Computer Crime Essays (Examples)

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Computer Law

Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84311650

Computer Fraud and Abuse Act was enacted into law in 1986 to deal with the hacking of computer systems operated by the American government and certain financial institutions. Through its enactment, the legislation made it a federal offense to access a protected computer without authorization or to an extent that is beyond the authorized access. However, since it was passed into law, the act has been amended severally in attempts to expand its scope and penalties. In addition, the act has developed to be an important legislation since it's used widely not only by the government to prosecute hackers but it's also used by private corporations to help protect their trade secrets and other proprietary information.

Penalties and Fines in the Law:

The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act is considered as one of the most essential computer-crime laws because it was the first significant federal legislation to offer some protection…… [Read More]

References:

Easttom, C. & Taylor, D.J. (2011). Computer Crime, Investigation, and the Law. Boston, MA:

Cengage Learning.

"United States v. Morris -- Bloomberg Law." (n.d.). Case Briefs. Retrieved December 3, 2012,

from  http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-law/criminal-law-keyed-to-dressler/mens-rea/united-states-v-morris/
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Computer Misuse Legislation Unfit for

Words: 2485 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10475857

Knowledge of e-crime from the perspective of crime science is insufficient in devolution of the problem, which cuts across various sections of social interaction through computers. There is a limitation in the forensic and social / legal exploration of information technology aspects and that is the possible cause of the limitations of the jurisdictions of the computer crime legislation, creating the insufficiency in the fulfillment of its purpose (Tonry 2009 p. 20-350).

The legislation approaches the infringement of the social precepts of technology without any consideration of social remedies. The use of police in regulation of operations is limiting because they may not have the capacity for gauging the extent of computer damage. It is logical considering the sensitivity of pro-social individuals, and their possibility of taking up their responsibilities. Social norms revolve around consideration of others and create a sense of mindfulness and consideration of activities (Humphreys 2007 p.…… [Read More]

References

'a Comparative Study of Cyberattacks' 2012, Communications of the ACM, 55, 3, pp. 66-73, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 August 2012.

Assange, J., & Dreyufus, S. (2011). Underground tales of hacking, madness and obsession on the electronic frontier. Edinburgh, Canongate. 56. Print.

Assange, J., & Dreyufus, S. (2011). Underground. North Sydney, N.S.W., Random House Australia. 23-150. Print.

Foltz, C, & Renwick, J 2011, 'Information Systems Security and Computer Crime in the IS Curriculum: A Detailed Examination', Journal of Education for Business, 86, 2, pp. 119-125, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 20 August 2012.
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Computer Is a Device That Accepts Information

Words: 333 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38829684

computer is a device that accepts information in the form of digitalized data and manipulates it for some result based on a program or sequence of instructions on how the data is to be processed. Used the right way, computers can be an enormous personal and business productivity tool for automating numerous routine tasks and increasing information storage, retrieval and exchange. Unfortunately, computers also facilitate and expand crime.

Computer crime pertains to any intentional or unintentional harm done to or with information and/or hardware that may result in losses of, or injury to, property, services, and people. Many crimes involving computers are no different from crimes without computers. Some examples include:

Using a computer and peripherals for forgery or counterfeiting is the same crime as using an old-fashioned printing press with ink.

Stealing a laptop computer with proprietary information is the same crime as stealing a briefcase that contains papers…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Eder, Karen. Defining Computer Crime and Technology Misuse." Technology Studies in Education Research Portal. 23 Nov. 2003. http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/wp/crime/definition.htm.

Standler, Ronald B. "Computer Crime." 2002.

23 Nov. 2003. http://www.rbs2.com/ccrime.htm.

TechTarget. 23 Nov. 2003. http://searchwin2000.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,sid1_gci211829,00.html.
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Computer Used by the Employee Has Either

Words: 1061 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44847212

computer used by the employee has either been compromised physically with a password cracking software (EC-Council,2010;Beaver & McClure,2010) or it has bee compromised remotely with the help of a keylogging software.A keylogger is noted by APWG (2006) as a special crimeware code that is designed with the sole intention of collecting information from the end-user terminal. The stolen information includes every strike of the keyboard which it captures.The most sensitive of the captured information are the user's credentials. Keylogger may also be used to refer to the hardware used for this purpose. The employee's password could also have been shoulder-surfed by his immediate neighbor at the workplace. This could be his coworker who manages to peek and see over his shoulder as he types in sensitive authentication information (password)

Strategy to address the issue as well as the necessary steps for resolving the issue

The strategy for addressing this threat…… [Read More]

References

Anti-Phising Working Group (2006). Phishing Activity Trends Report

http://www.antiphishing.org/reports/apwg_report_feb_06.pdf

Bem, D and Huebner, E (2007).Computer Forensic Analysis in a Virtual Environment. International Journal of Digital Evidence .Fall 2007, Volume 6 (2)

 http://www.utica.edu/academic/institutes/ecii/publications/articles/1C349F35-C73B-DB8A-926F9F46623A1842.pdf
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Computer Addiction Causes and Potential

Words: 874 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3934232

This is what creates the continual need to share literally everything going on in their lives, as each post releases a significant dopamine rush (Charman-Anderson, 17, 18).

Dopamine is also the reason why the many forms of computer addiction are so difficult to treat. ith anonymity comes the opportunity to create multiple identities or personas online (Soule, 66, 67). This is what leads employees who have Internet addictions to create many different online identities, giving them ethical and moral leeway they would never give themselves. This aspect of personas and the forgiven unethicacy of conduct of personas is a key factor in online crimes committed by employees during company hours (Nykodym, Ariss, Kurtz, 82, 83). The personas of the addicted computer addicts are orchestrated for specific dopamine-driven production to fuel and feed habitual behaviors online

(Quinn 180). These strategies to ensure a steady supply of dopamine may not even be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Charman-Anderson, Suw. "Seeking Addiction: The Role of Dopamine in Social Media." Computer Weekly (2009): 16-23.

Neumann, Peter G. "Are Computers Addictive?" Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM 41.3 (1998): 128-135.

Nykodym, Nick, Sonny Ariss, and Katarina Kurtz. "Computer Addiction and Cyber Crime." Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics (2008): 78-85. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 3 Dec. 2012.

Quinn, Brian. "The Medicalisation of Online Behaviour." Online Information Review 25.3 (2001): 173-80.
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Crime Victim Complain Form Identity Theft Centerville

Words: 797 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47679176

Crime Victim Complain Form: Identity Theft

Centerville Police Department

101 Centerville Street

Centerville, Kansas, 05699

Tel [HIDDEN]

Date Complaint Filed: July 5, 2011

Victim Information:

Crime Victim Complaint Form: Identity Theft

Sally Gertrude Frederick

123 12th Avenue, Centerville, KS 05699

Tel [HIDDEN]

DOB: 01/24/1962

SSN: 466-55-1254

Drivers Lic.: Kansas, 18955243

Length of esidence at Current Address: 3 days

Victim's Previous Home Addresses for Past 5 Years:

435 14th Street, Apt. 233, Centerville, KS 05699

How long at this address: 7-1/2 years

Victim Information at Time of Fraud:

435 14th Street, Apt. 233, Centerville, KS 05699

Tel [HIDDEN]

SSN: 466-55-1254

Drivers Lic.: Kansas, 18955243

Email:

Declaration:

The victim declares that she has never authorized anyone to use her personal information to obtain money, credit, loans, goods, services, or for any other purpose, nor has she received any of the same as a result of the events described here. Ms. Frederick also…… [Read More]

References

Federal Trade Commission. (n.d.). Identity theft victim's complaint and affidavit. Retrieved July, 2011 from http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/resources/forms/affidavit.pdf

Romanosky, Sasha, Telang, Rahul, and Acquisti, Alessandro. (2011). Do data breach disclosure laws reduce identity theft? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 30, 256-286.
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Crime Affiliates

Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33777753

Crime in Literature

Capitalizing on Elastic Computing

Aside from its potential to integrate and aggregate a host of resources and technologies, Cloud Computing can most prominently benefit the enterprise through the enabling of Elastic Computing.

Elastic Computing is the utilization of the Cloud's nearly limitless scalability to provision resources on demand and at scale without conventional architectural concerns associated with doing so on-premise such as:

Scaling Up and Down -- In physical environments, substantially adding or subtracting resources requires reconfiguring one's architecture to do so -- which is time consuming. Moreover, it is possible that after reconfiguring architecture to scale up, scaling back down again can require even more time than the former process, if doing so is even possible.

Storage -- Storage in on-premise environments is significantly more costly than Cloud-based storage, and was the principle reason that the philosophy of minimizing data within a physical warehouse was derived…… [Read More]

Resources -- The degree of specificity for changing and manipulating the various resources to power the database enables users to dedicate particular amounts to computing and storage, which allows them to issue queries while loading the database.

Automation -- Snowflake Elastic Data Warehouse can automate various aspects of data warehouse management (copying data, tuning performances, or spreading data across the system) and assist end users in these processes as they go, instead of involving database administrators or other IT personnel.

Vs. Hadoop

The initial explosion of Big Data largely involved Hadoop as a means of accessing semi-structured and unstructured data, and came to result in organizations attempting to utilize it as an integration hub for their proprietary, on premise data and those that were otherwise. When compared with Hadoop, Snowflake Elastic Data Warehouse is a native relational environment as opposed to the former. This fact accounts for an expedience and ease of integration, in addition to querying and optimization that requires less effort and resources than the latter does. These same factors limit Hadoop's efficacy with transactional data, although Hadoop is open source and is much more cost-effective than a traditional database. Still, it is not a data warehouse.

Final Thoughts
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Computer-Based Crime

Words: 1254 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48976157

Computer-Based Crime

The illegal site I reviewed for this assignment is www.howtogrowmarijuana.com. This site covers virtually all aspects of marijuana growing -- which is an illegal activity because marijuana is widely outlawed in the United States. However, there are some states in which individuals can legally consume marijuana for medicinal purposes. In these states and others there exists the potential for businesses to legally supply this substance to people.

There is a large degree of transparency in this particular web site. It was the first result to appear with a Yahoo search for "How to grow marijuana." As the tile of the site suggests, it discusses many different facets of growing marijuana and stratifies this process according to location (indoor or outdoors), various strains of marijuana including seeds (No author, 2014), irrigation and growth systems involving hydroponics, and other germane equipment types such as the expensive lights used to assist…… [Read More]

References

Faris, S. (2013). Have the NSA leaks compromised Big Data's future? www.dataversity.net Retrieved from  http://www.dataversity.net/page/2/?s=stephanie+faris 

No author. (2014). Marijuana seed strains review. www.howtogrowmarijuana.com Retrieved from http://howtogrowmarijuana.com/all-marijuana-strains.html

Romero, R. (2011). Craigslist illegal drug trade exposed. www.abc7.com

Retrieved from  http://abc7.com/archive/8132665/
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Crime of Conspiracy

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70836317

Crime of Conspiracy

The recent case whereby criminal charges were imposed in Aaron Swartz caused frenzy throughout the country. In my perspective, a criminal penalty was essential for this case. Swartz had announced he would be committed to opposing the law as a moral impervious to invalidate the federal laws in existence for information access effectively. In this case, one decided to disobey the law intentionally, just because he wanted to achieve a goal in an anti-democratic policy way and there is a display by both deeds and words that he will precede. It is very deliberate for the criminal law with its power to enforce a penalty under the law that the individual violated intentionally. In actual sense, the law is the fact about civil disobedience: the main function of the punishment is to focus on the same law deemed unjust. As was in this case, I think the…… [Read More]

References

Samaha, J. (2011). Criminal Law (10th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Gillies, P. (2009). The law of criminal conspiracy. Sydney: Federation Press

Rowlett, C. (2005). Labyrinth 13: True tales of the occult, crime, & conspiracy. United States:

Lulu.com.
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Crime the Purpose of This

Words: 2753 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71668087

Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.

Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…… [Read More]

References

Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352

Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime 

Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.

Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
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Crime Statistics Data Bases

Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90293728

Crime Statistics

The two major sources of crime statistics in the United States are the Uniform Crime eports and the National Incident-Based eporting System. The UC tracks eight crimes and has done so since 1930. There are almost 17,000 law enforcement agencies that report data to UC. The FBI is the organization that spearheads the UC and uses that data. One of the main advantages of the UC is that it draws from such a large sample size, so it can provide an excellent statistical overview of crime in the United States. One of the major disadvantages of the UC is that it is not easy to use for tracking local crime. There are, of course, the individual law enforcement agencies that report to UC, but they may or may not publish their data publicly. The UC is an excellent source for historical data, because it was started in 1930.…… [Read More]

References

NIJ.gov (2016). Sources of crime data. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved March 5, 2016 from http://www.nij.gov/topics/crime/pages/ucr-nibrs.aspx
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Future of Eurasian Organized Crime

Words: 7401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30485101

Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.

Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.

Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html

Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
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Public and Private Investigators Are Solving More Crimes Using Computer Automation

Words: 2569 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3956434

Computers in Solving Non-computer-Based Crime

This proposal for research involves a survey of law enforcement officials to determine how much they use computers as a tool to help solve crimes that are not committed by computer, such as murder and robberies. Using a questionnaire that utilizes a numerical scale for responses with opportunities for written comments as well, it will quantify the results and indicate areas for further research. Since little research has been done in this area, it should be considered a preliminary study.

Law enforcement has traditionally struggled to keep up, technologically, with the criminals they are charged with catching. During Prohibition, gangsters had machine guns and government agents did not. Now, in the year 2002, law enforcement may have a powerful and relatively new tool available to them in the war against crime: computers.

However, an exploration of the literature reveals little if any systematic study about…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Author not available. Nov. 17, 1998. "APB online launches police and crime Internet service." PR Newswire.

Author not available (ANA). June 2001. "The Long Arm of the Law." Internet Magazine.

Garber, Lee. June 2001. "A new tool for law enforcement." Computer.

Hitt, Stephanie L. July 2000. "National Crime Information Center." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
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Economic Effects of Crime in

Words: 878 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58078888



Throughout most of the 20th Century, organized crime accounted for a tremendous economic costs passed along to consumers, particularly (but hardly exclusively) in large cities like New York, and Chicago, among many others. Originally formed in this country during the Prohibition years in the 1920s, the criminal enterprises that exploited the black market for illegal liquor subsequently branched out to infiltrate other large industries, such as construction, food and liquor distribution, interstate trucking, waste disposal, and the garment industry.

Primarily by penetrating into the leadership organization of unionized industries, organized crime managed to siphon off public funds, "skim" illegal profits from large corporations, and control entire otherwise legitimate industries through intimidation, including labor strikes initiated via its control of labor unions. The result increased the cost of almost everything sold to consumers in the form of goods and services throughout much of the country. In recent years, increased federal law…… [Read More]

References

Ballezza, R. (2007) the Social Security Card Application Process: Identity and Credit Card Fraud Issues; FBI Law Enforcement Journal, Vol. 76 No. 5, May/07

Hendrie, E. (2006) Breaking the Bank; FBI Law Enforcement Journal, Vol. 75

No. 7, Jul/06

U.S. Department of Justice (2007) Uniform Crime Reports. Federal Bureau of Investigation Homepage. Accessed October 23, 2007, at http://www.fbi.gov/ucr/ucr.htm#cius
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Management Software Computers and High-Tech

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81255292

Having good case management software could easily avoid all of these types of problems that might come about from rival gang members and from other issues where a person would not be 'safe' in a prison cell with another individual for a specific reason. The same is often true with a police officer that has broken the law and is now incarcerated, or a child molester being put in with prisoners that have children and value those children even though they may have done something awful to another adult.

Computer literacy is very important, so say both educators and the general public (Eisenberg, 1996). However, police departments and correctional facilities have only begun to realize the significance that computers can have for the rehabilitation and transfer of prisoners. According to orglund (n.d.), records are an extremely important part of police work, and the change from standard record-keeping to electronic record…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Borglund, E. (n.d.). Operational use of electronic records in police work. Department of Information Technology and Media. Mid-Sweden University, Harnosand, Sweden.

Eisenberg, M. & Johnson, D. (1996). Computer Skills for Information Problem-Solving: Learning and Teaching Technology in Context. ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology, Syracuse NY.
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Internet and Crime

Words: 1223 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92738069

Cyber Crime

Critical infrastructure

There was an attempt of cybercrime on a MoD skynet military sate light by an undersized group of hackers, this brought about a security intrusion which officials could characterized as information warefare, this could be further elaborated as an enemy attacks in terms of military communication disruption. The authority was able to trace the group to as far as southern England. The group managed to gain access to the Mod skynet military sate light and succeeded in reprograming the system in charge of the control before they were discovered. The case was taken over by the joint team of Scotland Yard's Computer Crimes Unit as well as the U.S. Air Force.

It is without doubt that Satellites plays a major role in supporting the existing balance in the universal economy, society, as well as advanced militaries and this has made a number of nations to develop…… [Read More]

Reference

2011 Report to Congress of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission. (2011). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from  http://origin.www.uscc.gov/sites/default/files/annual_reports/annual_report_full_11.pdf 

GAO Critical Infrastructure Protection Commercial Satellite Security Should Be More Fully Addressed. (2002). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from  http://www.gao.gov/assets/240/235485.pdf .

Robertson, Ann E. (2011). Militarization of Space. New York: Facts on File. Retrieved on April 25, 2014 from http://epublications.bond.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1131&context=cm

Space Security Index 2012. (2012). Retrieved on April 25, 2014, from http://swfound.org/media/93632/SSI_FullReport_2012.pdf
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Computer Revolution the Effects of

Words: 1054 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76537053

It is safe to say that the computer revolution has so dramatically changed the manner in which academics and novices work. "...the uses of information technology are diverse; as data have to be processed, and as word data are laborious to process, and as several powerful packages for data analysis and processing exist, researchers will find it useful to make full use of computing facilities.

Cohen, Manion, and Morrison 155)

The results of the computer revolution, in their entirety have yet to be fully realized but the manner in which it has changed and continues to change research is fundamental to the way it will continue to change education. Seekers of truth may find it difficult to weed through the massive amounts of information but organizing large volumes of knowledge into relatively small spaces reiterates the vastness of the world and with the right skills and training can revolutionize thought.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Ray C. "The Next Industrial Revolution." Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 15.4 (2000): 23.

Cohen, Louis, Lawrence Manion, and Keith Morrison. Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge Falmer, 2000.

Halal, William E., and Jay Liebowitz. "Telelearning: The Multimedia Revolution in Education." The Futurist Nov.-Dec. 1994: 21.

Papert, Seymour. The Children's Machine: Rethinking School in the Age of the Computer. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
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Crime Workplace Is Not Safe From Numerous

Words: 3278 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2555299

Crime

Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…… [Read More]

Reference List

McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.

Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.

Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA

Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
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Crime Statistics Goes Far Beyond Mere Tables

Words: 729 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6577054

crime statistics goes far beyond mere tables, numbers, techniques and formulas. Through the effective use of this information it is possible to garner a greater understanding of the individuals who make up the criminal world, the types of crimes that these criminals participate in, and how best to control crime (McDonald, 2002). In the United States there are two primary sources for crime data. The first source is done through the auspices of the law enforcement agencies and collected through the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the second source is done less formally through the National Crime Survey. Neither reporting source is able to provide a complete picture of the crime situation in the country due to the fact that a majority of crime, for a variety of reasons, goes unreported.

The reporting system utilized by the FBI is done through the processing of crimes through the various police…… [Read More]

References

Dowler, K. (2003). Media Consumption and Public Attitiudes toward Crime and Justice: The Relationship between Fear of Crime Punitive Attitudes, and Perceived Police Effectiveness. Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 109-126.

McDonald, Z. (2002). Official Crime Statistics: Their Use and Intrepretation. The Economic Journal, 85-106.

Criminal Justice
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Crime and Security

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63919515

In the Facebook v. Power Ventures case, the former brought a lawsuit against the latter, alleging violations of several Acts – specifically the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) as appertains to this discussion. Of concern was the move by Power Ventures to facilitate the aggregation of the social media accounts of a user such that the user could use just a single website to view activities (including messages and posts by friends) in the said social media accounts. In essence, users of the Power Ventures website, Power.com, had an option of accessing their profile on Facebook via the said website. It is important to note that although third parties are permitted by Facebook to make use of applications in their interactions with users of the social media site, Power Ventures eventually elected to bypass terms of use as highlighted by Facebook with regard to information access and gathering. The…… [Read More]

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Crime the Importance and Significance

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3336847

The view, for example, of criminal behavior from a labeling perspective tends to focus on the social and cultural background from which the criminal emerges; and Rational Choice theory stresses individual decision-making and culpability in crime. However, both theories are important in that they provide a basis from which to understand, intercept and prosecute criminal behavior.

3. Conclusion

In conclusion, the importance of crime analysis lies in the fact that information and intelligence about crime enables the law enforcement authorities to conduct a comprehensive crime combating program and develop suitable policies for crime prevention. Understanding the social and culture milieu or context from which crime develops can for instance be an essential tool in dealing with various types of crimes.

These theories and analyses also benefit from computer and Internet technology, where tendencies in crime can be more easily discerned by the patterns that remerge from the collation of data…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bruce C.W. Crime Analysis. 16 October 2007. http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:Rv5FYusFZ4gJ:www.iaca.net/ExploringCA/exploringca_chapter1.pdf+importance+of+analysis+of+crime&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=ukFundamentalsof

Keel, R. (2004) Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory.

Retrieved October 17, 2007. from the University of Missouri. Web site. http://www.umsl.edu/~rkeel/200/ratchoc.html

Overview of Labelling Theories. October 16, 2007. http://www.hewett.norfolk.sch.uk/curric/soc/crime/labeling.htm
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Compare and Contrast the Two Primary Crime Data Sources Used in the United States

Words: 3773 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49906355

Crime Data Sources in the United States

The collection of crime data in the United States is carried out through different approaches including Uniform Crime eports and the National Incident-Based eporting System, which also act as the two primary sources of crime data for crime reporting. The data obtained from these sources are used for research and documentation of crime status at the county, state, and national levels. Notably, the National Incident-Based eporting System emerged as an advancement of the conventional summary of Uniform Crime eports that were used to track crime in the country. In addition, the Congress uses data from these sources together with those from the National Crime Victimization Survey to guide policy decisions and create suitable responses to crime. While the use of these sources helps in dealing with crime in the United States, they have some similarities and differences between them with regards to methodological…… [Read More]

References:

Addington, L.A. (2008, February). Assessing the Extent of Nonresponse Bias on NIBRS

Estimates of Violent Crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.

"Data Collection Guidelines." (2000, August). National Incident-Based Reporting System.

Retrieved from U.S. Department of Justice website:  https://www.fortworthpd.com/docmgmt/NIBRS_Volume1_Major_Differences.pdf
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Problems With the the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13670842

Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

A failed and flawed law

Technology has changed faster than the laws that exist to protect the public. Protecting information, particularly sensitive government information, was thought to be challenging and to pose additional dilemmas in terms of its regulation. With this in mind, Congress passed the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act in 1984. The CFAA "outlaws conduct that victimizes computer systems. It is a cyber-security law. It protects federal computers, bank computers, and computers connected to the Internet. It shields them from trespassing, threats, damage, espionage, and from being corruptly used as instruments of fraud" (Doyle 2014:1-2). The CFAA's provisions ban the trespassing of data; the damaging of or use of threats to damage data; or trafficking in the passwords and other sensitive data of a wide range of computers containing protected information (Doyle 2014:1-2).

The law was passed during the pre-Internet era "as a…… [Read More]

References

Computer Fraud And Abuse Act Reform. (2014). EFF. Retrieved from:

https://www.eff.org/issues/cfaa

Doyle, C. (2014). Cybercrime: An overview of the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Statute and related federal criminal laws. Retrieved from:

http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/97-1025.pdf
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Low-Crime Community an Analysis of

Words: 2387 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20446829

In a recently-conducted survey, the following 10 metropolitan cities had low to very low crime rates: Scottsdale (AZ), Plano (TX), Virginia Beach (VA), Fremont (CA), Honolulu (HI), San Jose (CA), Anaheim (CA), Fort ayne (in), Santa Ana (CA), and Garland (TX). It seems that most cities with scores of 6 and lower (out of 10 on the crime rate scale) were located mostly in the south and the west, with the exception of Fort ayne. (Area Vibes, 2012)

It is interesting to see, then, if weather contributes to these low crime rates. Some experts would agree that weather, indeed, has a lot to do with the low crime rates in these cities. However, most would venture to state that the low crime rate is attributed to the fact that in most of these cities, the average median income is over $60,000. Yet another facet to point out would be that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bushway, Shawn, and Peter Reuter. "Economists' Contribution to the Study of Crime and the Criminal Justice System." University of Maryland Criminology and Economics. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .

"Democratic Underground Forum." Democratic Underground. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .

Drehle, David Von. "What's Behind America's Falling Crime Rate." Time. Time, 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .

"Information on Crime, Crime Statistics, Crime Rates, Violent Crime, Crime News, Crime Prevention." Crime in America.Net: Crime, Violent Crime, Criminals, Crime News, Statistics and Research. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
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History of Crime Measurement as Well as

Words: 3197 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52358775

history of crime measurement as well as the major strengths and limitations of current measurement techniques. I have also included the discussion regarding the importance of crime measurement in criminology. In the end, I have put emphasis on the need of the development of more crime measurement techniques.

The measurement of crime is done with the objective of monitoring and this is mostly done in the same manner as the measurement of "consumer prices, stock market activity, traffic fatalities, population, unemployment, and HIV infection rates" (Maxfield & Babbie, 2011). However, much more is done in measuring the crime instead of just counting things. An assortment of societal, fiscal, geographic, and medical concerns is measured for keeping a record of communal and monetary conditions, population size, age distribution and hazards to physical well-being of the people. Similarly, crime measurement has the main concern of keeping track of criminal behavior so that…… [Read More]

References

Advantages of Incident-Based Reporting Over Summary Reporting. (n.d.). Justice Research and Statistics Association. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from  http://www.jrsa.org/ibrrc/background-status/advantages.shtml 

Brown, S.E., Esbensen, F., & Geis, G. (2013). Criminology: Explaining Crime and Its Context (8thth ed.). Waltham: Anderson Publishing (Elsevier Inc.). Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=brRgAYhyhsoC&pg=PA82&dq=NIBRS+limitations&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0R0MUZePBs7Y4QTogoCQAQ&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=NIBRS%20limitations&f=false

Manual on Victimization Surveys. (2010). Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from http://www.issafrica.org/crimehub/uploads/Manual_on_Victimization_surveys_2009_web.pdf

Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2011).Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=-Z_xfTn1hT8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Research+Methods+for+Criminal+Justice+and+Criminology&hl=en&sa=X&ei=McwOUfO7PLCV0QXx0oDIBg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
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Information Technology IT Security Systems

Words: 3128 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51446477

Computer Security Systems

The report provides new security tools and techniques that computer and IT (Information Technology) professionals, network security specialists, individuals, corporate and public organizations can employ to enhance security of their computer and information systems. In the fast paced IT environment, new threats appear daily that make many organizations to lose data and information that worth billions of dollars. In essence, the computer and IT security professionals are required to develop new computer and IT security tools and techniques to protect their information resources.

The present age of universal computer connectivity has offered both opportunities and threats for corporate organizations Typically, since corporate and public organizations rely on computer and network systems to achieve their business objectives, they also face inherent risks which include electronic fraud, eavesdropping, virus attack and hacking. In essence, some hackers use malicious software with an intention to gain access to corporate computer systems…… [Read More]

Reference

Abdel-Aziz, A. (2009. Intrusion Detection & Response - Leveraging Next Generation Firewall Technology. SANS Institute.

Burr, W. Ferraiolo, H. & Waltermire, D. (2014). IEEE Computer Society. NIST and Computer Security.

Chadwick, D. (2012). Network Firewall Technologies. IS Institute, University of Salford.

Osterhage, W. (2011). Wireless Security. UK, Science Publishers.
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Forensic Lab Forensic Crime Labs Are Important

Words: 975 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89844619

Forensic Lab

Forensic crime labs are important institutions within the criminal justice system and each lab must be up to standard in order for this system to operate at a high and fair level. A good crime lab begins with a good design based on solid fundamentals and thorough planning. The purpose of this essay is to design a digital forensic crime lab that can be used in a university setting. In order to this, the essay will explain the budgeting process while keeping business objectives in mind. The next step of the design will introduce how the physical controls can be used to implement this design. Criteria for success will also be discussed as well as a suggested floor plan to house the lab.

Budgeting

The setting for this digital forensic lab is within a university setting which denotes that funds could most likely be attained for these purposes.…… [Read More]

References

Al Falayleh, M. (2013). Building a Digital Forensic Laboratory For an Educational Institute. American University in the Emirates, 2012. Retrieved from http://sdiwc.net/digital- library/web-admin/upload-pdf/00000357.pdf

Mount, M. & Denmark, A. (nd). Digital Forensics: Architectural and Engineering Facility Design Requirements. AIA, . Retrieved from  http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/ek_members/documents/pdf/aiab092706.pdf 

Taylor, M. (2012). NIST Offers Guidance on Building 21st Century Forensics Labs. NIST Law Enforcement Standards. Retrieved from  http://www.nist.gov/oles/forensics/facilities_forensics.cfm 

Vacca, J. & Rudolph, K. (2010). System Forensics, Investigation and Response. Jones & Bartlett Learning; 1 edition (September 24, 2010)
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Globalization and Organized Crime Globalization

Words: 3395 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51194259

Thus, many shipments go to another destination before the United States or Europe in order to throw law enforcement off of the trail. For cocaine coming out of Colombia, West Africa and Venezuela, home to rogue states and dictatorships, have become popular transit hubs.

The increased transportation of goods accompanying globalization has increased opportunities for maritime piracy. Organized crime is exploiting the increasingly dense international flow of commercial vessels. Maritime piracy consists not only of hijacking of goods, but also kidnapping of passengers for ransom. (UNODC, 2010, p. 11)

OC groups engaged in pirating do not often begin as OC groups. Pirates off the cost of Somalia started as local Somali fishermen who formed vigilante groups to protect their territorial waters. These armed ships eventually exceeded their mandate of mere protection and began to hijack commercial ships for goods. These activities have proved so profitable that these groups are now…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lyman, M.D. & Potter, G.W. (2007). Organized Crime. New York: Prentice Hall

Abadinsky, H. (2010). Organized crime. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Mallory, S.L. (2007). Understanding organized crime. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

Kaplan, D.E., & Dubro, A. (2003). Yakuza: Japan's criminal underworld. Berkeley: University of California Press.
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Internet Use to Solve Crimes

Words: 1348 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84583718

Through these applications, corrections officers can also help reduce internal violence by providing better command and control. These interfaces include criminal intelligence information, such as photographs, fingerprints and documents. These information can be transferred or shared with institutions. These functions, in combination with location identification devices facilitate the tracking down of the movements of high-risk inmates or at-risk personnel in any facility or area. For parole and probation functions, these internet applications perform client mapping and allow better and more efficient workload distribution according to user-determined criteria. Automated routing enables an officer to conduct residence checks and related activities and saves hours of preparation time every week. This, in turn, reduces lead time for route planning and monitors cost per visit (Geographical Institute Systems).

The safety and security of citizens and the community are another primary concern and responsibility of the government (Geographic Institute Systems 2006). In addressing this function,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dozono, Elisa. Crime Mapping Now Available on the Internet. Portland Police Bureau, 2001. http://www.ci.portland.org/MAYOR/press4/crimemap.htm

Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Law Enforcement and the GIS Enterprise. GIS for Law Enforcement, 2007.

Geographic Information Systems. Crime Mapping: GIS Goes Mainstream. GIS Lounge, 2006.

Heffernan, Sloane. Law Enforcement Uses Internet to Solve Offline Crimes. Capitol Broadcasting Company, Inc., 2007.  http://www.wral.com
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Forensic Tools for Computers

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42756780

Zilla Data Nuker

Test: Zilla Data Nuker

Software Title

Files created or downloaded leave a trace even when deleted. These traces allow skilled computer forensic professionals to retrieve the data. Zillasoft, LLC, a New England-based software developing entity provides Zilla Data Nuker that "Shreds sensitive files so they cannot be recovered or undeleted" according to the promotional material for the software. (Zilla Data Nuker 2.0) Zilla Data Nuker is freely downloadable from the ZDNet site at www.zdnet.com or can be obtained directly from the Zillasoft website at www.zillasoft.ws.

Software Functionality

Zilla Data Nuker uses what the company terms as "shredding algorithms" to obliterate data. Ostensibly the software is designed to be used to improve the functionality of a home or office computer by deleting unnecessary files from the hard drive. Zillasoft also claims that the software can function to help protect the user's privacy by completely destroying information targeted by…… [Read More]

References

General Test Methodology. v1.9. (2001). National Institute of Standards and Technology

U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved from http://www.cftt.nist.gov/Test%20Methodology%207.doc

Kuchta, Kelly J. (2001). Your Computer Forensic Tookit. Information Systems Security, (10) 49.

Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
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Organised Crimes Organized Crime and

Words: 2519 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64307407

This creates an environment for criminal organizations where they "... can operate in parallel to existing business and government institutions"

Shaw uses the Soviet Union as a good example of this phenomenon. "...the collapse of communist rule allowed the emergence of literally thousands of criminal organisations involving current and former members of the establishment " (Shaw). As Shaw and others points out, a situation where there are functional links between government and organized crime has parallels in many other regions and countries, particularly in the developing countries of Africa and Asia.

In essence, the changing international stage and the disappearance of boundaries and barriers between counties and nations provide the opportunity for criminal organizations to grow. Furthermore, it also provides for the possibility of greater interaction between criminal organizations and governments that may be dependent on these organizations for certain political and social needs.

Government and organized crime

An example…… [Read More]

References

Attorney general targeting international organized crime. Retrieved April 23, 2008, at http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-crime24apr24,1,3582903.story

Carter D. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZED CRIME.

Retrieved April 26, 2008, at http://www1.cj.msu.edu/~outreach/security/orgcrime.html

CRIMINAL JUSTICE RESOURCES: Organized Crime. Retrieved April 23, 2008, at http://www.lib.msu.edu/harris23/crimjust/orgcrime.htm
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Technology in Crime Analysis Technology Used in

Words: 818 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94076573

Technology in Crime Analysis

Technology used in crime analysis

In the contemporary society, there are various crimes that are experienced and in response there have been varied crime analysis techniques that have been employed to ensure the crimes are reduced to the minimum possible.

One of the most accurate and widely applicable technology used in crime reduction is DNA profiling. This involves taking any material like blood, sweat, saliva or even chunks of flesh from the crime scene and subjected to the DNA profiling process and if the VNT (variable number Tandem repeats), which are unique to each individual, are found to be matching to that which is in the database, it is a lead to the possibility of the person having committed the crime or being present at the scene (Shanna Freeman, 2012).

Collecting, storing and retrieving information

For effective crime profiling, there are various ways of data collection…… [Read More]

References

IEEE, (2012). Control Methods in Data-Storage Systems. Retrieved December 13, 2012 from http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/login.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6104200&url=http%3A%2F%2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D6104200

Lynch, J. & Jarvis, J. (2008). Missing Data and Imputation in the Uniform Crime Reports

and the Effects on National Estimates. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, Vol. 24, No 1, 69-85. Retrieved December 13, 2012 from http://voices.yahoo.com/ucr-nibrs-vs.-ncvs-analyzing-criminal-data-5755964.html

Rand, M. (2006). The national crime victimization survey: 34 years of measuring crime in the United States. Statistical Journal of the United Nations ECE 23. 289-301. Retrieved December 13, 2012 from http://voices.yahoo.com/ucr-nibrs-vs.-ncvs-analyzing-criminal-data-5755964.html
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New Ways to Combat Organized Crime

Words: 2337 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66009522

Organized crime presents certain unique challenges for law enforcement in the 21st century. As noted by Bjelopera & Finklea (2012) in their report to Congress on the history of organized criminal activity in the United States, modern organized criminal networks tend to be more fluid and less hierarchical than organized associations of the past. Organized crime networks are also more apt to outsource critical aspects of their operations, which can make building a unified case a challenge for law enforcement agencies (Bjelopera & Finklea, 2012, p.1). Diverting resources to combat terrorism have also left law enforcement agencies in the United States with fewer financial resources to combat other forms of organized crime, although some of the methods to trace both types of organizations, such as patterns of money laundering, are similar between both of these types of illicit associations.

Organized crime is defined as "criminal activity that, through violence or…… [Read More]

References

Bjelopera, J. & Finklea, K. (2012). Organized crime: An evolving challenge for U.S. law

Enforcement. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41547.pdf

Bradley, T. (2015).Cybercrime is the modern-day mafia. Forbes. Retrieved from:

http://www.forbes.com/sites/tonybradley/2015/10/16/cybercrime-is-the-modern-day-mafia/2/#b80e949bb71d
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Bcu Local Crime Community Action Q1 How

Words: 1057 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11013543

BCU Local Crime Community Action

Q1 ow long have you lived in this neighborhood and do you know all your neighbors by face and name and if not can you see reasons for this, please explain?

Rationale 1 This question is designed to attempt to understand how well the neighborhood knows one another and if there is at least facial recognition between long time residents and student tenants. This question also attempts to create a written rather than anecdotal record of the residential beliefs regarding the variant student population and the increase in crime and is open ended for this purpose.

Q2 When did you first notice that crime began to increase and can you describe the events and experiences that you have been witness to or been victim of in relation to crime?

Rationale 2 Again this question is a way of discerning the current crime conditions and to…… [Read More]

Hope T. 2007. The Distribution of Household Property Crime Victimisation: Insights from the British Crime Survey. In Surveying Crime in the 21st Century. Crime Prevention Studies Vol. 22, edited by M.G. Maxfield and M. Hough. Uffculme, Devon: Willan / New York: Criminal Justice Press.

Shu SC-F. 1999. Housing layout and crime vulnerability. In Space Syntax - Second International Symposium Proceedings 1: 25

Shu, S. And J. Huang. 2003. Spatial Configuration and Vulnerability of residential Burglary: A Case study of a city in Taiwan. In Proceedings, 4th International Space Syntax Symposium, edited by J. Hanson. London: The Bartlett, UCL.
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Compstat -- Crime Fighting Information

Words: 941 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60382414

For example, using predictive policing will likely be at odds with many of the organizational cultures found in traditional police forces in many cities. Furthermore, different objectives may also take precedence over the use of COMPSTAT systems such as political goals as well as the ability for policing organizations to provide the needed resources to take advantage of a COMPSTAT system.

The various COMPSTAT systems can take various inputs, such as historical data, weather, or political events, and process these inputs to generate various sets of "hotspots." These hotspots can be updated daily and reflect the most likely time and space estimates of where crime is more likely to occur given the various factors that are presented to the algorithm. The outputs may represent a location and a time in which police officers should patrol given the likelihood of a crime occurring at this output. The system then can keep…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goode, E. (2011, August 15). Sending the Police Before There's a Crime. Retrieved from The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/16/us/16police.html?_r=1&

National Institute of Justice. (2009, December 18). Predictive Policing Symposium: The LAPD Experiment. Retrieved from Office of Justice Program: http://www.nij.gov/nij/topics/law-enforcement/strategies/predictive-policing/symposium/lapd.htm

Willis, J., Mastrofski, S., & Weisburd, D. (2004). COMPSTAT in Practice: An In-Depth Analysis of Three Cities. Retrieved from Police Foundation: http://www.policefoundation.org/content/compstat-practice-depth-analysis-three-cities
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Forensic Tools Computer-Based Forensics Tools

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15473784

It is thus that technologies which work to yield that crucial data from the memory store of any such device have become so valuable to law enforcement in the age of terrorism. According to the Computer Forensics Tool Testing Program (CFTT), "a cellular forensic tool shall have the ability to logically acquire all application supported data elements present in internal memory without modification" (Ayers, 15)

This is to indicate that such technology should be able to hack into mobile communication devices without detection by the subject, making it a valuable tool in investigating crimes and preventing suspected crimes. The evaluate of its requirements is produced by the CFTT, which is an organization that "provides a measure of assurance that the tools used in the investigations of computer-related crimes produce valid results." (Ayers, 6)

A major drawback of such technologies, and one that invokes a yet far more complex discussion concerning…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Ayers, R. (2008). Mobile Device Forensics-Tool Testing. National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Bourque, L. (2008). Five Essential Computer Forensics Tools. Enterprise it Planet.

Online at http://www.enterpriseitplanet.com/security/features/article.php/3786046
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Different Types of White Collar Crime

Words: 700 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16706505

Pension fraud is a type of white-collar crime, but it can assume many different forms. In "Guilty Plea in Fraud Case Tied to New York Pension," the underlying crime was bribery, which happened to be related to a pension fraud scheme. The State of New York runs and manages a pension for its residents. It invests money workers pay into the pension. In this case, state officials accepted about $1 million in gifts in exchange for investing $250 million in pension money into the briber's company. "Looking Out for Number One" describes a slightly different type of pension fraud. In this case, the manager of the pension was defrauded by the investment company, AA Capital Partners. AA Capital Partners seem to have diverted millions of dollars from the pension money to its own dealings, amounting to a type of embezzlement. Thus, pension fraud is not actually a specific type of…… [Read More]

References

"Guilty Plea in Fraud Case Tied to New York Pension." International New York Times. 4 Dec, 2009. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/04/nyregion/04pension.html?_r=2&

"Identity Theft, Debt Collection, and Payday Loans Top List of Consumer Fraud Complaints," (2014). The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved online:  http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Latest-News-Wires/2014/0304/Identity-theft-debt-collection-and-payday-loans-top-list-of-consumer-fraud-complaints 

"Looking Out for Number One." Bloomberg Business Week. Retrieved online: http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2006-10-29/looking-out-for-number-one
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International Crime Terrorism and Organized Crime Trends

Words: 3182 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30816158

International Crime, Terrorism, And Organized Crime Trends

Comparing contrasting topics international crime, terrorism, organized crime trends

This research has confirmed the possibility of close correlation between money laundering activities, Islamic terrorist fundraising, organized crime, and corruption of public officials throughout Brazilian Hizballah region. The organized crime networks and the Islamic extremists of Brazil must be examined in collaboration because they are connected to wider networks in Latin America zone and across the world. All the organized activities and terrorists in Brazilian Hizballah were facilitated by corrupt officials, which were driven by the benefits of lucrative criminal activities conducted such as business ventures by terrorists and organized crime groups. Consequently, there was a mutually beneficial association among the three sectors. In this study, Brazilian Hizballah will serve as a microcosm.

Introduction

A number of free-Trade American regions with massive Middle Eastern populations permit organized crime mafias, Islamic terrorist groups, and corrupt…… [Read More]

References

Almeida, J. (2008). Brazil in focus: Economic, political and social issues. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Duyan, A., & NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division. (2012). Defence against terrorism: Different dimensions and trends of an emerging threat: [proceedings of the NATO Advanced Training Course on Defence Against Terrorism: Different Dimensions and Trends of the Emerging Threat - Terrorism, Kabul, Afghanistan, 23-27 May 2010]. Amsterdam: Ios Pres in cooperation with NATO Emerging Security Challenges Division.

Friedlander, R.A., Levie, H.S. & Lovelace, D.C. (2009). Terrorism: Documents of international and local control. Dobbs Ferry, N.Y: Oceana Publications.

Giraldo, J.K. (2007). Terrorism financing and state responses: A comparative perspective. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Univ. Press.
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Internet to Solve Crimes the

Words: 1292 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9918143

The technology is extremely effective. In brief, crime mapping technology enables the police and other crime fighting agencies "... To analyze and correlate data sources to create a detailed snapshot of crime incidents and related factors within a community or other geographical area." (the Use of Computerized Crime Mapping by Law Enforcement)

Studies show that this technology is creating a positive response among law enforcement agencies and has many advantages over older methods of fighting crime. Among the many aspects of this method is the real-time analysis of crime data as well as the mapping of various critical crime areas using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology. (Newsom G.)

One of the central advantages of this system is that it provides the ability to identify certain trends in crime and links between crimes. This is an important aspect as it provides crucial correlations between events and crimes which may occur in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crime Mapping and Problem Analysis Laboratory. 16 September, 2006. http://www.policefoundation.org/docs/crime_mapping.html

Godwin M. Government: Cops on the I-Way. 1995. 16 September, 2006. http://onlineethics.org/cases/lamacchia/godwin-cops-iway.html

How can police agencies keep up with new technology? 2005. 15 September, 2006. http://www.gazette.rcmp.gc.ca/article-en.html?&article_id=91

Newsom G. Crime Mapping Technology. 16 September, 2006. http://www.gavinnewsom.com/index.php?id=28
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Product Placement Hawaii Five-0- Solving Crimes With

Words: 873 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47100483

Product Placement

Hawaii Five-0- Solving crimes with Microsoft phones

The CBS crime drama Hawaii Five-0 is a re-configured version of the old 1960s crime drama set in exotic Hawaii. In its newest incarnation, the special task force crime fighters use contemporary methods to track crime, including smartphones. Every episode begins with a new crime, which is then resolved by the end of the hour. Microsoft has negotiated a special product placement deal with the series, so the phones that are used by Lieutenant Steve McGarrett, Detective Danny 'Danno' Williams and Chin Ho Kelly are inevitably Microsoft-branded. Most recently, the Lumia 920 phone has given particular prominence as has the Microsoft Surface, Microsoft's tablet rival to the iPad. It is the Microsoft Surface that is particularly eye-catching in its usage, given that this tablet-style device is so photogenic in its ability to display crime information on the screen.

A typical episode…… [Read More]

References

Lein, A. (2010). Hawaii Five-0 uses Windows Phone 7 to fight crime. Pocket Now. Retrieved:

 http://pocketnow.com/windows-phone/hawaii-five-o-uses-windows-phone-7-to-fight-crime 

Nudd, T. (2011). Apple's 'Get a Mac:' The complete campaign. Ad Week. Retrieved:

 http://www.adweek.com/adfreak/apples-get-mac-complete-campaign-130552
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Publicized Crimes in America Today

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47066171



The prosecuting of identity thieves has proven difficult. Although there has been a rapid increase in the number of statutes addressing the situation on both the state and federal level, the nature of the crime, the anonymous aspect of it, and the time parameters make apprehension and prosecution quite difficult (Pastrikos, 2004). Nevertheless, there has been an aggressive effort on both the state and federal levels to increase their efforts and successes.

The best approach to defeating identity theft is prevention. Potential victims should be cautious about sharing personal information with anyone not possessing a legitimate need for such information. In today's society where business transactions are done more frequently over the telephone and computer this is particularly important. Additionally, and most importantly, the use of one's social security number should be limited to those situations for which it was originally intended, that is, for employment and financial relationships.

Other…… [Read More]

References

Berghel, H. (2000). Identity Theft, Social Security Numbers, and the Web. Communications of the ACM, 17-21.

General Accounting Office. (2009). Identity Theft: Governments have acted to Protect Personally Identifiable Information, but Vulnerabilities Remain. Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office.

Pastrikos, C. (2004). Identity Theft Statutes: Which Will Protect Americans the Most? Albany Law Review, 1137-1157.

Identity Theft
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Vice Refers Specifically to Crimes of a

Words: 1157 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37851760

Vice refers specifically to crimes of a moral nature and usually refers specifically to prostitution, gambling, and also the dealing of drugs. Vice activities are defined differently by different communities and in general do not represent the laws of the nation or even of the state. Moreover, vice crimes are to be contrasted with crimes of a violent nature. Vice crime is community-defined; local laws generally reflect the social and political beliefs of its citizens as well as their expectations of the character of the jurisdiction. The town of Spurberry has a relatively low incidence of violent crime but vice crime is relatively common. Therefore, the Spurberry Police Department has had to beef up its vice squad in response to the growing needs of the community.

Spurberry is a mid-sized suburban town in the American Midwest with a population of 20, 371. The population is largely middle-class and mostly Caucasian.…… [Read More]

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Assault and Battery the Crime

Words: 1697 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7005824

According to case law, "an infamous crime against nature" is sodomy (Yoshino, 2002). We can see here, again, a modern shift from common law with the inclusion of sodomy as a possible element of felony assault. Over the course of time, Idaho lawmakers clearly saw a need to include such a "crime" within their definitions.

While it is obvious that Idaho case law has changed over time with society with such inclusions as abortion, the death or injury of a fetus, and sodomy, it is equally clear more alterations are needed. The addition of the element of "ability" in the definition of assault (IC 18-901) may need clarification. While the addition is needed to create distinction between assault and threats, the term alone is subjective. This creates ambiguity within the definition, creating the possibility of incorrect application of the law.

Another alteration may need to be a further defining of…… [Read More]

References

American Heritage Dictionary. (2003). Common law. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Idaho Statutes, chapter 18, 18-901-18-910.

Jacobs, J.B. & Potter, K. (2001). Hate crimes: Criminal law & identity politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kirland v. State, 43 Ind. 146, 154, 1873.
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Various Computer Related Laws

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87199735

Contending With Cybercrime Issues

Attacks and Malware

There are numerous laws pertaining to identity theft, privacy, and cybercrime. Prior to designating those laws and their ramifications for the parties involved with a breach, it is sapient to provide a brief overview of the correlation between these three facets of laws. One of the more common means of engaging in identity theft is through the means of cybercrime, in which individuals typically hack into a computerized systems and take personally identifiable information of others and use it for their own illicit purposes. Additionally, such crimes intrinsically invade the privacy of others and intrude upon that privacy by preventing individuals to keep personally identifiable information and other aspects of their lives private.

One of the most salient of the laws relating to these three different aspects of theft in contemporary times is the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003. This…… [Read More]

References

North Carolina Department of Justice. (2005). Cooper proposes identity theft protection act of 2005. http://www.ncdoj.gov / Retrieved from http://www.ncdoj.gov/News-and-Alerts/News-Releases-and-Advisories/Press-Releases/Cooper-proposes-Identity-Theft-Protection-Act-of-2.aspx
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Violent Computer Game Violence and

Words: 651 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13272289

Quite to the point, television, film, pop music and video games share in common a proclivity to promote that which yields prosperity. Thus, there is little regard from the computer gaming industry for indications that "a meta-analytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults." (Anderson & Bushman, 353)

In spite of this, revenue for video game produces revolves on role-playing titles such as orld of arcraft, which promotes fantasy world combat, simulation games such as Grand Theft Auto, which glorifies violence and antisocial behavior, Halo, the simulated first-person shooter game, and Madden Football, which portrays in detail the often brutal sport of football.

Connecting absorption of such media with the commitment of violent crimes remains a challenge however. Famously, the two minors responsible for the massacre at the Columbine High School in 1999 were noted for playing such…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Anderson, C.A. & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353-359.

Harding, a. (2009). Violent Video Games Linked to Child Aggression. CNNHealth. Online at  http://www.cnn.com/2008/HEALTH/family/11/03/healthmag.violent.video.kids/index.html
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High Tech Crime Review of

Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55859858

Most of the time, intellectual property theft involves stealing copyrighted material in the form of a book, a magazine or journal article or material on the Internet and claiming that the material is one's own property, also known as plagiarism. This type of high-tech crime is very widespread in today's America and often shows up as major news stories in the media, especially when the copyrighted material belongs to a high-profile author.

Another high-tech crime which is closely linked to identity theft is credit card fraud which occurs when "purchases are made using another individual's credit card or credit card number with the intent to defraud" ("Credit Card Fraud," Internet). These purchases might include buying products and goods at a well-known business establishment or purchasing products from Internet sites. Some of the more common forms of credit card fraud found in the U.S. include counterfeiting or creating fraudulent credit cards,…… [Read More]

References

About Identity Theft." (2008). FTC. Internet. Retrieved January 8, 2009 at http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/microsites/idtheft/consumers/about-identity-theft.html.

Credit Card Fraud." (2009). Criminal Law. Internet. Accessed January 7, 2009 at http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/criminal-law/credit-card-fraud.htm.

Financial and High-Tech Crimes." January 7, 2009. Interpol. Internet. Accessed January 7, 2009 at http://www.interpol.int/Public/FinancialCrime/Default.asp.

Thompson, William T. (2004). High-tech crime in the United States. Boston: G.K. Hall.
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Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law

Words: 3051 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96085136

Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation

With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.

There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their…… [Read More]

References

Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up

Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating

Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf.
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How Computers Have Affected the Discipline

Words: 1252 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98531833

Science and Technology sounds promising as more and more unprecedented advances in computing, artificial intelligences robotics, genetics, biotechnology and neurosciences are unraveling. The commonly held belief is that technology goes on to make our lives better. Keeping this in mind, many people also believe that it has a positive impact on our aspects of our society. Because of the advents in technologies, there are present significant improvements in the standard of education, transport, and medical care as well. Similar impacts are also noticed in the security and safety arena as well. Even though the computer and science technology has had a positive impact on safety and technology, it has a negative impact as well.

How computers have affected the discipline

Information security is a very crucial operational technique. Before computers were invented, the main mode of security was through manual means. Everything had to be taken care of using the…… [Read More]

References

Byrne, J., & Marx, G. (2011). Technological innovations in crime prevention and policing. A review of the research on implementation and impact. Journal Of Police Studies, 20(3), 17 -- 40.

European Union,. (2012). Health effects of security scanners for passenger screening (based on X-ray technology) (1st ed.). Brussels: European Union. Retrieved from http://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/emerging/docs/scenihr_o_036.pdf

Goodman, M. (2012). How technology makes us vulnerable. CNN. Retrieved 5 July 2014, from  http://edition.cnn.com/2012/07/29/opinion/goodman-ted-crime/
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Comparison of Four Crimes

Words: 922 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34339119

Crime is everywhere. People commit a variety of crimes for a variety of reasons. Four of some of the biggest and longstanding crimes people commit are human trafficking, drug trafficking, organized crime, and corruption. These crimes often go hand-in-hand; they do not exist without the other. Therefore, they will have various similarities. They will also have some differences.

One major difference is the scope and scale some crimes have like human trafficking. Drug trafficking although international, tends to have specific destinations and routes. Human trafficking however exists everywhere and the routes can span from three to four countries or more as a country may serve as a pick up point, a transfer point, a departure point, and an entry point. It is a huge way people fuel criminal organizations and is usually the least prosecuted compared to drug trafficking. Some countries like the Ukraine barely prosecute those who have been…… [Read More]

References

Natarajan, M. (2011). International Crime and Justice. Cambridge University.
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Looking Into Technology for Accurate Crime Analysis

Words: 706 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19231646

technology utilized for crime analysis. The methods will also be looked into in addition to the benefits the technology has for investigative authorities and for the community.

Types of Technology Necessary for Crime Analysis

Computer technology has enabled law enforcement officers to implement ticketing systems and record evidence more accurately by logging data directly onto computers, for instance, in the case of speed guns and police vehicle dash camera videos. The individuals given tickets have also been able to save a lot of time by paying for tickets online. In many cases, this saves time, not only for law enforcement officials, but also for the individuals who have been fined, if it is a violation that they have agreed that they have committed. This kind of technology makes it difficult for one to get away with parking, speeding or any other kinds of violations. In cases whereby individuals have been…… [Read More]

References

(2011, August 12). CSI Today. CSI Today: Technology and Crime Analysis. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://csitoday.blogspot.com/2011/08/technology-and-crime-analysis.html

(n.d.). IACA Home. What Crime Analysts Do. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://www.iaca.net/dc_analyst_role.asp

(2005). SAGE. Crime Analysis Technology. Retrieved January 5, 2015, from http://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/6245_Chapter_7_Boba_Final_PDF_4.pdf
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Technology Terrorism and Crime Apa Technology Terrorism

Words: 1436 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28094078

Technology, Terrorism, and Crime (APA).

Technology, Terrorism, and Crime

One of the most heinous terrorist groups currently operating in the U.S. In called the "Aryan Nations." This group openly states on their website that they have been "Fighting Jewish Takeover for over 35 years." (aryan-nation.org) This group of domestic terrorists post articles on their website with grammatically incorrect titles like "The menace of Multiculturalism," and "Jews that control Hollywood: Meet the filthy Kikes are behind that industry." (aryan-nation.org) There is no doubt that his group is one that is dedicated to ideals of Adolph Hitler and the supremacy of the Aryan race. This group has also used the latest technology to spread their message of hate.

The Aryan Nations is a far right white supremacist religious organization based on the teachings of Wesley Swift, who founded a church based on anti-Semitism in California in the 1940's. In the 1970's, ichard…… [Read More]

References

"Aryan Nations/Church of Jesus Christ Christian." Extremism in America. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/aryan_nations.asp?xpicked=3&item=an

Church of Jesus Christ Christian: Aryan Nations. Retrieved from  http://www.aryan-nation.org/ 

"Identity Theft." (2006, Jan. 5) Retrieved from http://www.bloomshare.com/identity-theft/identity-theft-stories/identity-theft/

Squires, Jennifer, (2009, March 5). Aptos 'neighbors from hell' sentenced in massive ID theft case. Santa Cruz Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.santacruzsentinel.com/localnews/ci_11840106