, 55, 3, pp. 66-73, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 August 2012.
Assange, J., & Dreyufus, S. (2011). Underground tales of hacking, madness and obsession on the electronic frontier. Edinburgh, Canongate. 56. Print.
Assange, J., & Dreyufus, S. (2011). Underground. North Sydney, N.S.W., Random House Australia. 23-150. Print.
Foltz, C, & Renwick, J 2011, 'Information Systems Security and Computer Crime in the IS Curriculum: A Detailed Examination', Journal of Education for Business, 86, 2, pp. 119-125, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 August 2012.
computer is a device that accepts information in the form of digitalized data and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed. Used the right way, computers can be an enormous personal and business productivity tool for automating numerous routine tasks and increasing information storage, retrieval and exchange. Unfortunately, computers also facilitate and expand crime.
Computer crime pertains to any intentional or unintentional harm done to or with information and/or hardware that may result in losses of, or injury to, property, services, and people. Many crimes involving computers are no different from crimes without computers. Some examples include:
Using a computer and peripherals for forgery or counterfeiting is the same crime as using an old-fashioned printing press with ink.
Stealing a laptop computer with proprietary information is the same crime as stealing a briefcase that contains papers…
Eder, Karen. Defining Computer Crime and Technology Misuse." Technology Studies in Education Research Portal. 23 Nov. 2003. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/wp/crime/definition.htm.
Standler, Ronald B. "Computer Crime." 2002.
23 Nov. 2003. http://www.rbs2.com/ccrime.htm .
TechTarget. 23 Nov. 2003. http://searchwin2000.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,sid1_gci211829,00.html .
computer used by the employee has either been compromised physically with a password cracking software (EC-Council,2010;Beaver & McClure,2010) or it has bee compromised remotely with the help of a keylogging software.A keylogger is noted by APWG (2006) as a special crimeware code that is designed with the sole intention of collecting information from the end-user terminal. The stolen information includes every strike of the keyboard which it captures.The most sensitive of the captured information are the user's credentials. Keylogger may also be used to refer to the hardware used for this purpose. The employee's password could also have been shoulder-surfed by his immediate neighbor at the workplace. This could be his coworker who manages to peek and see over his shoulder as he types in sensitive authentication information (password)
Strategy to address the issue as well as the necessary steps for resolving the issue
The strategy for addressing this threat…
Anti-Phising Working Group (2006). Phishing Activity Trends Report
Bem, D and Huebner, E (2007).Computer Forensic Analysis in a Virtual Environment. International Journal of Digital Evidence .Fall 2007, Volume 6 (2)
This is what creates the continual need to share literally everything going on in their lives, as each post releases a significant dopamine rush (Charman-Anderson, 17, 18).
Dopamine is also the reason why the many forms of computer addiction are so difficult to treat. ith anonymity comes the opportunity to create multiple identities or personas online (Soule, 66, 67). This is what leads employees who have Internet addictions to create many different online identities, giving them ethical and moral leeway they would never give themselves. This aspect of personas and the forgiven unethicacy of conduct of personas is a key factor in online crimes committed by employees during company hours (Nykodym, Ariss, Kurtz, 82, 83). The personas of the addicted computer addicts are orchestrated for specific dopamine-driven production to fuel and feed habitual behaviors online
(Quinn 180). These strategies to ensure a steady supply of dopamine may not even be…
Charman-Anderson, Suw. "Seeking Addiction: The Role of Dopamine in Social Media." Computer Weekly (2009): 16-23.
Neumann, Peter G. "Are Computers Addictive?" Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM 41.3 (1998): 128-135.
Nykodym, Nick, Sonny Ariss, and Katarina Kurtz. "Computer Addiction and Cyber Crime." Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics (2008): 78-85. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 3 Dec. 2012.
Quinn, Brian. "The Medicalisation of Online Behaviour." Online Information Review 25.3 (2001): 173-80.
Crime in Literature
Capitalizing on Elastic Computing
Aside from its potential to integrate and aggregate a host of resources and technologies, Cloud Computing can most prominently benefit the enterprise through the enabling of Elastic Computing.
Elastic Computing is the utilization of the Cloud's nearly limitless scalability to provision resources on demand and at scale without conventional architectural concerns associated with doing so on-premise such as:
Scaling Up and Down -- In physical environments, substantially adding or subtracting resources requires reconfiguring one's architecture to do so -- which is time consuming. Moreover, it is possible that after reconfiguring architecture to scale up, scaling back down again can require even more time than the former process, if doing so is even possible.
Storage -- Storage in on-premise environments is significantly more costly than Cloud-based storage, and was the principle reason that the philosophy of minimizing data within a physical warehouse was derived…
Resources -- The degree of specificity for changing and manipulating the various resources to power the database enables users to dedicate particular amounts to computing and storage, which allows them to issue queries while loading the database.
Automation -- Snowflake Elastic Data Warehouse can automate various aspects of data warehouse management (copying data, tuning performances, or spreading data across the system) and assist end users in these processes as they go, instead of involving database administrators or other IT personnel.
The initial explosion of Big Data largely involved Hadoop as a means of accessing semi-structured and unstructured data, and came to result in organizations attempting to utilize it as an integration hub for their proprietary, on premise data and those that were otherwise. When compared with Hadoop, Snowflake Elastic Data Warehouse is a native relational environment as opposed to the former. This fact accounts for an expedience and ease of integration, in addition to querying and optimization that requires less effort and resources than the latter does. These same factors limit Hadoop's efficacy with transactional data, although Hadoop is open source and is much more cost-effective than a traditional database. Still, it is not a data warehouse.
The illegal site I reviewed for this assignment is www.howtogrowmarijuana.com. This site covers virtually all aspects of marijuana growing -- which is an illegal activity because marijuana is widely outlawed in the United States. However, there are some states in which individuals can legally consume marijuana for medicinal purposes. In these states and others there exists the potential for businesses to legally supply this substance to people.
There is a large degree of transparency in this particular web site. It was the first result to appear with a Yahoo search for "How to grow marijuana." As the tile of the site suggests, it discusses many different facets of growing marijuana and stratifies this process according to location (indoor or outdoors), various strains of marijuana including seeds (No author, 2014), irrigation and growth systems involving hydroponics, and other germane equipment types such as the expensive lights used to assist…
Faris, S. (2013). Have the NSA leaks compromised Big Data's future? www.dataversity.net Retrieved from http://www.dataversity.net/page/2/?s=stephanie+faris
No author. (2014). Marijuana seed strains review. www.howtogrowmarijuana.com Retrieved from http://howtogrowmarijuana.com/all-marijuana-strains.html
Romero, R. (2011). Craigslist illegal drug trade exposed. www.abc7.com
Retrieved from http://abc7.com/archive/8132665/
Crime of Conspiracy
The recent case whereby criminal charges were imposed in Aaron Swartz caused frenzy throughout the country. In my perspective, a criminal penalty was essential for this case. Swartz had announced he would be committed to opposing the law as a moral impervious to invalidate the federal laws in existence for information access effectively. In this case, one decided to disobey the law intentionally, just because he wanted to achieve a goal in an anti-democratic policy way and there is a display by both deeds and words that he will precede. It is very deliberate for the criminal law with its power to enforce a penalty under the law that the individual violated intentionally. In actual sense, the law is the fact about civil disobedience: the main function of the punishment is to focus on the same law deemed unjust. As was in this case, I think the…
Samaha, J. (2011). Criminal Law (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Gillies, P. (2009). The law of criminal conspiracy. Sydney: Federation Press
Rowlett, C. (2005). Labyrinth 13: True tales of the occult, crime, & conspiracy. United States:
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…
Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352
Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime
Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.
Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
Computers in Solving Non-computer-Based Crime
This proposal for research involves a survey of law enforcement officials to determine how much they use computers as a tool to help solve crimes that are not committed by computer, such as murder and robberies. Using a questionnaire that utilizes a numerical scale for responses with opportunities for written comments as well, it will quantify the results and indicate areas for further research. Since little research has been done in this area, it should be considered a preliminary study.
Law enforcement has traditionally struggled to keep up, technologically, with the criminals they are charged with catching. During Prohibition, gangsters had machine guns and government agents did not. Now, in the year 2002, law enforcement may have a powerful and relatively new tool available to them in the war against crime: computers.
However, an exploration of the literature reveals little if any systematic study about…
Author not available. Nov. 17, 1998. "APB online launches police and crime Internet service." PR Newswire.
Author not available (ANA). June 2001. "The Long Arm of the Law." Internet Magazine.
Garber, Lee. June 2001. "A new tool for law enforcement." Computer.
Hitt, Stephanie L. July 2000. "National Crime Information Center." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
Having good case management software could easily avoid all of these types of problems that might come about from rival gang members and from other issues where a person would not be 'safe' in a prison cell with another individual for a specific reason. The same is often true with a police officer that has broken the law and is now incarcerated, or a child molester being put in with prisoners that have children and value those children even though they may have done something awful to another adult.
Computer literacy is very important, so say both educators and the general public (Eisenberg, 1996). However, police departments and correctional facilities have only begun to realize the significance that computers can have for the rehabilitation and transfer of prisoners. According to orglund (n.d.), records are an extremely important part of police work, and the change from standard record-keeping to electronic record…
Borglund, E. (n.d.). Operational use of electronic records in police work. Department of Information Technology and Media. Mid-Sweden University, Harnosand, Sweden.
Eisenberg, M. & Johnson, D. (1996). Computer Skills for Information Problem-Solving: Learning and Teaching Technology in Context. ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology, Syracuse NY.
There was an attempt of cybercrime on a MoD skynet military sate light by an undersized group of hackers, this brought about a security intrusion which officials could characterized as information warefare, this could be further elaborated as an enemy attacks in terms of military communication disruption. The authority was able to trace the group to as far as southern England. The group managed to gain access to the Mod skynet military sate light and succeeded in reprograming the system in charge of the control before they were discovered. The case was taken over by the joint team of Scotland Yard's Computer Crimes Unit as well as the U.S. Air Force.
It is without doubt that Satellites plays a major role in supporting the existing balance in the universal economy, society, as well as advanced militaries and this has made a number of nations to develop…
2011 Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. (2011). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from http://origin.www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/annual_reports/annual_report_full_11.pdf
GAO Critical Infrastructure Protection Commercial Satellite Security Should Be More Fully Addressed. (2002). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from http://www.gao.gov/assets/240/235485.pdf .
Robertson, Ann E. (2011). Militarization of Space. New York: Facts on File. Retrieved on April 25, 2014 from http://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1131&context=cm
Space Security Index 2012. (2012). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from http://swfound.org/media/93632/SSI_FullReport_2012.pdf
It is safe to say that the computer revolution has so dramatically changed the manner in which academics and novices work. "...the uses of information technology are diverse; as data have to be processed, and as word data are laborious to process, and as several powerful packages for data analysis and processing exist, researchers will find it useful to make full use of computing facilities.
Cohen, Manion, and Morrison 155)
The results of the computer revolution, in their entirety have yet to be fully realized but the manner in which it has changed and continues to change research is fundamental to the way it will continue to change education. Seekers of truth may find it difficult to weed through the massive amounts of information but organizing large volumes of knowledge into relatively small spaces reiterates the vastness of the world and with the right skills and training can revolutionize thought.…
Anderson, Ray C. "The Next Industrial Revolution." Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 15.4 (2000): 23.
Cohen, Louis, Lawrence Manion, and Keith Morrison. Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge Falmer, 2000.
Halal, William E., and Jay Liebowitz. "Telelearning: The Multimedia Revolution in Education." The Futurist Nov.-Dec. 1994: 21.
Papert, Seymour. The Children's Machine: Rethinking School in the Age of the Computer. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
The view, for example, of criminal behavior from a labeling perspective tends to focus on the social and cultural background from which the criminal emerges; and Rational Choice theory stresses individual decision-making and culpability in crime. However, both theories are important in that they provide a basis from which to understand, intercept and prosecute criminal behavior.
In conclusion, the importance of crime analysis lies in the fact that information and intelligence about crime enables the law enforcement authorities to conduct a comprehensive crime combating program and develop suitable policies for crime prevention. Understanding the social and culture milieu or context from which crime develops can for instance be an essential tool in dealing with various types of crimes.
These theories and analyses also benefit from computer and Internet technology, where tendencies in crime can be more easily discerned by the patterns that remerge from the collation of data…
Bruce C.W. Crime Analysis. 16 October 2007. http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:Rv5FYusFZ4gJ:www.iaca.net/ExploringCA/exploringca_chapter1.pdf+importance+of+analysis+of+crime&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=ukFundamentalsof
Keel, R. (2004) Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory.
Retrieved October 17, 2007. from the University of Missouri. Web site. http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/ratchoc.html
Overview of Labelling Theories. October 16, 2007. http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/crime/labeling.htm
Crime Data Sources in the United States
The collection of crime data in the United States is carried out through different approaches including Uniform Crime eports and the National Incident-Based eporting System, which also act as the two primary sources of crime data for crime reporting. The data obtained from these sources are used for research and documentation of crime status at the county, state, and national levels. Notably, the National Incident-Based eporting System emerged as an advancement of the conventional summary of Uniform Crime eports that were used to track crime in the country. In addition, the Congress uses data from these sources together with those from the National Crime Victimization Survey to guide policy decisions and create suitable responses to crime. While the use of these sources helps in dealing with crime in the United States, they have some similarities and differences between them with regards to methodological…
Addington, L.A. (2008, February). Assessing the Extent of Nonresponse Bias on NIBRS
Estimates of Violent Crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
"Data Collection Guidelines." (2000, August). National Incident-Based Reporting System.
Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice website: https://www.fortworthpd.com/docmgmt/NIBRS_Volume1_Major_Differences.pdf
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
A failed and flawed law
Technology has changed faster than the laws that exist to protect the public. Protecting information, particularly sensitive government information, was thought to be challenging and to pose additional dilemmas in terms of its regulation. With this in mind, Congress passed the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act in 1984. The CFAA "outlaws conduct that victimizes computer systems. It is a cyber-security law. It protects federal computers, bank computers, and computers connected to the Internet. It shields them from trespassing, threats, damage, espionage, and from being corruptly used as instruments of fraud" (Doyle 2014:1-2). The CFAA's provisions ban the trespassing of data; the damaging of or use of threats to damage data; or trafficking in the passwords and other sensitive data of a wide range of computers containing protected information (Doyle 2014:1-2).
The law was passed during the pre-Internet era "as a…
Computer Fraud And Abuse Act Reform. (2014). EFF. Retrieved from:
Doyle, C. (2014). Cybercrime: An overview of the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Statute and related federal criminal laws. Retrieved from:
In a recently-conducted survey, the following 10 metropolitan cities had low to very low crime rates: Scottsdale (AZ), Plano (TX), Virginia Beach (VA), Fremont (CA), Honolulu (HI), San Jose (CA), Anaheim (CA), Fort ayne (in), Santa Ana (CA), and Garland (TX). It seems that most cities with scores of 6 and lower (out of 10 on the crime rate scale) were located mostly in the south and the west, with the exception of Fort ayne. (Area Vibes, 2012)
It is interesting to see, then, if weather contributes to these low crime rates. Some experts would agree that weather, indeed, has a lot to do with the low crime rates in these cities. However, most would venture to state that the low crime rate is attributed to the fact that in most of these cities, the average median income is over $60,000. Yet another facet to point out would be that…
Bushway, Shawn, and Peter Reuter. "Economists' Contribution to the Study of Crime and the Criminal Justice System." University of Maryland Criminology and Economics. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
"Democratic Underground Forum." Democratic Underground. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
Drehle, David Von. "What's Behind America's Falling Crime Rate." Time. Time, 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
"Information on Crime, Crime Statistics, Crime Rates, Violent Crime, Crime News, Crime Prevention." Crime in America.Net: Crime, Violent Crime, Criminals, Crime News, Statistics and Research. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
history of crime measurement as well as the major strengths and limitations of current measurement techniques. I have also included the discussion regarding the importance of crime measurement in criminology. In the end, I have put emphasis on the need of the development of more crime measurement techniques.
The measurement of crime is done with the objective of monitoring and this is mostly done in the same manner as the measurement of "consumer prices, stock market activity, traffic fatalities, population, unemployment, and HIV infection rates" (Maxfield & Babbie, 2011). However, much more is done in measuring the crime instead of just counting things. An assortment of societal, fiscal, geographic, and medical concerns is measured for keeping a record of communal and monetary conditions, population size, age distribution and hazards to physical well-being of the people. Similarly, crime measurement has the main concern of keeping track of criminal behavior so that…
Advantages of Incident-Based Reporting Over Summary Reporting. (n.d.). Justice Research and Statistics Association. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://www.jrsa.org/ibrrc/background-status/advantages.shtml
Brown, S.E., Esbensen, F., & Geis, G. (2013). Criminology: Explaining Crime and Its Context (8thth ed.). Waltham: Anderson Publishing (Elsevier Inc.). Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=brRgAYhyhsoC&pg=PA82&dq=NIBRS+limitations&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0R0MUZePBs7Y4QTogoCQAQ&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=NIBRS%20limitations&f=false
Manual on Victimization Surveys. (2010). Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from http://www.issafrica.org/crimehub/uploads/Manual_on_Victimization_surveys_2009_web.pdf
Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2011).Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=-Z_xfTn1hT8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Research+Methods+for+Criminal+Justice+and+Criminology&hl=en&sa=X&ei=McwOUfO7PLCV0QXx0oDIBg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
Forensic crime labs are important institutions within the criminal justice system and each lab must be up to standard in order for this system to operate at a high and fair level. A good crime lab begins with a good design based on solid fundamentals and thorough planning. The purpose of this essay is to design a digital forensic crime lab that can be used in a university setting. In order to this, the essay will explain the budgeting process while keeping business objectives in mind. The next step of the design will introduce how the physical controls can be used to implement this design. Criteria for success will also be discussed as well as a suggested floor plan to house the lab.
The setting for this digital forensic lab is within a university setting which denotes that funds could most likely be attained for these purposes.…
Al Falayleh, M. (2013). Building a Digital Forensic Laboratory For an Educational Institute. American University in the Emirates, 2012. Retrieved from http://sdiwc.net/digital - library/web-admin/upload-pdf/00000357.pdf
Mount, M. & Denmark, A. (nd). Digital Forensics: Architectural and Engineering Facility Design Requirements. AIA, . Retrieved from http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/ek_members/documents/pdf/aiab092706.pdf
Taylor, M. (2012). NIST Offers Guidance on Building 21st Century Forensics Labs. NIST Law Enforcement Standards. Retrieved from http://www.nist.gov/oles/forensics/facilities_forensics.cfm
Vacca, J. & Rudolph, K. (2010). System Forensics, Investigation and Response. Jones & Bartlett Learning; 1 edition (September 24, 2010)
Thus, many shipments go to another destination before the United States or Europe in order to throw law enforcement off of the trail. For cocaine coming out of Colombia, West Africa and Venezuela, home to rogue states and dictatorships, have become popular transit hubs.
The increased transportation of goods accompanying globalization has increased opportunities for maritime piracy. Organized crime is exploiting the increasingly dense international flow of commercial vessels. Maritime piracy consists not only of hijacking of goods, but also kidnapping of passengers for ransom. (UNODC, 2010, p. 11)
OC groups engaged in pirating do not often begin as OC groups. Pirates off the cost of Somalia started as local Somali fishermen who formed vigilante groups to protect their territorial waters. These armed ships eventually exceeded their mandate of mere protection and began to hijack commercial ships for goods. These activities have proved so profitable that these groups are now…
Lyman, M.D. & Potter, G.W. (2007). Organized Crime. New York: Prentice Hall
Abadinsky, H. (2010). Organized crime. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Mallory, S.L. (2007). Understanding organized crime. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Kaplan, D.E., & Dubro, A. (2003). Yakuza: Japan's criminal underworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Through these applications, corrections officers can also help reduce internal violence by providing better command and control. These interfaces include criminal intelligence information, such as photographs, fingerprints and documents. These information can be transferred or shared with institutions. These functions, in combination with location identification devices facilitate the tracking down of the movements of high-risk inmates or at-risk personnel in any facility or area. For parole and probation functions, these internet applications perform client mapping and allow better and more efficient workload distribution according to user-determined criteria. Automated routing enables an officer to conduct residence checks and related activities and saves hours of preparation time every week. This, in turn, reduces lead time for route planning and monitors cost per visit (Geographical Institute Systems).
The safety and security of citizens and the community are another primary concern and responsibility of the government (Geographic Institute Systems 2006). In addressing this function,…
Dozono, Elisa. Crime Mapping Now Available on the Internet. Portland Police Bureau, 2001. http://www.ci.portland.org/MAYOR/press4/crimemap.htm
Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Law Enforcement and the GIS Enterprise. GIS for Law Enforcement, 2007.
Geographic Information Systems. Crime Mapping: GIS Goes Mainstream. GIS Lounge, 2006.
Heffernan, Sloane. Law Enforcement Uses Internet to Solve Offline Crimes. Capitol Broadcasting Company, Inc., 2007. http://www.wral.com
Zilla Data Nuker
Test: Zilla Data Nuker
Files created or downloaded leave a trace even when deleted. These traces allow skilled computer forensic professionals to retrieve the data. Zillasoft, LLC, a New England-based software developing entity provides Zilla Data Nuker that "Shreds sensitive files so they cannot be recovered or undeleted" according to the promotional material for the software. (Zilla Data Nuker 2.0) Zilla Data Nuker is freely downloadable from the ZDNet site at www.zdnet.com or can be obtained directly from the Zillasoft website at www.zillasoft.ws.
Zilla Data Nuker uses what the company terms as "shredding algorithms" to obliterate data. Ostensibly the software is designed to be used to improve the functionality of a home or office computer by deleting unnecessary files from the hard drive. Zillasoft also claims that the software can function to help protect the user's privacy by completely destroying information targeted by…
General Test Methodology. v1.9. (2001). National Institute of Standards and Technology
U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved from http://www.cftt.nist.gov/Test%20Methodology%207.doc
Kuchta, Kelly J. (2001). Your Computer Forensic Tookit. Information Systems Security, (10) 49.
Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
This creates an environment for criminal organizations where they "... can operate in parallel to existing business and government institutions"
Shaw uses the Soviet Union as a good example of this phenomenon. "...the collapse of communist rule allowed the emergence of literally thousands of criminal organisations involving current and former members of the establishment " (Shaw). As Shaw and others points out, a situation where there are functional links between government and organized crime has parallels in many other regions and countries, particularly in the developing countries of Africa and Asia.
In essence, the changing international stage and the disappearance of boundaries and barriers between counties and nations provide the opportunity for criminal organizations to grow. Furthermore, it also provides for the possibility of greater interaction between criminal organizations and governments that may be dependent on these organizations for certain political and social needs.
Government and organized crime
Attorney general targeting international organized crime. Retrieved April 23, 2008, at http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-crime24apr24,1,3582903.story
Carter D. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME.
Retrieved April 26, 2008, at http://www1.cj.msu.edu/~outreach/security/orgcrime.html
CRIMINAL JUSTICE RESOURCES: Organized Crime. Retrieved April 23, 2008, at http://www.lib.msu.edu/harris23/crimjust/orgcrime.htm
Organized crime presents certain unique challenges for law enforcement in the 21st century. As noted by Bjelopera & Finklea (2012) in their report to Congress on the history of organized criminal activity in the United States, modern organized criminal networks tend to be more fluid and less hierarchical than organized associations of the past. Organized crime networks are also more apt to outsource critical aspects of their operations, which can make building a unified case a challenge for law enforcement agencies (Bjelopera & Finklea, 2012, p.1). Diverting resources to combat terrorism have also left law enforcement agencies in the United States with fewer financial resources to combat other forms of organized crime, although some of the methods to trace both types of organizations, such as patterns of money laundering, are similar between both of these types of illicit associations.
Organized crime is defined as "criminal activity that, through violence or…
Bjelopera, J. & Finklea, K. (2012). Organized crime: An evolving challenge for U.S. law
Enforcement. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41547.pdf
Bradley, T. (2015).Cybercrime is the modern-day mafia. Forbes. Retrieved from:
BCU Local Crime Community Action
Q1 ow long have you lived in this neighborhood and do you know all your neighbors by face and name and if not can you see reasons for this, please explain?
Rationale 1 This question is designed to attempt to understand how well the neighborhood knows one another and if there is at least facial recognition between long time residents and student tenants. This question also attempts to create a written rather than anecdotal record of the residential beliefs regarding the variant student population and the increase in crime and is open ended for this purpose.
Q2 When did you first notice that crime began to increase and can you describe the events and experiences that you have been witness to or been victim of in relation to crime?
Rationale 2 Again this question is a way of discerning the current crime conditions and to…
Hope T. 2007. The Distribution of Household Property Crime Victimisation: Insights from the British Crime Survey. In Surveying Crime in the 21st Century. Crime Prevention Studies Vol. 22, edited by M.G. Maxfield and M. Hough. Uffculme, Devon: Willan / New York: Criminal Justice Press.
Shu SC-F. 1999. Housing layout and crime vulnerability. In Space Syntax - Second International Symposium Proceedings 1: 25
Shu, S. And J. Huang. 2003. Spatial Configuration and Vulnerability of residential Burglary: A Case study of a city in Taiwan. In Proceedings, 4th International Space Syntax Symposium, edited by J. Hanson. London: The Bartlett, UCL.
For example, using predictive policing will likely be at odds with many of the organizational cultures found in traditional police forces in many cities. Furthermore, different objectives may also take precedence over the use of COMPSTAT systems such as political goals as well as the ability for policing organizations to provide the needed resources to take advantage of a COMPSTAT system.
The various COMPSTAT systems can take various inputs, such as historical data, weather, or political events, and process these inputs to generate various sets of "hotspots." These hotspots can be updated daily and reflect the most likely time and space estimates of where crime is more likely to occur given the various factors that are presented to the algorithm. The outputs may represent a location and a time in which police officers should patrol given the likelihood of a crime occurring at this output. The system then can keep…
Goode, E. (2011, August 15). Sending the Police Before There's a Crime. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/16/us/16police.html?_r=1& ;
National Institute of Justice. (2009, December 18). Predictive Policing Symposium: The LAPD Experiment. Retrieved from Office of Justice Program: http://www.nij.gov/nij/topics/law-enforcement/strategies/predictive-policing/symposium/lapd.htm
Willis, J., Mastrofski, S., & Weisburd, D. (2004). COMPSTAT in Practice: An In-Depth Analysis of Three Cities. Retrieved from Police Foundation: http://www.policefoundation.org/content/compstat-practice-depth-analysis-three-cities
It is thus that technologies which work to yield that crucial data from the memory store of any such device have become so valuable to law enforcement in the age of terrorism. According to the Computer Forensics Tool Testing Program (CFTT), "a cellular forensic tool shall have the ability to logically acquire all application supported data elements present in internal memory without modification" (Ayers, 15)
This is to indicate that such technology should be able to hack into mobile communication devices without detection by the subject, making it a valuable tool in investigating crimes and preventing suspected crimes. The evaluate of its requirements is produced by the CFTT, which is an organization that "provides a measure of assurance that the tools used in the investigations of computer-related crimes produce valid results." (Ayers, 6)
A major drawback of such technologies, and one that invokes a yet far more complex discussion concerning…
Ayers, R. (2008). Mobile Device Forensics-Tool Testing. National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Bourque, L. (2008). Five Essential Computer Forensics Tools. Enterprise it Planet.
Online at http://www.enterpriseitplanet.com/security/features/article.php/3786046
International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends
Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends
This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.
A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…
Almeida, J. (2008). Brazil in focus: Economic, political and social issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Duyan, A., & NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division. (2012). Defence against terrorism: Different dimensions and trends of an emerging threat: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Training Course on Defence Against Terrorism: Different Dimensions and Trends of the Emerging Threat - Terrorism, Kabul, Afghanistan, 23-27 May 2010]. Amsterdam: Ios Pres in cooperation with NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division.
Friedlander, R.A., Levie, H.S. & Lovelace, D.C. (2009). Terrorism: Documents of international and local control. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications.
Giraldo, J.K. (2007). Terrorism financing and state responses: A comparative perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.
Critical Infrastructure Protection
Nowadays, computers have become very ubiquitous in the American society. Computers and related technologies are used at every level of government in the United States. Computer technologies are also used by all sorts of professionals, and private citizens to access information, store information, communicate, and/ or transform acquired information. Right now, there are also computer-dependent technologies that are used to monitor and control, critical transportation systems, water treatment and distribution systems, power grids, gas distribution systems, and oil transport systems. Moreover, virtually all aircrafts are guided by GPS (Global Positioning System), and other computer-linked/ related systems. From the above-made statements, it is clear that there is a need for coordinated security systems to protect critical computer systems that are keeping the world moving. This means there is a strong need for cooperation among stakeholders for the successful protection of critical infrastructure.
According to the Department of Justice,…
The technology is extremely effective. In brief, crime mapping technology enables the police and other crime fighting agencies "... To analyze and correlate data sources to create a detailed snapshot of crime incidents and related factors within a community or other geographical area." (the Use of Computerized Crime Mapping by Law Enforcement)
Studies show that this technology is creating a positive response among law enforcement agencies and has many advantages over older methods of fighting crime. Among the many aspects of this method is the real-time analysis of crime data as well as the mapping of various critical crime areas using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. (Newsom G.)
One of the central advantages of this system is that it provides the ability to identify certain trends in crime and links between crimes. This is an important aspect as it provides crucial correlations between events and crimes which may occur in…
Crime Mapping and Problem Analysis Laboratory. 16 September, 2006. http://www.policefoundation.org/docs/crime_mapping.html
Godwin M. Government: Cops on the I-Way. 1995. 16 September, 2006. http://onlineethics.org/cases/lamacchia/godwin-cops-iway.html
How can police agencies keep up with new technology? 2005. 15 September, 2006. http://www.gazette.rcmp.gc.ca/article-en.html?&article_id=91
Newsom G. Crime Mapping Technology. 16 September, 2006. http://www.gavinnewsom.com/index.php?id=28
The prosecuting of identity thieves has proven difficult. Although there has been a rapid increase in the number of statutes addressing the situation on both the state and federal level, the nature of the crime, the anonymous aspect of it, and the time parameters make apprehension and prosecution quite difficult (Pastrikos, 2004). Nevertheless, there has been an aggressive effort on both the state and federal levels to increase their efforts and successes.
The best approach to defeating identity theft is prevention. Potential victims should be cautious about sharing personal information with anyone not possessing a legitimate need for such information. In today's society where business transactions are done more frequently over the telephone and computer this is particularly important. Additionally, and most importantly, the use of one's social security number should be limited to those situations for which it was originally intended, that is, for employment and financial relationships.
Berghel, H. (2000). Identity Theft, Social Security Numbers, and the Web. Communications of the ACM, 17-21.
General Accounting Office. (2009). Identity Theft: Governments have acted to Protect Personally Identifiable Information, but Vulnerabilities Remain. Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office.
Pastrikos, C. (2004). Identity Theft Statutes: Which Will Protect Americans the Most? Albany Law Review, 1137-1157.
Vice refers specifically to crimes of a moral nature and usually refers specifically to prostitution, gambling, and also the dealing of drugs. Vice activities are defined differently by different communities and in general do not represent the laws of the nation or even of the state. Moreover, vice crimes are to be contrasted with crimes of a violent nature. Vice crime is community-defined; local laws generally reflect the social and political beliefs of its citizens as well as their expectations of the character of the jurisdiction. The town of Spurberry has a relatively low incidence of violent crime but vice crime is relatively common. Therefore, the Spurberry Police Department has had to beef up its vice squad in response to the growing needs of the community.
Spurberry is a mid-sized suburban town in the American Midwest with a population of 20, 371. The population is largely middle-class and mostly Caucasian.…
According to case law, "an infamous crime against nature" is sodomy (Yoshino, 2002). We can see here, again, a modern shift from common law with the inclusion of sodomy as a possible element of felony assault. Over the course of time, Idaho lawmakers clearly saw a need to include such a "crime" within their definitions.
While it is obvious that Idaho case law has changed over time with society with such inclusions as abortion, the death or injury of a fetus, and sodomy, it is equally clear more alterations are needed. The addition of the element of "ability" in the definition of assault (IC 18-901) may need clarification. While the addition is needed to create distinction between assault and threats, the term alone is subjective. This creates ambiguity within the definition, creating the possibility of incorrect application of the law.
Another alteration may need to be a further defining of…
American Heritage Dictionary. (2003). Common law. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Idaho Statutes, chapter 18, 18-901-18-910.
Jacobs, J.B. & Potter, K. (2001). Hate crimes: Criminal law & identity politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kirland v. State, 43 Ind. 146, 154, 1873.
Contending With Cybercrime Issues
Attacks and Malware
There are numerous laws pertaining to identity theft, privacy, and cybercrime. Prior to designating those laws and their ramifications for the parties involved with a breach, it is sapient to provide a brief overview of the correlation between these three facets of laws. One of the more common means of engaging in identity theft is through the means of cybercrime, in which individuals typically hack into a computerized systems and take personally identifiable information of others and use it for their own illicit purposes. Additionally, such crimes intrinsically invade the privacy of others and intrude upon that privacy by preventing individuals to keep personally identifiable information and other aspects of their lives private.
One of the most salient of the laws relating to these three different aspects of theft in contemporary times is the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003. This…
North Carolina Department of Justice. (2005). Cooper proposes identity theft protection act of 2005. http://www.ncdoj.gov / Retrieved from
Quite to the point, television, film, pop music and video games share in common a proclivity to promote that which yields prosperity. Thus, there is little regard from the computer gaming industry for indications that "a meta-analytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults." (Anderson & Bushman, 353)
In spite of this, revenue for video game produces revolves on role-playing titles such as orld of arcraft, which promotes fantasy world combat, simulation games such as Grand Theft Auto, which glorifies violence and antisocial behavior, Halo, the simulated first-person shooter game, and Madden Football, which portrays in detail the often brutal sport of football.
Connecting absorption of such media with the commitment of violent crimes remains a challenge however. Famously, the two minors responsible for the massacre at the Columbine High School in 1999 were noted for playing such…
Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353-359.
Harding, a. (2009). Violent Video Games Linked to Child Aggression. CNNHealth. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2008/HEALTH/family/11/03/healthmag.violent.video.kids/index.html
Most of the time, intellectual property theft involves stealing copyrighted material in the form of a book, a magazine or journal article or material on the Internet and claiming that the material is one's own property, also known as plagiarism. This type of high-tech crime is very widespread in today's America and often shows up as major news stories in the media, especially when the copyrighted material belongs to a high-profile author.
Another high-tech crime which is closely linked to identity theft is credit card fraud which occurs when "purchases are made using another individual's credit card or credit card number with the intent to defraud" ("Credit Card Fraud," Internet). These purchases might include buying products and goods at a well-known business establishment or purchasing products from Internet sites. Some of the more common forms of credit card fraud found in the U.S. include counterfeiting or creating fraudulent credit cards,…
About Identity Theft." (2008). FTC. Internet. Retrieved January 8, 2009 at http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/microsites/idtheft/consumers/about-identity-theft.html .
Credit Card Fraud." (2009). Criminal Law. Internet. Accessed January 7, 2009 at http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/criminal-law/credit-card-fraud.htm .
Financial and High-Tech Crimes." January 7, 2009. Interpol. Internet. Accessed January 7, 2009 at http://www.interpol.int/Public/FinancialCrime/Default.asp .
Thompson, William T. (2004). High-tech crime in the United States. Boston: G.K. Hall.
Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation
With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.
There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their…
Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up
Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating
Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf .
Science and Technology sounds promising as more and more unprecedented advances in computing, artificial intelligences robotics, genetics, biotechnology and neurosciences are unraveling. The commonly held belief is that technology goes on to make our lives better. Keeping this in mind, many people also believe that it has a positive impact on our aspects of our society. Because of the advents in technologies, there are present significant improvements in the standard of education, transport, and medical care as well. Similar impacts are also noticed in the security and safety arena as well. Even though the computer and science technology has had a positive impact on safety and technology, it has a negative impact as well.
How computers have affected the discipline
Information security is a very crucial operational technique. Before computers were invented, the main mode of security was through manual means. Everything had to be taken care of using the…
Byrne, J., & Marx, G. (2011). Technological innovations in crime prevention and policing. A review of the research on implementation and impact. Journal Of Police Studies, 20(3), 17 -- 40.
European Union,. (2012). Health effects of security scanners for passenger screening (based on X-ray technology) (1st ed.). Brussels: European Union. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/emerging/docs/scenihr_o_036.pdf
Goodman, M. (2012). How technology makes us vulnerable. CNN. Retrieved 5 July 2014, from http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/29/opinion/goodman-ted-crime/
Crime is everywhere. People commit a variety of crimes for a variety of reasons. Four of some of the biggest and longstanding crimes people commit are human trafficking, drug trafficking, organized crime, and corruption. These crimes often go hand-in-hand; they do not exist without the other. Therefore, they will have various similarities. They will also have some differences.
One major difference is the scope and scale some crimes have like human trafficking. Drug trafficking although international, tends to have specific destinations and routes. Human trafficking however exists everywhere and the routes can span from three to four countries or more as a country may serve as a pick up point, a transfer point, a departure point, and an entry point. It is a huge way people fuel criminal organizations and is usually the least prosecuted compared to drug trafficking. Some countries like the Ukraine barely prosecute those who have been…
Natarajan, M. (2011). International Crime and Justice. Cambridge University.
Technology, Terrorism, and Crime (APA).
Technology, Terrorism, and Crime
One of the most heinous terrorist groups currently operating in the U.S. In called the "Aryan Nations." This group openly states on their website that they have been "Fighting Jewish Takeover for over 35 years." (aryan-nation.org) This group of domestic terrorists post articles on their website with grammatically incorrect titles like "The menace of Multiculturalism," and "Jews that control Hollywood: Meet the filthy Kikes are behind that industry." (aryan-nation.org) There is no doubt that his group is one that is dedicated to ideals of Adolph Hitler and the supremacy of the Aryan race. This group has also used the latest technology to spread their message of hate.
The Aryan Nations is a far right white supremacist religious organization based on the teachings of Wesley Swift, who founded a church based on anti-Semitism in California in the 1940's. In the 1970's, ichard…
"Aryan Nations/Church of Jesus Christ Christian." Extremism in America. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/aryan_nations.asp?xpicked=3&item=an
Church of Jesus Christ Christian: Aryan Nations. Retrieved from http://www.aryan-nation.org/
"Identity Theft." (2006, Jan. 5) Retrieved from http://www.bloomshare.com/identity-theft/identity-theft-stories/identity-theft/
Squires, Jennifer, (2009, March 5). Aptos 'neighbors from hell' sentenced in massive ID theft case. Santa Cruz Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.santacruzsentinel.com/localnews/ci_11840106
Without capable and reliable foreign law enforcement partners, the United States, as well as other countries, will remain vulnerable to criminal groups that conduct activities from countries where law enforcement is weak (Helping the World Combat International Crime (http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0801/ijge/gj03.htm)."
Four Legal Traditions
The Common Legal Tradition
The common legal tradition dictates that judges have authority and duty to decide what the law in and what criminal or civil punishment will be when laws are broken,
Common law as opposed to statutory law and regulatory law (Common law (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_law):the first connotation differentiates the authority that promulgated a particular proposition of law (Common law (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_law).For example, in most areas of law in most jurisdictions in the United States, there are "statutes" enacted by a legislature, "regulations" promulgated by executive branch agencies pursuant to a delegation of rule-making authority from a legislature, and "common law" decisions issued by courts (Common law (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_law)."
The Explosive Growth of Globalized Crime (Accessed 4-25-07) http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0801/ijge/gj01.htm
Helping the World Combat International Crime (Accessed 4-25-07) http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0801/ijge/gj03.htm
Civil law (legal system) (Accessed 4-25-07) ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Civil_law_ (legal_system)
Socialist Legal Tradition (Accessed 4-25-07)
Computer/Software and the Use of Computer Technology in Investigations
The key advantage of computer forensics is that it can look for and assess loads of data in a swift and efficient manner. Computers are able to search for keywords from hard drives, in various languages. This proves valuable, as cybercriminals are easily able to cross national boundaries over the World Wide Web (Forensic Science, 2009). Computer forensics may be utilized in cases of corporate frauds, thefts, disputes over intellectual property, asset recovery and contract breaches (Forensic Science, 2009).
Important information, which cybercriminals have deleted or which is lost may be recovered and employed as significant court evidence. Professionals in the legal domain can furnish evidences in courts, which were earlier impossible. The field of computer forensics (i.e., electronic evidence) is fairly new; typically, criminal issues are handled through the use of physical evidence. Fortunately, the tool has proven advantageous in…
10 Famous Criminal Cases Cracked by Forensics. (2011, February 1). Retrieved January 15, 2016, from http://www.criminaljusticeschools.org/blog/10-famous-cases-cracked-by-forensics
Forensic Science. (2009). Retrieved January 15, 2016, from http://www.anushreepatil.myewebsite.com/articles/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-computer-forensics.html
University professor helps FBI crack $70 million cybercrime ring. (2012, March 1). Retrieved January 15, 2016, from http://rockcenter.nbcnews.com/_news/2012/03/21/10792287-university-professor-helps-fbi-crack-70-million-cybercrime-ring
The author talks about several investigations, including the assassinations of John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King, jr., that have been aided by firearm evidence teams.
Evidence Submission Guideline #10: Firearms Evidence. Indianapolis-Marion County Forensic Services Agency Retrieved February 12, 2010 from http://www.indygov.org/eGov/County/FSA/Documents/Firearms.pdf
This documents provides the guidelines for investigators submitting firearm evidence in Indianapolis-Marion County. It has guidelines for every step of the evidence-collecting process. For example, photos that are taken must have a scale (such as a ruler next to it) to show size. In the firearm itself, the investigator is asked to include certain information in their notes such as the appearance of the cylinder, the marks made on each side of the top strap, and diagrams showing the direction of the rotation. There are also directions on how to package cartridges (both fired and unfired) such as making sure they are surrounded by cotton or a…
"Detroit police suspends firearms testing, orders audit" USA Today, April 25, 2008 Retrieved February 12, 2010 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2008-04-25-318512256_x.htm
Evidence Submission Guideline #10: Firearms Evidence. Indianapolis-Marion County Forensic Services Agency. Retrieved February 12, 2010 from http://www.indygov.org/eGov/County/FSA/Documents/Firearms.pdf
"Firearms Evidence Collection Procedures" Physical Evidence Bulletin, California Department of Justice, Bureau of Forensic Services, Retrieved February 12, 2010 from http://www.cci.ca.gov/Reference/peb/peb12.pdf
Psarreas, Tricia. "Crime Scene Investigations: Firearm Evidence," Helium.com. Retrieved February 12, 2010 from http://www.helium.com/items/1481011-crime-scene-investigation-firearm-evidence
Cyber Attacks on Financial Institutions
The finance industry has continued to receive more targeted and sophisticated cyber attacks from criminals. These criminals often email phishing campaigns to customers which have remained the most successful methods of targeting financial institutions. New innovations in banking, like online and mobile banking, have continued to create new vulnerabilities for cyber thieves. To minimize the efficiency of these attacks, banks have devised improved communication and educational tools for customers, and procedures for quick interventions in the event of an actual attack. However, beyond simply creating harmful software intended to hack online bank details, criminals have found ways to subvert the software and servers owned by prestigious financial institutions to make their phishing campaigns more effective; this technique is known as infrastructure hijacking (Pettersson, 2012).
In 1998, one of the foremost examples of infrastructure hijacking ever discovered is known as The Morris worm. This…
Cordle, I. P. (2014, August 7). TotalBank responds to computer security breach, Miami Herald. Retrieved from http://www.miamiherald.com/news/business/article1978822.html Comment by dkamari: are all of these cited in your paper? If not, do not list them.
Mossburg, E. (2015). A Deeper Look at the Financial Impact of Cyber Attacks. Financial Executive, 31(3), 77-80. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.umuc.edu/
Crossman, P. (2015, March 5). Is Apple Pay a Fraud Magnet? Only If Banks Drop the Ball. Retrieved from American Banker: http://www.americanbanker.com/news/bank-technology/is-apple-pay-a-fraud-magnet-only-if-banks-drop-the-ball-107312
Dean, B. (2015, March 4). Why companies have little incentive to invest in cybersecurity. Retrieved February 18, 2016, from http://theconversation.com/why-companies-have-little-incentive-to-invest-in-cybersecurity-37570
Academy Sports + Outdoors
The project charter for this plan, "Operation Midnight Basketball" for Academy Sports + Outdoors, is provided below.
The official name of this project is "Operation Midnight Basketball" to be implemented by Academy Sports + Outdoors as described below.
Today, Academy Sports + Outdoors (hereinafter alternatively "Academy" or "the company") is a leading retailers in the sports, outdoor and lifestyle industry offering a wide range of high quality fishing, hunting, and other outdoor merchandise, including camping equipment and gear as well as sports and leisure products, footwear, and outdoor apparel (About Academy, 2014). Headquartered in Texas, Academy operates more than 185 stores in the United States, including stores in, alphabetical order, Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas (About Academy, 2014). The company has a stated corporate social responsibility commitment that is congruent…
About Academy. (2014). Academy Sports + Outdoors. Retrieved from http://www.academy .
Academy basketball team sports. (2014). Academy Sports + Outdoors. Retrieved from
Chief Security Officer:
As the Chief Security Officer for a local University, my main role is establishing and maintaining an enterprise wide information security program that helps to ensure all data and information assets are not compromised. This process involves developing a plan to conduct a security program that prevent computer crimes, establishes a procedure for investigation, and outlines laws that are applicable for potential offenders. To develop an effective plan, the process would involve identifying recent computer attacks or other offenses that have been carried out against higher educational institutions and processes established by these institutions to prevent the recurrence of the crimes. In addition, procedures, methodologies, and technologies that could be bought to lessen computer crime threats and effective laws for convicting offenders will also be examined. The other parts of the process include identifying computer crime fighting government programs and the types and costs of computer forensics…
"Data Security Breach at Ferris State University." (2013, August 16). Local. CBS Local Media.
Retrieved December 16, 2013, from http://detroit.cbslocal.com/2013/08/16/data-security-breach-at-ferris-state-university/
Easttom, C. & Taylor, J. (2011). Computer crime, investigation, and the law (1st ed.). Stamford,
CT: Cengage Learning.
Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.
The Law Catches Up
Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…
Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"
Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf
Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.
"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here
An oveview of seveal honeypots and thei espective applications, thei level of involvement, and demonstated value to date ae povided in Table 1 below.
Types of honeypots by level of involvement.
BOF (as it is commonly called) is a vey simple but highly useful honeypot developed by Macus Ranum et al. At NFR. It is an excellent example of a low involvement honeypot. BOF is a pogam that uns on most window-based opeating systems. All it can do is emulate some basic sevices, such as http, ftp, telnet, mail, o Back Oifice. Wheneve someone attempts to connect to one of these pots, BOF is listening and will then log the attempt. BOF also has the option of "faking eplies," which gives the attacke something to connect to.
Specte is a commecial poduct and what I would call anothe 'low involvement' poduction honeypot.…
references and deter computer crime. Yale Law Journal, 112(6), 1577-1578.