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Computer literacy is a familiarity and fluency with computers and there numerous applications to life today, which include various aspects of word processing, the internet and online behavior, and others.
his term denotes a familiarity and fluency at obtaining, parsing, and even analyzing information from myriad sources. Doing so requires a learned skill much like reading, enabling people to know what information is apposite.
I literacy is akin to computer literacy in that the same sort of familiarity that latter requires with computers is extended in functionality to other aspects of information technology, which include mobile devices, cloud applications, sensor or machine-generated devices and data, as well as the architecture and infrastructure required to utilize information technology.
Watch the video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JWzigkpR7yg and explain
a. Define is the term that applies to understanding just what it is one is looking for, and connotes the…
This source appears suspect for a number of different reasons. On the page that the above url links to, the representatives from this web site are soliciting money from strangers. Thus, the reader can infer that those who are operating this web site definitely have a vested interest in RFID technology. Moreover, that bias is fairly apparent: the site is against it, and is attempting to halt the progress of this technology. Virtually everything about this page that the previously referenced url leads to confirms this fact. Most eminently, of course, is the picture of the various protestors, which includes innocent girls and boys who probably do not know anything about the cause yet are depicted to capture reader attention and to garner support from some sort of emotional appeal.
This site and source appears much more trustworthy than the alternative one. It is an online journal, and thus seems to be making a greater effort to be objective and to report facts more straightforward. Thus, there is a substantially lesser amount of bias found in this source. A look at some of its links includes the fact that it offers case studies and best practices which, although not necessarily empirical evidence, are attempts to offer proof in a dispassionate, objective way to which virtually anyone can relate.
As many of the world's industries are faced with increasing competitive pressure and the need to continually improve their performance, employers look to new employees with computer fluency skills as an indicator that the person also has initiative to tackle difficult learning projects and master them. Initiative is very valuable in today's labor market. When combined with computer fluency and literacy, a prospective employee can add in knowledge of a specific industry and gain a greater competitive advantage in getting a new position. This combination of factors together is what serves as the catalyst for anyone seeking a career where computer fluency is a necessary requirement.
The level of computer literacy and their level of fluency with PCs, applications, the Internet and its many applications and research tools will have a direct correlation to what they will earn over their lifetimes; this point is clear from the studies citied.…
Francis Green, Alan Felstead, Duncan Gallie, Ying Zhou. "COMPUTERS and PAY." National Institute Economic Review no. 201 (July 1, 2007): 63-75. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed April 30, 2008).
Copacino, William C "Skills development -- the best defense against downsizing." Logistics Management, January 1, 1997, 42.
A www.proquest.com (Accessed April 30, 2008).
In setting this plan for implementation and maintenance the ultimate goal for the district within the next five years is the creation of a student-to-computer ratio of 1-1 in grades 3-12 and 3-1 for grades K-2 in accordance with developmental studies for the utilization of technology in lesson and course plans for each respective grade. Computers will be updated on an annual basis, with replacement being taken into consideration every four years. In order to maintain cost-effectiveness, leasing programs and low-cost computer programs will allow students and teachers the capacity to access more applications and content which is relevant to consumers but nearly unaffordable in many educational systems. Low-cost computer programs such as the One Laptop per Child Foundation have been developed in order to aggressively place computers in the hands of hundreds of millions of children around the world, the United States included, in order to aid students in…
Aliasgari, M. Mojdehavar, N. And Riahinia, F. (2010). Computer-assisted instruction and student attitudes toward learning mathematics. Education, Business, and Society, 3.1: pp. 6. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Ames, M. And Warschauer, M. (2010). Can one laptop per child save the world's poor?
Journal of International Affairs, 64.1: pp. 33-55. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Carman, E., Lewis, C., Murphy, K. And Richards, J. (2005). Strengthening educational technology in schools and in pre-service teacher education: a practitioner-faculty collaborative process. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13.1: pp. 125-140. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
The other sector of life where information literacy is vital and omnipresent is the career field. It is not simply a matter of preference or choice. Many businesses actively embrace the harnessing and day-to-day use of computer and informatics technology because the business being able to thrive in the marketplace or even survive in general as a business can literally depend upon it. Such a state of affairs requires employees and leaders that are well-versed and adept in literacy regarding information, computers and informatics, among other things such as project management skills, leadership traits, and so on.
Job descriptions discoverable online are bereft and thick with requirements that relate to information, computer and informatics literacy. Examples include prospective employees being familiar with the construction and/or use of database technology, internet technology, familiarity with operations systems such as Mac OS and Windows, software suites like Microsoft Office and so on. Failure…
Creedy, D.K., Mitchell, M., Seaton-Sykes, P., Cooke, M., Patterson, E., Purcell, C., & Weeks, P. (2007). Evaluating a Web-Enhanced Bachelor of Nursing Curriculum:
Perspectives of Third-Year Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(10), 460-
Edwards, J., & O'Connor, P.A. (2011). Improving Technological Competency in Nursing
Students: The Passport Project. Journal of Educators Online, 8(2), 1-20.
In fact, it is difficult to imagine many other possible areas where increased funding and emphasis would equal the benefits of investing in computer technology in higher education. Computers on campus facilitate communications between students and faculty that provides much closer supervision and better access to professors on the part of students. Even in liberal arts studies of classical literature, computers allow instantaneous access to commentaries and many different academic perspectives from libraries and databases worldwide.
More generally, the current prospect for being hired directly out of college in one's field of study is not particularly good. In all likelihood, most new graduates from American colleges next year will not find employment in their chosen fields directly after college. However, all of them will almost certainly rely heavily on their computer literacy and competence immediately upon being hired in any professional capacity. Today, computer skills play a significant role in…
Similar to the suggestions offered by Gahala (2001), rody (1995) identified several traits to be considered when developing a comprehensive professional development program. Among those traits include the reputation of the trainer, the rewards available to the participants, both tangible and intangible, and the support of the administration. Traditional staff development models have required everyone to participate at the same time and in the same location creating problems such as scheduling, travel, space, and funding. intrim (2002) notes that web-delivered staff development allows teachers to log on and participate at the time of day that is best for them and at the pace they are the most comfortable with.
urke (1994) concluded that the use of effective distance education programs for K-12 staff development should be increased to supplement face-to-face in-services due to the positive evaluations of K-12 educators who participated in the electronic distance education in-service programs. However, other…
Bintrim, L. (2002). Redesigning professional development. Educational Leadership, 59
Blumenfeld, P.C., Marx, R.W., Soloway, E. & Krajcik, J. (1996). Learning With Peers:
From Small Group Cooperation to Collaborative Communities. Educational Researcher, 25(8), 37- 40.
Books, J., Cayer, C., Dixon, J., Wood, J. (2001). Action Research Question: What Factors Affect Teachers' Integration of Technology in Elementary Classrooms?
" Shin (2006) Shin also states that the CMC literature "illustrates shifts of focus to different layers of context." Early on, research relating to CMC in language learning and teaching looked at the linguistic content of CMC text to examine how language learners could improve certain communication functions and learn linguistic figures through CMC activities (lake, 2000; Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995; Ortega, 1997; Pellettieri, 2000; Smith 2000, Sotlillo, 2000; Toyoda & Harrison, 2002, Tudini, 2003; Warschauer, 1996) Recent studies of "tellecollaborative projects have examined how language learners jointly construct the contexts of their CMC activities, as part of their focus on tensions among intercultural communication partners. (elz, 2003, 2003; Kramsch & Thorn, 2002; O'Dowd, 2003; Ware 2000, War & Kramsch, 2005) IN the study of Shin (2006) which was "informed by Ware's (2005) examination of a tellecollaborative communication project between American college students and German students" Shin (2006) looks into…
Introduction to Computational Linguistics (2006) Computer-Assisted Language Learning http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/ling361/ling361_call.html .
Lusnia, Karen B. (1000) Teaching Teachers Long-Distance: A Paradigm-Shift for the Teacher-Planner in Mexico - Applied Linguistics. Paper presented at the International Conference on Language Teacher Education.
Bakhtin, M.M. (1981). Excerpts from discourse in the novel. In M. Holquist (Ed.), The dialogic imagination: Four essays by M.M. Bakhtin. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Bateson, G. (2000). Steps to an ecology of mind: Collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Chicago, IL: University Of Chicago Press.
" (Cole and Styron, nd)
Cole and Styron report that with the additional technology available in today's schools it would be natural to believe that students would enter the workforce better prepared for use of technology than previously. This is stated however to not be the case since reports show that in 1998 approximately 22% of employees possessed the necessary technology skills upon entering the workforce and these are technology skills needed for approximately 60% of the new jobs in the job market.
From these statistics it can be assumed that teachers are failing to incorporate technology into classroom instruction and thereby failing to enable students in expansion of their learning to include technology use. The work of Poole and Moran (1998) is stated to have made identification of several factors known to contribute to the ineffectiveness of staff development in the area of technology. Those factors are stated as…
Perspectives on Instructional Technology (1997) Teaching Academy University of Wisconsin-Madison. May 1997. Online available at: http://teachingacademy.wisc.edu/archive/About/itwhitepaper.pdf
Barr, Mary (1998) Technology in-Servicing 21 May 1998. Online available at: http://www.buddies.org/hsBiola/S98-503.pdf
Zelin, Robert C. II and Baird, Jane E. (2007) Training Faculty to Use Technology in the Classroom. College Teaching Methods & Styles Journal Vol. 3 No. 3. Third Quarter 2007. Online available at: http://www.cluteinstitute-onlinejournals.com/PDFs/447.pdf
Perspectives on Instructional Technology (1997) Teaching Academy University of Wisconsin-Madison May 1997. Online available at:
Having good case management software could easily avoid all of these types of problems that might come about from rival gang members and from other issues where a person would not be 'safe' in a prison cell with another individual for a specific reason. The same is often true with a police officer that has broken the law and is now incarcerated, or a child molester being put in with prisoners that have children and value those children even though they may have done something awful to another adult.
Computer literacy is very important, so say both educators and the general public (Eisenberg, 1996). However, police departments and correctional facilities have only begun to realize the significance that computers can have for the rehabilitation and transfer of prisoners. According to orglund (n.d.), records are an extremely important part of police work, and the change from standard record-keeping to electronic record…
Borglund, E. (n.d.). Operational use of electronic records in police work. Department of Information Technology and Media. Mid-Sweden University, Harnosand, Sweden.
Eisenberg, M. & Johnson, D. (1996). Computer Skills for Information Problem-Solving: Learning and Teaching Technology in Context. ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology, Syracuse NY.
Activities such as reading the names of street signs and stores and reading the ingredients on packages can help make children aware of the importance of printed words.
One of the most important things parents can do to encourage literacy in their early learner is to talk to their child. In a study conducted by Hart and isley (1995, 1999 as cited by osenkoetter & Barton, 2002), children whose parents talked to them more frequently learned to read faster, had more proficient oral and written vocabularies, better grammatical skills, and performed higher on academic tasks than children whose parents were less verbal. Asking questions and sharing experiences are simple but effective methods of having children retell information and use sequencing skills.
Children who have access to computers and learning software have an academic advantage over other students. A study conducted by Zevenbergen & Logan (2008) examined the ways…
Campbell, a. (2009, June). Learning with technology for pre-service early childhood teachers. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 34(2), 11-18. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/australian_journal_of_early_childhood/ajec_index_abstracts/learning_with_technology_for_pre_service_early_childhood_teachers.html
Freeman, L. & Bochner, S. (2008, December). Bridging the gap: improving literacy outcomes for indigenous students. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 33(4), 9-16. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/australian_journal_of_early_childhood/ajec_index_abstracts/bridging_the_gap_improving_literacy_outcomes_for_indigenous_students.html
Fluckiger, B. (2006). Children's cross-cultural literacy experiences in three worlds: enacting agency. School of Cognition Language and Special Education. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www4.gu.edu.au:8080/adt-root/uploads/approved/adt-QGU20070814.144647/public/01Front.pdf
Gillet, J. et al. (2008). Understanding Reading Problems: Assessment and Instruction. (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Computers and Technology in the Classroom
One of the critical advantages of introducing technology into the classroom, even for the youngest of elementary school children, is that technology offers the presentation of clear problems that require immediate, hands-on solutions with appreciable results. (Roblyer, 2003) Computers have a tactile and visual quality in their applications that are enticing as toys to elementary school level children. Unlike many toys, however, there is an educational and real-life component to using computers that makes the integration of technology crucial to modern education. One must not allow one's students to be part of the much discussed digital divide that separates tomorrow's workers from those whom are technically literate from those whom are not.
There is also a communications aspect to the use of technology in the classroom, as embodied through the use of the Internet and the orld ide eb that would be of value…
Cassell, J. (2002). "We Have These Rules Inside": The Effects of Exercising Voice in a Children's Online Forum," In: S. Calvert, A. Jordan, and R. Cocking (editors). Children in the Digital Age: Influences of Electronic Media on Development. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
David Huffaker. (June 2004) "The educated blogger: Using weblogs to promote literacy in the classroom " First Monday. Volume 6. Retrieved on September 9, 2004. http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue9_6/huffaker/FirstMonday .
Intel. (1997) Intel Education Odyssey Day. Retrieved on September 9, 2004 http://www97.intel.com/education/odyssey/day_300/day_300.htm
Roblyer, M.D. (2003). Integrating educational technology into teaching. Third Edition. New York: Merrill Prentice Hall.
Vision of Student Learning
The vision of Paterson Public Schools is “to be the leader in educating New Jersey’s urban youth” (Paterson, 2017). My vision of student learning is aligned with the school’s vision in the sense that my goal is to help my students be the leaders of their communities, classrooms, schools, and workplaces when they grow up. Part of this leadership must come from character education, which Lickona (1993) and Kristjansson (2014) note is of particular importance in today’s schools. Part of what helps to inform character education is the focus on self-directed learning, which was advocated by Maria Montessori through the Montessori Method (Mangal, 2007). One of the best ways to promote self-directed learning and thereby facilitate character education and achieve the vision of the school is to use computer-assisted instruction as a teaching approach (Hsieh, 2017).
The process needed to implement and promote my vision required…
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Does the use of instructional technology improve elementary (K-5) student reading vocabulary?
In the era of high-stakes testing, student performance on reading has become increasingly important in determining school evaluations. eading is a fundamental skill necessary for future success in life. Students are reading in a paper-based format less frequently, at younger ages. This research study will attempt to asses the impact of using technology within the classroom to enhance vocabulary recognition. Previous research indicates that "teacher-made online learning resources provide course content anchored resources that focus on specific real world tasks in class, and a supportive authentic learning environment to learners" (Li 2011).
Using technology to teach reading has several apparent advantages. First of all, it can deploy a multimedia strategy to enhance student engagement. Students are often…
Introna, Lucas. (2011). Phenomenological approaches to ethics and information technology.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/ethics-it-phenomenology
Li, S., Price, D., & Fu, Y. (2011). The impact of the teacher-made online learning resources.
The Business Review, Cambridge, 18(1), 35-40.
The face of literacy is changing. In 1955, being literate meant being able to read and write well enough to do such things as read a newspaper and write letters. In the year 2005, however, many more demands are made on reading and writing skills. In addition to being able to read such things as magazines and books and being able to write letters or other short written communication, the majority of people now communicate extensively using computers in the form of email, news groups, instant messaging, mailing list, weblogs, and web pages. These methods, all of which rely heavily on writing, have put more emphasis on written communication than ever before.
The Smart Library on Literacy and Technology notes that literacy instruction has already begun to reflect emphasis on the computer in both reading and writing. In fact, computer technology has changed not only how we write…
Author not given. 2005. "Join Newsgroups: All About Newsgroups." Accessed via the Internet 10/8/05.
Heller, Steven. 2004. "Blog me, blog me not: design blogs offer stimulating idea forums, along with rambling, self-indulgent rants." Print, May 12.
Huang, Josie. 2004. "Instant message, instant relief; E-mails ease families' fears about Maine Guardsmen attacked in Iraq." Portland Press Herald (Maine), April 21.
Pillemer, Jack. No date given. "E-mail as a teaching tool." In ETAI Summer 1997. Accessed via the Internet 10/8/05.
American Sign Language materials. DawnSign press. Accessed online November 21, 2004 at http://www.dawnsign.com/
ERICA system. Eye Response Technology. Accessed online November 21, 2004 at http://www.eyeresponse.com/ericasystem.html
Failure Free Reading Program. Accessed online November 21, 2004 at http://www.failurefree.com/prod_diag.htm
FrogPad Keyboard. Accessed online November 21, 2004 at http://www.frogpad.com
HeadMouse extreme. Orin, access. Accessed online November 21, 2004 at http://www.orin.com/access/headmouse/index.htm
Kahn, a.. Assistive technology for children who have Cerebreal Palsy: Augmentation communication devices. New Horizons for Learning. Inclusion. Accessed online November 21, 2004 at http://www.newhorizons.org/spneeds/inclusion/teaching/kahn.htm
SoftTTY. Accessed online November 21, 2004 at http://www.softtty.com/
Universal accesibility. Apple computers. Accessed online November 21, 2004 at http://www.apple.com/accessibility/
Wilson, Z. Network administrator and computer programmer. Personal consultation.
X-10. Products, Always Thinking. Accessed online November 21, 2004 at http://www.alwaysthinking.com/products/products.html
American Sign Language materials. DawnSign press. Accessed online November 21, 2004 at http://www.dawnsign.com/
ERICA system. Eye Response Technology. Accessed online November 21, 2004 at http://www.eyeresponse.com/ericasystem.html
Failure Free Reading Program. Accessed online November 21, 2004 at http://www.failurefree.com/prod_diag.htm
FrogPad Keyboard. Accessed online November 21, 2004 at http://www.frogpad.com
..now requires understanding and manipulating the processes used to create messages in the modern world" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22) in fact the student is expected to be able to decode the information from various types of media. However the equally important point is also made that this expanding definition of what literacy comprises does not "...diminish the importance of traditional reading and writing skills; rather, it recognizes the increasing importance of information and communication technology" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22).
This is an important caveat to the enthusiastic embrace of modern technology and visual aspects of modern teaching. In other words, while visual literacy has become more important and while this aspect is closely linked to the use of modern technological tools such as computer, yet the basics of teaching and education should not be forgotten. Of equal importance however is the view that; "Today's students live…
Adams, D., & Hamm, M. (2000, Winter). Literacy, Learning and Media. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, 9, 22. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5002377227
Bleed R. (2005) Visual Literacy in Higher Education. Retrieved August 6, 2007, at http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI4001.pdf www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010939928
Brumberger, E.R. (2005). Visual Rhetoric in the Curriculum: Pedagogy for a Multimodal Workplace. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(3), 318+. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database:
It is important that children know how to use the resources in the room to get the words they do not know (alanced Literacy -- Helping Your & #8230;).
The alanced Concept Summary
This concept incorporates all reading approaches, realizing students will need to use multiple strategies to become proficient readers. Technology can also be integrated into a balanced approach for teaching literacy. Research indicates that student learning can be improved through the use of computers. Gains in self-confidence and motivation can be seen in those students who are using computers to enhance literacy instruction. The definition of literacy now includes a new literacy, where students need to read and write print text and also need to navigate and use the computer in their everyday lives (Cooperman and Cunningham).
alanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area…
Balanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area School District: http://www.oe.k12.mi.us/balanced_literacy/index.htm
Cooperman, N., & Cunningham, a. (2003, May). Balanced Literacy and Technology. Retrieved Mar 28, 2009, from Teaching Matters, Inc.: http://backend.teachingmatters.org/files/whitepaper.pdf
Definition of Balanced Literacy. (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Phillipsburg k12: http://www.pburg.k12.nj.us/CURRICULUM/Definition%20of%20Balanced%20Lit.pdf
Frey, B., Lee, S., Pass, L., & Tollefson, N. (n.d.). Balanced Literacy in an Urban School District. Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from School of Education University of Kansas: http://web.ku.edu/~spear/Documents/Balanced_Literacy_in_an_Urban_School_District.pdf
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…
Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf
Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1
Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.
Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Thus, this needs assessment is required in order to determine the best ways to use resources in order to obtain maximum results for students. In order to conduct the assessment, then, data must be collected and analyzed. First, to address the problem of ESL students and their desired interactions with speakers of their own languages, researchers must determine whether or not interaction with a speaker of one's native language is beneficial when one is learning proficiency in another language. Methods of collecting this data include perusing already existing studies regarding the correlation between these two variables as well as conducting further studies based on the performance of a group that had access to a speaker of one's native language and one that did not. Furthermore, the students' expressed need regarding access to technological equipment and personalized training with that equipment can be assessed by gathering data that examines the best…
Next, the teacher, through questioning and eliminating, reduces the categories and establishes consensus on the order of information expected to be found. She also gets the students to consider the search terms that might get results. Once this in done a scaffold is constructed using the established order.
Still, in a group setting, students use personal semantic maps and begin to learn to create a collective scaffold of meaning in a way that is meaningful to their cognitive processes -- they learn how to learn, and how to communicate that learning in a classroom environment to the teacher and to their peers. (Grid of Constructs about Learning, 2004)
The teacher then takes the students to the computer room where they search the net for information that pertains to their particular category. They add the additional information that they have found their section of the scaffold.
This adds technical reinforcement and…
Grid of Constructs about Learning." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.math.uow.edu.au/people/ap_contnt.pdf
Reinhardt, Erica. (May 27, 2004) "Learning cycle." Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.human.cornell.edu/units/dns/extension/youth/sciencediscovery/cornellnutritionresources.html
Scaffolding." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1scaf.htm www.uws.edu.au%2Fdownload.php%3Ffile_id%3D6974%26filename%3DA4611G__Spring_2000.University of Western Sydney, Macarthur "Erica Model -- Whole Language Strategies." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.uws.edu.au/download.php?file_id=6974&filename=A4611G__Spring_2000.pdf&mimetype=application/pdf
Integrate Technology With Literacy Instruction
Researchers have investigated aspects of integrating technology with literacy instruction. In my strategy, I would focus on the use of a word processor on written expressions. While some studies have found either no significant outcomes or mixed outcomes with regard to the effect of the word processor on the development of literacy, most analyses have demonstrated word processor to be beneficial. This technology mitigates the complications young kids often experience with the fine-motor control necessary for letter development and help in revisions.
Further, complications met by disabled learners in expressing themselves through writing will be reduced using transcription software, word processor, spell checkers, multimedia applications, speech synthesizers and semantic organizers. Other researchers have shown that word processor improves cooperation and active participation among learners besides strengthening children's focus on the material they write. In addition, compared with paper-and-pencil arrangements, it improves sentence density, cohesion, revisions…
DELL Computer Corp. Singapore Establish explain Ansoff's Growth Matrix DELL Computer Corp. Singapore market propose specific strategic actions DELL -establish position a global market leader PCs Industry Singapore (based Ansoff's Growth Matrix) choose focus Market penetration, Market developement, Product development Diversification propose strategy Thank .
Dell Computer Co: Market penetration in Singapore
The Dell Computer Company
While Apple and Microsoft are famous for the unique forms of technology they have created, Dell Computer achieved its success through its innovative supply chain model. What set Dell apart from its competitors was its "consumer-oriented focus" and the fact that it allowed for people to "customize their computers during the ordering process. ecause each computer was individually assembled" Dell could keep inventories fairly low and thus reduce waste, storage, and operating costs (Dell, 2010, Printer Ink Cartridges). Dell also gained a strong reputation for catering to the needs of its customers, and for…
Ansoff Matrix. 2010. Tutor2U. Accessed at http://www.tutor2u.net/business/strategy/ansoff_matrix.htm [December 29, 2010]
Dell. 2010. Printer Ink Cartridges. Accessed at http://printerinkcartridges.printcountry.com/printer-company-histories-press-releases/the-history-of-dell [December 29, 2010]
Dell Singapore. 2010. Official Website. Accessed at http://www1.ap.dell.com/content/default.aspx?c=sg&l=en&s=gen& ;[December 29, 2010]
Facts about Dell. 2010. Official Website. Accessed at http://content.dell.com/sg/en/corp/d/corp-comm/our-story-facts-about-dell.aspx [December 29, 2010]
Auditory Computer Files Assist College Level ESL Learners
The objective of this study is to examine whether auditory computer files assist college level ESL learners.
Linda Dwyer writes that text-to-speech readers are not generally available "outside of the disability community and may be prohibitively expensive when obtainable." (Dwyer, nd, p.1) In addition, Dwyer reports that ESL instructors are often not aware of the research or the resources that are available. Dwyer states that reading pens that are able to read line-by-line and other assistive devices that can copy and article and then paste it to the computer for text-to-speech support are useful to students who are ESL students. According to Dwyer, "ESL instructors in higher educational settings have worked primarily with high achieving international students. As such, these instructors have occupied a niche treated as short-term remedial support rather than an academic sub-field within the academy. Many positions in both…
Casidy (1996) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research Validating Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.vocalinks.com/site/vocalinks/assets/pdf/K3000_ELL_Research.pdf
Chisholm and Beckett (2003) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research VAliding Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from:
program READ 180 is designed for children in elementary school through high school whose achievement of reading is not above the level of proficiency. The main objective of this program is to address the gap in the skills of the students by using direct instruction, literature and computer program in the reading skills. The goal of the software is to adapt and track the progress of every student. Apart from that, the program also includes audio books with CDs for modeling reading, paperback books for independent reading and workbooks for addressing the comprehension skills of the students (WWC, 2009).
Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI): Decision Making Process
Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) is a test of reading comprehension that assesses the reading skills of the students. The scores that come from this test help the teachers to place the students on the correct path and help the teachers to adjust their style…
Betebenner, D.W. (2011). A Technical Overview of the Student Growth Percentile Methodology: Student Growth Percentiles and Percentile Growth Projections/Trajectories. New Hampshire: The National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment Dover.
Bonds, M., Blewett, P., Sain, M., Spence, J., Woodward, A., Miller, L., . . . Falk, T. (2011). District Report Card. Milwaukee Board of School Directors.
Data Interpretation Guide. (n.d.). SPI.
Flynn, J.E., Bieler, D., Kim, H., Dow, R.R., Wong, C., & Worden, L. (n.d.). Recruiting and Retaining Students from Underrepresented Groups in University of Delaware Teacher Preparation Programs. Collaborative to Diversify Teacher Education at the University of Delaware.
Client Report: Early Literacy Template
Kayla is a first grade student who has passed the kindergarten literacy standards. Although she passed the kindergarten literacy standards, she has not passed the first grade reading standards due to her difficulty with reading. Recent assessments revealed that she continues to perform below average in reading skills, particularly with decoding, fluency and comprehension.
List of Assessments (to be included with Client Report: Final Submission)
Parent Permission Form with your full name and first name of parent typed in
Teacher Referral Form with all information typed on this template
Observation Checklist: Early Literacy Behavior with all information typed on this template
1. Early Literacy riting Sample with form completed in template and a jpg file of actual writing sample included.
Early Literacy Assessments -- Complete all parts of the Test Summary Sheet (from John's Basic Reading Inventory: Early Literacy)
Word recognition -- ___ -- ___ -- ___X___ -- ___ --
Comprehension/retelling -- ___ -- ___X___ -- ___ -- ___ --
From Jerry L. Johns, Basic Reading Inventory (11th ed.). Copyright © 2012 by Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company (1- *** , ext. 4). May be reproduced for non-commercial educational purposes. Website: www.kendallhunt.com
Curriculum Early Childhood Education
Literacy is considered to be a fundamental human right and is considered to be "essential to social and human development," used for exchanging knowledge and ideas" (UNESCO, 2015).
The development of literacy is critical to learning, in particular the development of communication skills, critical thinking and fostering the ability to analyse and comprehend material (Australian Curriculum, n.d.). While basic reading and writing skills are the foundation of literacy, the concept of multiliteracies reflects that there are many different purposes for which students must become literate. Literacy is not simply about learning the mechanics of a language, but about being able to function in a society. Multiliteracies recognizes this, in particular that language is used for business, for social purposes, and for the performance of everyday tasks. The concept has emerged in light of the realization that simply being able to read and write is insufficient for…
Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority [ACARA]. (n.d.). English: Rationale. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Rationale
Australian Institute or Teaching and School Leadership [AITSL]. (2012). Multiple literacy outcomes [video file]. Retrieved from http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/illustrations-of-practice/detail?id=IOP00179
Meiers, M. & Department of Education and Training, Victoria. (2006). A Chronological Review of Literacy Policies and Programs of the Western Australia Department of Education & Training, Victoria, 1980-2005. Retrieved from https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/Literacy_Chronology_Paper_9-rpt-v1.01-20060830.pdf
Connor, J. (2011). Foundation for Learning: Relationships between early years learning framework and the Australian curriculum [An ECA-Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority paper]. Early Childhood Australia: Canberra.
Identify two new pieces of financial information that you learned about this week that will help you make informed financial decisions about your future and eventual retirement.
Personal financial management and financial planning can be daunting. It helps to learn more about the tools people can use to plan their savings and budget for the future. One of the things I learned this week that will help me make informed financial decisions is how to be a responsible borrower. For one, I never considered credit cards as being a form of lending. Essentially, people who forget that credit cards entail borrowing money from a bank can get into a lot of trouble with debt accumulation. Next, taking out loans can be tricky. Student loans tend to have reasonable interest rates, but any amount of interest is still going to add up over time. The less the loan principal, the less…
Promethean Board is also known as an Activboard. It is a component of the Promethean ActivClassroom which is a way to create a more active and dynamic environment that allows greater student participation in learning activities. The ActivClassroom is a more integrated solution that allows the instructor to more easily bring together formative assessments, resources, divergent lesson planning, lesson development and delivery tools. One instructor noted that the Promethean Boards are a great tool to allow students to interact more personally with the lesson. Additionally, it allows the teacher "to teach the way [they] want to teach -- to all the class to control the learning, to address misconceptions or misinformation without demeaning the student. It gives students control of their own behavior and their own learning" (Vines, 2007). The use of the Promethean Board also increases the possibilities for collaboration, communication, and interaction in a way that is not…
ActivBoard 100 System. (2012). Prometheanworld.com .Retrieved from: http://www.prometheanworld.com/en-us/education/products/interactive-displays/activboard-100-range
Solutions. (2012). Prometheanworld.com .Retrieved from:
Classroom-based reading assessment is the measurement of children's progress in learning reading by using both formal and informal measurement tools.
Classroom assessment collects useful information about what students do and do not know about reading. Teachers can use four different types of assessments to accomplish this.
Leveled books can be used to figure out where exactly a student is in terms of reading level.
Rough observation and measurement can be used to figure out where exactly students are in terms of reading level.
Tests can be administered to find out where students' strengths and weaknesses are.
Collecting samples of a student's work can be instructive in figuring out where a student is in terms of reading level
Determining Student's Reading Level
Teachers must figure out where students are in terms of reading level so that they can progress in their learning…
wealth of knowledge available to the world increases algebraically every day (Zadeh, 2004). Part of this knowledge explosion is due to the increased dependence of business, education, and the professions on the use of the computer. Since the introduction of the personal computer in the mid-1980's, computers have gradually, and fully, begun to dominate nearly every aspect of our society's daily life and there is no indication that this trend will ebb at any time in the near future (Ifrah, 2001). Quite simply, computer literacy is an absolute essential for anyone who anticipates participating in today's society.
To understand how important computer literacy has become one needs only to review a typical day in anyone's life. It is impossible to go to a bank, difficult to apply for a job, borrow a book from the library, visit the doctor or even purchase gas without having at least a basic knowledge…
Ifrah, G. (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the Quantum Computer. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Poynton, T.A. (2005). Computer Literacy across the lifespan: a review with implications for educators. Computers in Human Behavior, 861-872.
University of Michigan-Dearborn. (n.d.). Automobile in American Life and Society. Retrieved November 15, 2011, from Automobile in American Life and Society: http://www.autolife.umd.umich.edu/
Zadeh, L.A. (2004). A note on web intelligence, world knowledge and fuzzy logic. Data & Knowledge Engineering, 291-304.
Enterprise-Level Business System
Determination of Requirements -- Main Objectives
Create interactive website for consumers and vendors, rather than simply a visually interesting but non-useful website
Create functional internal system of Internet communication and a shared database for all staff at the company. Given company's limited numbers, this is feasible
Identify which specific analysis methods needed to accomplish this
Interviews with lead staff members to determine company needs and computer literacy
Submit questionnaires to current 800 phone staff to see what queries are most frequently submitted to lines
Consult with outside website creators and software analysis to construct blueprint of useable website and software analysis to determine most appropriate and comprehensive database system with firewall and anti-virus protection
B. Determination of these requirements: prototyping or, as prototyping is defined, thinking creatively about the plan for the new system and creating blueprint for new system
Prototype of website should include mandatory interactive…
Internet is arguably the greatest revolution in Human History. In considerably less than a century, information-gathering and communication have skyrocketed with no apparent end in sight. Google and ikipedia are merely two examples of Internet developments that were probably unimaginable even 20 years ago but are widely-used realities today.
Searching for information on Google IS and IS NOT like trying to find a needle in a haystack. as the library of the 19th century more efficient? Explain.
The answer to this question depends on several factors. At first blush, searching for information on Google is certainly like "trying to find a needle in a haystack" because "Some people have suggested that there are 155 million eb sites, 1 trillion eb pages, and 5 million terabytes of data out there" (Anonymous, Introduction to Computer Literacy | Chapter 6 | The search is on, 2012, p. 8). Since Google allows a person…
Anonymous. (2012). Introduction to Computer Literacy | Chapter 6 | The search is on. Retrieved March 17, 2012 from Content.ashford.edu Web site: https://content.ashford.edu/books/AUINF103.10.1/sections/6.0
Anonymous. (2012). Introduction to computer literacy | Chapter 7 | Web 2.0. Retrieved March 17, 2012 from Ashford. edu Web site: https://content.ashford.edu/books/AUINF103.10.1/sections/7.0
Cohen, N. (2011, June 6). Paul Revere, Sarah Palin and Wikipedia. Retrieved March 17, 2012 from New York Tiimes Web site: http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/06/06/paul-revere-sarah-palin-and-wikipedia/
Lynch, S.N., & Mulero, E. (2007, July 14). Dewery? At this library with a very different outlook, they don't. Retrieved March 17, 2012 from New York Times Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/14/us/14dewey.html?_r=1
Samson is herself a minority and half of the nursing staff in the office are non-white. One of the senior doctors is Latino. Samson helped staff trace some of the office miscommunications to a lack of cultural sensitivity. Diversity issues are on the table at one of every two staff meetings, according to Samson. Diversity awareness has improved as a result of directly confronting stereotypes that had previously prevailed in inter-office communications. Samson also believed that diversity awareness was most important in regards to patient relations. Therefore, Samson encouraged staff members to take into account communication differences and other issues related to diversity when addressing patients.
7. Synergy and Human Capital
Generating cooperation and fostering personal strengths is one of Samson's main goals as the Senior Administrator. Achieving the goals of the organization depends on a positive workplace environment, which in turn is fostered by synergy. Samson helped create an…
"Health Care Administrator," (nd). The Princeton Review. Retrieved online: http://www.princetonreview.com/Careers.aspx?cid=76
Samson, D. (2010). Interview.
Progress and Impact Assessment Report
The MEDINA project seeks to assist the people of Shibam and Zabid in acquiring new skills that will improve living conditions in a number of areas. Ideally, these skills would initially assist individuals with producing useful services and household items for personal use. However, once these skills have been perfected, they can be used to supply goods and services to the worker's community, and, eventually, a broader market.
The key candidates for such training are women; particularly, women who reside in poor households. They cannot work outside the home, have limited marketable skills, and often live far from markets. Women living in rural areas cannot easily travel to city markets, and thus must rely on their husbands for information and necessary purchases. Illiteracy also restricts them in their dealings with the outside world which can include possible business dealings. Women are also not allowed to…
Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…
Anderson, RC & Freebody, P 1981. 'Vocabulary knowledge'. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.),
Beck, IL, McKeown, MG & Kucan, L 2002. 'Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction'. New York: Guilford.
Becker, HJ 2000. 'Pedagogical motivations for student computer use that lead to student engagement'. Educational Technology, Vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 5-17. Viewed on 6 Mar 2013, [http://www.crito.uci.edu/tlc/findings/spec_rpt_pedagogical/ped_mot_pdf.pdf]
Brown, HD 2001. 'Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy'. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
Then students use AlphaSmart software to paste the picture and explain in a paragraph why, how and where in the plot they feel that picture relates to the story. This tests three things: (a) student concentration; (b) student level of understanding of the general plot; and - student imagination. This is an important implementation because it opens the students' horizons and allows them to see the general links and relations that their own lives might have with the stories that they read. The implementation of taking the pictures is one way that this has been successfully achieved. This use of a camera is a very flexible application and is being used in different ways for different special-needs students.
May (2003) found that cameras are being used to also expand the span of words or vocabulary amongst the special-needs students. The teacher hands out a set of words to the students…
Beukelman, D.R., Beukleman, H.M., Ranklin, J.L., Wood, L.A. (2003). Early Computer Literacy: First Grades Use the "Talking" Computer. Reading Improvement. 40: 3. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Castek, J., Coiro, J., Henry, L.A., Leu, D.J., Mcmullan, M. (2004). The Lessons That Children Teach Us: Integrating Children's Literature and the New Literacies of the Internet. The Reading Teacher. 57: 5. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Doering, a., Hughes, J., & Huffman. D. (2003). Preservice teachers: Are we thinking with technology? Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 35(3), 342-362. In Speaker, K. (2004). Student Perspectives: Expectations of Multimedia Technology in a College Literature Class. Reading Improvement. 41: 4. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
Dowrick, P.W. Kim-Rupnow, W.S, and Power, T.J. (2006). Video Feedforward for Reading. Journal of Special Education. 39: 4. Retrieved August 16, 2007 from www.questia.com
hat can be done about this, Newkirk wonders in this article, published in 2004. Boys see libraries as a place for girls to go; boys go home and their dads are reading the sports page in newspapers while mom may be reading a novel. And boys are not encouraged to read action and adventure books (even though it is usually their preference), but they are urged to read novels with deep plots and sophisticated character development. Boys spend more time on video games and in computers than girls, and much of what they experience in those genres is action-oriented, and yet in school, they are asked to change, and be quiet, and be serious, like the girls.
These traditions lead to cynicism on the part of boys, Newkirk explains. hat can a teacher try to do about this problem? One thing Newkirk did was to stop trying to get boys…
Folks, Victoria. (2004). Middle School Masculinity: The Rejection of Reading. California English, 9(3), 24-25.
Moss, Gemma. (2000). Raising Boys' Attainment in Reading: some principles for intervention.
Reading, 34(3), 101-106.
Newkirk, Thomas. (2004). The Quiet Crisis in Boys' Literacy. California English, 9(3), 13-16.
The word layer is a figurative one in this case, as layers generally refer to more concrete items as in layers of cake or clothing. Similarly, the question about where the tree house landed is also an abstract one. The author never spells out exactly where the tree house landed. That information must be inferred from the text and places an extra burden on the ELL. Ms. Smith asks Elsa why the chapter is titled "Yikes!" when "Yikes!" is a slang word that is rarely used in the spoken language.
To foster Elsa's overall literacy development, Ms. Smith should consider the specific issues raised by this case study. A text like this one using past participle verb forms should be read aloud for better comprehension. Ms. Smith might also consider the advice offered by Lucas et al. (2008) to emphasize "communicative competence over formal accuracy." Because Elsa thrives in social…
Lucas, T., Villegas, A., & Freedson, M. (2008). Linguistically responsive teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education. 59(4). P. 1-9.
For the purposes of this review, Web-based instruction is considered to be any educational or training program distributed over the Internet or an intranet and conveyed through a browser, such as Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator. Java applet-based instruction is a special form of Web-based instruction.
Although there is very little research on comparing the effectiveness of Java applet-based instruction to the traditional face-to-face offering. However Web-based instruction has received enough attention that many studies are now available in the research literature.
Comparing the learning effects of Web-based learning with traditional face-to-face teaching and learning is emphasized in the research on the Internet as a medium in higher education. However, these research studies always produce conflicting results. esearchers found significant differences, positive or negative, in using different Internet-based approaches to facilitate teaching and learning.
This literature review explores three dominant themes: impact on student performance, student attitude, and student satisfaction.…
Rajshree Agarwal, a Edward Day. (1998). The impact of the Internet on economic education. Journal of Economic Education, 29(2), 99. Retrieved November 14, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 28501331).
Al-Jarf, a. & Sado, R. (2002). Effect of online learning on struggling ESL college writers. San Antonio, TX: National Educational Computing Conference Proceedings. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 475-920).
Anthony Basile, Jill M. D'Aquila. (2002). An experimental analysis of computer-mediated instruction and student attitudes in a principles of financial accounting course. Journal of Education for Business, 77(3), 137-143. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 115217377).
Carey, J. (2001). Effective student outcomes: A comparison of online and face-to-face delivery modes. Retrieved November 14, 2008, at http://www.ed.psu.edu/acsde/deos/deosnews/deosnews11_9.asp
Treating the whole patient and the patient's family, social, and economic environment was essential, rather than merely regarding diabetes as a medical problem. I also referred her to a nutritionist who could provide additional assistance, as well as other local and community resources devoted to helping people eat more healthfully on a budget.
Different roles for the Advanced Practical Nurse (APN)
This is one example of how the program has influenced my development as an Advanced Practical Nurse (APN). I had to act as an educator, as well as merely a caregiver and dispenser of medical knowledge. As well as a practitioner who identifies areas of patient need, such as future health problems in need of correction along the lines of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and poor lifestyle choices that could lead to heart disease, a nurse must teach the patient about lifestyle changes that the patient can…
Merrill, Piper. (2001, May).Wake-up call for U.S. health care system and APNs. Nursing
Economics.. Retrieved 26 Jan. 2009 from FindArticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSW/is_3_19/ai_n18612037
Human Resources Technology
Castle's Family Restaurant Business Plan: Stage III
This section should be written last. It provides the reader with an overview of your business plan. This section includes a brief description of the business, the goal of your business plan, your customer's market/clientele, their current "like" competition, and current business operations, and potential fiscal plan (fiscal plan may be assumed based on current manual process compared to pricing of automation).
Introduction provides sufficient background on the topic and previews major points. Conclusion is logical, flows from the body of the paper, and reviews the major points.
This section should summarize the information from your Stage I paper. Provide a basic industry outline. Is it a growth industry? What changes do you foresee in this industry, and how is this company poised to take advantage of them? Take the information from your Stage I paper and…
Business and Entrepreneurship)
If I were to describe myself in a single word, it would be 'fluent.' I have striven to make myself fluent in a variety of languages and cultures so my skill set can be adaptable to my current workplace and to the workplace of the future. For example, in my role as a marketing assistant for Pepsi Co. In Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, I found myself working for an American company that was attempting to solidify its market base in the Middle East. I had to translate the all-American appeal of Pepsi to a foreign setting, and persuade consumers in a manner that was culturally comprehensible that Coca-Cola was not 'it,' and they should try the Pepsi brand.
As part of my work for Pepsi, I designed and crafted marketing materials, spanning from articles, brochures, projects, press releases, and event announcements, to company newsletters, trade-show passes, and reports,…
" May (2003) emphasizes the need exists for greater technological sense and knowledge for all current and future students. Consequently, this need has led to incorporation of technology in classrooms settings, as technologies aim to increase students' intensity of wisdom, cooperation and text assessment. Today, literacy reading skills prove to be vital for both normal and special-needs students, as exposure to literacy encompasses more than books. In fact, the range of information is more fast and varied in accordance with contemporary technical improvements. A book review, using software programs such as Kidspiration and Timeliner, provides one pertinent illustration of incorporating technology in a classroom setting to better comprehend. Using software programs such as these could help students, in individual tasks or as they work in a group exercise, visualize their thoughts and opinions, as well as communicate them more effectively. (May, 2003)
To improve their reading skills of special-needs students,…
Anonymous. (2004). Teacher demographics (2004). Reading Today 21(5). Retrieved January 22, 2005, from eLibrary database. http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5020677369' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Self-Efficacy: A Definition
Social Cognitive Theory
Triangulation Data analysis
Problems for the researcher
Data Analysis and Related Literature review.
Comparison of data with other literature in the field.
Efficacy, Self-esteem, Confidence and Experience
arriers to use
Co-oping and Project design.
Teacher Integration Education.
Meta-evaluation of data and related literature.
Data Analysis and Comparison
Recommendation for Further Research
Data Review Report
Teacher efficacy in the classroom is facilitated by a number of different factors for different professions. However, in the case of the teaching classroom, and adapting to new technology, andura's belief that the environment and the person's attitude toward / interactions with the environment are reciprocally affective.
andura (1993) identified 4 specific ways that self-efficacy is formed:
Through cognitive experiences
Through motivational experiences
Their affective interactions with environment
Through selectional experiences and choices.
Bibliography of the literature dealing with teacher training in the uses of the computer in education. (ERIC No. ED 260-696)
Bushman, B. And Baumeister, R. (1998, July) Threatened Egotism, Narcissism, Self-Esteem, and Direct and Misplaced Aggression: Does Self-Love or Self-Hate Lead to Violence? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Campus Computing Project. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. Encino, CA: Retrieved November 21, 2003 from the World Wide Web: http://www.campuscomputing.net/
Christensen, R. (2002, 22 June) Effects of technology integration education on the attitudes of teachers and students.Journal of Research on Technology in Education.
Clifford, M., Kim, A. McDonald, B. (1988 Fall) "Responses to Failure as Influenced by Task Attribution, Outcome Attribution, and Failure Tolerance." The Journal of Experimental Education. Volume 57, Number 1. Pages 19-35.
prosperous and educated country in the world, the United States still faces the problem of illiteracy as millions of workers are at least functionally illiterate, meaning they may be able to read enough to get through life but not enough to participate fully. Illiteracy is an expensive proposition, costing American business something in the order of $60 billion a year in lost productivity ("America's $60 Billion Problem," 2001, 51). The U.S. Department of Labor estimate is even higher, suggesting that illiteracy costs American businesses "about $225 billion a year in lost productivity" ("Illiteracy at work: Top executives are reluctant to admit that some of their workers have trouble reading this sentence," 1996, 14). A more educated workforce is better able to take advantage of training opportunities, opportunities for advancement, and otherwise fulfill the needs of American business. There are a number of reasons why illiteracy on this level persists, from…
America's $60 Billion Problem" (2001, May). Training 38(5), 51.
Bernstein, A. (2002, February 25). "The Time Bomb in the Workforce: Illiteracy." Business Week (3771), 122.
Fagiano, D. (1991, September). "Why literacy is our problem." Management Review 80(9), 4.
Illiteracy and low literacy in the United States" (1996, May/June). Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness 90(3), 286-287.
Good researchers tend to pull methods out of a tool kit as they are needed" (2006, p. 54). Notwithstanding these criticisms and constraints, though, most social researchers seem to agree that classification by some type of research paradigm is a useful approach based on the need to determine which approach is best suited for a given research enterprise. In this regard, Corby concludes that, "The contested nature of research makes it impossible and unhelpful to ignore the different aims and purposes of various research projects and the methods and approaches being used to carry them out" (2006, p. 54). Therefore, the different aims and purposes of the positivist research paradigm, the constructivist research paradigm and the pragmatic research paradigm are discussed further below.
Positivist Research Paradigm
The positivist research paradigm is a quantitative-based approach that generally seeks to identify trends and patterns that can be used to formulate predictions concerning…
Ames, S.L., Gallaher, P.E., Sun, P. & Pearce, S. (2005). A Web-based program for coding open-ended response protocols. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 470-471.
Authors provide a description of a Web-based application that provides researchers with the ability to analyze participant-generated and open-ended data. Authors note that the application was developed in order to take advantage of online surveying based on its ease of use and flexibility. Authors note that this application may be of particular value to researchers who are employing large sample sizes that are frequently needed for projects in which frequency analyses are required. The application uses a grid-based set of criteria to establish codes for participant-generated and open-ended data collected from online surveys and can be applied for scoring results from stem completion,-word or picture associations, and comparable purposes in which such participant-generated responses require categorization and coding. Authors advise that they use this application for their professional online surveying purpose in experimental psychology to examine substance abuse patterns derived from participant-generated responses to various verbal and nonverbal associative memory problems, but that the application is also appropriate for other research areas as well. Authors also note that the application helps improve survey reliability by providing a systematic approach to coding participant-generated responses as well as evaluating the quality of coding and interjudge reliability by researchers with little or no specific training for the purposes. Authors conclude that the coding application is helpful for survey research that uses open-ended responses in virtually any research area of interest.
Austin, T.M., Richter, R.R. & Reinking, M.F. (2008). A primer on Web surveys. Journal of Allied Health, 37(3), 180-181.
Authors report that survey research has become a widely accepted research methodology that has been facilitated through the introduction of computer-based and online survey methods. Authors also emphasize that although electronic survey methods are useful in a wide range of settings for a variety of purposes, they are not appropriate in every situation. Online surveys involve various technologies that have not been available (or required) for paper-and-pencil surveys and require special considerations involving their design, pilot testing, and response rates. Authors present the results of their empirical observations and professional experience in using Web-based surveys to illustrate some of the advantages and disadvantages of the approach, including security and confidentiality issues (they make the point that electronic surveys are particularly vulnerable to compromise and that survey data must be protected as the research progresses) as well as the special considerations that must be taken into account as they apply to this surveying approach. Authors also discuss issues such as sampling error, a "how-to" guide to writing survey questions for online media, and how to order questions to ensure that respondents answer accurately and faithfully. All in all, this was a very timely guide for researchers for identifying when Web-based surveys are most appropriate and what factors should be taken into account in the design, posting and analysis of online surveys.
It is our belief that such integration will provide reciprocal benefits. Learners will more fully understand information technologies in the process of applying them across the curriculum and their understanding of other curriculum areas will be similarly enriched as they work to apply it skills in those contexts. Furthermore, there is a need to ensure that people understand the connections between information technologies and the other skills they attain in school, skills they use in work, and in everyday life.
Findings of the Initial Literature eview Phase of the esearch
There exists a lack of technological integration which is noted at all levels of the educational forum as being one that is detrimental to the future of the student if not adequately addressed. The smaller schools appear to be providing better instruction and 'care' of their students as well as better technological instruction and overall better outcomes in terms of…
Digital Transformation: A Framework for ICT Literacy: A Report of the International ICT Literacy Panel educational testing service. Online available at http://www.ets.org/research/ictliteracy/ictreport.pdf
Berkowitz, Bob (2001) Research Study: The Big6 ™ and Student Achievement - Report of an Action Research Study. Online available at http://www.big6.com/showarticle.php?id=11&page=2.
The Importance of Contemporary Literacy in the Digital Age: A Response to Digital Transformation: A Framework for Information Communication Technologies (ICT) Literacy http://www.big6.com/showarticle.php?id=157
Cotton, Kathleen (1996) School Size, School Climate and Student Performance
Technology has changed how we teach in the 21st century. Many diverse technologies surface every year, and educators find it difficult learning and integrating all the new technologies their institutions buy or identify. However, appropriate professional development and time to accomplish this is not their only concern. Educators are expected to use all these technologies in all course activities. This desire places much emphasis on technology (the medium) when educators are designing and implementing their courses and course activities.
As Cook and McDonald (2008) caution, frequently educators seek to use e-learning because it is a new technology, rather than because the technology enhances instruction. Educators, their supervisors, and stakeholders need to be reminded of the role of technology in the instructional design process, which should be used to enhance instructional delivery.
Technological Instructional Delivery
Educators at all levels have historically received enormous pressure to update their courses. In the last…
Coffman, T. (2009). Getting to the heart of technology integration: Virginia's instructional technology resource teacher program. Learning & Leading with Technology, 36(7), 20-23.
Cook, D.A. & McDonald, F.S. (2008). E-learning, is there anything special about the "e"? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 51(1), 5-21.
Educause Center for Applied Research. (2006). Enriching student experience through blended learning, Research Bulletin, 12.
Goktas, Y., Yildirim, Z., & Yildirim, S. (2009). Investigation of K-12 teachers' ICT competences and the contributing factors in acquiring these competences. New Educational Review, 17(1), 276-294.
Community Colleges in America
In 1983 and 1984, a dozen major reports on the United States' schools were published. All stressed the need for "excellence" in education. These reports are the subject of: Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. The reports pertaining to higher education were published by The BusinessHigher Education Forum, and saw higher education as "unable to train skilled managers and technicians that they believed industry needed." (Altbach 32) These reports essentially claim that student achievement has declined at technical schools because schools "do not demand enough of their students, do not apply stiff criteria for promotion, do not test students enough, and particularly in high school, provide students with too many choices about what subjects they study." (Altbach 32) These reports are somewhat dated in that they compare American students with Japanese students and focus on technical proficiency vs. The intuitive grasp of problems and…
Altbach, Philip G., Gail P. Kelly, and Lois Weis, eds. Excellence in Education: Perspectives on Policy and Practice. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1985.
Baker, George A., Judy Dudziak, and Peggy Tyler, eds. A Handbook on the Community College in America: Its History, Mission, and Management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.
Diaz, David P., and Ryan B. Cartnal. "Students' Learning Styles in Two Classes Online Distance Learning and Equivalent On-Campus." College Teaching 47.4 (1999): 130-135.
Miller, Richard I., Charles Finley, and Candace Shedd Vancko. Evaluating, Improving, and Judging Faculty Performance in Two-Year Colleges. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey, 2000.
Figure 2: "Information System for Geography" (GIS)
2. The Map View: A GIS consists of a set of intelligent maps and other views depicting features and feature relationships on the earth's surface. Students can use GIS to support their queries, make analyses, and edit information. ith GIS, they can create maps of underlying geographic information and utilize the maps as "windows into the database," as noted by figures (3 & 4).
Figure 3 & 4: Intelligent Maps (GIS)
3. The Model View:
GIS is "a set of information transformation tools that derive new geographic datasets from existing datasets." (GIS) Students can use these geoprocessing functions to retrieve information from existing datasets. The GIS then applies analytic functions, and writes results into new derived datasets.
Figure 5: Example of a Derived Dataset (GIS)
hen students combine data and apply some analytic rules, they can create a model that helps answer questions…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015493029
Alibrandi, Marsha, and Herschel M. Sarnoff. "Using GIS to Answer the 'Why's' of 'Where' in Social Studies." Social Education 70.3 (2006): 138+. Questia. 20 Mar. 2008 http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5015493029' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
For example, Massachusetts and California have made recent improvements by upgrading care quality and professionalizing care; by contrast, despite Florida's large population of seniors and the beginning of a coalition of patients, families, and workers on behalf of better care, the state administration remains inflexible in their funding approach (Fitzgerald 30).
Nursing homes and other long-term-care facilities are unique among low-wage labor markets in that government, in effect, sets wages and career paths by setting reimbursement rates. Government also regulates the conditions of care and subsidizes training programs for nursing assistants and other paraprofessionals. Unlike other low-wage sectors, a broad-based, middle-class constituency for better wages and benefits potentially exists in the form of family members of nursing home residents. Therefore, there is a potential solution that benefits all the stakeholders by providing higher reimbursements together with tighter regulation and deliberate professionalization of the direct-care workforce; unfortunately, while some states have…
About SeniorNet. (2005). SeniorNet. [Online]. Available: http://www.seniornet.org /php/default.php?PageID=5005' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Women and the Information Technology Industry: Where is the Attraction?
Opportunities in technology companies are fueling the economy, yet few women pursue them. A recent Pittsburgh Technology Council panel discussion revealed that there are many reasons for women's lack of interest in IT, as were personal priorities (Czetli, 2003). "It might be an issue of self-selection -- women might not be risk takers," said obin Steif, chief financial officer of Maya Design. "It might also have something to do with the work/family issue, because entrepreneurs work way more than 40 hours per week."
Acknowledging that women seeking careers in technology industries faced barriers, there was no evidence that those roadblocks were any more significant than those encountered by minorities or even by men. "I think there is certainly a glass ceiling," said Joy Evans, a management consulting partner at Deloitte & Touche (Czetli, 2003). "But I tend to think of…
Carr, Sylvia. (May 14, 2004). Women still outnumbered, underpaid in IT. San Jose Magazine.
Clements, David. (August 2, 2002). What are the Theories Behind Computer Technology Gender Gap? VOA News
Cockburn, Cynthia, (1985), Machinery of Dominance - Women, Men and Technical Know-how, Pluto Press, London.
Czetli, Steven. (April 3, 2003). Women in tech fields? Washington Post Gazette.
This would allow for carrying out of the research faster with the rate of feedback being enhanced too (BBB,2010).
It is important for weblogs to be structured in a manner that allows for the logical presentation of the research questions and views. The fact that respondents do have experienced a lack of time, have a lot of personal demands (such as travel) and demand the weblogs to have high quality posts as outlined by Instone (2005) means that the researcher must come up with a way of structuring the blog to capture his or her research parameters while paying attention to the respondent's perception and possible reaction.
In regards to the management of the communications that takes place of the weblog, it is important for the researchers to upgrade their blogs so as to keep up the fellow bloggers updated. This is because failure to do so leads to a…
Better Business Blogging (2010). Using Blogs as Communities for Research and Development
Brier, L (2007). Blogging.
The ease of use of email systems for example generally tend to relate to high satisfaction levels. According to the study, students find it extremely convenient to be able to contact instructors at any time according to their convenience and available time frame. This does away with the inconvenience of specific office hours or telephone availability. This satisfaction is however also related to the ability of the instructor to respond to email in a speedy fashion. In Enockson's study, for example, the instructor made an effort to consistently respond within 24 hours. Students also experienced the online system as particularly convenient, as physical barriers to communication were eliminated, and students were able to set their own hours for instruction and communication. The time and costs of commuting are also eliminated by the use of such a system. This is the basic advantage of a generally online system of instruction as…
While both gender and race are positionalities that are difficult to hide (not that one should need or want to, anyway), sexual orientation is not necessarily something that is known about a person, and its affects on the learning process can be very different. The very fact that sexual orientation can be hidden can create a situation where the learner closes off, hiding not only their sexuality but demurring away from other opportunities of expression and engagement as well. Conversely, if an individual with an alternative sexuality was open about this fact, it could very well cause discomfort in other adult learners who have a marked generational bias against many alternative sexualities and lifestyles (Cain). Both situations could provide useful grounds for personal growth in self-acceptance and self-security, for the learner of a minority sexual orientation and for the other learners in the class, respectively (Cain).
Situated Cognition v. Experiential…
Cain, M. "Theorizing the effects of class, gender, and race on adult learning in nonformal and informal settings."
Cranton, P. (2002). "Teaching for transformation." New directions for adult and continuing education 93, pp. 63-71.
Hansman, C. (2001). "Context-based adult learning." New directions for adult and continuing education 89, pp. 63-71.
Isopahkala-Bouret, U. 92008). "Transformative learning in managerial role transitions." Studies in continuing education 30(1), pp. 69-84.
Another study found that there are many different strategies that are utilized when information technology is developed within the federal government and many of these tend to come not from the top managers but from the management instead (Gupta, Holladay, & Mahoney, 2000).
Much of this has to do with the fact that the top managers in the federal government are often political appointees and therefore know somewhat less about the inner workings of the organization when it comes to specific technological systems (Gupta, Holladay, & Mahoney, 2000). The middle managers are the ones who generally look for strategies to develop other types of information technology and are often comparable to the end users within other studies (Gupta, Holladay, & Mahoney, 2000). Unlike the managers who deal specifically with management information systems, or the other executive managers within the company, these middle managers actually understand many of the challenges and…
Adams, a. & Sasse, M.A. (1999). Users Are Not the Enemy. Communications of the ACM, 42(12), 40-46.
Bocco, G., and Sanchez, R. (1995). Quantifying urban growth using GIS: The case of Tijuana, Mexico (1973-1993). Geo Info Systems 5(10), 18-19.
Bohnet, D. (1995). Integration of socio-economic data into GIS -- a case study of the CRDA. Proceedings of the AfricaGIS 95 conference, Abidjan, March 5-10.
Broadbent, M., Weill, P., & St. Clair, D. (1999) the Implications of Information Technology Infrastructure for Business Process Redesign. MIS Quarterly, 23(2), 159-182.
global strategic alliances that exist between two companies in the computer industry. Hewlett Packard and SAP are the two companies selected for evaluations here. A brief overview of the companies will be provided. HP is a leading provider of products, technologies, solutions and services to consumers and businesses. HP offers services spanning IT infrastructure, personal computing and access devices, global services, and imaging and printing. (HP.com, 2005) William Hewlett and David Packard founded the company in 1939. The company now has 140,000 employees with capabilities in 160 countries. Today, HP conducts business in 43 currencies and 15 languages. HP essentially offered hardware components for the computer and the technology industry. Their main product lines included computers, printers, monitors and other peripheral devices for computers. "HP is #1 globally in inkjet, all-in-one and single-function printers, mono and color laser printers, large format printing, scanners, print servers, and ink and laser supplies."…
Al-Mashari, Majed. "Enterprise Resource Planning (Erp) Systems: A Research Agenda." Industrial Management + Data Systems. 103.1/2 (2003): 22-27.
BusinessWeek. "Online Extra: Q& a with Carly Fiorina." Business Week Online February 19, 2001.
Dvorak, John C. "Hp Gobbles Compaq." PC Magazine September 5, 2001.
EQUIS. "Sap and Hp Team for Midmarket Hosting Model (Manufacturing Business Technology)." Executive Quote and Information Service: EQUIS. (2005).
There is much ado about artificial intelligence today and this is reflected in the article published in the Science Daily entitled "New Computers Respond to Students' Emotions, oredom." The report states that the computer software is such that is senses the emotions of students and responds to the cognitive and emotional states of students including those of frustration and boredom. This computer program was developed by Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame, Sidney D'Mello, along with Art Grae3sser from the University of Memphis and another colleague from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
A New Technology
Reported as a new technology "which matches the interaction of human tutors, not only offers tremendous learning possibilities for students, but also redefines human-computer interaction." (Science Daily, 2012) The software program is named "AutoTutor" and "Affective AutoTutor" and can be used to measure the level of knowledge of students…
New Computers Respond to Students' Emotions, Boredom (2012) Science Daily -- Science News. 2 Mar 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120302132546.htm
In this regard, Higgins (2002) reports that Micros Systems Inc. introduced a custom application specifically for the hospitality industry early on, and despite the lingering effects of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the market, this company and others such as BDM International Inc. are continuing their efforts to provide hotels, restaurants and other organizations competing in the hospitality industry with the information technology they need to become more competitive (Bear 1999). More recently, companies such as Avendra have started offering integrated software applications that are specifically designed for various segments of the hospitality industry. This company's integrated software application provides purchasing support for food and beverage operations, room operations, engineering/building and construction, administrative, professional and financial services; cleaning solutions and sanitizing systems; grounds and agronomy maintenance; as well as gift shop and spa equipment operation and products (Avendra's purchasing programs 2010).
According to icher (201), a trend that…
Avendra's purchasing programs, 2010. Avendra. Retrieved from http://www.avendra.com / solutions/PurchasingPrograms/Pages/default.aspx.
Bassoppo-Moyo, T.C., Bassoppo-Moyo, S. & Dube, G., 2002. "Managerial Perceptions in the Application of Information Technology in the Public and Private Sector in Zimbabwe."
International Journal of Instructional Media 29(3): 289-290.
Bear, V., 1999, May 24. "Your Money; Movers & Shakers." The Washington Times: 8.
According to the Technology/Education Curriculum Guide, published by the New Hampshire Department of Education in 2008, technology "is an activity that involves the generation of knowledge and processes to develop systems that solve problems and extend human capabilities." Therefore, all citizens, especially young persons, "need to become technologically literate in order to be productive users of technology" and will thus become "better able to understand the world in which they live and to be more prepared for the future"
NHEA, Internet). Certainly, these statements might induce some students to forget about obtaining a higher education and focus instead on increasing their computer literacy and knowledge on their own rather than paying tuition at a local college or university for the same information.
Also, this guide offers a number of reasons why technology is so important for today's students. For example, technology education will encourage "those habits of mind necessary to…
DeWeese, Tom. "The Fix That's Destroying Education in America." American Policy
Center. 2001. Internet. Retrieved March 10, 2009 at http://fathersforlife.org / education/the_fix_that_destroys_education.htm.
In this article, Tom DeWeese of the American Policy Center for Education in the United States examines how technology as a "fix" is destroying our nation's schools and their students. DeWeese also explores a number of questions related to this topic and offers some solutions.
Emberley, Patricia C. Values, Education and Technology: The Ideology of Dispossession. Ontario: University of Toronto Press, 2003.