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"Some Holocaust survivors have said that not only did the barbed-wire surrounding Auschwitz tremble and howl, but also the tortured earth itself moaned with the voices of the victims" (ISurvived.org).
The first waves of prisoners arrived at Auschwitz in March, 1942, and from there on trains filled with people arrived on a regular basis, with the last years of the war seeing tens of thousands of prisoners arriving every day. Once inside Auschwitz prisoners would have their names forgotten as they received a number that was tattooed on their arms in return. The process of being a prisoner inside of the camp was extremely dehumanizing, as from the very first moments of their journey to a work camp people were put into cattle-cars and forced to stay there for prolonged periods of time and in inhumane conditions.
Even when they entered the camp, they did not know for sure if…
1. Annas George J., Grodin Michael a. (1995). "The Nazi doctors and the Nuremberg Code." Oxford University Press U.S..
2. Baumslag, Naomi. "Murderous Medicine: Nazi Doctors, Human Experimentation, and Typhus." Praeger, 2005.
3. Kater, Michael H. (2000) "Doctors under Hitler." UNC Press
4. Tonge, Neil. (2008). "The Holocaust." The Rosen Publishing Group.
Jews in Concentration Camps
As early as 1933, Nazis were sending people to concentration camps most of them being the Jews. The concentration camps were confinements where Jews were forced to go to, tortured and forced to work. The camps were for the undesirable people according to the Nazis and they were; democrats, socialists, homosexuals, prisoners and Jews and during the war the camps held soviet prisoners of war and slave laborers. These camps were later only associated with Jews and were intended for the extermination of the Jews. The camps were used for a range of purposes including labor camps, transit camps that served as temporary way stations and extermination camps that were primarily meant for mass murder. The life in the concentration camps was very horrible (Dickson, 2010).The function of the prisoners in the concentration camps was to work but their lives were not worth anything to the…
Dickson, K.D. (2010).Understanding the treatment of Jews during World War 2. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/understanding-the-treatment-of-jews-during-world-w.html
McCollum, I. (2009). An Inquiry into the General Lack of Violent Jewish Resistance to the Holocaust. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http://www.a-human-right.com/jewsfight.html
Orthodox Judaism. (2010). Basic Judaism Beliefs. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http://www.orthodox-jews.com/judaism-beliefs.html#axzz2CBchcO6P
Rabbi Lawrence Troster, (n.d). Ten Jewish Teachings on Judaism and the Environment. Retrieved November 14, 2012 from http://greenfaith.org/religious-teachings/jewish-statements-on-the-environment/ten-jewish-teachings-on-judaism-and-the-environment
Concentration camps are largely associated with Nazi regime in the 1930s and 1940s, which functioned as extermination camps where new-fangled influxes were basically killed. Past accounts of the establishment of concentration camps more often than not take their foundation as military catastrophes, with the Spanish regime making use of reconcentrados prior to the onset of the 20th Century in Cuba. Whereas the terminology of concentration camp was devised in the course of this conflict, these camps did not stand for what is perceived of them in the present day. In the contemporary, concentration camps have espoused humane purposes for example caring for refugees, especially those who have been displaced and those fleeing from war-torn areas across the globe. In his book “Barbed-Wire Imperialism: Britain’s Empire of Camps”, Aidan Forth delineated a comprehensive past account of concentration camps that works out their starting point not in military battle, but instead…
Forth, Aidan. Barbed-wire Imperialism: Britain\\\\'s Empire of Camps, 1876-1903. Vol. 12. Univ of California Press, 2017.
The German suffering after the first world war and the humiliation of Germany with other nations gave the Nazis the opportunity to feed hatred of the Jews and at the same time promise that if the People gave in to the Nazi ideology, they would be in the land that would hold them a superior way of life. That the followers of Hitler followed the Ideals as true and that they also created in their own minds the need to eliminate groups of people who disagree like the communists and the Jews was the fundamental cause of the holocaust. Why did it come about? It was argued that while the political climate of the times did not show much promise, Hitler was able to deliver what he promised even if it was based on evil. This gave him ground support. One of the chief supporters of Hitler, and Aman who…
Abzug, Robert H. 1985. Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi
Concentration Camps. Oxford University Press: New York.
Aroneanu, Eugene; Whissen, Thomas. 1996. Inside the Concentration Camps:
Eyewitness Accounts of Life in Hitler's Death Camps. Praeger: Westport, CT.
In fact, Wiesel thought to himself: "Don't let me find him! If only I could get rid of this dead weight, so that I could use all my strength to struggle for my own survival, and only worry about myself. Immediately, Elie felt ashamed of himself. (Wiesel, 1972, p.106).
One of the guards tells Elie something he has witnessed and now felt first hand: "Here, there are no fathers, no brothers, no friends. Everyone lives and dies for himself alone." (Wiesel, 1972, p.93). These words came to life for Elie as well as for his fellow prisoners. Everyone lives and dies alone in the camps because of the dire conditions which strip away a person's ability to moralize and to rationalize and to think and to empathize. Instead, all energy is focused upon survival, upon getting the next piece of bread, upon putting your next foot forward; and, even these…
Aberbach, D. (1989). Creativity and the Survivor: The Struggle for Mastery. Int. R. Psycho-Anal., 16:273-286.
Bergman, PhD, J. (n.d.). Darwinism and the Nazi race Holocaust. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/2259552/posts
Borowski, T. (1976). On the Way to the Gas Chamber. New York, NY: Penguin Books.
Haas, a. (1995). Survivor guilt in Holocaust (Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Dominguez Hills) (pp. 163-184). CA: California State University.
According to prisoners who job it was to remove the bodies and transport them to the crematoria afterwards, the screams started as soon as the pellets were deposited into the hole. They recount that the victims were usually arranged into a massive pyramid shape with the strongest and most desperate individuals near the top. Often, the walls would have to be cleaned in between uses to remove the blood left by fingers scraped bloody by people trying, in vain, to claw their way out of the rooms (Levin, 1993).
At the death camps, the strongest prisoners were used to perform the most disgusting work of removing dead bodies and operating the crematoria; this was their only alternative to being gassed or shot themselves. Camps without crematoria used large open burning pits similar to the execution pits employed before widespread use of gas chambers. Sometimes, a prisoner on such work details…
Guttenplan, D. (2001). The Holocaust on Trial. New York: W.W. Norton.
Kershaw, I. (2000). Hitler 1936-1945: Nemesis. New York: W.W. Norton.
Levin, N. (1993). The Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry 1933-
1945. New York: Schocken Books.
Gypsies during World War II [...] treatment of the Gypsies by the Nazi in World War II, concentrating on pre-war treatment, and treatment during the war, including the round up of the Gypsies as compared to the Jews. It will also describe what made a Gypsy and how they were rounded up and transferred to the concentration camps. The Gypsies of Europe lost thousands during the war in the concentration camps, but their history is full of persecution and hatred. Even today, many Europeans look down on the Gypsies. These people have suffered as much as the Jews at the hands of Hitler's Nazis, but their story is far less known.
Who were the Gypsies in Europe? The gypsies, broken into different tribes or bands, first appeared in Europe sometime in the fifteenth century. After studying their language, made up of dialects of Sanskrit, Persian, Kurdish, and Greek and called…
Browder, George C. Hitler's Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Crowe, David, ed. The Gypsies of Eastern Europe. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
Greenwald, Rachel T. "Genocide as a Category of Analysis." German Politics and Society 20.4 (2002): 151+.
Mauthausen by Robert H. Abzug
Robert H. Abzug is a PhD Professor of History and American Studies in the University of California. In his famous publication "Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi Concentration Camps," he described what had happened with the humanity and humans in the concentration camps which were set up by Nazis during the Second World War. The book covered several narrations by the eyewitnesses who were amongst the allied forces that participate in the liberation of such camps. All what they saw made the world shock and which were previously rumors now become a belief about the inhumane behavior of Germans with the prisoners of war. The Nazi-German government had set up several concentration camps of category I, II and III for their prisoners in different parts of the allied countries. Most class III camps were built in upper Austria, as it shares…
... further, that it would be only a question of time until the entire Pacific coast region would be controlled by the Japanese.' Yet Japan's ultimate aim was not limited to California or the Pacific Coast but was global domination achieved through a race war. 'It is the determined purpose of Japan,' the report stated, 'to amalgamate the entire colored races of the world against the Nordic or white race, with Japan at the head of the coalition, for the purpose of wrestling away the supremacy of the white race and placing such supremacy in the colored peoples under the dominion of Japan.'
The presence of sizeable numbers of persons of Japanese origin in California and other Western states was seen as but the beginnings of a Japanese attempt to not merely expand territorially into the United States, but to literally substitute the existing racial order with a new scheme…
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25, no. 2 (2001): 82+.
Chang, Gordon H., ed. Morning Glory, Evening Shadow: Yamato Ichihashi and His Internment Writings, 1942-1945. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997.
Great ar in American history does not signify any greatness for the disastrous affects it left behind. The aftermath of the civil war had been damaging for the Americans, which resulted in their rebuking the African-Americans, with a biased attitude towards their slavery. The book 'A lesson before Dying' emphasis on such a community, where the outcome of the wars were still hanging on their shoulders, yet it was becoming more difficult for the blacks to sanctify their identities. Leaving a young boy's life in danger, when he's unjustly announced with the death sentence. hile ' Snow Falling in Cedars' brings out the Japanese-Americans and their hardships while they try to live discreetly around coastal environment. It shows the side after orld ar II, when Japanese were taken into the concentration camps and even after they were released they had to fight a battle with the same people they had…
Gaines, J. Earnest, A Lesson Before Dying, Vintage Books, 28th (Sept 1997)
Gutterson, David, Snow Falling in Cedars, Random House 1st (Aug 1998)
The African-American: A Journey From Slavery to Freedom, C.W Post Campus
Available at: http://www.liu.edu/cwis/cwp/library/aaslavry.htm#civil
Apparently Brandt handled the medical needs of Bruckner well because Hitler made him "…his personal physician" and in time Brandt was given the rank of "major-general in the affen-SS" (Spartacus Educational).
Brandt helped establish the "Law for the Protection of Hereditary Health," which was a smokescreen for "compulsory sterilization" -- and in fact Brandt was in charge of the program ("Reich Committee for the Scientific Registration of Serious Hereditary and Congenially-Based Diseases") that basically was established to kill those who were "insane" and the "physically handicapped" (Spartacus Educational). The JVL explains that Brandt's euthanasia program began in 1939, and deformed children along with the very old and insane were murdered by gas or lethal injections in "…nursing homes, hospitals and asylums" (JVL, 1).
During the Nuremberg Trials the prosecutors were "caught off guard by the numerous affidavits submitted by the defense" that testified to the quality of Brandt's "personal character"…
Bryant, Michael. (2009). "Only the National Socialist": Postwar U.S. And West German
Approaches to Nazi "Euthanasia" Crimes, 1946-1953. Nationalities Papers, 37(6), 861-888.
Glaser, Edmund. (2008/09). Ulf Schmidt's Karl Brandt -- the Nazi Doctor: Medicine and Power in the Third Reich and Justice at Nuremberg: Alexander and the Nazi Doctors' Trial.
Journal of Hate Studies, 7(1), 109-116.
Diamonds of the Night
One of the overwhelming themes which stayed with me upon screening of the Czech film Diamonds of the Night (1964) by Jan Nemec was the motif of everything being illusory. This film definitely played with the notion that perhaps everything is a dream or an illusion. Throughout the film images are presented time and again and there's very little validation to demonstrate what is actually real vs. what is not. For example a very basic image of that essentially sums up this notion is the moment when the wheel on the stroller falls off, but the stroller continues to function as though nothing had happened. This puts the viewer in a truly provocative place. The viewer is then forced to reconcile what has just been seen. Did the wheel actually fall off? If so, why is the stroller able to function without interruption? Which image is…
Nemec, J. (1964). Diamonds of the Night. Ceskoslovensky Film Export.
They both are seeking wisdom and spiritual growth, but for very different reasons. Frankl has to find some kind of order and reason in his experience, or he will either go mad or die. Thoreau's spiritual quest is one of peace and harmony, while Frankl's is one of duress and oppression. He writes, "What matters, therefore, is not the meaning of life in general, but rather the specific meaning of a person's life at a given moment" (Frankl 171). At that given moment in time, Frankl's life did not mean anything to anyone but himself, and he used this experience to develop his own philosophy on life and wisdom, just as Thoreau used his experience to develop his own philosophy. The two men had the same goals, but reached them very differently due to their circumstances.
It is difficult to judge who has the best approach, because they both did…
Frankl, Viktor E., Man's Search for Meaning. New York: Washington Square Press, Simon and Schuster, 1963.
Thoreau, Henry David. Walden and Other Writings. Ed. Brooks Atkinson. New York: Modern Library, 1950.
Consequences of these choices only compound his deep-seated insecurities. (Zushi)
Both Ben and Miko are Japanese-Americans, and their shared ethnic background impacts on their lives in significantly different ways. Miko is proactive and politicised -- she is the assistant organiser of a film festival showcasing Asian-American talent. Ben, meanwhile, is a depressive manager of a local cinema, seemingly content in his life of slow-burning frustration and -- not surprisingly -- covert masturbation.
Sexual stereotyping is at the heart of the story. The title itself is a reference to Ben's feeling of inadequacy in the trousers department (underneath the dust jacket, the book cover bears a life-size image of a ruler). At one point, Ben recalls a "stupid joke": "hat's the difference between Asian men and Caucasian men?" The punchline -- "the cauc" -- is both funny and deeply uncomfortable. "I actually heard a girl tell that joke in college! I…
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 16 Jan. 2008 www.bartleby.com/66/.
The Comic-Book Heroes with a Touch of Genius." The Daily Mail (London, England) 22 Dec. 2006: 64. Questia. 15 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018563927 .
Dunford, Richard. "Chapter 4 Developing a Research Proposal." Surviving Your Thesis. Ed. Suzan Burton and Peter Steane. New York: Routledge, 2004. 46-58. Questia. 15 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107528130 .
Heinrich Himmler, the Nazi leader of the SS. Specifically, it will discuss his direct involvement with the concentration camps and the extermination of the Jewish people. Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) was an unsuccessful chicken farmer and fertilizer salesman who became a leader in the Nazi party in the mid-1920s. As head of the SS as well as the Gestapo, he was a cold, efficient, ruthless administrator. He was the organizer of the mass murder of Jews, the man in charge of the concentration and death camps.
HIMMLE THE EXTEMINATO
Heinrich Himmler was born in 1900, and studied agriculture. He fought in the very end of World War I, and never seemed to make much of himself until he met Hitler. "Himmler was a passionate farmer. He had studied agriculture for several years, had a degree in agriculture, and was later the chairman of the board of the Organization of Agricultural Graduates"…
Devine, Carol, and Carol Rae Hansen. Human Rights: The Essential Reference. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1999.
Editors. "Who was Heinrich Himmler?" Holocaust History Project. 31 Dec. 1998. 17 Nov. 2002. http://www.holocaust-history.org/short-essays/heinrich-himmler.shtml
Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
Eisenhower, John. "Juxtaposed with History, Inquiry into why the Nazis Did What They Did." The Washington Times. 9 June 2002.
internment camps for the Japanese that were set up and implemented by president Franklin D. oosevelt. The writer explores the history leading up to the decision and the decision itself. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
When Japan attacked Pearl Harbor the American public was outraged and stunned. American citizens had lived with a false sense of security for many years that the soil of the United States was off limits. The Civil War and the American evolution were long in the past and residents believed that the world at large would be to afraid to attack a nation as strong and powerful as the United States. The attack came without warning, killing thousands who were within its grasp. When the smoke had cleared and the bombs had stopped, the nation turned a fearful eye to the white house for guidance. At the time the president was…
Japanese camps http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jainternment.org
EXECUTIVE ORDER 9066 http://history1900s.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pbs.org%2Fchildofcamp%2Fhistory%2Feo9066.html
Early Implementation of the Mass Removal http://www.densho.org/learning/spice/default.asp http://www.imdiversity.com/Article_Detail.asp?Article_ID=3228
However, as the time in the ghettos grew longer, and Jews began to disappear in greater numbers, it became clear that something had to be done, and the resistance grew. Couriers risked their lives and carried messages to the outside, and armed rebellions began to be more common. What may be surprising is that so many acts of resistance actually occurred throughout Europe, this is something that is often overlooked in Jewish history.
When the Germans forced the Jews into labor, internment, concentration, and extermination camps, they realized what the Germans really had in store for them, and camp members forged resistance groups, as well, even though it was much harder to resist inside the concentration camps, because they were heavily guarded, the work was incredibly difficult, and food was almost non-existent. It was much more difficult to resist in these conditions. However, resistance did occur, even if the penalty…
Editors. "Resistance During the Holocaust. The United States Holocaust Museum. 2007. 26 Nov. 2007. http://www.ushmm.org/education/foreducators/resource/resistance.pdf
Frankl, many people seek therapy because of the "feeling of the total and ultimate meaningless of their lives," (p. 62). Frankl mainly refers to the "super-meaning" or to the ultimate meaning of life from a general existential or cosmological perspective -- not the personalized meaning in one individual's purpose in life, which is a different question (p. 74). A state of meaninglessness is the inability to move forward and progress through pain, not just in spite of pain and suffering but because of it. Meaningless is a "feeling of emptiness," and an "existential vacuum," (p. 143). Meaninglessness is the inability to learn from suffering, and thereby transform suffering into something that is meaningful. According to Frankl, meaningfulness cannot be located in the propagation of the species because one must find meaning whether or not one procreates. Meaning comes from feeling useful, and feeling useful needs to arise independently of external…
Eliezer and his father
Over the course of the novel Night by Elie Wiesel, the narrator Eliezer's relationship with his father shifts from that of a conventional father-son relationship to a relationship in which Eliezer eventually becomes the stronger of the two men. Eliezer quickly becomes a man because of the historical circumstances to which he is subjected. Growing up in a concentration camp he soon learns that his father is far from infallible -- physically, emotionally, and intellectually. At first the son looks to his father for guidance during their confinement in the ghetto and during their initial tenure in the camp. Then he grows impatient with his father's physical weakness, and finally takes the more active, dominant role in the relationship because of his youth and greater physical strength.
Night opens in a Nazi-occupied ghetto in Eastern Europe. Eliezer's father is a source of strength for the other…
Holocaust, and how Primo Levi survived his imprisonment in Auschwitz. Specifically, it will answer the questions: hat perspective does Levi provide on day-to-day survival within Auschwitz? Is there order amidst the chaos of mass murder? Primo Levi's book, "Survival in Auschwitz" is a compelling look at the horrors of the most notorious Nazi prison camp, Auschwitz, but more so, it is a tale of the strength of human character - the very fiber that binds us together as humans. His book not only illustrates just how much the Jews endured in the prison camps during the Holocaust, it should be must reading for any student of the Holocaust who hopes to understand just a modicum of what was endured, and what it took to live through these unspeakable horrors.
Survival in Auschwitz
Primo Levi was one of the lucky few who survived the horrific prison camp of Auschwitz operated by…
http://www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=33494652"Levi, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz: The Nazi Assault on Humanity. Trans. Stuart Woolf. New York: Collier, 1961.
trips that I made to very different places were Mexico City and the Auschwitz extermination camp in Poland, and I will describe the impressions that I remember best from these visits to two very different places. Mexico City stands out in my mind because it was my first trip to a foreign country, but Auschwitz is a place I cannot forget simply because of what it is and the evil that it represents -- and I mean that in the literal sense, because it's no exaggeration to say that evil is just in the very atmosphere of the place. I did see some terrible things in Mexico, too, but Auschwitz was always unique in my limited experience and in a category by itself. I did go back to Mexico more than once after that first visit, but had no desire ever to return to Auschwitz or anyplace like it, since…
The provision that persons cannot be deprived of liberty without due process of law takes precedence over the war powers." Both authors therefore agree that the American Constitution prohibits the unwarranted detention of citizens based on their ethnicity alone.
Only the Chicago Daily Tribune article uses the type of language befitting an editorial. For instance, the author uses terms like "prejudice" and "hysteria" to describe the issue. The Los Angeles Times article necessarily avoids strong language like this, and yet still manages to convince readers that the internment camps were legally and ethically wrong. The author achieves a subtle editorial commentary in the selection of quotations. For example, Justice Roberts is quoted as saying that W.R.A. centers are "euphemism for concentration camps" and along with other dissenting justices on the Supreme Court "denied there was any evidence that exclusion of the Japanese was a military measure." In the Chicago Daily…
Mein Kompf was regarded as the "Bible" of the Hitlerjugend. On entering the Jungvolk at the age of 10, children took the following oath: In the presence of this blood-banner which represents our Fuehrer I swear to devote all my energies, and my strength to the Savior of our Country, Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him, so help me God. One People, one Reich, one Fuehrer." (Nazi Conspiracy & Aggression)
Nazi Youth formal agreement between the ehrmacht and the Hitlerjugend was published 11 August 1939. It recites that whereas 30,000 Hitlerjugend leaders had been trained annually in shooting and field exercises, the number would be doubled; that 60,000,000 shots had been fired in Hitler Youth training courses in 1938 and that a considerable increase in the figure was expected. The agreement recognized the close cooperation that existed between…
Works Cited continued
Simpson, Christopher. "Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann's "Spiral of Silence" and the Historical Context of Communication Theory." Journal of Communication Vol. 46 (1996).
Stein, Howard F. "Disposable Youth: The 1999 Columbine High School Massacre as American Metaphor." Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society Vol. 5 (2000).
The Adolf Hitler Historical Archives. 2003. 29 Apr. 2004 http://www.adolfhitler.ws/ .
Williamson, David. "Was Hitler a Weak Dictator? David Williamson Examines Two Seemingly Irreconcilable Schools of Thought." History Review. (2002).
Svenska Akademien informs the public in its press release from the 0th of October, 2002, that "The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2002 is awarded to the Hungarian writer Imre Kertesz "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history."
One could say it was Fate. We know one cannot fight against Fate. It's implacable, its useless to try to change the course of things as long as there is Fate leading mankind to its way. A unique way.
Was it Fate that made him win the Nobel Prize so that the whole world can find out about his novel? This semi-autobiographical novel where he tells us about living as a Jewish teenager under the Holocaust was meant for the world to look back at that time of World War II, through the eyes of a 4 years old boy who is…
1. Imre Kertesz. Fateless 2. Imre Kertesz. Fateless, Reviewed by Gyrgy Uri Kozma, published by Northwestern University Press, Evanston, IL 1992
3. Imre Kertesz. Fateless reviewed by, K. Barnhart, on the http://www.sonic.net/barny/fateless.html
4. The Nobel Prize in Literature 2002 - Press Release, 10th of October 2002, available on the www.nobel.se/literature/laureates/2002/press.html
There are obvious differences between primary and secondary sources. The most notable difference may be the fact that primary sources only reveal a glimpse of a certain situation or scenario. For example, while Ringelblum's diary gives an extremely detailed portrait of ghetto life, it does little to describe the broader impact of Nazi anti-Semitism in Europe. In contrast, while secondary sources can reveal statistics and numbers, they oftentimes miss the little details that make history personal. The personalization of history, especially an event like the Holocaust, is extremely important. As horrifying as it is to know that 6 million Jews were killed in the Holocaust, even such a dramatic figure does not make the horrors of the Holocaust personal. Primary documents, especially diaries, bridge the gap between history and humanity, and make it clear that each one of those 6 million people was a human being. Furthermore, Ringelblum's diary makes…
Ringelblum, Emmanuel. "Inside the Ghetto." The Holocaust: A Reader. Ed. Simone Gigliotti and Beral Lang. City of Publication: Blackwell Publishing, year. 313-332.
Thus, in order for the righteous people to save the Jews they had to quicker and far more efficient than the troops who were looking for the Jews. The rescuers and the Jews who they had helped always lived in the constant danger of being caught. Everyone knew that as soon as the rescuers or the Jews were caught they would be persecuted.
Seeing how the media and the government had brainwashed almost everyone, there was always the fear of being reported by a neighbor or any other person. All the persons knew that their best interested would be served and they would be saved only if they helped Hitler in his cause. This made it even harder for any moral person to go on and help the Jews. The people who did decided to rescue and save the Jews had to alter their daily routine to quite an extent.…
Block, Gay and Malka Drucker. Rescuers. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1992. Print.
Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. "Righteous Among the Nations:" History & Overview | Jewish Virtual Library." 1944. Web. 27 Apr 2013. .
Paldiel, Mordecai. The path of the righteous. Hoboken, N.J.: Ktav, 1993. Print.
Rodgers, Jennifer. Jewish-Christian Relations: Righteous Gentiles in the Holocaust. n.d.. E-book.
Life" by Gerda Weissmann Klein. In this book Gerda has narrated her ordeal during the Nazis regime and how she survived the holocaust and the death march. It is a highly emotional book, which narrates the horrors and sorrows faced by the survivors.
All But My Life"
Introduction classic of Holocaust literature, Gerda Weissmann Klein's celebrated chronicle tells the moving story of a young woman's six frightful years as a slave laborer of the Nazis and her miraculous liberation. All But My Life stands as the ultimate lesson in humanity, hope and friendship.
It is the unforgettable story of Gerda Weissmann Klein's six-year ordeal as a victim of Nazi cruelty. From her comfortable home in Bielitz (present-day Bielsko) in Poland to her miraculous survival and her liberation by American troops -- including the man who was to become her husband -- in Volary, Czechoslovakia, in 1945, Gerda takes the reader…
All But my life, by Gerda Weissmann Klein, Published: September 1997
Orion Publishing Co
Internment of Japanese-Americans in orld ar II
hen the national interests are threatened, history has shown that American presidents will take extraordinary measures to protect them, even if this means violating the U.S. Constitution. For example, the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act enacted immediately following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, watered down civil liberties for American citizens. Likewise, President Abraham Lincoln suspended the writ of habeas corpus during the Civil ar just as President Franklin D. Roosevelt did during the outset of orld ar II following the Japanese sneak attack on American forces at Pearl Harbor when tens of thousands of Japanese-American citizens were interred for the duration of the war. Despite the compelling circumstances that were involved, this paper will show that the internment of Japanese-Americans during orld ar II was not only unconscionable, it was also a fragrant violation of the U.S. Constitution and should not have taken…
Crockett, Rosemary F. (2002). "America's Invisible Gulag: A Biography of German-American
Internment and Exclusion in World War II." The Oral History Review 29(2): 191-193.
Flamiano, Dolores. (2010). "Japanese-American Internment in Popular Magazines: Race,
Citizenship, and Gender in World War II Photojournalism." Journalism History 36(1):
Seamstress: A Memoir of Survival
Anti-Semitism was on the rise in the beginning of the 20th century and reached its peak under Hitler's rule in the 1930s so much so that the Jews weren't even allowed to live. This paper sheds light on the mental, emotional and physical torture that a woman by the name of Seren (Sara) Tuvel Bernstein underwent like many other Jews of her time at the hands of Hitler and his regime. The seamstress: A Memoir of Survival is an autobiography of Sara, her struggle and that of those around her in the concentration camps where they were given a life worse than death.
Spread of anti-Semitism Across Europe:
Sara had left her home in Romania when she was only thirteen against her father's wishes to continue her higher studies on full scholarship in Budapest. Like the rest of Europe here too the Jews were thought…
epressed and recovered memory has been the topic of much debate for the past ten years. Many feel that these psychological issues have been used to create chaos in the legal system and to destroy families. Professional organizations all over the world have commented on the controversy surrounding repressed and recovered memory.
The purpose of this discussion is to examine the issues and controversies that the psychiatric community is currently facing. We will also explore the research involving repressed and recovered memory. Let's begin by defining repressed memory and recovered memory.
Definition of epressed Memory and ecovered Memory
According to the Psychology Dictionary repression is a, "Psychoanalytic Theory, the defense mechanism whereby our thoughts are pulled out of our conscious and into our unconscious." (Psychology Dictionary) Many psychologists have concluded that the act of repressing memory is usually caused by a traumatic event. (Carroll 2002) These psychologists also contend that…
Memories: true or false. (2002, Fall). Issues in Science and Technology, 19, 7+..
Psychology Dictionary (2003). Retrieved May 19, 2003, at http://allpsych.com/dictionary/r.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000917406
Alessi, H.D., & Ballard, M.B. (2001). Memory development in children: implications for children as witnesses in situations of possible abuse. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 398+.
Carroll, (2002). Repressed Memory. Retrieved May 20, 2003, at http://skepdic.com/repressedmemory.html
Nazis decided to commit genocide. Was this always Hitler's intention from the beginning? If not, why and when did it change? If so, why the various policy changes? Please illustrate your answer with specific historical examples.
While the process of killing a lot of people in a dedicated and concentrated fashion might seem easy enough, that was far from being the case. One method that was ruled out right away was the use of bullets due to the cost and time involved. There was also deemed to be a toll on the soldiers committing the killing. In terms of process, the Nazis went so far as to actually engage in tests. For example, they tested using carbon monoxide and cyanide gas. The early "guinea pigs" were Russian prisoners and mental patients. Expulsion was considered as well but the expansion of the country made this a hard sell because invading other…
Frankl proposes that "he who can cling to no end point, to no time in the future, to no point of support, is in danger of allowing himself to collapse inwardly." 
However that point might alter as the person grows. It happens and should happen in the process of living because no one can cling to just one meaning all his life. Meaning when realized alters and take on another shape and that forms the crux of Logotherapy. The role of the therapist in this regard is only to facilitate the process. he/she cannot give a person meaning to a life that is lived by the patient. The therapist must help resolve any past issues which are retarding the personal growth of the individual. He should try to untie the spiritual or philosophical 'knots' that have developed to help the patient become healthier.
What is needed here is to…
Frankl, oral communication, 1971.
Frankl, the Will to Meaning (Cleveland, O.: New American Library, 1969), p. 21.
V. Frankl, "Self-transcendence as a Human Phenomenon," Journal of Humanistic Psychology (1966) 6:97-107.
Frankl V.E. (1976). Man's Search for Meaning. New York: Pocket Books. 78.
Schindler's List is a 1993 film by Steven Spielberg that focuses on the "contributions" that Oskar Schindler made to the war effort during orld ar II and the Jewish people that he saved through his business endeavors. hile Schindler allies himself with the Nazi Party and several high ranking Nazi officials, he uses these connections to hire specific Jews to work in his various businesses, first of which is an enamelware factory and the second of which is a munitions factory. Throughout the entire film, Spielberg manages to dramatically capture the plight that Jews underwent in Poland during orld ar II, specifically how they were dehumanized by the Nazis and forced first to give up their possessions and live in the ghettos and then forced from the ghettos to labor, concentration, or death camps. However, despite the fact that all, or most, material objects were forcefully ripped from Jews, the…
The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. "Schindler's List." Jewish Virtual Library. Web.
19 August 2012.
Becher, Rabbi Mordechai. "The Jewish Wedding Ceremony." Ohr Somayach International. Web.
19 August 2012.
Psychological & Cultural Experience of the Victims of Japanese Internment
Executive Order 9066 was signed by President Roosevelt on February 19, 1942 ordering all Japanese-Americans and Americans of Japanese descent out of the Western United States and into "internment" camps in the Central region of the United States.
A public law was subsequently passed by Congress ratifying the Executive Order; Congress did not even deliberate on the passage of the law.
One hundred and twenty thousand people were ultimately incarcerated in ten internment camps without due process of law.
There, they were locked up behind barbed wire and lived in shacks unfit for human living. They were fed only at a sustenance level, and had no idea when or if they would return home.
They lost their jobs, their homes, their possessions, their pets, and their liberty -- not because of the hostile actions of a foreign power, but due…
December 3, 2002. http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/project/index.html .
Ina, Satsuki Dr. "Symposium Comments: Tule Lake Reunion Symposium."
Internment History." PBS: Children of the Camps. PBS Organization. December 3, 2002. http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/project/remarks.html .
The authorities in charge of Lodz sought to completely separate the Jewish population from the non-Jewish population. Business were marked with the nationality and ethnic identity of the proprietors, which made it easier for Germans to target Jewish-owned stores and Jews were required to wear arm bands and forbidden to leave their houses between 5:00pm and 8:00am. In fact, Lodz was the first area to institute the armbands that would distinguish Jews from non-Jews. Jews could not use public transportation, public parks, or work at non-Jewish businesses. Furthermore, Jewish property was pillaged and taken, with official sanction. If the Jews abandoned any real property, that property went into receivership. Jews were prohibited from withdrawing substantial sums of money from their bank accounts or from keeping substantial sums of money in their homes. The government confiscated raw materials from Jewish workshops and prohibited them from engaging in certain trades. People began…
Bauer, Y. (2000). Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Browning, C. (1992). The path to genocide: essays on launching the final solution. Cambridge:
Browning, C. (2004). The Origins of the Final Solution. Omaha:(University of Nebraska Press.
Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. (2007). The Lodz ghetto. Retrieved February
In the 1960s and 1970s, New Left historians in the Federal Republic of Germany reexamined the Third Reich in ways that created major controversies, especially because they found continuity between the Nazi era and attitudes and institutions that existed both before and afterwards. This meant "purging society" of its racist, authoritarian and paternalistic tendencies, and preventing revived Nazi movements like the National Democratic Party (NDP) from gaining a foothold in political life again (Gassert and Steinweiss 1). Fritz Fischer had helped initiate this historical controversy in Griff Nach der eltmacht (Germany's Drive for orld Power) in which he asserted that Germany had been the aggressor in orld ar I and that Hitler and the Nazis borrowed their ideas about Lebensraum and an empire in the East from their Second Reich predecessors. Indeed, the historical record demonstrates that during the Third Reich, the German people, the old conservative elites,…
Aly, Gotz and Jefferson Chase. Hitler's Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War, and the Nazi Welfare State. Holt Paperbacks, 2005.
Caplan, Jane and Nikolaus Waschmann (eds). Concentration Camps in Nazi Germany: The New Histories. Routledge, 2010.
Collier, Martin and Philip Pedley (eds). Hitler and the Nazi State. Heinemann Educational Publishers, 2005.
Gassert, Philipp and Alan F. Steinweiss. Coping with the Nazi Past: West German Debates on Nazism and Generational Conflict, 1955-1975. Berghahn Books, 2006.
It is interesting thus that many of the symbols that usually have a positive meaning in the literary tradition, such as the starts which are shining brightly in the sky or Margaret's golden hair which makes her resemble an angelic figure, have negative connotations in the poem through the reversals that Celan proposes. Also, the blue eyes of the German master and the fact that he writes love letters to Germany might beguile the reader for a moment and make him or her believe that these are the symbols of purity and innocence in the text. Both the commander and Margaret symbolize the Arian race which was considered by Hitler as absolutely faultless. The fact that Margaret is corrupted and destroyed by evil in Faust is a hint at the way in which the Nazi regime turned the qualities of the Arian race into an instrument of evil. Sulamith, by…
Celan, Paul. Todesfuge. http://www.celan-projekt.de/
Goethe, Wolfgang. Faust. Ditzingen: Reclam, 2001
Heine, Heinrich. Das Skalvenschiff. http://www.martinschlu.de/literatur/gedichte/heinesklavenschiff.htm
Die Luther Bibel.
The picture shows a larger-than-life gigantic bearded and very hairy naked man wearing a kippah (Hebrew head-covering) with the Star of David on it. He has a large and crooked nose and a ferocious, rather frightening grin as he appears to be gleefully tearing up railroad tracks and wreaking destruction on a city. There is something round, perhaps a large city water-storage tank, which has railroad tracks wrapped around it. Many of the details of the poster are slightly obscured by the glare of the lights, so one cannot be quite sure of what one is looking at. The sketchy 'city' seems to be broken, obviously destroyed by the monster, and this is well-illustrated with broken lines intended to be railroad tracks bent and strewn at random all over the city. At the very bottom of the picture, people are shown running away as they look back fearfully.…
"Studs Terkel's: The Good ar
In The Good ar Terkel presents the compelling, the bad, and the ugly memories of orld ar II from a view of forty years of after the events. No matter how horrendous the recollections are, comparatively only a few of the interviewees said that if the adventure never happened that they would be better off. It was a lively and determinative involvement in their lives. Even though 400,000 Americans died, the United States itself was not assaulted again after Pearl Harbor, the economy did begin to develop and there was a fresh contemporary feeling of humanity power that revitalized the nation.
A lot of women and Black Americans faced new liberties in the post war nation, but happy life following orld ar II was stained by the danger of the could be nuclear. Studs Terkel interviewed over 120 people by inquiring them to tell…
Terkel, S. (1997). The Good War: An Oral History of World War II. Boston: New Press.
"Executive order 9066" Franklin Delano Roosevelt. February 19, 1942. accessed from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=74#
Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, Personal Justice
Denied. (Washington, D.C.: The Civil Liberties Public Education Fund, 1997),
I had come to really enjoy Rose's personality, and was happy to do that for her. She had so much charisma that she seemed bored at the nursing home, so our jaunts would give her a little change of pace.
One day when I came to the nursing home, Rose asked me to help her go through her pictures. She wanted to divide them up for her children before her death and informed me that the project would take several days, since she wanted to annotate the photos, so the stories would not die with her. As we started going through photos, Rose began telling me stories about her life. I learned that she had been born in Germany, though I did not make the logical connections about a German-born Jewish woman of her age. It was not until I saw a picture of a pair of twins that I…
It was this same concept which began to impose harsh discriminatory
tactics against homosexuals. In fact, in a most ironic twist referent to
Nazi sadism, the treatment of homosexuals was often documented to exceed in
its abuse but also in its sexual manipulation, this group. Specially
recipient of abuse in the concentration camps, homosexuals were guilty of a
crime against Germany in their simple state of being, even as this
discrimination was not passed along to German SS guards and other Nazis
notoriously documented as having sodomized and sexually abused homosexual
inmates. In addition to their relegation to concentration and death camps,
homosexuals were subjected to the abuse of German's Nazified medical
community. To this end, "in 1935, a new law legalized the 'compulsory
sterilization (often in fact castration) of homosexuals.' A special
section of the Gestapo dealt with them.Along with epileptics,
schizophrenics and other 'degenerates', they were being eliminated."…
Laska, V. (1983). Women in the Resistance and in the Holocaust.
Speigel Online. (2007). New exhibition documents forced prostitution in
concentration camps. Speigel.de.
Traditional Values Coalition (TVC). (2005). Hitler targeted the
Glimpse Into the Mind of a Genius
Vladimir Nabokov wrote about the world in which he lived. His world was the first half of the twenty first century, and was filled with mistrust and double standards. His world was one of death and the darker side of human nature. It is this side of human nature that intrigued Nabokov and also something that his life had led him to experience first hand. In a world at war one is surrounded by death and death was a central theme of Nabokov's work. Nabokov's work reflected the world in which he lived. Nabokov uses stereotypical references to paint a clear picture of life during orld ar II."
Many consider Nabokov to be a literary genius who weaves complex plots and rich characters together in ways that can seem incomprehensible at times. No one will argue with his clever command of the English…
Nabokov, Vladimir. "Conversation Piece" Retrieved at http://ruslit.virtualave.net/nabokov/conversationl.html Accessed August, 2002.
Brian Boyd. Speak, Memory: An Autobiography Revisited. Alfred A Knopf Publishers. March,
Grossman, Lev. The gay Nabokov. Salon Media group, Inc. Salon.com. 2000. Retrieved at http://dir.salon.com/books/feature/2000/05/17/nabokov/index.html Accessed August
Thorpe, Vanessa. Gay brother 'is key to Lolita author" The Observer. Sunday May 21, 2000.
White ose: Munich 1942-1943, by Inge Scholl. Did the Scholl's die in vain, and if so, what purpose did their resistance serve against the Nazis? Inge Scholl wrote this moving book about her brother and sister, who formed a student group, the White ose, to fight the Nazis with propaganda and intelligent arguments. The two Scholls were beheaded in 1943 for treason. This is the story of their group, and what they accomplished.
ESISTANCE TO THE NAZIS
The German people were incredibly afraid to criticize Hitler and his Nazi party because they knew what would happen, they would end up like the Scholls, condemned for treason. The "volk" were the people, but if they dissented from their "fuehrer," they were traitors, and had to be dealt with "swiftly." For example, once Hans joined the Nazi Youth program, he became disillusioned with the "discipline and conformity down to the last detail,…
Scholl, Inge. The White Rose: Munich 1942-1943. Hanover NH: Wesleyan University Press, 1983.
omen were also a significant part of the civilian staff, committing their
abilities as typists, phone switchboard operators and facility
Likewise, on the home front, women would commit their services in
place of their husbands, fighting abroad. In fact, the term home front
should be well understood as one coined with the psychological intention of
conveying that those who were enlisted in one manner or another for
civilian duty were themselves a crucial force in the war effort. The
terminology of 'home front' implies that such domestic locales as the
continental United States were to be seen as war theatre's demanding of
unified and concerted participation in shared goals of conservation, labor
and administrative support.
For women in all walks of American life, the end of the Depression
would coincide with the start of orld ar II, making the association
between job creation and the war effort fully inextricable.…
Associated Press (AP), Nazi Sex Slaves, Spiegel Online, 2007.
Online at http://www.spiegel.de/international/0,1518,459704,00.html
Ardrossan Herald, Join the Women's Land Army, WWII in North Ayrshire, Mar.
Irvine Herald, Work For Women, WWII in North Ayrshire, Jan. 19, 1940.
Franklin Delaney oosevelt's attitude towards the Jewish problem during the War. I have read and heard such contradictory accounts spanning from Jews who congratulate for his involvement to some scholars and others who criticize him for an alleged anti-Semitism. Being that this is a famous personality that we are talking about and a prominent President of the U.S.A.; I felt that enlightenment on the subject was important. I wanted to go to the source, and therefore I accessed original documents from the collections of the Franklin D. oosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. These, compounded with other sources, are the results that I found.
By the 1940s, news had already reached the U.S.A. about the concentration camps which Edward . Murrow described (December, 13, 1942),as "A horror beyond what imagination can grasp . . . there are no longer 'concentration camps' -- we must speak now only of 'extermination camps.'" (FD…
Beschloss, M. The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002.
FDR AND THE HOLOCAUST
Feingold, HL The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938-1945 New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1970.
Economic Concens in Film
Metopolis, Invasion of the Body Snatches and La Jetee span fou decades, although the latte two could be consideed examples of Cold Wa science fiction. Metopolis was set duing the Weima Republic, although cetain scenes wee eeily pophetic of Nazism, but in eality the city itself could also have been New Yok o any othe uban cente of the futue. Fo diecto Fitz Lang, the city was a symbol of Fodist mass poduction and mass consumption, with the wokes down below butalized by povety, hunge and dull, outine, obot-like jobs, while at the same time, the middle and uppe classes above wee also dehumanized by mindless hedonism and nihilism, o dull, confomist cleical and administative wold. Dehumanization was also a majo theme of La Jetee, in which the suvivos of a nuclea holocaust live undegound, lacking even the basic necessities of food, wate and medical cae,…
references to these. Only superficially does the world of Santa Mira still resemble an American town, since the main work of its residents had become production and distribution of seed pods, which they distributed to surrounding towns. In this work, they were like a totalitarian hive of worker bees or ants, having only the instinct to survive. Of course, they also had to eliminate any internal dissent by converting everyone in town to creatures like themselves, with Dr. Miles Bennell and his lover Becky Driscoll as the last human holdouts. They attempt to escape, with everyone in town pursuing them, although Miles loses Becky when she falls asleep and turns into one of 'them'. Only at the very end did Miles manage to convince the humans on the outside that they are in grave danger and that the authorities must be called in to deal with Santa Mira before this alien virus spreads completely out of control.
Both Body Snatchers and Metropolis have happy endings, even though these feel more than a bit contrived, while La Jetee is grim from start to finish. Civilization survives in the first two films, even though the real question might be whether such a society should have survived at all. Lang's vision of middle class charity and humanitarianism bringing about a reconciliation of capital and labor looks very unlikely given the extreme divisions presented between the underground and aboveground worlds in that film. Nazism restrained class conflict mainly by abolishing organized labor and leftist political parties, and using police state methods against all dissent, and history shows that the workers only received justice and a fair share of the social pie when they were politically well organized and able to vote. La Jetee does not even make a pretense that civilization is being saved, since what little of it survived the Third World War resembled an underground Nazi concentration camp, with prisoners experimented upon and exterminated to suit the needs of their overlords. Both of these films reflect grimmer European historical circumstances that Body Snatchers, which is certainly a disturbing and creepy film by American standards, but with a Hollywood ending in which the hero saves the day in the end. Although the world of the pod people in Santa Mira still looks like Middle America on the surface, they have all been infected by some alien virus that turns their town into a totalitarian police state run by zombies, robots and clone, lacking human individuality, desires and emotions. In fact, their all-American town was starting to look too much like something in Germany and Russia, which is why it hard to be destroyed in the end.
Holocaust affected Israeli society and culture and how Jews memorialize/emember it today
There exists no doubt regarding the massacre of the Jews during the phase of World War II and its impact on the lives of the Jewish people and the people who were near and dear to them. A dissention is required against those who assert that the tragedy never occurred, irrespective of whether they hold an opposite perspective to the Holocaust theory or just outright vehemence against Jews. The Holocaust stands for the lowest extreme of Jewish impotence. The affected Jews of the Holocaust were distraught due to it, both by direct means and indirectly, and as a continuance their kith and kin, near and dear ones, were separated by space. The holocaust has been termed rightly as a "Tragic legacy." It has also been looked upon as an unauthentic episode.
Just due to the fact they…
Anderson, Frank. "Holocaust Atrocity and Suffering." Vol.47. Middle East Studies, Vol.30, 1991, 164-177
Ben-Amos, Avner; Bet-El; Ilana. "Holocaust Day and Memorial Day in Israeli Schools: Ceremonies, Education and History" Israel Studies, Vol. 4, 1999, 258-284
Davison, Todd. "The Holocaust experience." International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol, 24, 1994, 153-165
Najarian, James. "Experiences of Holocaust Survivors." Mid East Quarterly, Vol.56, 1993, 114-128
God on Trial: Movie Analysis and Review
The Holocaust of orld ar II spawned many tragedies, one of which was the crisis of faith it precipitated amongst European Jews. The film God on Trial depicts the inhabitants of a concentration camp literally putting God on trial for his crimes against humanity as they wait to be "sorted out" into groups of who will live and who will die at Auschwitz. The film begins set in the present, where various tourists to the concentration camp are shown gawking at the premises. They can hardly believe the horror was once real and then slowly, there is a shift as the camera pans away to reveal a change of time and the viewer is taken back to orld ar II. The event is based upon an apocryphal incident in which the residents of Auschwitz were said to have staged such a mock court,…
God on Trial. BBC, 2008.
They wagged their heads in sympathy and then proceeded to speak in the barren legalism of constricted hearts of their inability to intervene in the domestic affairs of other nations and of their own inviolate immigration laws."
(Leff, 2005, p. 218)
The Psychology of the Denial of Historical Fact
Numerous examples exist of the extent to which even individuals without anti-Semitic animus ignored what, in retrospect, might be considered painfully obvious. In fact, the ultimate fate of European Jews under Nazi occupation was so outrageous that even many Jews caught within the Nazi snare either could not or would not recognize the reality and magnitude of what was in store for them. Many German Jews, in particular, could have taken the opportunity to leave the country before that option was cut off by German authorities. If the victims of horrific persecution cannot easily accept the evidence in front of them,…
Leff, Laurel. Buried by the Times: the Holocaust and America's Most Important
Newspaper. Cambridge University Press: New York. 2005.
Lipstadt, Deborah. Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory.
Penguin Group: New York. 1993.
One only has to look at the technological advances Japan has provided the world to understand the importance the race as a whole places on advanced educational goals.
Throughout recent history the Asian cultures have been periodically stripped of their military abilities, however, their educational goals have always been supported. This provides a viable explanation why, today, several generations later, American Asian families place such importance on education which translates to the academic excellence their children display, which in turn leads to the reputation the culture has for academic excellence.
The American Jewish community is only three generations away from the horrors of the Holocaust and the concentration camps. This memory, still fresh, has spurred the parents to insist their children do well academically so that they can have careers and professions that are valued by society.
Cheo, oland. " Making the grade through class effort alone."
Cheo, Roland. " Making the grade through class effort alone."
Economic Society of Australia; (2003) June pp 46
Ho, Tamara. "Environmental, social, and psychological experiences of Asian-American undergraduates: examining issues of academic persistence." (Research).
Journal of Counseling and Development | (2003) January pp
But whether it is suitable for all remains in doubt. An individual searching for a meaningful occupation after college, for example, or who has just lost a loved one and cannot stop asking 'why,' may benefit from the presumptions of logotherapy. However, an individual seeking an immediate solution to a psychological problem of a specific onset and duration may require a form of therapy that is more directed. Individuals who are not particularly articulate about their feelings, or who find the implications of religion or philosophy intimidating might be stymied rather than encouraged to open up with the theory's stress upon philosophy and larger, rather than immediate context of their problems.
Under the most extreme circumstances, Frankl stresses, one can find a will to survive, if one has a reason to do so. For a therapist, he or she must find such a reason within the patient's psyche and life…
Frankl, Victor. Man's Search For Meaning. New York: Pocket Books Reprint Edition, 1997.
(They must pass time through story telling and caring for each other). In "If This is a Man," Primo has to bury his dignity and identity. (Ch. 1 p. 19 before he is arrested he is rebellious. Chapter 2 p. 33 a hollow man reduced to suffering and needs, he is at the bottom. P. 34 name is replaced by a prison number with which one can get food. Chapter 13 the selection to gas chamber, cold, hunger and work leaves little margin for though, even this though, resignation or despair, p. 131).
While similar in many ways the works are also very different. In Levi's work plot is not as important an issue as is Primo's concern with telling his tale through the day-to-day experiences he encounters. Yet these very details including the various settings in which he lives and the tales shared by his character help the…
Brent, L. (2000). "Overview Kiss of the Spider Woman." Literature of Developing Nations for Students, Vol. 1, The Gale Group. Available:
http://mb.sparknotes.com/mb.epl?b=65&m=907770&h=spider, kiss, woman
Levi, P. (1991). "If This is a Man." New York: Abacus.
Forced labor is one of the most important and at the same time intriguing "diseases" of the 21st century particularly because it should no longer be a subject for discussion considering that the 21st century should be one of technological advancements, of improvements in the living standards, as well as it the overall consideration of human life as being essential for the well-being of our future. Yet, there are constant cases of forced labor in regions such as Africa or Asia that have questioned the ability of the state and of the human being to protect another human being from abuses.
The current research focuses on the way in which forced labor is viewed from the point-of-view of the international law, as well as through the lens of a known case study of forced labor that determined not only reactions from the state, but also an increased in the awareness…
Federal Bureau of Investigation. Man Indicted for Forced Labor and Sex Trafficking of Women Forced to Work as Prostitutes in Orange County, 2012, available at http://www.fbi.gov/losangeles/press-releases/2012/man-indicted-for-forced-labor-and-sex-trafficking-of-women-forced-to-work-as-prostitutes-in-orange-county
Holocaust Encyclopedia. Forced labor: an overview, 2013, available at http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005180
International Labor Organization (ILO) Forced Labor Convention, 1930, available at http://www.ilo.org/global/standards/subjects-covered-by-international-labour-standards/forced-labour/lang -- en/index.htm
International Labor Organization (ILO) Forced Labor, 2013, available at http://www.ilo.org/global/topics/forced-labour/lang -- en/index.htm
Due to the brevity of this review, the author will focus in on Part One and some reactions to Frankl which they find ironic. In quoting Lessing, he obviously feels that his behavior was normal. Unfortunately, it was too depressingly normal in our "civilized" world. In Orwellian fashion, the proletarians have been trained to sit there, quo up and receive whatever garbage (or gas) is dumped on our heads. He even waxes poetically on gas in which he draws "an analogy: a man's suffering is similar to the behavior of a gas . . . The "size" of the human suffering is absolutely relative (ibid, 55)." After losing his entire family in the gas chambers, this response is mind numbing. The basic human instinct for human survival is to fight hard as a group to overthrow oppression and hit back at the enemy.
To this author, "normal" behavior looks more…
Frankl, Viktor E. Man's Search For Meaning: An Introduction to Logotherapy . New
York: Touchstone, 1984.
Leone Nelly Sachs was born in erlin on December 10, 1891. She was the only child of a wealthy erlin industrialist. The family lived in the Tiergartenviertel, a fashionable area of erlin. ecause of her family's wealth, Nelly was educated by private tutors her before she entered the erliner Hhere Tchterschule. She studied music and dancing, and at an early age began writing poetry. Her early love of literature came from home. Her preference was for the German Romantic writers.
At the age of 15 she began a correspondence friendship with the Swedish author Selma Lagerlf, which lasted some 35 years. Lagerlof would later win the Nobel Peace prize in 1909 and donate the gold medal to provide war relief to Finland when Stalin's troops attacked. This friendship would become important for Nelly in the years to come.
Nelly began writing poems by the age of seventeen in the traditional,…
NELLY SACHS., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Seventh Edition, 01-01-2002.
Langer, Lawrence. Art from the Ashes: A Holocaust Anthology. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Schiff, Hilda. Holocaust Poetry. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.
Nelly Sachs - Autobiography. 4/27/02. Nobel eMuseum. http://www.nobel.se/literature/laureates/1966/sachs-autobio.html .
The eyes of the women... showed how cruelly one was once again torn from the illusion of a normal middleclass existence.... That more and more each day the Jew was becoming fair game was the devastating realization that underscored every experience of this kind (Kaplan, 1998, p. 52)."
The look of the German woman, on the other hand, became one of increasing masculinity with their sense of superiority, which could not have been achieved without denigrating all things Jewish, including Jewish women. Irene Guenther (2004) writes"
On May 10, 1933, Propaganda Chief Goebbels met with Bella Fromm to discuss a fashion show that was being planned at the racetrack club in Berlin. Fromm, the social columnist for the Vossische Zeitung, one of several newspapers published by Ullstein Verlag, had been staging these shows for quite some time. At their meeting, Goebbels informed Fromm that he was satisfied with her…
Cosner, Shaaron, and Victoria Cosner. Women under the Third Reich: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1998. Questia. 7 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=29226652 .
Fox, Jo. Filming Women in the Third Reich / . Oxford: Berg, 2000. Questia. 7 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102309122 .
Moreover, population groups "…pull up roots and seemingly go out of their way to avoid one another…" throughout Southern California, Worster writes (242). An example of the concept of "pulling up roots" is the community of Watts, which in the 1960s, Worster continues, was "an almost entirely black populace" but by the mid-1990s is "predominately Mexican-American" (p. 243). And Little Tokyo, positioned just south of Los Angeles' City Hall, is now home to a "dwindling population of Japanese-Americans" who have scant interaction with the colonies of artists "who began reclaiming and inhabiting factory and loft buildings" in Little Tokyo. Armenians that once dominated the eastern fringes of Hollywood have "relocated to suburban Glendale" and South Koreans have "settled in the Mid-Wilshire district" which has caused the "displacement of a sizable community of Central Americans," Worster explains. This movement of cultures and ethnicities around the sprawling great Los Angeles region…
Berry, Mary Frances, 2000, Racial and Ethnic Tensions in American Communities: Poverty, Inequality and Discrimination. DIANE Publishing: Darby, Pennsylvania.
Crash. Lion's Gate Home Entertainment. Rated R. (2005)
Erie, Steven P., Freeman, Gregory, and Joassart-Marcelli, Pascale, 2004, W (h)ither Sprawl? Have Regional Water Policies Subsidized Suburban Development? In Up Against the Sprawl: Public Policy and the Making of Southern California, Eds. J. Wolch, M. Pastor, and P. Dreier. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis, MN.
Frommer, Marcos, 1992, 'An Interview with Mike Davis,' Chicago Review, vol. 38, issue 4, 21-44.
Schindler's "essential workers," as the film shows, are not just strong, able-bodied men and women, but also (and this shows Schindler's compassion in addition to his business sense) people missing arms; children, and elderly men and women. After the Krakow Ghetto itself is next destroyed, Schindler bribes the Nazis to let him keep his workers, although some of them actually have few or no skills, which puts the factory itself at risk. Still, Schindler absorbs this risk in order to save these Jews from deportation with all the rest. hen Schindler's workforce once again risks deportation, Schindler arranges, again through bribery, to have them shipped to a factory outside Poland, in his old hometown in Moravia, outside Poland in what is now part of Czechoslovakia.
Ultimately, Oskar Schindler, whose compassion for his Jewish workers continually evolves throughout the film, loses the entire fortune that he has amassed during the war…
Fischel, Jack R. The Holocaust. San Diego, CA: Greenwood Press, January 30,
Schindler's List. With Liam Neeson and Ben Kingsley. Dir. Steven Spielberg.
Schindler's List." Wikipedia. May 22, 2006. Retrieved May 22, 2006, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schindler 's_List.html.
Resistance, Imprisonment & Forced Labor: a Slovene Student in World War II by Metod M. Milac is a memoir and primary source of his experience as a non-Jewish person during the Holocaust. Told through the perspective of Metod, his experiences between 1934 to 1950 allowed readers a glimpse of what it was like for non-Jewish victims experiencing Nazi occupation and encroachment in their homeland. Like another notable Holocaust figure, Anne Frank, both had to deal with incredible hardships brought on by an army that disregarded human rights, yet for someone like Metod, who was a student at the time, he had to deal with such difficulties in the open and with little hope for solace or comfort. The Jewish victims of the Holocaust had to hide or perform illegal actions to evade capture and imprisonment. Non-Jewish victims had to deal with the armies and the brutal treatment they would often…
S. citizenship (Bloemraad 2002). Given the ongoing need for qualified recruits by the U.S. armed forces, it just makes sense to determine the extent of enlistment in the armed forces by immigrants to identify their personal reasons for doing so. To the extent that these reasons are directly related to their desire to obtain American citizenship rather than a sense of patriotic responsibilities is the extent to which military service may represent a viable alternative to more time-consuming, expensive and complication naturalization procedures. It is important, though, to ensure that these immigrant recruits are provided with accurate information concerning how military service will affect their naturalization status and efforts to secure ultimate citizenship.
Rationale of Study
Military recruiters typically experience increases in enlistments during periods of economic downturn because of limited employment opportunities elsewhere in the private sector. Nevertheless, recruiting adequate numbers of high-quality and motivated service members is more…
Anbinder, Tyler, 2006. "Which Poor Man's Fight? Immigrants and the Federal Conscription of
1863." Civil War History 52(4): 344-345.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Bloemraad, Irene, 2002. "The North American Naturalization Gap: an Institutional Approach to Citizenship Acquisition in the United States and Canada." The International Migration