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Conceptualization of Business
Balanced Scorecard Sweet Pea Catering
Sweet Peas Catering Services
The SWOT analysis is an approach that is usually integrated any mostly involves companies and the environmental surrounding analysis. The process is aimed at ensuring there is critical observations of the processes going on in the company, including the strengths and weaknesses of the organization, in most cases business firms. Opportunities and the threats the organization is exposed to are also analyzed, in a specially structured and integrated manner (Bohm, 2009).
SWOT Analysis for the Sweet Peas Catering Services
Legality and regulatory compliance-Sweet Peas Catering Service should ensure its compliance to the laws and regulations governing organizations (Business entities) in its location. This is important and mandatory, to mitigate the company from any litigations in relation to the laws provided in the Companies Acts. Complying with the laws provides the company…
Resources- If resources are available; including the financial, human and also technological resources, then probability of the organization realizing its goals becomes more realistic. Resource availability widens the firm's opportunity to explore the markets more, and take higher risks, which have proven to bring better returns, compared to smaller risks.
Social implications- The firm is at the highest chance to build a good rapport with community, due to the nature of the business. Allowing children to access the right diet will be supported by the community, as it is their children that are most affected by chronic diseases like cancer, diabetes and the others. The majority will therefore support healthy school lunch delivery services.
Processes and Systems (Strategy) - All these aspects aim towards goal achievement. The processes of peas' production, the machinery to be used and time management strategies will determine the organization's ability to perform (Strategy Capabilities).
Political situations- The situation of any country dictates the market situation and also economic stability. If the political situation favors the adoption of organic products for human consumption, then the organization, which targets schools, daycare institutions and the young children, will be at better chance to win favor. If the politics are for fast food restaurants, then the organization better not start to avoid future disappointments.
Conceptualization of Psychological Distress
Psychology is a discipline of mental development and behavior. Psychology involves behavior examination, which determines how actions are related to the environment. Whereas psychology is frequently functional in the treatment and assessment of psychological problems, it can also be applied in solving and understanding problems. This study introduces the different factors, concepts, and themes used to understand and describe psychological disorders. Psychotherapy is a terminology that describes the practice used to treat psychological disorders and other mental distress. This study has fostered the understanding of psychotherapy and psychology by providing the appropriate terminologies and essential definitions on the same.
It is evident that psychological distress is an aspect that bedevils the society. Mental health practitioners and the entire society are expected to have an idea of dealing with the same. The conceptualization of psychological health is critical in deciphering the source of human suffering as elucidated…
Brown, L.S. (2008). Feminist Therapy. In Lebow, Jay L., Mar 28, 2008, Twenty-First Century Psychotherapies: Contemporary Approaches to Theory and Practice. Wiley, Hoboken, ISBN: 9780470187906
Burlingame, G. & McClendon, D. (2008). Group therapy. In Lebow, Jay L., Mar 28, 2008, Twenty-First Century Psychotherapies: Contemporary Approaches to Theory and Practice. Wiley, Hoboken, ISBN: 9780470187906
Cooper, M. (2008). Existential Therapy. In Lebow, Jay L., Mar 28, 2008, Twenty-First Century Psychotherapies: Contemporary Approaches to Theory and Practice. Wiley, Hoboken, ISBN: 9780470187906
Gold, J. & Stricker, G. (2008). Integrative therapy. In Lebow, Jay L., Mar 28, 2008, Twenty-First Century Psychotherapies: Contemporary Approaches to Theory and Practice. Wiley, Hoboken, ISBN: 9780470187906
In this author's opinion, this is the final harvest of the fruit planted with the passage of the PATRIOT Act in 2001 and its various subsequent extensions. Under NDAA, civilian terror suspects (whatever that means in the broad definition) in the U.S. could be held in jail (in a military jail no less) indefinitely without charge or trial. In other words, the military will have carte blanche to take custody of alleged terrorists without virtually any questions. To no one's surprise the ACLU finds that this would be a stark violation of human rights as spelled out under the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights ("ACLU.org").
Media coverage of the whole act has been light. A Google News search conducted by this author on 16 December, 2011 showed the major coverage not by the major media outlets, but rather by blogs and alternative news services. Evidently, it does not…
Blumberg, Abraham S. "The Practice of Law as Confidence Game: Organizational Cooptation of a Profession." Law Society Review. 1.2 (1967): 15-40.
Bukowski, Diane. "National Defense Authorization Act: Internet War on Human Rights Defenders at Home." Voice of Detroit. Voiceofdetroit.net, 15 December 2011. Web. 16 Dec 2011. .
"Indefinite Detention, Endless Worldwide War and the 2012 National Defense Authorization Act ." ACLU.org. ACLU.org, 05 December 2011. Web. 16 Dec 2011. .
Siegel, Larry J. Introduction to Criminal Justice. 12th ed. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2008.
The feminist nature of the novel is established earlier in the novel, wherein the novel begins with the following passage:
Ships at a distance have every man's wish on board. For some they come in with the tide. For others, they sail forever on the horizon, never out of sight, never landing until the Watcher turns his eyes away in resignation, his dreams mocked to death by Time. That is the life of men. Now, women forget all the things they don't want to remember, and remember all the things they don't want to forget. The dream is the truth. Then they act and do things accordingly.
This passage from the novel sets the mood and primary thesis of Hurston's novel. Through the imagery of ships, the author elucidates her own meaning of what it is like to dream when you are a man, and when you are a woman,…
Ibsen, H. E-text of a doll's house. Available at http://gutenberg.net .
Kafka, F. (1996). The Metamorphosis and other stories. (Dover Thrift edition). NY: Dover Thrift Publications, Inc.
Voltaire. E-text of Candide. Available at http://www.literature.org/authors/voltaire/candide/chapter-03.html .
According to abbie (1998), the process of conceptualization is best defined as "the process through which we specify what we will mean when we use particular terms" (120). Thus, for researchers conducting a study on poverty, the initial step that must be done to direct the researchers towards the goal of their study is to come up with a definition that best describes the study's concept of poverty. Thus, researchers must consider first the variety of dimensions in which people understand poverty. Poverty, for people, can be intrinsically or extrinsically manifested -- that is, poverty may be measured because of concrete evidence, or it can only de identified, determined, and approximately measured (if possible) when it is used and perceived in abstract terms. An example of this case is when the researchers are conducting research in on poverty in Los Angeles, California. Los Angeles is considered a "melting pot"…
Babbie, E. (1998). The Practice of Social Research. NY: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
One example of this is Lyle's conception of family life. His father punished him. This punishment was based upon a decontextualized biblical passage, and claimed to be the result of fatherly love. Hence Lloyd's conception of fatherly love was skewed from a very early age. For Lyle, the "truth" behind punishment is love. His anger and pain, as suppressed elements, fuel this conception, and Lyle is unable to break the cycle of his own violence.
Problem solving is another part of reasoning with which Lyle has considerable difficulty. He is faced with several problems. The first problem is his broken window. An effective way to solve this problem would have been to accept the Bravertons' offer to pay for it. However, this would not solve the problem in Lyle's mind. Instead, he requires punishment for the child responsible. When he is unable to obtain this, his inability to solve the…
Psychodyanamic Case Conceptualization
The client is a 55-year-old European-American male named Gary, who is divorced from the only woman he had romantic involvement with 20 years ago. Gary raised three children when his wife left after 16 years of marriage. Gary's life is stable and predictable and due to very little changes in his life, the threat of change makes Gary anxious enough to contemplate suicide. Gary has lived on family property all of his life that the family has held since the 1800s and he has worked at the same job for 35 years, driven the same car of 20 years. His home is dusty and neglected and the house has not been properly cleaned in years. As well, the client does not eat properly and avoids addressing the issues in his life that result in the client caring little for his own needs.
Themes/Clients Presenting Problems
Rathe, EL (2008) TRANSFERENCE AND COUNTERTRANSFERENCE FROM A MODERN PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE. Presented at: NACSW Convention 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.nacsw.org/Publications/Proceedings2008/RatheETransference.pdf
Psychodynamic Personality Assessment (nd) Chapter Four. Wiley & Sons. Retrieved from: http://www.wiley.com/college/mischel/0470001674/sc/ch04.pdf
Health Services Research
The conceptualization stage in health services research is defined as the process through which we specify what we will mean when we use particular terms that will be used in the research. Conceptualization is primarily concerned with two major steps: the formulation of the problem statement and defining the conceptual and operational terms in the problem statement.
In formulating the problem statement, it should be specific, identifying clearly the variables/concepts and measures/indicators that will be studied in the research. Apart from being specific, problem statements should also be verifiable, meaning, each variable or concept is not only identifiable, but also measurable. These variables and concepts are measured through instruments, which must contain statements that are phrased affirmatively. Statements in the instrument must also be simple (and researchers must avoid double-barreled questions), clear, and unambiguous. The formulation of the problem statement is perhaps the most important part of…
Social psychology conceptualization of self
Simply put, self-concept is the way one thinks about what they are and how they evaluate themselves. When one is referred to as aware of self it means that they have concept of self. There are however varied definitions of self-concept especially in regard the relation with self-esteem. Baumeister (1999) indicates that the definition of self is what a person believes about "himself or herself, including the person's attributes and who and what the self is." Self-concept has a wider coverage than self-esteem in that as self-esteem is limited to the emotional reaction, the self-concept covers everything that is known to the person like the name, the race, the dislikes and the likes, beliefs and value systems and even the physical appearances like height and weight (Todd F & Carry L, n.d:2).
Development of self-concept
The social psychologists have come up with several sources…
Baumeister, R.F. (Ed.) (1999). The Self in Social Psychology. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis).
Psychology Press, (2012). Constructing the self-concept: What we know about ourselves (pp. 96 -- 107). Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://psypress.co.uk/smithandmackie/resources/topic.asp?topic=ch04-tp-01
Jessica L & Richard W, (n.d: 189). Self-Conscious Emotions: Where Self and Emotion Meet. Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://ubc-emotionlab.ca/wp-content/files_mf/sedikidesbookchapterproofs22.pdf
MacLeod S. (2008). Self-Concept. Retrieved October 21, 2012 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/self-concept.html
children's conceptualization of race and experiences with racial discrimination" details a research study regarding the awareness and impact of racism on young children. The researchers conducted a series of interview with children from seven to 12 years old in which one of the most crucial criteria was determining whether or not the youths could define racism themselves. The children were either black, Hispanic or white; the white children served as a control (of sorts) since the rate of incidence of their experience of racial discrimination was thought to be less than those of the aforementioned historical minority groups. The principle effect of racism studied was self-esteem, which was measured in the children via the Rosenberg Scale.
The results demonstrated that black children were more aware of racism than the other two groups of children, due to the fact that they could define the term in measurable ways through the Williams-Every-day-Discrimination…
Narrative therapy is a postmodern therapeutic approach that focuses on the stories or narratives that people form and develop to explain meaning in their lives (White & Epstein, 1990). Narratives are affected by social constructions and subjective interpretations of events in people's lives. The therapist attempts to help the client by working together to modify narratives that are ineffective or detrimental to the client's functioning (White & Epstein, 1990). The narrative therapy approach was developed in the 1970s by Michael White and David Epstein (White & Epstein, 1990) and gained acceptance in counseling and psychotherapy circles following a series of books written by them. Catrina Brown is a well-known therapist and author specializing in applying narrative therapy to women's issues. Narrative therapists appear to concentrate on family and couples therapy; however, they can also be found in single client therapy, education, and community psychology programs (Brown, 2007; Winslade & Monk,…
Brown, C. (2007). Situating knowledge and power in the therapeutic alliance. In C. Brown & T.
Augusta-Scott (Eds.), Narrative therapy: Making meaning, making lives (pp. 3-22).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Combs, G., & Freedman, J. (2012). Narrative, Poststructuralism, and Social Justice Current
Practices in Narrative Therapy. The Counseling Psychologist,40(7), 1033-1060.
Counseling Therapies: Case Conceptualization
Case One: CBT
What Are the Specific Areas of Concern?
Suicide and Stress
Stress has been found to play a major role in suicide risk, mental disorders, and mood swings. Stress is one term most people use synonymously with negative experiences they get in life. Negative events in life which confer depression risks, suicide thoughts and behavior, involve interpersonal, traumatic childhood and occupational events. Trauma, mostly childhood trauma, has important short-term and long-term effects on suicidal behavior risks. Particularly, child abuse (physical, emotional and sexual), parental mental illness, parental death, and witnessing home violence in childhood have all been connected to acute suicidal behavior for long intervals. Interpersonal events in life are also known to increase suicidal behavior risks. The death of a spouse or parent, serious disagreement with a staff, and social exit events (e.g. a child running away from home) have been connected to…
American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. (2016). Risk Factors and Warning Signs. Retrieved from American Foundation for Suicide Prevention: http://afsp.org/about-suicide/risk-factors-and-warning-signs/
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1999). Brief Strategic/Interactional Therapies. In Brief Interventions and Brief Therapies for Substance Abuse. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (U.S.).
Cornette, M. M., & Busch, A. M. (2016). Stress and Suicide. Retrieved from Charles E. Kubly Foundation: http://charlesekublyfoundation.org/resource-center/resource-articles/stress-and-suicide/
Matthews, J. D. (2013). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Approach for Suicidal Thinking and Behaviors in Depression. In R. Woolfolk, & L. Allen (Eds.), Mental Disorders - Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives.
eber's conception of bureaucracy and "Office Space"
Although 'red tape' and bureaucracy have become synonyms with inefficiency, the German sociologist Max eber saw the development of bureaucracies as a positive rather than a negative development in human society. eber believed in an ideal of an unbiased, efficient, rational bureaucracy, governed by uniform laws like a legal code as the best way to structure a fair society. Bureaucracies were superior to what had existed before in primitive, traditional societies, in which tasks and duties were not well defined for the economic participants. Bureaucracies were also superior to patronage-dependent totalitarian or charismatic authorities ruling society, which focused around the devotion to a particular individual rather than getting things done. Rational bureaucracies were based on neatly defined rules and jobs and promotions were strictly based on technical competence.
However, in the film "Office Space," the rules the main protagonist Peter must follow are…
Dealing with patients that exhibit paranoid behavior can be difficult. Paranoia as well as suspicious thoughts can often happen in up to 10 to 15% of the general population (Trexler, 2012). Couple that with persecutory delusions, and this can lead to a diagnosis of psychosis. With the patient having a history of a psychotic break and displaying messages she believes as secret, she is displaying characteristics of paranoia. This has apparently affected her everyday life as she has altered sleeping and eating patterns and has missed work.
Because she does not want to go to an appointment and is attempting to rationalize her odd behavior, it is important to talk her into going to an appointment to try to get her to discuss her life situation and help her realize what is going on and approach the situations with cognitive-behavioral techniques to help reduce distress (Freeman & Garety, 2006). The…
Freeman, D., & Garety, P. (2006). Helping patients with paranoid and suspicious thoughts: a cognitive-behavioural approach. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 12(6), 404-415. doi:10.1192/apt.12.6.404
Trexler, L. E. (2012). Cognitive rehabilitation: Conceptualization and intervention. Place of publication not identified: Springer Science & Business Media.
Conceptualizations of Racism in Contemporary ritain
Racism in contemporary ritain is a complex and often contentious issue. The important issues related to this concept are difficult for various critics to agree upon. Issues such as primordialism and the importance of class structures in the struggle for racial equality serve as the center of various debates surrounding race and racism in contemporary ritain.
Primordialism is a concept attached to the biological origins of race, and the effect of this upon social behavior (Mason in Rex & Mason 5). The question surrounding this issue is whether the phenotype or culture attached to racial origins has an independent effect or whether it is mediated by contemporary social meaning. This is reminiscent of the biological inferiority theories that provides race as an excuse for oppression. The scientific exploration of human origins is thus incorporated into racist theory. According to the ell Curve (published…
Ben-Tovim, G., J. Gabriel, I. Law, and K. Stredder. "A Political Analysis of Local Struggles for Racial Equality." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Jenkins, R. "Social Anthropological Models of Inter-ethnic Relations." Ben-Tovim, G., J. Gabriel, I. Law, and K. Stredder. "A Political Analysis of Local Struggles for Racial Equality." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Mason, D. "Controversies and Continuities in Race and Ethnic Relations Theory." In Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Edited by John Rex and David Mason. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986.
Mason, D. Race and Ethnicity in Modern Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan
Theories of Counseling
This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.
New York: The Guilford Press.
Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
speak Holistic conceptualization considers biological, psychological, social, political, spiritual implications integrates Stage Change Model suggested treatment plan/interventions.
Holistic conceptualization: Stages of change model
The stages of change model indicates that people go through specific 'stages' when contemplating giving up a negative behavior pattern: pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation/determination, action/willpower, and maintenance (Motivational interviewing and stages of change, 2014, SAMHSA). "By identifying where a person is in the change cycle, interventions can be tailored to the individual's 'readiness' to progress in the recovery process. Interventions that do not match the person's readiness are less likely to succeed and more likely to damage rapport, create resistance, and impede change" (Motivational interviewing and stages of change, 2014, SAMHSA). In the case of Shelia, who has relapsed after undergoing treatment for her heroin and cocaine addictions, she would be said to be in the 'contemplation' stage of embarking upon change once again. During the 'avoidance' phase,…
Motivational interviewing and stages of change. (2014). SAMHSA. Retrieved from:
The stopping of treatment is the primary reason for this early intervention. This tactic has been extremely successful for many years and should be
Once the induction interviews are complete, the client and the social worker can move on to treating the patient. Once the treatment has started it is vitally important that the social worker pay careful attention to eliminating communication patterns that are counterproductive. Social workers have to be careful not to get stuck in unproductive type of communication that serve no purpose and do nothing to assist the client.
In addition if a social worker must examine the family functioning and diverse family and cultural contexts. This simply means that the social worker is responsible for examining the home situation of the client and assisting the client based on this environment. There are several different family structures that may be present including single family homes, blended families…
Glossary. Retrieved November 24, 2009 from: http: / / www. cmpmhmr. cog.pa.us / glossary.html
Hardcastle, David A. (2004) Community Practice: Theories and Skills for Social Workers. Cary, NC: Oxford University Press
Hepworth, DH Rooney, R.H., Rooney, G.D., Strom-Gottfried K., Larsen J. (2009) Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills. Cengage Learning, 2009
Ogrodniczuk, J.S., Joyce, A.S., and Piper W.E. (2005) Strategies for Reducing Patient-Initiated Premature Termination of Psychotherapy. Harvard Review Psychiatry Vol. 13 Issue 2, p57-70, 14p. March/April 2005
Conceptualization and operationalization of variables
Poor communication between young athletes and coaches leads to longer recovery times and increased levels of frustration amongst athletes regarding their prognosis.
Independent Variable: Effective and ineffective communication between coaches and young athletes.
Conceptualization: Sports injuries are a serious concern. There has been a rise in the rate of youth sports injuries in recent decades, an increase partially attributed to a corresponding rise in youth specialization at an early age and year 'round participation in the same type of competitive sports activity, versus varying sports (Merkel & Molony 2013). In some sports, there are also grave concerns about the risk of permanent injury on every level of competition, as manifested in concerns about head trauma amongst football players, making it all the more critical to reduce the likelihood of such injuries occurring when young (Lopate 2013). Overuse injuries are common many popular youth sports: "Preteens…
Apache, R.R. (2006). The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports:
Validity and reliability. Physical Educator, 63(3), 126-133.
Borggrefe, C., & Cachay, K. (2013). Communicative challenges of coaches in an elite-level sports system: Theoretical reflections on successful coaching strategies. EJSS: European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(1), 7-29.
Caine, D. (et al. 2006). Physical injuries in children's and youth sports:
A precursor behavior denotes to actions that happen before the difficulty. For instance, in the circumstance above there are some actions that happen before the setback. First, Jasmine parents are very strict basically forcing her to accept strict religious rules thus becoming very uncomfortable (Murdock, 2008). Also, Jasmine seems to go along with her father strict rules and seems to see everything in black and white thus making her feel as though her mother does not accept her. Jasmine begins not to like her parents because they really do not permit her to make independent decisions that are independent. Another behavior is that Danita is forced to move to America to stay with her parents. She does not agree with her parents strict rules and how they convince her. This really makes her more upset as she believes that her mother is not allowing her to make decisions of her…
Berman, P.S. (2009). Case Conceptualization and Treatment Planning. Atlanta: Penguin.
Harris, N. (2007). Modern Psychotherapy. New York: READ BOOkS.
Kramer, U., Berger, T., & Caspar, F. (2009). Psychotherapeutic case conceptualization using plan analysis for bipolar affective disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(4), 352.
Murdock, N. (2008). Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Case Approach. Canada: Peasron.
Andrea M. is a 21-year-old female in her fourth year of college with aspirations to become a civil rights attorney. She was first recommended to seek treatment when she experienced her first panic attack three years ago. At the time, a friend advised her to seek counseling. However, Andrea never did seek counseling at that time. Andrea has since been avoiding certain types of social situations, has gravitated towards jobs with as little social contact as possible, and fears that her anxiety may be impacting her performance in school and her ability to find viable work as an intern this summer. She loves "diving into my work" and becoming absorbed in her academics, but when it comes to attending classes, Andrea feels stressed and has been missing more classes than she has ever before. After not showing up to classes for two weeks, and an incident involving alcohol poisoning during…
Amir, N. & Bomyea, J. (2010). Cognitive biases in social anxiety disorder. In Hoffman, S.G. & DiBartolo, P.M. (2010). Social Anxiety. 2nd Edition.
Andersson, G., et al. (2012). Therapeutic alliance in guided internet-delivered cognitive behavioural treatment of depression, generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder. Behavior Research and Therapy 50(9), 554-550.
Anxiety and Depression Association of America (2014). Social anxiety disorder. Retrieved online: http://www.adaa.org/understanding-anxiety/social-anxiety-disorder
Bogels, S.M., Alden, L. et al. (2010). Social anxiety disorder. Depression and Anxiety 27, 169-189.
The observations from this examination are: that the individual can influence their thoughts and actions, by knowing how they will affect the process. Argyris and Schon's theories for actions shows, the positive or negative effect that these thoughts will have for all parties. In some cases, this could mean that there could be different thoughts / interpretations, about what is occurring for a particular event. In the case of any good leader, they must look at the situation outside of their own views, to be able to understand the thoughts and actions of others.
Argyris and Schon's theories provides: a way for leaders, to be able to understand the situation outside of their own perspective. Where, the actions theory will help them, to take a step back and see the situation from various points-of-views. Once this occurs, is when leaders will be able to understand how, the issue…
Anderson, L. (1994). Argyris and Schon's Theory. Retrieved July 2, 2010 from Action Research website: http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/argyris.html
Chitwood, R. (2004). Lack of Leadership. Retrieved July 2, 2010 from Max Sacks website: http://www.maxsacks.com/articles/article0803.html
Dick, Bob. (2006). Argyris and Schon. Retrieved July 2, 2010 from Action Research website: http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/argyris2.html#a_as_intro
There is a clear divide between the real care nurses must give -- and do give, every day -- and the layperson's perceptions of nursing (Scher 2003).
Scher, Betty. (2003). Second opinion. Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing Journal.
1(1). Retrieved http://www.son.jhmi.edu/JHNmagazine/archive/spring2003/pages/second_opinion.htm
In my work as a nurse on the med/surg floor of an urban hospital, I encountered many individuals with lifestyle-related issues. Heart disease, diabetes, and strokes may present themselves as acute situations, but often the real precipitating cause is related to choices about diet and exercise the individual has made over the course of a lifetime. A recent sociological theory that can help address this issue is the concept of 'social contagion:' individuals tend to norm their health behaviors to the lifestyle choices of their friends. If their friends make good choices regarding food, exercise, and preventative care, they are likely to do so as…
Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L. & Cassie L. Cunningham, Cassie L. (2008). Geographical
clustering of eating disordered behaviors in U.S. high school students.
International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41 (3): 209-214.
(Eljamal; Stark; Arnold; Sharp, 1999)
To conclude, it be said that if we will not be able to master imparting the capability to think in a developed form, our profession, as well as perhaps our world, would be influenced and taken over by someone who would be able to outsmart us to find it out. We would in that case not only remain thinking as to what happened but would also not have the skills required to provide answers to our own question.
Braun, N.M. (2004, March/April) Critical thinking in the business curriculum. Journal of Education for Business, 79(4). etrieved from ProQuest database on February 20, 2007.
Carroll-Johnson, .M. (2001, April - June). Learning to think. Nursing Diagnosis, 12(2).
etrieved from Thomson Gale database on February 14, 2007.
Cheung, C., udowicz, E., Kwan, a.S.F., & Yue, X.D. (2002, December). Assessing university students general and specific critical thinking. College Student…
Braun, N.M. (2004, March/April) Critical thinking in the business curriculum. Journal of Education for Business, 79(4). Retrieved from ProQuest database on February 20, 2007.
Carroll-Johnson, R.M. (2001, April - June). Learning to think. Nursing Diagnosis, 12(2).
Retrieved from Thomson Gale database on February 14, 2007.
Cheung, C., Rudowicz, E., Kwan, a.S.F., & Yue, X.D. (2002, December). Assessing university students general and specific critical thinking. College Student Journal, 36(4). Retrieved from ProQuest database February 14, 2007.
This construction gave credence to the concept of class consciousness. Class consciousness is really class identity; it is the way entire groups of people conceive themselves as belonging to a whole. This understanding permeates the corpus and unites the initiated into a common group think. This group or class view is reinforced through the economic determinants that are at the foundation of the group's position. These determinants reinforce inequalities and class identities.
The challenge to class as a locus of identity formation; results from the assertion that contemporary society is too layered and complex for class identity to be relevant. The discussion centers not on the existence of inequalities but the explanation of those inequalities. In the postmodern context the inequalities that exist are not anchored in an a priori formulation of class structure. This formulation considers the development of a classless society. This is not to be interpreted as…
Becker H.S. (2003).The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions Symbolic
Interaction, 26 (4):659-669.
Bottero, W. (2004). Class Identities and the Identity of Class. Sociology 38 (5): 985-1003.
Burnhill, P., Garner, C., McPherson, a. (1990). Parental Education, Social Class and Entry to Higher Education 1976-86. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series a (Statistics
Client Information: Alexandria Wright, 37 years old, female
Description Alexandria Wright is a 37-year-old female who came to Dr. Hidlan for therapy. She is married and has two children, both boys. Alexandria also has three sisters: one older and two younger.
The client mentioned that she had counseling a year ago, but has no history of psychiatric evaluation. Although the client has no official history of diagnosis, she has had some issues relating to her family members. She gets along well with one of her sisters, but not as well with the others. Her sisters view Alexandria as being a "perfectionist" and overly obsessed with organizing things.
Client Mental State
Cognition: Alexandria's thoughts are generally clear and she has a good deal of self-awareness. However, she might be in denial about the extent to which her hyper-organizing is a sign or symptom of an underlying problem. Her thoughts are…
"Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder," (2012). Retrieved online: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0001926/
Age of Traffic Speeders
General Problem Area
This research proposal is designed to find out the relationship between speeding in a motor vehicle, and the age of the speeder. There are many variables that make up the sum total of a traffic accident, and one of those is whether or not any or all of the vehicles were speeding at the time the accident occurred (Vinluan, 2008). The proposal here will not focus on accidents, however, or even tickets, specifically. The goal is only to determine whether a person speeds and what that person's age is, not to examine the consequences or potential consequences of that action. While these can be important for those who speed in that they can be putting themselves and others at risk, the study here is not focused on what may result from the behavior, only if the behavior occurs and in what age group…
Actual speeds on the roads compared to the posted limits, final report 551. (2004). Arizona Dept of Transportation.
Engineering speed limits - FHWA safety program (2014). United States Department of Transportation - Federal Highway Administration, Office of Safety.
Elvik, R. (2012). Speed limits, enforcement, and health consequences. Annual Review of Public Health, 33: 225 -- 238.
Marvel, C.C. (2010). Meaning of "residence district," "business district," "school area," and the like, in statutes and ordinances regulating speed of motor vehicles. American Law Reports -- Annotated, 2nd Series, 50. The Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Company; Bancroft-Whitney; West Group Annotation Company.
His violence shows frustration, and the wife bears with it because she has no option. He calls her names, ridicules her singing, and treats her like a dog. At the same time, the wife is actively trying to relieve their poverty through this booze peddling scheme, but the husband criticizes her efforts. He would rather her be a stay-at-home mother.
In Hyo-sok's story, it is significant that Ho's only love affair is broken up because of the conditions of colonial poverty. The woman he has a brief but memorable affair with disappears to become a tavern girl as a result of her family's downfall. ut when he encounters the blooming buckwheat, it reminds him of his affair with the town beauty. He reminisces about those better days when destiny was more kind. It says that "whenever he recalled it he felt that his life had been worth living" (5). In…
Caprio, Mark E. Japanese Assimilation Policies in Colonial Korea: 1910-1945. Seattle: University of Washington, 2009. Print.
Eckert, Carter J. And Ki-baik Lee, Young Ick Lew, Michael Robinson, and Edward W. Wagner. Korea Old and New: A History. Seoul, Korea: Ilchokak, 1990. Print.
Hyo-sok, Yi. "When the Buckwheat Blooms." Trans. Kim Chong-un and Bruce Fulton. 1936. Web. Http://hompi.sogang.ac.kr/anthony/klt/96wint/yihyosok.htm .
Lee, Ki-baik. A New History of Korea. Trans. Edward W. Wagner with Edward J. Shultz. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1984. Print.
Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.
Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…
Finlayson, R. (2003). We Shall Overcome: The History of the American Civil Rights
Movement. Lerner Publications Company, Minneapolis, MN.
King, Jr., M. And Jackson, J. (1963). Why We Can't Wait. Signet Classic, New York,
Weber, on the other hand, did not agree that social and political class could really be considered one and the same. For him, the material inequality observable in society was the source of power and stratification, and not merely the result of the system (Davidson 2009). While still uniting the concepts of ideology and materialism, Weber's view can in some ways be seen as a reversal of Marx's; the material inequality was the means by which the ideological and political inequality could be perpetuated (Davidson 2009). The greater opportunities available to those who had greater wealth allowed for their continued dominance.
Briefly describe how two different theorists might analyze the economic climate of today and what brought it on? How would each of them understand how it would happen and what will happen in the near future.
There are many similarities between the sociological theories of Emil Durkheim and Max…
Bartle, P. (2009). "Durkheim & Weber." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://www.scn.org/cmp/modules/soc-web.htm
Davidson, a. (2009). "Comparing Karl Marx and Max Weber." Accessed 12 October 2009. http://www.helium.com/items/1598754-marx-and-weber-on-social-class
Ritzer, G. & Goodman, D. (2004). Sociological Theory. New York: McGraw Hill.
The assumption here is that ounselor burnout may be heightened as a result of the diversity of students who attend post seondary eduational institutions, and the variety of servies the 2-year postseondary ounselors must provide to these students. This assumption is ongruent with the findings of a study by Wilkerson and Bellini (2006) who advise, "Professional shool ounselors are asked to perform multiple duties as part of their daily work. Some of these duties math the desriptions set forth by national standards for shool ounseling programs, whereas others do not" (p. 440).
Consequently, shool ounselors are required to formulate deisions on a daily basis onerning the best way to perform their jobs (Wilkerson & Bellini). Not surprisingly, many shool ounselors are overwhelmed by these onstantly hanging working onditions and requirements, and a number of ounselors experiene high levels of stress as a result. Beause the onnetion between high levels of…
cited in Angerer, 2003). Unfortunately, it would seem that most helping professionals, including counselors, possess characteristics which predisposed them to this construct. For example, Lambie notes that, "Counselors may have increased susceptibility to burnout because of their training to be empathic which is essential to the formation of a therapeutic relationship. In fact, research has found counselor empathy to account for two thirds of the variance in supporting clients' positive behavioral change" (p. 32). The ability to remain empathic to the plights and challenges typically being experienced by students in community colleges is complicated by the enormous diversity that is increasingly characterizing these institutions, of course, but all helping professionals run the risk of becoming burned out while performing their responsibilities by virtue of their empathic sharing. In this regard, Lambie emphasizes that, "Empathy helps counselors understand the client's experience, but at the same time, a counselor may experience the emotional pain of multiple traumatized clients. Empathy is a double-edged sword; it is simultaneously your greatest asset and a point of real vulnerability; therefore, a fundamental skill of effective counselors, being empathic, may place counselors at high risk for burnout" (p. 33).
Citing the alarming results of a national survey of counselors that indicated that incidence may be almost 40%, Lambie also emphasizes that although all professions involve some degree of stress, counselors and other human service providers are at higher risk of burnout compared to other professionals. For example, this author notes that, "Counseling professionals are often in close contact with people who are in pain and distress. This continuous exposure to others' despair, combined with rare opportunities to share the benefits of clients' successes, heightens counselors' risk for burnout" (Lambie, p. 34). Other authorities confirm the incidence of burnout among educators, and cite even higher rates than the foregoing estimate. For instance, Cheek, Bradley and Lan (2003) report that, "Based on several international studies, approximately 60% to 70% of all teachers repeatedly show symptoms of stress, and a minimum of 30% of all educators show distinct symptoms of burnout" (p. 204). Indeed, a study by Lumsden (1998) determined that overall teacher morale was sufficiently severe that fully 40% of the educators who were surveyed indicated they would not choose teaching again as a career, and far more than half (57%) remained undecided at the time concerning ending their teaching career, were actively making plans to leave teaching, or would opt to leave the teaching field in the event a superior opportunity presented itself.
There are some other qualities that typify school counselors that may predispose them to becoming burned out over the course of time (some quicker than others, of course), but which may reasonably be expected to adversely effect the ability of school counselors to maintain their effectiveness in the workplace. For instance, Lambie concludes that, "Common counselor qualities of being selfless (i.e., putting others first), working long hours, and doing whatever it takes to help a client place them at higher susceptibility to burnout. As a result, counselors may themselves need assistance in dealing with the emotional pressures of their work" (p. 34).
Counselors and Characteristics of Burnout
Changes (Global, National, Region, Local, and Farm)
In the work entitled: "Climate Change and Agriculture" a brochure prepared for the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food written by Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. In Section 4: Impact of Climate Change on Crops report findings that:
1) Elevated temperature increased their rate of grain growth but shortened the duration of grain filling;
2) Higher temperatures may have decreased the availability of assimilates so decreasing grain size, grain yield and mass per grain; and 3) Higher temperatures reduced average mass per grain, in one experiment, by 25% in normal CO2 and 14% in elevated conditions." (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. nd)
The following chart demonstrates the effect that CO2, temperature, and CO2 combined with a higher temperature had on crop yields in this study.
Change in yield (%)
Source: (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, 2006)
Chipanshi, a., Chanda, R., & Totolo, O. (Dec 2003). Vulnerability assessment of the maize and sorghum crops to climate change in Botswana. Climatic Change, 61(3).
Dhakwa, G. & Campbell, L. (Dec 1998). Potential effects of differential day-night warming in global climate change on crop production. Climatic Change, 40(3).
Isik, M. & Devadoss, S. (20 April 2006). An analysis of the impact of climate change on crop yields and yield variability. Applied Economics, 38(7).
Peng, S., Huang, J., Sheehy, J., Laza, R., Visperas, R., Zhong, X., Centeneo, G., Khush, G., & Cassman, K. (6 July 2004). Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(27).
In summary there is a complete lack of methodology to get beyond what appears to be a major opportunity in the Hanoi market for healthcare when in fact there was a very good reason that part of the market was open; no one had taken the time to define services in the high-end of medical services, and the pricing dynamics of the market would later prove to be difficult to sustain such a high-end hospital on. If the founders had done research before the actual launch of the VIH they would have known this.
If you had been acting as a pre-project marketing consultant to Mr. Lee what might you have done by way of data collection to ascertain the nature of the market? (Remember, this is a developing-world country, and oftentimes consumers have little conceptualization of the product you envision.) would have taken a very systematic approach to building…
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
The internet is a primary source of entertainment, the different cultural music and arts are uploaded on the internet, making the different cultures more accessible to the diverse cultures in other parts of the world. Apart from music and movies, which are freely ready for download on the internet, there is plenty of news on the internet, both in print and video form, which can be accessed by those interested. There is a lot of rebellion towards the use of internet, as some people are of the perception that some of the information from the internet might be prone to human error, and might be misleading to the users. Some authors and researchers have also indicated that there are several negative implications brought about by the internet; these include health, social and interpersonal implications, just but to name a few. Regardless of the criticisms and concern by certain groups of…
Rory, O'Connor. Friends, Followers and the Future: How Social Media and Changing Politics, Threatening Big Brands and Killing Traditional Media. New York: City Light Books Publishers, 2012. Print.
Paul, Pedersen. Routledge Handbook of Sport Communication. New York: Routledge Publishers, 2013. Print.
Weaver, D. & Willnat, L. The Global journalist in the 21st Century. New York: Routledge Publishers, 2012. Print.
Peters, C. & M.J. Broersma. Rethinking Journalism: Trust and Participation in a Transformed News Landscape. New York: Routledge Publishers, 2012. Print.
Families Society" PURPOSE: The purpose exercise conduct a detailed, critical evaluation research design, methods analysis a study written published a peer-reviewed journal.
Valentine, K., Thomson, C., & Antcliff, G. (2009). Early childhood services and support for vulnerable families: Lessons from the Benevolent Society's Partnerships In Early
Childhood Program. Australian Journal of Social Issues, 44(2), 195-213,120.
Yes, it is very specific.
Do subtitles, if present, provide important information regarding the research?
Yes, they bullet-point the basic components of the article although they do not label all of the conventionally-expected components of a research article like a literature review.
Are the main variables expressed in the title?
Are the terms in the title easily understood by most people?
To some extent: the general subject matter is clear, although not what is meant by vulnerable families, nor is the Partnerships In Early Childhood Program (PIEC) well-known.
5) Does the title avoid any…
ecruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity
The Effects of ecruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity
Maintaining cultural diversity in an organization can lead to innovation and an increased competitive advantage in the marketplace. In the past, the term cultural diversity referred to differences in race or religion. Now, the term cultural diversity means much more than that. As the uniqueness of each individual is recognized, the term cultural diversity has grown to encompass many factors about a person and their background. Cultural diversity is no longer delineated by major lines of color and national origin. This research will explore the effects of human resources on cultural diversity within an organization.
Cultural Diversity and the Workforce
acial diversity issues have increased in importance since the Civil ights Movement of 1964. It was recognized that white, Caucasian, males still constituted the majority in the workforce. Until that time, the select group was treated as…
Avery, D.R. & McKay, P.F. (2006). Target practice. An organizational impression management approach to attracting minority and female job applicants. Personal Psychology.
Chrobot-Mason, D. & Leslie, J.B. (2003). The role of multicultural competence and emotional intelligence in managing diversity. 32 (3): 269-263.
Cox, T. (1993). Cultural diversity in organizations: Theory, research and practice. San Francisco,
CA: Berrett-Koehle Publishers, Inc.
Based on Kolb's model of learning styles, I am a Diverger. This means that I am oriented towards reflective observation rather than active experimentation -- strongly in my case -- and I am also oriented slightly to concrete experience over abstract conceptualization. The characteristics of the Diverger style of learning are that I perceive information concretely, but process reflectively. So I am imaginative, believe in my own experience and am an insight thinker (Kolb, 2013).
When I thought about how I would learn how to plant a rose garden, I guess the first thing is that I thought about it. I assume somebody more oriented towards active experimentation might just dive right in and start digging, figuring out the details as they go along. For me, I went straight for the Internet to get a list of things to do and a list of pitfalls to watch out…
Kolb, D. (2013). Kolb's model of learning styles. LifeCircle Inc.. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/constructivism/kolb.html
No author. (2014). Kolb learning styles. Business Balls.com. Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://www.businessballs.com/kolblearningstyles.htm
Mental health practitioners' clinical supervision began similar to the practice of "apprenticeship" in other areas. Apprentices or pupils possessing basic skills and knowledge would become proficient in work through observation, assisting the accomplished professional in that field, and receiving his/her feedback. The belief was that, since the "master" excelled at the job, his/her supervisory and teaching skills would be just as good. However, this is not true always. Experts in the field have realized today that, despite counseling and clinical supervision having a lot in common (including the ability of engaging in effective interpersonal relationships), these two tasks employ unique and different skills. In other words, an expert clinician will not invariably be an expert supervisor, without adding supervisory skills and knowledge training and experience. Moreover, the specialist-apprentice supervision concept induces a power hierarchy that favors the specialist or coach as "authority" in the field; this dynamic receives…
Bernard, J. M., & Goodyear, R. K. (2014). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Bernard, J., & Goodyear, R. (1992). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Borders, L. D., & Brown, L. L. (2005). The new hand of counseling supervision. Mahwah, NJ: Lahaska Press.
Borders, L. D., DeKruyf, L., Fernando, D. M., Fernando, H. L., Hays, D. G., Page, B., & Welfare, L. E. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.acesonline.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/10/ACES - Best-Practices-in-clinical-supervision-document-FINAL.pdf
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
The trainer will then focus on the steps to be taken to develop new skills. For example, if the trainer wants to talk about motivating, leading, negotiating, selling or speaking, it is best to start with what the learners do well before showing some chart on Maslow's theory, Posner's leadership practices, or selling skills from some standard package that has been develop elsewhere. Many foreign trainers make grave errors because they do not consider the values and beliefs of the trainee's culture. Training must make a fit with the culture of those being trained, including the material being taught, as well as the methods being used (Schermerhorn, 1994).
Abu-Doleh (1996) reports that Al-Faleh (1987), in his study of the culture influences on management development, asserts that "a country's culture has a great influence on the individual and managerial climate, on organizational behaviour, and ultimately on the types of management development…
Principal-Agent Model in Economics and Political Science
The international political perspectives of free trade
A Global Analysis
International Trade Impact on Tunisia
The Export of agricultural products
International trade and development of Tunisia
Balance in the Trade egime
Imports and exports of Tunisia
Coping With External and Internal Pressures
The Common External Tariff (CET)
Anti-Dumping Duties (ADDs) and Countervailing Duties (CVDs)
ules of origin
The New Commercial Policy Instrument
Sector Based Aspects
GATT/WTO's Main Principles
Multilateral negotiation and free trade
The Trading Policies of European Union
Critical Political Economy
The Gross Domestic Product of Tunisia
The eal Data Analysis of Import Export Companies in Tunisia
The Smith Co Company
The Softkim and Lovers Limited
The Impact of Free Trade on Tunisia Trading 43
Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific
Alternative Mediterranean Conference
Bhagwati, J. (2002). Free Trade Today. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99509776
Bhote, K.R. (2002). The Ultimate Six Sigma: Beyond Quality Excellence to Total Business Excellence. New York: AMACOM. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111931454
Campbell, B. (1993). 3 A Canadian Labor Perspective on a North American Free Trade Agreement. In The North American Free Trade Agreement Labor, Industry, and Government Perspectives, Bognanno, M.F. & Ready, K.J. (Eds.) (pp. 61-68). Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24509387
Conti, D.B. (1998). Reconciling Free Trade, Fair Trade, and Interdependence: The Rhetoric of Presidential Economic Leadership. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15432294
Likewise, engaging in too much control over a Stage III supervisee could lead to quite a bit of tension in the supervisor/supervisee relationship and result in negative transference to clients in counseling sessions. Nonetheless, this notion that counseling supervisees develop in relatively predictable stages and that an effective supervisor can best help them progress by approaching them at the level of supervision that corresponds to their own development is very helpful in performing efficient and rewarding supervision for counseling trainees.
Empirical research has validated the approach of the integrated developmental models to some extent. In order to determine the supervisee's developmental McNeill, Stoltenberg, and omans (1992) developed the Supervisee Levels Questionnaire -- evised (SLQ -- ). Lovell (1999) found that the SLQ -- results from trainees indicated that the level of education and prior supervised experience was related to the level of the supervisee opposed to such concepts as cognitive…
Anderson, C.E., & Bang, K. (2004). Using the Integrated Developmental Model in a Substance
Abuse Practicum. Journal of Teaching in the Addictions, 2(2), 67-82.
Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (4th
ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
" (Pettersson, 2006) Oral and written verbal art languages are both used for the purpose of information communication as well as information presentation with the reader and listener receiving an invitation to consider the information.
The Narrative & the Symbolic
The work of Abiola Irele (2001) entitled: "The African Imagination: Literature in Africa & the lack Diaspora" states that Hampate a "...incorporates the essential feature of the oral narrative at significant points in his work in order to reflect their appropriateness to situations and for special effects. Their conjunction with the narrative procedures sanctioned by the Western model thus enlarges their scope and give them an unusual resonance. At the same time, although he writes with conscious reference to this Western model, he does not feel so constrained by the framework of its conventions that he is unable to go beyond its limitations. His departures from the established codes of…
Aggarwal, Kusum. Amadou Hampate Ba et l'africanisme. De la recherche anthropologique a l'exercice de la fonction auctoriale. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1999.
Dielika Diallo "Hampate Ba: the great conciliator." UNESCO Courier. FindArticles.com. 30 Sep, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1992_Jan/ai_11921818/ . UNESCO 1992. Online available at:
And reason is achieved when we are able to find the balance between two things, which are often the extreme ends of the spectrum. We can infer that good is something created by men. It is the product of reason. If Aristotle places that much responsibility to the faculty of reason, St. Augustine place that weight in God's hands as he maintained that the only way for men to be good, for men to be happy is through the grace of God. Good, then, cannot come from men but from God's grace.
St. Augustine's denial of the very existence of evil (it cannot be a substance) even dismissing it as simply an illusion of some sort, is a bit of a problem for me. Again, here we can find the utility of Aristotle's pragmatic view on things. If you hurt a person for example, can we not consider…
Ferguson., W. (1993). If God is all powerful and good, where does evil come from? Retrieved from http://www.kheper.net/topics/philosophy/Beyond_the_Problem_of_Evil.html . onKemerling, G. (2001). Aristotle: Ethics and Virtues. Retrieved at http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/2s.htm . onMarch 3, 2009
Kraut, R. (2007). Aristotle's Ethics. Retrieved at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle-ethics.OnMarch 3, 2009.
Payne, W.R. (n.d.). St. Augustine. Retrieved at http://facweb.bcc.ctc.edu/wpayne/augustine.htm. OnMarch 3, 2009.
Sinclair Community College Website (n.d.). Theodicy: Proposed Solutions to Problem of Evil.
Following on the heels of Michel Foucault, Butler situates the dichotomous conceptualization of gender as a product of discourse, just as Foucault (1990) realized that homo- and heterosexuality were both discursive products. The maintenance of coherent norms in the realm of gender through cultural discourse is intertwined with the positing of heterosexuality as the norm. This is why, for example, when a young boy "dresses up" as a girl and/or plays with dolls, his parents frequently express concern that this is a sign of burgeoning homosexuality and punish the child.
Butler would interpret the child's act as a "performance" and the parents' intervention as a means of correcting that performance in order to condition the child towards "acting the right way" - that is, enacting the role of maleness as it is rigidly codified by the heterosexual norms upon which our society is based:
The notion that there might…
Bornstein, K. (1995). Gender Outlaw: On Men, Women, and the Rest of Us. New York: Vintage.
Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge.
Clausen, J. (1999). Apples and Oranges: My Journey to Sexual Identity. New York: Houghton
Non-Governmental Organization Placement: Examination of the Experience of Students In NGO Placement
The objective of this work is to examine the experience of students on the NGO placement in Nigeria. The NGO at focus is that of St. Joseph Orphanage and Women Development Center. The writer of this work was provided with an excellent opportunity to exam the organization chart and policy of the non-governmental and non-profit organization. In addition, the writer of this work was provided with insight on how the organization raises money to finance and sustain its diverse projects in Nigeria. During the course of job placement of this researcher with this NGO organization, and specifically St. Joseph Women Development and orphanage center it was amazing to realize that Media and Communication organizations play a significant role in the promotion and creation of community awareness and awareness on the national level. Consideration of the barriers…
Anderson, P., Lawton, L., Rexeisen, R., & Hubbard, A. (2006). Short-term study abroad and intercultural sensitivity: A pilot study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 457-469.
Artz, L. (2001). Critical ethnography for communication studies: Dialogue and social justice. The Southern Communication Journal, 66(3), 239-250.
Astin, A. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory of higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25(4), 297-308.
Backhouse, Judy Pamela (2009) Doctoral Education in South Africa: Models, Pedagogies and Stucent Experiences. February 2009.
Business Communications Final Analysis Report
In order to apply the strategies and decisions formulated in the initial phases of the communication research, they are applied in the context of business communication, particularly in group decision-making processes. In the final analysis report, the case study on the Creative Media team conflict is discussed, addressing the prevalent issues that bring about miscommunication within the team.
The case study on the Creative Media team situation has the following specifics: Gap Jeans, Inc. is planning to launch a new advertising campaign for its new product, called the Gap Washed Jeans, which features a denim-wash (faded look) feature for women, which will be available in hipster and flared styles. Gap is looking for a creative ad agency that will conceptualize and produce the ad campaign, although specific information about the nature of the ad campaign is not yet formulated. Thus, the whole advertising and marketing…
One of the paramedics was Latina, and she translated; the female (Ms. Garcia) was married to the suspect but says she divorced him last year due to his violent episodes and his drinking and drug use, according to the translation from the Paramedic.
"A neighbor in a nearby apartment knocked on the door and said she had witnessed the female being harmed by the suspect more than once. The witness, Alice Mercado, 27, bilingual and employed as a maid in a nearby motel, said she had heard fighting coming from the apartment in the past on many occasions. Sometimes she was afraid to come to see what was happening because the suspect was unpredictable and explosively violent when under the influence of alcohol and crack cocaine, she said. She told this officer that she once had a relationship with the suspect prior to his marriage to her neighbor.…
Analysis of Learning Methods and the Impact of Computer-Based Training (CBT) Programs
Compare and contrast the four differences in learning styles. Propose ways a trainer can help each type of learner.
The four differences in learning styles are often characterized by convergers, divergers, assimilators and accommodators (Mumford, Honey, 1992). There are significant differences between each, and the intent of this analysis is to compare and contrast them with each other. The converger learning style typifies learners who rely on conceptual learning including visualization and abstract learning, supported by active experimentation. It is comparable to the assimilator learning style in that both rely on abstract conceptualization of learning materials and concepts, in addition to a reliance on theoretical models. The converger learning style differences from the other four in its intensity of focus on taking information and intelligence and turning it into pragmatic thought (Mumford, Honey, 1992). The other learning…
Bedwell, W., & Salas, E.. (2010). Computer-based training: capitalizing on lessons learned. International Journal of Training & Development, 14(3), 239-249.
Khan, B.H. (2001). A framework for Web-based learning. In B.H. Khan (Ed.), Web-based training. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.
Alice Y Kolb, & David A Kolb. (2005). Learning Styles and Learning Spaces: Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(2), 193-212.
Lakshmanan, A., Lindsey, C., & Krishnan, H.. (2010). Practice Makes Perfect? When Does Massed Learning Improve Product Usage Proficiency? Journal of Consumer Research, 37(4), 599.
The theory of Honey and Mumford, describes the styles and learning strategies. It incorporates much of the theory of Kolb's learning cycle, making it more intelligible.
It is important to discuss these strategies with students. (Marsick and atkins, p132-51) hile this allows the teacher to become aware of the need to vary their teaching because they do not exist in universal, it also allows learners to realize that everyone learns differently.
So its dominant learning strategies can influence its working methods and student personnel can then optimize them. It may also become more self-confidence. Honey and Mumford (1986) take away from Kolb (1984) the idea of an experiential learning model in four stages they call: experience, the return on experience, drawing conclusions and planning. (aring and Evans, p117-28)
According to them, each phase has specific behaviors and attitudes and is important to successfully complete the learning process itself.…
Lam, Y.L. Defining the effects of transformation leadership on organization learning: a cross-cultural comparison: School Leadership & Management, 2002, pp 439-52.
Marquardt, M. Action learning in action: Transforming problems and people for world- class organizational learning. Palo Alto, CA: Davies-Black Publishing, 1999, pp45-49.
Marsick, V.J., and Watkins, KE. Demonstrating the value of an organization's learning culture: The Dimensions of Learning Organizations Questionnaire, Advances in Developing Human Resources, 2003 5, pp132-151.
Evans, C. And Graff, M. "Exploring style: enhancing the capacity to learn?," Education & Training, Vol. 50, 2008, pp. 93-102.
Organizational studies benefits from interaction with other areas of study. The articles and research questions in the paper reflect a curiosity of the connection among media, technology, and behavior. Each article and set of authors approaches this question from a different perspective and in conjunction with another school of thought to help problem solve and with which to cooperate. The paper selects and uses three heuristics as way to explore research questions and hypotheses further and better. The paper substantiates the validity of the proposed research question. The paper also describes the context within which the proposed research would fit.
Generating Research Questions & Hypotheses
Part 1 - DeLorme, D.E., Huh, J., Reid, L.N., & An, S. (2010) The state of public research on over-the-counter drug advertising. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, (3), 208 -- 231.
DeLorme et al. propose several key research questions and hypotheses. One…
4. Orlikowski, W.J., & Barley, S.R. (2001) Technology and Institutions: What can Research on Information Technology and Research on Organizations Learn from Each Other? MIS Quarterly, 25(2), 145 -- 165.
We argue that because of the important epistemological differences between the fields of information technology and organization studies, much can be gained from greater interaction between them. In particular, we argue that information technology research can benefit from incorporation institutional analysis from organization studies, while organization studies can benefit even more by following the lead of information technology research in taking the material properties of technologies into account. We further suggest that the transformations currently occurring in the nature of work and organizing cannot be understood without considering both the technological changes and the institutional contexts that are reshaping economic and organizational activity. Thus, greater interaction between field of information technology and organization studies should be viewed as more than a matter of enrichment. In the intellectual engagement of these two fields lies the potential for an important fusion of perspectives, a fusion more carefully attuned to explaining the nature consequences of the techno-social phenomena that increasingly pervade our lives.
learning experiene. The writer demonstrates how to put together a prior learning and prior experiene portfolio for the purpose of demonstrating urrent knowledge due to that prior experiene.
A omprehensive look at the management of one's personal finanes; overs budgeting, use of and ost of redit, life and property insurane, inome and state taxation, housing, wills, trusts, estate planning, and savings and investments.
You must reall and write one or more "learning events" for eah of the key terms listed on the ourse desription you have obtained. By using Kolb's model to guide your storytelling, you will assist your faulty assessor, the person who will evaluate your PLA portfolio for redit, to loate and appreiate your learning outomes.
In short, your task in writing your PLA portfolio essay is to address all listed ourse ontent areas and to do so via speifi stories told in terms of the Kolb Model.…
cited in Tennant 1996) highlights, there is a need to take account of differences in cognitive and communication styles that are culturally-based. Here we need to attend to different models of selfhood - and the extent to which these may differ from the 'western' assumptions that underpin the Kolb and Fry model.
The idea of stages or steps does not sit well with the reality of thinking. There is a problem here - that of sequence. As Dewey (1933) has said in relation to reflection a number of processes can occur at once, stages can be jumped. This way of presenting things is rather too neat and is simplistic - see reflection.
Empirical support for the model is weak (Jarvis 1987; Tennant 1997). The initial research base was small, and there have only been a limited number of studies that have sought to test or explore the model (such as Jarvis 1987). Furthermore, the learning style inventory 'has no capacity to measure the degree of integration of learning styles' (Tennant 1997: 92).
The relationship of learning processes to knowledge is problematic. As Jarvis (1987) again points out, David Kolb is able to show that learning and knowledge are intimately related. However, two problems arise here. David Kolb doesn't really explore the nature of knowledge in any depth. In chapter five of Experiential Learning he discusses the structure of knowledge from what is basically a social psychology perspective. He doesn't really connect with the rich and varied debates about the nature of knowledge that raged over the centuries within philosophy and social theory. This means that I do not think he really grasps different ways of knowing. For example, Kolb focuses on processes in the individual mind, rather than seeing learning as situated. Second, for David Kolb, learning is concerned with the production of knowledge. 'Knowledge results from the combination of grasping experience and transforming it' (Kolb 1984: 41). Here we might contrast this position with Paulo Freire. His focus is upon informed, committed action (praxis).
Given these problems we have to take some care approaching David Kolb's vision of experiential learning. However, as Tennant (1997: 92) points out, 'the model provides an excellent framework for planning teaching and learning activities and it can be usefully employed as a guide for understanding learning difficulties, vocational counselling, academic advising and so on'.
The experience I had accumulated in my secondary days as a supervisor in mathematics also assists me in my place of work.
I also had experience as a supervisor in my workplace, which enhanced my development level as a supervisor. My development level as a supervisor also continues in my workplace before getting admission into the university. Before I got admission in into the university, I had worked in series of companies notably manufacturing companies. For example, I worked with Toyota Company for 5 years as an assistant supervisor. My working experience in the company has assisted my development level as a supervisor. In my working experience, I understand that it is critical for a supervisor to build working relationships with supervisees. Typically, supervisory-supervisees relationships enhance mutual alliance between the two parties. The supervisor and supervisees share responsibility of developing empathy, genuineness, warmth, emotional and reliability engagement to develop key…
Arthur, M.E. (2012). Application of the Discrimination Model of Supervision for Residency Education, Annals of Behavioral Science and Medical Education,18 (1):32-37.
Bernard, J.M. (1979). Supervisor training: A discrimination model. Counselor Education and Supervision, 19, 60-68.
Bernard, J.M., Goodyear, R.K. (1992). Fundamentals of clinical supervision. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Bernard, J.M., & Goodyear, R.K. (2009).Fundamentals of clinical supervision, (4th Edition). Columbus, OH: Merrill.
PTSD in the Middle East
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most common mental health or psychological disorders facing people in the Middle East region. This condition emerges from episodes of social upheaval, combat, and violence that have become common in the Middle East over the past few years. Some of the major areas in the Middle East that have been characterized by increased conflicts in recent years include Palestine, Iraq, and Lebanon. Given increased conflicts and combat in the Middle East, PTSD and other trauma-related mental health conditions are expected to become public health crisis in the Arab world (Suto, 2016). Therefore, public health professionals in the Middle East face the need to develop appropriate measures for diagnosis and treatment of PTSD and other trauma-related disorders. However, the treatment of this condition and other traumatic mental health disorders is significantly affected by culture. This paper examines how…
According to Majchrzak (1984, p. 55), variables can have a range of focal points; from the very wide to the very narrow. Economic stability is an example of a variable with a wide focus, while preschool IQ scores is an example of a narrowly focused variable. The wider the focus, the greater the potential for specifying a number of indicators to measure them.
The operationalization of variables will then depend upon the research questions. The first stage of this process is then to define the variable in precise terms, while the second stage is to select indicators by means of which the variable can be measured (Majchrzak, 1984, p. 56).
When taking the example of teacher training, the variable can for example be operationalized in terms of the certification level of teachers as determined by their official credentials. Indicators towards this end could be elements such as number of years…
Dantzker, M.L. And Hunter, R.D. (2006). Research Methods for Criminology and Criminal Justice: A Primer. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Majchrzak, A. (1984). Methods for Policy Research. California: Sage Publications.
Steets, J. (2004). Developing a Framework: Concepts and Research Priorities for Partnership Accountability. Global Public Policy Institute: Research Paper Series No. 1. Retrieved from: http://www.gppi.net/fileadmin/gppi/Steets_Paper_1_04082005.pdf
By improving their self knowledge, leaders can change and develop as leaders of people. Clinical supervision for leaders is sometimes called administrative clinical supervision. This is managerial clinical supervision with a focus on problems related to leadership and organization of work, particularly human relations issues. Administrative clinical supervision makes use of experiential learning focused on oneself and one's work (Sirola-Karvinen and Hyrkas, 2008).
Administrative clinical supervision means clinical supervision for leaders that address leadership issues in order to achieve set goals. Supervision promotes cohesion within the organization and is directed at change. Administrative clinical supervision is the examination of leadership in which leaders have the chance to reflect upon the quality of their decisions and share their feelings. In terms of action, administrative clinical supervision involves process-like support and mentoring, which boost the leader's confidence in coping with leadership duties and changes associated with it. Administrative clinical supervision addresses issues…
Clinical supervision 'can inoculate staff against stress'. (2010). Mental Health Practice. 13(7),
Clinical Supervision. (2009). Retrieved June 27, 2010, Australian College of Mental Health
Nurses Web site: http://www.acmhn.org/career-resources/clinical-supervision.html
Stages of Language Production:
While there is not necessarily a consensus among researchers as to the precise nature of human language production, one widely accepted view is the information processing approach (obinson-iegler, 422). In that framework, language production generally occurs in four specific stages: (1) conceptualization, (2) planning, (3) articulation, and (4) self-monitoring.
In that regard, the conceptualization stage refers to the internal process whereby the individual develops the desire to communicate a specific thought to others (obinson-iegler, 422). The planning stage consists of the decisions pertaining to how the thoughts to be communicated are organized into a linguistic plan within the framework of the language in which the individual hopes to communicate. The articulation stage involves the actual expression of the thoughts formulated in the conceptualization stage through the linguistic plan developed in the planning stage (obinson-iegler, 422).
Finally, the self-monitoring stage consists of the individual's purposeful awareness of…
Robinson-Riegler, G., and Robinson-Riegler, B. (2008). Cognitive Psychology:
Applying the Science of the Mind, Second Edition. New Jersey: Allyn and Bacon/Pearson.
Mill talked of ethical freedom in terms of all areas wherein individual and society interacts and become involved with each other; Marx utilized the same viewpoint, although specified it in terms of proletarian-bourgeoisie relations.
For Marx, ethical freedom is self-realization within the individual, and primary in this realization was the acknowledgment that one needs to be economically independent in order for modern individuals, and society in general, to function progressively. Ethical freedom is said to have been achieved if there will develop a new social order, identified as the "industrial proletariat," described to be the modern individuals, belonging to the previously identified proletariat class, who embodies "fresh moral and political idea, but one rooted in the world of material reality" (Morgan, 2005:392). In concrete Marxian terms, self-realization is an event that will occur only once the following elements have been abolished, as cited in "The Communist Manifesto": "representative government, bourgeois…
Barnett, V. (2005). "The Soviet economy -- an experiment that was bound to fail?" History Review.
Brennan, J. (2005). "Choice and excellence: a defense of Millian individualism." Social Theory and Practice, Vol. 31, No. 4.
Lovell, D. (2004). "Marx's utopian legacy." The European Legacy, Vol. 9, No. 5.
Marx, K. E-text of "The Communist Manifesto." Project Gutenberg E-texts.
Appoximately one in six students enolled in a college o univesity, o ove 3 million individuals, paticipated in one o moe online couse in 2004. This was despite the fact that a leveling off was expected.
Anothe epot fo 2005 by Sloan showed that 850,000 moe students took distance couses in the fall this yea than 2004, an incease of nealy 40%. Once again the slowing o leveling did not come. Many seconday schools ae putting consideable esouces towad online leaning, in expectation that this appoach will be moe economical than taditional classes and also expanding thei each.
In addition, a suvey by the consulting and eseach fim Eduventues found 50% of the consumes who planned to enoll in a highe education pogam stated they would instead like to take some of thei couses online. About 80% of online students ae undegaduates, but ae nomally olde and moe apt to…
references when there is a contingency change. The relative response strength is changed by differential reinforcement of alternative courses of action. It is then that behaviors change. It is possible to conclude that adult students' observations about educational technology will change when the contingencies toward participation are strengthened. The clientele of higher education, its students, now enroll in college with expectations of learning about and to learn with technology (Green 1999).
How students deal with change and their ability to accept it has much to do with their observed satisfaction of the course that implements the most up-to-date technologies.
Merriam and Caffarella (1991) say that the more that is known about adult learners and the changes they go through and how these changes motivate and interact with learning, the better educators will be able to develop learning experiences that respond and stimulate development. This is an essential factor in adult learning and requires additional research regarding the implications for quality educational programs. This present research acknowledges the influence of the adult learners' attitudes and observations toward change. However, so that the emphasis remains on learning styles, no data will be collected to measure change in attitudes and perspectives.
Tools for Measuring Distance Education Courses
It is essential that there is an evaluation of educational curricula to determine what is and is not efficient in relationship to learning style. Technological courses have altered the evaluation process due to the additional factors of equipment, cost and knowledge of using technology. It is critical to keep in mind, however, that educators control technology, since technology is only one of many different tools. Technology is easy to assess; one knows immediately if an software does not work. It is necessary for instructors to spend more time considering the educational experience that they want to create and what is not working properly in terms of education results. Are students interested and engaged? Are they communicating with one another? Do they find the information challenging and productive? Are they receiving enough feedback from the instructor? Ultimately, an effective evaluation tool will help the teacher recognize if the conditions for quality learning are present or need improving and that the instructors and students feel their use of technology was considerably helpful.