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Confucianism in East Asian Cultures
Confucianism is often characterized as a system that involves social and ethical philosophy as opposed to being purely a religion in the traditional definition of religion. As a matter of fact Confucianism is based on ancient religious foundations for the establishment of institutions, social values, and transcendent ideas of traditional societies. The paper is a critique of Confucian legacies in East Asian modernities, knowledge as well as pedagogies. Specific examples are drawn from China, Japan and Korea for the purpose of comparative analysis. These three countries in East Asia have all experienced historical repetitions of the disregarding followed by revival of the Confucian legacy at different times during their modernization. However, all of them have kept strong Confucian pedogic culture that frames ways in which knowledge is transmitted and applied for the definition of modernity in East Asia. Confucianism has a very immense continuity even…
American Documentary, Inc.(2014). Last Train Home' in Context. Retrieved February 18, 2014 fromhttp://www.pbs.org/pov/lasttrainhome/photo_gallery_background.php?photo=5#.UwO-iMuLrFw
Cartwright, M.(2012). Confucius. . Retrieved February 18, 2014 from http://www.ancient.eu.com/Confucius/
Jeffrey L.R., (2013).Confucius in East Asia: Confucianism's History in China, Korea, Japan, and Viet Nam. Association for Asian Studies.
Kim, T.(2009). Confucianism, Modernities and Knowledge: China, South Korea and Japan.Retrieved February 18, 2014 from http://www.academia.edu/901308/Confucianism_Modernities_and_Knowledge_China_South_Korea_and_Japan
This method of presentation attracted several immediate attacks from enemies within the church even before a reaction from the Chinese.
Sometime after 1610, one critic, Father Longobardo, said that even with all the references to that of a supreme deity, the Chinese had never differentiated the moral regularities of society and the physical regularities which were that of the material universe. The Chinese had also never understood or accepted any spiritual substance separate from matter. This criticism was increased by emphasizing on the lack of reference to that of the divine powers in Confucius and other thinkers of his school. The argument went on saying that whatever the most ancient Chinese had thought of and considered their classical tradition had been influenced through truly atheist lines. What is most interesting is that Confucian thought accepts the passivity of Heaven and searches for the problems on earth elsewhere especially in the…
Bownas, Geoffrey; Kaizuka, Shigeki. The MacMillan Company. Confucius. 1956.
Confucius. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/confucius/ . Accessed 6 October, 2005
Confucius. The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. 9 September, 2005. Retrieved at http://www.highbeam.com/library/docfree.asp?DOCID=1E1:Confuciu&num=28&ctrlInfo=Round18%3AMode18c%3ASR%3AResult&ao=&FreePremium=BOTHAccessed 6 October, 2005
Danton, Annina Periam; Danton, George. H. Confucius and Confucianism. Harcourt Brace
Confucianism in Chinese Society
Ju Dou is one of the films that depict the culture of the Chinese society from ancient to modern times. A highly comprehensible film, Ju Dou is powerful in teaching the traditional values of the Chinese culture to international viewers. China, historically, is a nation of philosophy in which the teachings and values of Confucius is one of the conventional and adhered ideas in way of living, and this particularly are conveyed, in some way or another, by the characters in the story of the film Ju Dou.
Among the philosophers from the previous times, the most influential to the Chinese culture are the philosophies of Confucius. His teachings are usually represented in many Asian films. As in most of the Chinese films, Ju Dou attempts to re-define and portrays the Chinese culture based on various literatures and Chinese identity such as Confucianism. The…
McDowell, Josh. Confucianism.
Amazon.com. 07 May 2003. http://www.greatcom.org/resources/areadydefense/ch26/default.htm
Describe the unique characteristics of Chinese worldviews and discuss the significance or the implications of these characteristics in relation to the worldviews of other traditions such as the Jewish, the Christian or the modern scientific worldviews.
In order to provide an explanation to worldview several authors define worldview in different terms. According to Fritj of Capra, a social Paradigm is a particular vision of a community and where values, perceptions, concepts and practices are being shared among the members of that particular community. The vision of the community is the foundation upon which the community would organize itself. (Capra, p.34). According to Bowers worldview was that which brought about a sense of legitimacy and coherence to society, the norms present in society, its institutions, and legitimacy to individual experience and the moral and concepts of individuals. (Bowers, p.52). He gives three examples: namely, sin which is original, thought which…
Bowers, C.A. The Cultural Dimensions of Educational Computing - Understanding the Non-Neutrality of Technology, Teachers College Press. 1988.p.52
Capra, Fritjof. The Web of Life - A New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems, Anchor Books. 1996, p.34
Taylor, Rodney L.: The Religious Dimensions of Confucianism, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1986. p.66
Reweaving the 'One Thread' of the Analects, Philosophy East and West 40:1 (January 1990), pp. 17-33.
Confucianism and Daoism are Chinese religious traditions. hile they are considered by some to be very different they are often actually woven together (Mou, 78). The teachings of one are often relatively consistent with the teachings of the other and because of this those who believe in one of these religious traditions do not discount the other one or feel that it is unworthy. Both of them indicate a reverence for Chinese ancestors and a striving for harmony with nature, although they often look at achieving this in slightly different ways (Mou, 85). These concepts of reverence for ancestors and striving for harmony with nature are important parts to both traditions, but they are also elevated to a higher level by the ideals and ethics that they embody (Mou, 96).
Both traditions have a peaceful coexistence, and this is true even within those who follow one tradition or the other.…
Kohn, Livia. "The date and compilation of the Fengdao kejie: The first handbook of monastic Daoism." East Asian History (13/14) (1997): 91-118.
Mou, Bo. Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy. Antonio S. Cua, Ed. New York, Routledge: 2003.
Shun, Kwong-loi. "Mencius and Early Chinese Thought." Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997
Wei-ming, Tu. "Centrality and Commonality: An Essay on Confucian Religiousness." In Walter H. Slote and George A. De Vos, eds., Confucianism and the Family. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.
Confucianism, the Western name for the Chinese religious practice of Ju-chia, or the religion of "K'ung the Master," is an extension of the teachings of Taoism and has long been a major influence in Eastern life and philosophy, especially in China. Developed in the sixth century, B.C. this philosophy encourages the living of a sincere, fair and wise life in all dealings with other people and allows anyone to practice such beliefs (McDowell & Brown, 2009, 10.1). For many centuries it was the official ideology of China and it is still maintains a wide influence throughout the Eastern world. There are several basic tenets of the religion to which anyone practicing must try to adhere.
Confucianism is fundamentally based upon the human aspects of its teachings and does not concern itself with the existence of gods or an afterlife. Instead of living one's life in the hopes of attaining an…
McDowell, M. & Brown, M.R. (2009). World religions at your fingertips. New York, NY:
Yao, X. (2000). An introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
McKay, J.P., Hill, B.D., Buckler, J., Beck, R.B., Ebrey, P.B., Crowston, C.H., & Wiesner-Hanks.
Confucianism and Daoism
Confucianism is a term used to describe a philosophical system of beliefs based on the teachings of Confucius, whose birth name is Kong Qiu but went by the title Master Kong, Kongzi (Jensen, 2007). Confucius was a Chinese thinker who between 551-479 BCE. While Confucius did have disciples, Confucianism as a system of beliefs was not created until the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C.E. before that era there was no organization in regards to his writing. According to Jensen (2007), Confucians were Chinese thinkers who admired and centered their lives on the Wujing, a collection of texts that originate from Western Zhou. It is believed that Confucius wrote those texts (Demerath, 2001).
Kongzi was a strong believer in rituals. One ritual is ancestor worship, which is the ceremonial communication and sacrifice to one's family member that passed away. It is a tradition that still observed to…
Demerath, N.J. (2001). Crossing the gods: World religions and worldly politics.
New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press.
Fowler, J.D. (2005). An introduction to the philosophy and religion of Taoism: Pathways to immortality. Portland, Ore: Sussex Academic Press.
Jensen, L.M. (1997). Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese traditions & universal civilization. Durham: Duke University Press.
The enormous expanse of land, resource and population that is and has been China, to varying size parameters, has by virtue of these outsized characteristics, been site to wild fluctuations in the areas of continuity of control. The onset of a historical trend which would become known as the dynastic cycle would be preceded though by a sustained period of Chinese social stability, distinguished in particular by the influence of Confucius (551-479 BC) and his refined code of ethics. As with such figures as Jesus and Mohammed thereafter, Confucius commanded a personal mythology in his passing which only grew. As Molloy tells, after the passage of full millennium since the death of this great teacher and scholar, the Ch'in Dynasty rose from a crowd of seven divided pre-Chinese kingdoms to bring the Confucian philosophy to central authority.
This would lead to a sustained enlightened period for the institution of meritocracy,…
Molloy, M. (2010). Experiencing the Worlds Religions, tradition, challenge, and change. The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Confucianism in East Asia
Confucianism has frequently been regarded as a religion without a supernatural dimension, a set of ethical precepts wholly of this world: however I would argue that, given the fact of ancestor-worship in traditional Chinese religion, the Confucian teachings about filial piety may truly seem to have the force of otherworldly command. Confucius himself complains about the decline in standards for filial piety in the Analects (II.7), noting that most people in his lifetime thought their filial obligations had been met when their parents were fed: Confucius' complaint is that even dogs or horses can be merely fed, and what characterizes genuine filial piety is reverence. This is, of course, a complaint made by Confucius about the broad gap between ideals and actual practice, even within his own lifetime: we cannot expect the general trend in China to have been particularly better at any other point in…
Confucianism's Impact Upon The Status Of omen In China
Confucianism was not an openly misogynistic or anti-woman system of thought. It did not post women as 'the devil's gateway' as did some philosophical strains of Early Christianity, for instance. However, Confucianism was a patriarchal system of ancestor worship that emphasized respect of one's past progenitors and how things used to be, rather than attempting to creatively change the future. Thus change was de-emphasized, minimizing the ability of women to institute change within pre-existing patriarchic family structures. Male control was reinforced by the system of thought, rather than creating ideological support for change.
Confucianism placed a strong stress upon the difference between the sexes. Crucial to Confucian ideology was the distinction between yin and yang, or the female and male principles inherent in the world. Thus, femaleness and maleness was not simply a matter of physicality, but of essential compositional essence…
Stearns, Peter. Gender in World History. Routledge, 2000
Speaking about the order of the universe we can shift the speech towards human nature and essence. In performing actions which support harmony, man is doing nothing more but manifesting his nature and realizing his essence. The tool that the individual uses in order to be able to manifest essence is reason. Therefore, the link between the universe and the beings is represented by the mind. When everything is in the right lace we have perfect order. therefore it is safe to state that perfect order, in the cosmos and in the human world, leads to harmony.
In an attempt to define harmony furthermore, we may quote another famous passage which stares that, since order is the natural way of being of the world, all the things which exist will develop naturally and without harming each other notwithstanding the differences which exist between them. In addition, all the principles which…
Lao, Wei. On Harmony: The Confucian view. Retrieved October 31, 2009 from http://sunzi1.lib.hku.hk/hkjo/view/35/3500149.pdf
In the above quotation Tucker has clearly stated that the concept of imminence and transcendence, which are considered as essential aspects of the estern definition of religion, are not easily discernable in the philosophy of Confucianism. On the other hand Tucker makes a valid point, in that there can be many different views of what religion is and how it is experienced by different cultures may differ as well. It is in this sense that Tucker goes on to substantiate her claim for the religious nature of Confucianism by stating that, "Thus, I am proposing instead the notion of cosmology and cultivation as a mutually interacting dialectic at the heart of the Confucian tradition. This dialectic occurs within the threefold relationship of heaven, earth, and human beings."
4. Confucianism as a Pragmatic Philosophy
Far less convulsed and complex is the more accepted view that Confucianism is rather a form of…
"Confucianism." Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 2009
Hall, David L., and Roger T. Ames. "Chapter 5 A Pragmatist Understanding of Confucian Democracy." Confucianism for the Modern World. Ed. Daniel A. Bell and Hahm Chaibong.( Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003):124-160.
McMurrin, Sterling M. Religion, Reason, and Truth: Historical Essays in the Philosophy of Religion. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1982. Questia. Web. 12 Apr. 2010.
Shu-hsien Liu, Berthrong John and Leonard Swidler. CONTEMPORARY
(Fetzer; Soper, 148)
The excesses of Western-style individualism and democracy can be moderated through application of a few of the Confucian values. For instance, filial piety and social/moral responsibilities towards an individual's role in the social hierarchy can bring about a greater awareness about an individual's obligations towards previous generations as well as look beyond the confines of self-interests to embrace the interests of the community as a whole. This can also act as a successful deterrent to some types of political liberalism which prioritize individual rights with absolutely no concern for the cultural and social context which are essential for the expression of those rights. (Fetzer; Soper, 148)
Confucianism calls for infusing an ethical fabric into the political realm and not the abuse of political might to enforce ethical life. Confucian hierarchy, at no point of time, deviates from the fundamental respect that humanity or human relations demand. According…
Ackerly, Booke. A. Is Liberalism the only way toward democracy? Political Theory, vol. 33, no. 4, August 2005, pp: 547-576.
Fairbank, John King; Goldman, Merle. China: a new history. Harvard University
Fetzer, Joel S; Soper, J. Christopher. The Effect of Confucian Values on Support for Democracy and Human Rights in Taiwan. Taiwan Journal of Democracy, vol. 3, no.1, pp: 143-154.
Confucianism and Potential Problems With Modernity
Confucianism, the way of life taught by Confucius, may have a long history, but is one that still appears to have a place in modern society. Max Weber argued that capitalism was not compatible with capitalism due to incompatible values, but the success of many eastern nations has been attributed to the application of Confucian values to business development and interactions. In South Korea this has been referred to as Confusion democracy, but there is not universal agreement of the value and compatibly of Confucianism.
In the views of Shin Ch'aeho, Yun Ch'iho, and Yi Kwangsu there are many flaws with the new national visions of Confucianism. Shin Ch'aeho argued that the values Confucianism created a meek society in Korea, with slavishness becoming more dominant than the indigenous culture, which he argued lead to the loss of independence. Shin was a radical anti-imperialist during…
Duncan, J, (2006), "The Problematic Modernity of Confucianism," in Armstrong, C, (ed), Korean Society. Democracy, and the State, Routledge,
They do not realize that they are really driving a weapon, and in a split second, their car could kill them or someone else if they make just one tiny mistake. That is not living with the best course. I have to wonder how different our society would be if we lived our lives according to Confucianism how our lives would be different. I don't mean every part of the Confucian way of life, but I mean looking at ourselves and others more deeply, and looking at our "best course" as we go through life. I don't think a lot of people do that, and I think our lives would be better if we were a little bit more reflective about ourselves and others. I don't think our society is doomed, like some thinkers do, but I think that we could create a better society that is more caring and…
Chapter Five: The Basic Confucian Worldview
"A much more powerful nation-state, greatly increased actual means to control the lives of citizens."
It occurs to me that a non-developped state might actually be preferable to a modernized state, considering the degree of real freedom that occurs even in a totalitarian primitive state compared to a modern "democratic" state such as America or Japan. Surely the kings of ancient Confucian nations did not, after all, limit the speeds at which one could travel along the roads, the age at which a child was allowed to begin imbibing alcohol, or set national surveillance to monitor its people for signs of drug abuse (though opium surely existed then as a problem)... These are the trappings of a democratically modern society - not necessarily evil, but far more intrusive than a distant kingship claiming absolute rule would be.
Of course, none of this is to ignore the degree to which local…
Leading a natural life is the key to happiness.
When someone is in a situation that feels unnatural or uncomfortable to him or her, that person is not able to do what comes naturally.
In order to be truly free, one must live a natural life in as natural a state as possible.
Happiness is possible only when one's true nature is not being violated in any way.
When one determines to discover one's true nature and to live in a natural state, one will be surprised at how few needs one really has.
A good society is one that is small, supplying human needs without excess.
A private life is the most natural life and leads to much more happiness than a public life.
This essay has some good things to say regarding our human nature and what leads to hatred and conflict. According to this essay, leading an…
T'ao Ch'ien. Selected Prose and Poetry.
Daoism and Confucianism Compared
Their "founders" and any writings which they left behind for posterity.
Lao-Tzu is the believed to be the founder of Taoism (Daoism) and his name can be translated as "Old Master" or "Old Boy"; however, very little is known about his actual life and some people have questioned whether he actually existed at all (Ancient Civilizations, N.d.). It is believed that he was born as a white haired old man that was saddened by society's lack of goodness.
Confucius was born in 551 B.C.E and was a politician, musician, and a philosopher. He was a political advisor to the rulers of the Chou dynasty and later a teacher to a small group of students who recorded his teachings.
• The overall goals of each religion (what do they teach that people should accomplish in life?)
Learning to be human is considered the overall goal of Confucianism…
Ancient Civilizations. (N.d.). Taoism and Confucianism -- Ancient Philosophies. Retrieved from Ancient Civilizations: http://www.ushistory.org/civ/9e.asp
Burner, B. (2010, October 5). Cofucianism and Daoism. Retrieved from Burner's: http://jsburner.edublogs.org/2010/10/05/journal-11-confucianism-and-daoism/
Diffen. (N.d.). Confucianism vs. Taoism. Retrieved from Diffen: http://www.diffen.com/difference/Confucianism_vs_Taoism
Confucianism: A Religion or ay of Life?
Is Confucianism a religion?
hen studying another culture as an outsider, it is very important to keep in mind the concept that different societies have different definitions of certain concepts although categories such as 'religion' may seem universally-acknowledged on the surface. In many non-estern contexts, the concept of religion cannot be separated from social norms and obligations. This can be seen in Confucianism, which embodies a system of ethical ideals in the collective consciousness of the ancient Chinese society which produced it. Although it is linked to certain concepts of otherworldliness such as ancestor worship, it is primarily concerned with governing human behavior. The sacred is not conceptualized as otherworldly.
Postmodernity urges us to detach ourselves from assuming the universality of categories such as religion and to instead see them as constructs produced in a culturally-specific manner. Confucianism offers a different concept of…
Prothero, Stephen. God is Not One. HarperOne, 2011.
Daoism vs. Confucianism
The author of this report is asked to compare and contrast Daoism (also commonly known as Taoism) with the focus being on the contrast. Indeed, the two belief and philosophy structures are quite different but they also have some strong similarities. Those facets and components that are the same will be enumerated throughout this text. The two writing styles follow common themes but are presented differently. Confucian writing was all second-hand and primarily focused on how to be the right kind of person. Taoism/Daoism focused on how society should be organized in the context of an agrarian setting (Diffen, 2013)(USHistory.org, 2013).
The first similarity between Daoism and Confucianism that the author of this report would bring out is the fact that they both have clergy. The clergy take on different names. Confucianism clergy are called sages, bureaucrats and so forth. Daoism clergy are called priests, monks…
Diffen. (2013, October 7). Confucianism vs. Taoism - Difference and Comparison | Diffen. Diffen - Compare Anything. Diffen. Discern. Decide.. Retrieved October 7, 2013, from http://www.diffen.com/difference/Confucianism_vs_Taoism
USHistory.org. (2013, October 7). Taoism and Confucianism -- " Ancient Philosophies [ushistory.org]. USHistory.org. Retrieved October 7, 2013, from http://www.ushistory.org/civ/9e.asp
Confucianism, Catholicism and Islam between 1450 and 1750.
Three major religions, located at diverse axes of the world, Catholicism, Confucianism, and Islam, were faced with similar problems and challenges in the years between 1450 and 1750. Catholicism encountered a militant Protestant Reformation in the shape of Martin Luther King that espoused religion whilst criticizing the Pope. Confucianism, in the shape of the renowned philosopher and politician Wang Vangming, grappled with a future that threatened to challenge its traditional learning and way of life whilst Wahhabism introduced fundamentalist religion into an Islam that had gradually become more secular and detached from the Koran-simulated way of life. The following essay elaborates on their individual problems and challenges.
Luther's Protestantism effectively ended the many years of sole religious monopoly that the Catholic Church had on Europe. At the same time, Catholicism was also threatened by the new Humanism that tentatively insisted, first…
Sources. (vol. 2) Bedford; New York, *.
1 Strayer, p.751
2 Strayer. p.755
When Neo-Confucianism arrived in Japan in the 16th century, it built on the pre-existing ideas of Confucianism that had already been imported into the island centuries earlier (Tsutsui 104). As far back as the 5th century, the Japanese had mixed with Confucian ideas about society and the role of the person in the world. Confucian ideas taught the Japanese about what it means to be a moral person. However, the Japanese also incorporated Buddhist concepts into their culture -- and these focused on the metaphysical side of nature and how to define reality (or unreality). These two systems of thought, along with Taoism, molded Japan for hundreds of years. By the time Neo-Confucianism arrived, the Japanese were ready to address the issues that the schools left unresolved. Buddhism presented life as basically unreal and that nirvana was the real reality. Confucianism taught values about society and how to respect life,…
Confucianism in Pre-Modern China
Confucianism comes from the Chinese philosopher Confucius, after whom the philosophy takes its name. Confucius lived from the middle of the 6th century BC to the first part of the 5th century BC and was a teacher of the values of those who lived in the days of Chinese antiquity. For Confucius, the greatest years of the Zhou dynasty had come in the three centuries prior to his birth. The dynasty itself lasted for centuries following Confucius' life, though in a much different form from what came before. Confucius viewed the lessons of the early Zhou dynasty as containing valuable nuggets of wisdom. Confucius' teachings carried on well after his day as did many other schools of thought in China, where philosophy and wisdom were highly prized and sought after by many Chinese leaders from Confucius' own time till the end of the 3rd century BC.…
Equal Society, Kim and Kim talk about the basis of Confucian values, ethics, and society and suggest that the world would benefit from adopting more Confucian worldview. The book is divided into five main chapters plus a "bonus chapter," which is more like an appendix in that it provides some of the key points about Confucianism in general for readers who are unfamiliar with the basics. For example the "bonus chapter" talks about the three main elements of Confucianism, which are Confucianism as a religion, Confucianism as a philosophy, and Confucianism as legalism.
The first chapter of the book focuses on the philosophy of Confucianism and how it might be applied outside of Asia to the Western world and especially to the United States. For example, the authors talk about President Johnson's concept of a "Great Society," as well as the Civil Rights Act to show that these are essentially…
Confucius reiterates this when he asks "Is humaneness far away? If I want to be humane, then humaneness is here" (52).
Zhu Xi also attributes this duality to every human being, from the wisest to the least intelligent (733). In fact, he takes the intrinsic presence of the mind of the Way even further than Confucius did in his idea of humaneness. In Confucianism, the capacity for humaneness in everyone does not mean that humaneness is actually present in everyone. But for Zhu Xi, the mind of the Way exists concretely in every human being, and its apparent lack is only an internal imbalance between the human mind and the mind of the Way.
This difference sheds light on the centrality of achieving the Mean in Neo-Confucianism -- a centrality that seems to be missing in Confucianism itself. It could be argued that this distinction qualifies Neo-Confucianism as a separate…
Mo Tzu, just like Confucius did, spend time and ducats travelling from one part to another, and advising leaders and those in authority of the importance of his universal love revolutionary implementation. They were even thought to be working totally apart, yet the two shared ancestral Chinese heritage. It is clear that the Confucius disciples were from different classes of society, and they searched for individuals who would be easily enlightened to be their follower, and adopt there doctrines. The history of the Mohists is however unclear, with suggestions relating to them slaves and detained prisoners, due to the fact they were ascetics (Chan, p. 212).
Current condition of human kind
In psychology, change has always been a factor of concern, as it defines the difference between the ancient and current human being. This change is brought about by the continuous universe changes and is usually due to the global…
Chan, Wing-Tsit. A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1963. pp 1-883.
Neo-Confucianism is a philosophy which was born from the need to explain the existence of man and the universe in a manner which was just as complex as the Buddhist one. The philosophers which belong to this school of thought took the core of the Confucian philosophy and enriched it with contributions from other philosophies. It can also be stated that neo-Confucianism is a reaction to various provocations of philosophical character coming from Buddhism, neo-Daoism and the yin-yang tradition.
Its purpose was to come up not just with a comprehensive abstract explanation of the world, but also with the rightful principles and laws that would guide everyday behaviour. Naturally, there had to be a synergetic relation between the two categories. The revival of the Confucian thought began in the ninth century and reached important levels of creativity in the eleventh century during the northern Song dynasty.
It must be underlined…
Angurarohita, Pratoom (1989). Buddhist influence on the neo-Confucian concept of the sage. Retrieved from Sino-Platonic papers march 14, 2009 from http://www.sino-platonic.org/complete/spp010buddhistconfuciansage.html
Daoism, Retrieved from Encyclopaedia Britannica march 14, 2009 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/582972/Daoism/42165/Daoism-and-other-religions
Fung, YU-Lan (1952) . A history of Chinese philosophy. Trans. Derk Bodde. Princeton University Press.
Ivanhoe, P (2000). Confucian moral self cultivation. Indianapolis, Hackett Publishing Company.
Jiahua, Cheng, Buddhism and the Chinese culture. Retrieved march 14, 2009 from philosophy.cass.cn/facu/chengjianhua/09.do
Jensen, L. (1997). Manufacturing Confucianism: Chinese traditions and universal civilization. NYC, Duke University Press
Koller, John, M. (2006) Asian philosophies. Prentice Hall.
Neo-Confucian philosophy. Retrieved from The internet encyclopaedia of philosophy http://www.iep.utm.edu/n/neo-conf.htm
Rodney L. Taylor, 'The Religious Character of the Confucian Traditions'
• Confucianism calls into question the definition of religion.
• Confucianism is commonly treated differently from other religious traditions, because it is more about social harmony, ethics, and comportment than about theology.
• All religions address ethics, morality, and social codes, and so does Confucianism. Then why is Confucianism not called a religion?
• The main reason is that Confucianism "lacks a concept of the transcendent," (p. 80)
• Is a concept of the transcendent a necessary part of the definition of a religion? No.
• It is a "western" assumption that a religion is defined by an overt reference to the transcendent.
• Buddhism and Taoism lack formal concepts of deities like those in Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity but are nevertheless relatively indisputably considered religious traditions.
• Moreover, Confucian writings are not typically referred to as "scripture," even though…
Han dynasty, Confucianism has been a central and defining feature of Chinese art and culture. It therefore makes sense that Confucian values and ideals would be reflected in Chinese art throughout the past several millennia. Even when Confucian principles are blended or confounded with the principles of Daoism and Buddhism, the Confucian themes of law, order, structure, and hierarchy become salient. Moral rectitude in the Confucian model means ascription to a patriarchal social order, and obedience to authority. Perhaps the most obvious way Confucian moral precepts are depicted in art is through the careful ordering of the world evident in Chinese scroll paintings. "Admonitions of the Instructions to the Court Ladies" is a horizontal scroll painting that accompanies a literary tale with themes related to "wifely virtue," a prime Confucian moral precept (Kleiner, 2016b, p. 473). Yet is more than just wifely virtue that this scroll painting shows; it is…
From this point-of-view, it could be stated that the reward for his attempt is to be found in this life. The adept of Taoism, in his attempt to become a superior man will dedicate himself, ore to actions which can have a strong social impact. Instead he will focus upon actions such contemplation of himself and the universal energy. The reward of the Taoist superior man is to be achieved in another life (this implies the belief in reincarnation). It must be underlined that despite these differences, the final result includes both the development of the individual and that of society (and from this all the other individual benefit as well).
All in all, it can be stated that the conceptual differences regarding the idea of the superior man in the Confucian and Taoist philosophies have more to do with form and less with substance. The ultimate goal is that…
Mason, Bill. Taoist Principles. Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://chippit.tripod.com/taoist_principles.html
Pay, Rex (2000). Confucius- The Superior Man, Retrieved July 30, 200 from http://www.humanistictexts.org/confucius.htm#_Toc483366191
The eight pillars of Tao, Retrieved July 30, 2010 from http://www.compassionatedragon.com/eightpillars.html
Confucius, likewise, although scholars say that Confucianism is not a theistic religion, stresses the will or mandate of heaven having an influence upon the lives of all, but focuses on the obligations of individuals in a society, not upon isolated religious acts of goodness. Buddhism, another cross-national religion also focuses on acts, such as the importance of meditation, rather than individual spiritual perfection, but focuses on such acts in a trans-national focus and stresses 'right understanding' as opposed to social relationships as in Confucianism. Confucianism does not stress the distinction between earth and the dead. It creates a network of continuity between ancestors of the past and one's present shows of respect, through good conduct, towards ones ancestors. Unlike Christianity, which stresses the better place of the Father in heaven, Buddhists do not believe in any type of God, the need for a savior, prayer, or eternal life after death.…
Confucius. The Analects. MIT Classics Archive. Last updated 2000. http://classics.mit.edu/Confucius/analects.3.3.html
Hoad, Colin. "Chapter One: Confucianism and Christianity." 2005
Matthew: Chapter 5 The Sermon on the Mount." The New American Bible. USCCB. http://www.usccb.org/nab/bible/matthew/matthew5.htm
Religious Traditions in the Axial Age
Aspects of Judaism that made it "axial" during the period from 900 BCE to 300 CE
Judaism spelled an era in the time where there was a worship of many deities, and it brought the idea of worshiping only one deity. Judaism was widespread during this time. It had enough power to influence the people as an umbrella of worship under one deity. The worship of one deity brought about a strengthened responsiveness of human beings and their God. The responsibilities of worshiping one deity were straightened and made to look like capable of transforming whatever was necessary for any true form of worship. The sense of a linear time made people take good responsibility of their deities and everything related to them. The existence of the rival deities was also realized, as people took central of one deity. It was during this time…
Bellah, Robert N. Religion in Human Evolution: From the Paleolithic to the Axial Age. Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011. Print.
Halton, Eugene. From the Axial Age to the Moral Revolution: John Stuart-Glennie, Karl Jaspers, and a New Understanding of the Idea., 2014. Internet resource.
Strayer, Robert W, and Eric Nelson. Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources. 2016. Print.
Confucius & Business Management
Confucius and Confucianism as a Model for Business Leadership
'What you do not want done to yourself, do not do unto others ... " "The injuries done to you by an enemy should be returned with a combination of love and justice
Confucius was among the earliest political and philosophical thinkers; and though he actually lived in the 5th Century BC, his impact and his vision have made a profound impression on the Chinese population, and upon all well-read, intelligent and informed peoples throughout the world for approximately 2,300 years (Mitter, 20043). The philosophies of Confucius stressed ethics, order, stability and morality. These are among the concepts that the business leader, the manager, should aspire to, and this paper will focus on that approach to business and management.
Confucius as Teacher and Statesman: Establishing a vision; stimulating people to gain new competencies.
Confucius had a…
Bledsoe, Helen Wieman. "Confucius: Teacher and Statesman." Calliope Magazine 10
Dominguez, J. "World Religions and 101 Cults: Confucianism, Confucius, symbols, the Jen." 2004. 2 Oct. 2004 http://religion-cults.com/Eastern/Confucianism/confuci.htm .
Gard, Carolyn. "The Analects." Calliope 10 (1999): 28.
A more complete reading of the Analects places these requirements for contentment and piety in a much different context that shows the true righteousness and even equanimity of the suggestions, however. When questioned about humanity, Confucius lists the qualities of "reverence, generosity, truthfulness, diligence, and kindness" as necessary in a "man of humanity" (Sourcebook, 19). While it might be easier for a wealthy and powerful man to not think of his salary and to continue perpetuating the system of authority in which he finds himself, it is no easier for the wealthy man to be truly reverent, honest, or diligent, and it is far harder for many wealthy individuals to be truly generous and kind in their dealings with others. To lead a truly good and well-purposed life, the wealthy and powerful must actually bear extra internal burdens to make sure that their wealth and power are wielded correctly.
Confucius is regarded as one of the most innovative and intellectual philosophers of all time. Confucius and his teachings, even today, command a very large following. For one, Confucius relies extensively on simple yet timeless principles that will endure irrespective of societal growth. His principles are just as relevant today as they were 2500 years ago. In the midst of economic turmoil, civil unrest, greed and envy, many of Confucius' more profound principles apply today. One such principle is that of innovation. Confucius himself was an innovator introducing many unique ideas to both authority and self-cultivation. It was through his belief on innovation which challenged many of the more established customers of society (Hsin-chung, 2000).
To begin, in chapter 2 verse 11, in The Analects, Confucius outlines one of his most profound teachings in regards to innovation. This principle stressed discovering new ideas from intensive study of the old…
1. Hsin-chung Yao, An Introduction to Confucianism (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 12-54.
2. Tu Wei-ming: "The Confucian Tradition in Chinese History," in Paul S. Ropp, ed., The Heritage of China: Contemporary Perspectives on Chinese Civilization. (Berkeley; Oxford:University of California Press, 1990), p.87- 113
life experiences. It include explanation examples previous experiences implications future applications.
Universal Healthcare: Averting Crisis in the United States
A crisis is a unique moment of extreme pressure, exceptional in character and high in significance. Decisions made at the time of a crisis are qualified by the multiplicity of factors all demanding solutions at the same time. One mark of a good leader is the ability to make the right decisions during moments of crisis as well as in placid reflection. The political system of democracy is not well-suited to crises. Many voices piping up and arguing fail to develop consensus, and in spite of the good arguments of some, democratic politics cannot survive a crisis. In a crisis, only a few make the grade and emerge as leaders. The decisions facing leaders in the United States take into account the long-term goals of the world's largest economy, and also…
Dean, Howard. Howard Dean's Prescription for Real Healthcare Reform: How We Can Achieve Affordable Medical Care for Every American and Make Our Jobs Safer. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 2009: White River Junction, VT.
Reid, T.E. The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Healthcare. Penguin Books, 2010: New York.
authority role of human services administrators might conflict with the supervisory role of human services administrators. Then explain how role conflicts might pose a challenge to human services administrators both personally and professionally.
Human Services Administrator ole: Authority and Supervision
The objective of this discussion response is to provide an example of how the authority role of human services administrators might conflict with the supervisory role of human services administrators and to explain how role conflicts might pose a challenge to human service administrators both personally and professionally.
The work of Lawrence Shulman (nd) states "An area of stress reported by supervisors is the feeling of being caught in the middle between staff and administration on a point of conflict. Conflicts between staff members and the administration are often the rule rather than the exception, and they make up a large part of the interaction in the formal and informal…
Shadbush, G. et al. (2009) Models and Methods in Social Work Supervision. The
In today's competitive atmosphere, where people can buy books without ever leaving their homes, Barnes and Noble offers human assistance. The employee structure in stores is geared toward customer service. You do not see B & N. employees so tied up with shelving books that they cannot help a customer. They are encouraged to leave that task and see if they can help any customers in the vicinity. They have computer kiosks where employees can rapidly help a customer find a book either within the store or online through Barnes and Noble. This requires a centralized organizational structure so all stores will conform to the company's standards. However, each store will also have books of local interest, and the feedback of local employees facilitates the decisions regarding which of those books to stock.
4. Describe the organizational structure in your organization (or one with which you are familiar). Does the…
Furthermore, the Bible has influenced the evolution of language. I was pleasantly surprised to find that the Old and New Testament are filled with phrases and maxims that have become part of common vernacular, such as "nothing new under the sun" from Ecclesiastics.
One of the overarching themes of this course has been to approach the Bible as a multi-authored collection. Each book possesses unique tones and perspectives that emerge upon close and comparative readings. The collective aspect of the Bible becomes especially clear when reading the Gospels of the New Testament. The alternative perspectives of the life of Jesus of Nazareth sometimes offer contradictory stories and interpretations of his life. Learning about the historical time frame for the Gospels surprised me considerably, as it too often seems that the books of the Bible were written concurrently.
Nothing in particular bothered me about studying the Bible from an academic perspective.…
Malcolm X on education
A school dropout, Malcolm X illustrates the dichotomy between a formal and what he calls a "homemade" education: "In the street, I had been the most articulate hustler out there -- I had commanded attention when I said something. But now, trying to write simple English, I not only wasn't articulate, I wasn't even functional," (171). Street smarts vs. book smarts: Malcolm X's survival and success depended on both. Practically illiterate when he first entered prison, Malcolm X wrote letter after letter to Elijah Muhammad, forging for himself a homemade education: "It was because of my letters that I happened to stumble upon starting to acquire some kind of a homemade education," (171). His desire to communicate with Elijah Muhummad was the initial spark that inspired Malcolm X to teach himself how to read and write. Painstakingly, he would copy page after page from the dictionary…
Malcolm X, with the assistance of Alex Haley. The Autobiography of Malcolm X New York: Grove, 1966.
hile the winner gets a huge amount of money for supposedly being the strongest human, in fact, the strongest human is merely the one that uses the greatest amount of self-centered cunning and brute strength. If one is going to define humanity, especially in the post-Darwinian age, then it would seem that humanity, to be set apart, would depend on altruistic feelings and use of intelligence rather than selfish feelings and use of brute force alone. In this respect, there is little to separate the producers of TV reality shows from Dr. Moreau, and, by extension, little to separate the participants from the man-beasts. hile it is certainly a cynical viewpoint, it would seem that those who participate in the reality shows might be assumed to be as dimly aware of their condition as the man-beasts after their reversion to the more animal state.
Graff compares Dr. Moreau to Mary…
Bergonzi, Bernard. The Early H.G. Wells: A Study of the Scientific Romances. Manchester, Eng.: Manchester UP (1961).
Graff, Ann-Barbara. "Administrative Nihilism': Evolution, Ethics and Victorian Utopian Satire." Utopian Studies 12.2 (2001): 33+. Questia. 27 Sept. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001049071 .
Hillegas, Mark. The Future as Nightmare: H.G. Wells and the Anti-Utopians. New York: Oxford UP (1967).
Sirabian, Robert. "The Conception of Science in Wells's the Invisible Man." Papers on Language & Literature 37.4 (2001): 382. Questia. 27 Sept. 2005 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000917120 .
This relationship between the executive and legislative branches in North Carolina is similar to that of Texas, which also has a bicameral legislature made up of representatives elected every two years to its house of representatives and senate. Texas also has elected Texas Supreme Court Justices, Appeals Courts, and District Court Divisions with justices elected to six-year terms. The longer term is presumably intended to isolate the justices somewhat from the need to please the populace. The governor is also elected every four years in Texas. (Texas Online, 2006)
The delegation of authority to local governments: hat structure and powers do the cities, counties, and other forms of local government have in the state?
In North Carolina the state has the authority to exercise its police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare on both a local and state level. Local governments have been delegated the authority to regulate…
How a bill becomes a law." North Carolina Research Division. 2006. [14 Oct 2006] http://www.ncleg.net/NCGAInfo/Bill-Law/bill-law.html
How a judge becomes a judge." North Carolina Research Division. 2006. [14 Oct 2006] http://www.aoc.state.nc.us/www/homecourt/howjud.html
Lt. Governor says all schools need automatic defibrillators." Texas State Senate Press
Release. Texas State Senate Webpage October 9,2005. [14 Oct 2006] http://www.senate.state.tx.us/75r/senate/new.htm
musical style epitomized the 1920s? Jazz
What did John Steinbeck describe in he Grapes of Wrath? he dust bowl and its impact on agricultural families during the great depression.
National Industrial Recovery Act? An act created by President Roosevelt to stimulate the economy by allowing the government to regulate particular industries.
What did the Civilian Conservation Corps do? Created jobs on state and national lands to stimulate the economy.
What did Eleanor Roosevelt see as her primary role as First Lady? o be an advocate for civil rights
Which of the following was not true concerning the election of 1936? Incomplete Question
Which of the following pieces of legislation was an attempt at campaign reform in the late 1930s? Incomplete Question
he National Resources Planning Board facilitated? he National Resources Planning Board facilitated creating and implementing employment for young men during the great depression.
What feature of the Agricultural Adjustment…
The Manhattan Project was? The secret project for inventing the atom bomb
Who were the Scottsboro boys? Nine black teenagers accused of rape in a 1931 Alabama case. It revealed the deeply seated racism in Alabama due to its denial of a fair trail.
A. Philip Randolph's call for a massive march on Washington led to? Desegregation of the armed forces.
leader within the educational sector, it is critical that that qualities of good leadership be reflected upon the entire course of ones career.The management and leadership of academic institution is in deed a challenge that often results in poor performance in our contemporary schools (Schmoker,2001). In this paper, we present an elaborate reflection of my views on educational leadership principles that I have explored in the context of your MAED program and my career, and offer a summary of how my development as a professional educator has informed my practice that led to completion of the Capstone Project and my overall degree program.
Educational leadership principles
The very first principle of quality leadership practice is the evidence of candidate learning. This means that all the educational programs must provide enough evidence that the candidates have indeed learned and comprehended the educational curriculum.In order to do this, it was necessary for…
Carsey, MK and Gable, RK (2011). Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Preparedness to Differentiate Instruction for Diverse Learners.
Paper presented at the 43rd annual meeting of the Northeastern Educational Research Association, October 19, 2011, Rocky Hill, CT.
Heacox, D. (2009). Making differentiation a habit: How to ensure success in academically diverse classrooms. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Publishing, Inc.
Kinsella, E. (2007) Embodied Reflection and the Epistemology of Reflective Practice, Journal of Philosophy of Education, Vol. 41, No.3 pp. 395-409.
Database Developer (based on job I worked on).
Syntax and Semantic Analysis
-- The Syntax errors involved misuse of keywords.
The Semantic errors involved misuse of columns and tables - there were incompatible data types.
To elaborate, the syntax refers to the structure of the program and syntactic analysis checks for errors in aspects like spelling or whether ibraces are missing in which case the program would fail syntactically.
Semantic errors, on the other hand refer to the essential meaning of the content -- whether it all makes sense and whether it is accurate (for instance writing "the sun rises in the west") is a semantic error for this is incorrect. I would have to ascertain that all data placed in tables and columns was accurate in both context and form.
b. Query Transformation
I transformed the query into simplified and standardized format based on relational algebra. Some query transformations…
The novel "Dracula" was written by Irish author Bram Stoker in 1897. Set in nineteenth-century Victorian England and other countries of the same time, this novel is told in an epistolary format through a collection of letters, diary entries etc. The main characters include Count Dracula and a small group of men and women led by Dr. Van Helsing. Count Dracula is the antagonist character of the novel, and is a vampire. The group of men and women led by Dr. Van Helsing are the main protagonist characters. The novel talks about Count Dracula's endeavor to relocate from Transylvania to England, and his demise. The story begins with an English lawyer, Jonathan Harker, visiting Dracula's castle to assist him with some real estate issues. During his stay in the castle, Harker discovers that the Count is a vampire and barely escapes with his life. Then the narrative turns into…
Parsons, G. (1989). Religion in victorian britain. (Vol. 4)
Stoker, B. (1897). Dracula. United Kingdom: Archibald Constable and Company.
Wood, P. (2004). Science and dissent in England, 1688-1945 (science, technology and culture,
Hello, Please 3 cultures compare paper. Please include Spanish, American, Indian Cultures Heritage Assessment access Heritage Assessment Tool.
A questionnaire design that is used to assess a person's culture, religion, and ethnic so as to understand the person in relation to illnesses, diseases and their general health is what is referred to as the Heritage Assessment Tool Cohn et al., 2010
( ADDIN EN.CITE )
As unique as ones fingerprint is, so is their heritage in some cultures. Everyone has their own unique heritage and this heritage is very different from the heritage of another culture, a person's heritage is what determines their religious, cultural and ethnic background. It is also what deals with the person's mental, physical and their spiritual beliefs and this will be used when maintaining the person's health, protecting and restoring their health. It is important to note that in the healthcare field knowledge…
Cohn, W.F., Ropka, M.E., Pelletier, S.L., Barrett, J.R., Kinzie, M.B., Harrison, M.B., . . . Knaus, W.A. (2010). Health Heritage, a Web-Based Tool for the Collection and Assessment of Family Health History: Initial User Experience and Analytic Validity. [Article]. Public Health Genomics, 13(7/8), 477-491. doi: 10.1159/000294415
Kasten, W.C. (1992). Bridging the Horizon: American Indian Beliefs and Whole Language Learning. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 23(2), 108-119.
Miller, J. (2000). Keeping With the Transcultural Nursing Society Mission. [Article]. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 11(3), 230.
Roland, F., Johnson, I., Bruce, E., & Khuon, K.-N. (2007). Living with Heritage: Site Monitoring and Heritage Values in Greater Angkor and the Angkor World Heritage Site, Cambodia. World Archaeology, 39(3), 385-405.
Comparison of Starbucks and the Dunkin Brands - Revenue, Cost of Sales, Accounts Receivable and Payable and Inventory
Starbucks is a well-known coffee house which operates using both company owned outlets as well as utilizing a franchise model. The firm has been successful, but has also faced challenges. The firm has shown significant growth since the humble origins in 1971, when the firm had only a single store, to the position where in 2011 the firm has more than 17,000 outlets in 55 different countries (Starbucks, 2011). While the growth may be impressive, it is the financial performance that accompanies that growth which will be of interest to investors or potential investors. The investors may want to look at the firms' performance and assess the degree to which the investment is sound. This can include many ratios and measures, in this case the aspect of soundness may be considered…
From this it is possible to see that the cost of goods sold to Starbucks is much higher than to Dunkin Group, however, this is not necessarily negative, as it reflects the type of goods sold. However, it does demonstrate potential fore Dunkin to translate this into a higher net profit is other costs can be controlled. The gross profit for Starbucks shows a slight decrease in 2011 compared to 2010, but with inflation on goods inwards and difficult financial conditions making firms wary increase prices this minimal decrease in the gross profit as a result in the slight proportional increase in cost of goods sold is not cause for concern. However, Dunkin have been able to increase their gross profit margin.
The cash flow may be considered when looking at the accounts receivable and payable. The accounts receivable are the amounts that the firm is owed at any period of time.
Financial Statements and Business Organizations
Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) require four different financial statements for most forms of business organizations: the balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, and statement of shareholders, partners' or owner's equity. This essay examines the statements associated with the sole proprietorship, the partnership, the C corporation and S corporation.
A sole proprietorship is a business owned by one person. From an accounting standpoint the business is treated as a separate entity from its owner. A partnership consists of two or more individuals who are co-owners of an enterprise. AC corporation automatically forms when a business becomes incorporated, and shields the shareholders from being personally liable for the debts and obligations of the company (Carter, 2011). The S corporation is a C corporation which has elected pass-through taxation.
A balance sheet provides detailed information about a company's assets, liabilities and equity. It reports…
Carter, C. (2011). How does a C corporation work? Hearst Communications. Retrieved November 12, from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/c-corporation-work-4767.html
QuickMBA. (2011). The four financial statements. Retrieved November 12, from: http://www.quickmba.com/accounting/fin/statements/
Roberts, S. (2011). Financial statements of a sole proprietorship. Retrieved November 12, from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/financial-statements-sole-proprietorship-14717.html
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). (2011). Beginners guide to financial statements. Retrieved November 12, from: http://www.sec.gov/investor/pubs/begfinstmtguide.htm
Correctional Facilities and Their Offenders
Numerous differences exist between jails and prisons. Jails primarily operate at the local level, which means they are generally run by individual counties. As such, there can be several jails within a state. Prions, however, are run either by particular states or by the federal government. There are far more state jails than there are county jails. The former has approximately 100 facilities, whereas the latter exceeds over 1,000 institutions across the country. However, state prisons are only in a certain state. For instance, all of the California state prisons are within California, all of the Maine state prisons are within Maine, and so forth.
One of the chief differences between county jails and state prisons pertains to the length of time in which an individual will stay there, as well as the severity of the crime. For the most part, county jail sentences are…
Ayinc, J.P. (2009). "Comparing and contrasting local jail and state or federal prison." JPay. Retrieved from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/companies/2004-03-18-statetime_x.htm
O'Donnell, J. (2004). "State time or federal prison." USA Today.com Retrieved from
Hallahan, D., Keogh, B. (2001). Research and Global Perspective in Learning Disabilities. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Jacobson, J., et al. (2004). Controversial Therapies for Developmental Disabilities. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
atterwhite, M. (2008). Access to Academies for All tudents: Critical Approaches to Inclusive
Curriculum, Instruction and Policy. Journal of Thought. 43 (1-2): 45-53.
Part 2 - In many ways, the IEP meeting has a great deal in common with arbitration: the goal is to find a win-win situation for all parties concerned based on fact, concern, and care, but not so much on emotions and misperceptions. The first issue is to define the reasons that everyone is participating in the IEP -- for the betterment of the child. Both the parent and teach want to advocate for the child, but there are differing perspectives about what the child is capable of within the school system. During the IEP meeting,…
When The IEP Team Meets. (2012). Nataional Dissemination Center for Children With Disabilities. Retireved from: http://nichcy.org/schoolage/iep/meetings
Bollero, J. (2010). 8 Steps to Better IEP Meetings. WrightsLaw. Retrieved from: http://www.wrightslaw.com/advoc/articles/iep.bollero.hearts.htm
Watson, S. (2011). Preparing for the IEP Meeting. About.com Special Education. Retrieved from: http://specialed.about.com/od/iep/a/IEPMeeting.htm
Management and Theory
Leadership and coaching go hand in many ways because to coach is to lead, and to lead is to coach others. Indeed, leaders and coaches, whatever the title is really theoretical mentoring within the context of a particular organization or activity. For centuries, scholars and philosophers alike have been trying to find a specific and complete definition for coaching and leadership, but have not had much success. True, leadership is, in part, decision making at the nth level; while coaching takes that decision making and often compartmentalizes it into split-second action. In the era of gloablization, theoretical decision making this has become even more critical now that there are so many divergent cultural opportunities that require new skills, approaches, and even that allow coaching to occur not just in the physical environment, but in the virtual as well, with no regard for geographic or political boundaries (Drucker,…
Alvesson, M., & Karreman, D. (2007). Constructing mystery: Empirical matters in theory development. Academy of Management Review, 32(4): 1265-1281.
Cortes, J. (2012). How Many Coaching Models Can You Find?, Retrieved from:
Drucker, P.F., et al. (2001), Harvard Business Review on Decision Making, Boston, MA:
The presentation of propaganda is one of the ways political agendas are advanced using the educational system. Historically, educational systems are used to teach ideas that are often scientifically false. An example of this would be the teaching of the inferiority of blacks as a way to shape the argument on race relations during the slavery period. A more recent example of that practice would be the attempt to change the content of text books to shape the concerns relating to the evolution and creation debate. The pro-creation side of the debate would like text books to not contain statements that support evolution. The debate for civil rights and in particular gay rights required educational changes to advance the movement. The gay rights movement while political is supported by having an educational system that suggests gays should have rights. This approach uses education to shape the ideas of future generations…
Carnoy, M. (1975). Education as Cultural Imperialism. Teachers College Record 76 (4):688-690
Myer, J. (1977). The effects of education as an institution. American Journal of Sociology. 83(1):
Russell, B. (1916). Education as a political institution. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1916/06/education-as-a-political-institution/305258/?single_page=true
Australia's taxation system is seen by some as being extremely complicated. It promotes tax evasion and limited understanding of the overall taxation process in Australia. Brinsden found that "Our system is ranked highest in 'complexity' and second lowest in 'fairness' when compared to the UK, USA, Canada, Singapore and Hong Kong." (1-2)
Rather than providing people with a more simplified tax system, the present day taxation policies have increased in complexity prompting some to believe Australia is headed towards an economic downturn. Businesses and the upper class are already using the complex tax policies to evade or seek further tax breaks as the middle class, immigrants, and working class suffer from the unfair policies.
One of the biggest hurdles faced by Australia's government is tax avoidance or evasion leading to a need for more revenue. Brinsden writes: "He said rather than the Australian Tax Office launching costly, large-scale taskforces, making…
Brinsden, Colin. "Australian tax system complex: survey." Sunday Morning Herald, June 19th, 2008.
Colebatch, Tim. "Business fears poor revenue outlook will hit tax breaks" Sunday Morning Herald, April 18th, 2013.
Dixon, Daryl. "How to pay less tax by splitting two incomes." The Canberra Times, October 30th, 1988.
Forrest, Andrew. "Tax will leave WA with little but dust." The West Australian, August 20th, 2010.
Leadership and Human esource Management in the Public Sector
The public sector consists of the section of the government, which attends to matters of production, ownership, sales, provision and delivery and allocation of services and goods to the government and the citizens of the state, nationally, regionally and locally. The public sector conducts activities such as delivering of social security services, overseeing urban planning and organizing the national defense among other services. The organizational structure takes various forms, which dictate the leadership formula of the countries sectors. Some of these forms of organization include the direct administration founded on the lines of direct taxation; in this form, the government does not have particular requirements but to meet the commercial success and production decisions of the country. Another structure of organization under public sector is the publicly owned corporations. These differ from the direct administration of the government as they have…
White, J.D. (2007). Managing information in the public sector. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe.
Raffel, J.A., Leisink, P., & Middlebrooks, A.E. (2009). Public sector leadership: International challenges and perspectives. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Berman, E.M. (2010). Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Berman, E.M. (2013). Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Inter Clean Scenario -- Human Resources
The InterClean, Inc. scenario deals with ways to consolidation of two workforces due to an acquisition. In order to determine viable measures for maximizing the new human resources scenario and to improve their competitive advantage in the marketplace, InterClean must develop a new human resources strategy. InterClean, Inc. As changed their organizational focus and have acquired an entirely new set of employees with the acquisition in which they must train and evaluate. The company must introduce these employees to a new set of strategic objectives. One of the first challenges that they will face will to be to build the skill inventories from the new EnviroTech employees.
Evaluation is an important component of any human resources department. Without an evaluation is it difficult to know where employees are in regards to their career development. Furthermore, the effective use of an evaluation has also been…
his was a very powerful show. Watching and listening to Howard Zinn talk about what he believes and what he hopes for was an amazing experience. Seeing clips from the History Channel documentary ensured that I will go in search of the entire show. he actors who represented the historical figures gave poignant readings that truly brought that time in history to life and -- importantly -- made it possible to understand how the individual portrayed were catalysts to incredible change. It was interesting to listen to Zinn's comments about the Obama and his comparison of Obama to Martin Luther King. he comparison seems a bit unfair as Martin Luther King was not an elected official. Rather, Martin Luther King's comments were entirely in alignment with his role as a pastor and a change agent. Indeed, in retrospect, Zinn's comments were pertinent to the criticism of Obama at the…
The GOP no longer represents the American working public -- it represents Wall Street and those who make their living through investments, through self-serving positions of corporate control, through the economics of the war machine, and through the cronyism associated with the "imperial presidency" that Moyers named. The more conservative members of the GOP and the Tea Party members are facades behind which wealthy Republicans conduct their war on the middle class. Moreover, conservatives seem entirely comfortable insisting that their religious beliefs are a legitimate basis for lawmaking. The way that issues of abortion and reproductive rights are playing out in this country is a perfect example of this problem. The argument for separation between church and state has somehow become separated from the argument for separation between religion and politics. Are they really different? Martin Luther King certainly had very strong religious beliefs and though he may have made reference to God in his speeches, his actions could be seen to derive from a very secular human rights basis. Many conservatives seem to engage in magical thinking -- if they don't want to believe in global warming, for instance, because it can impact their investments, they just don't. That is so ignorant.
It is really good to see that Americans have not lost sight of the importance of protest. I really liked the song that John Blasingame sang at the end of the show. He is right that people do have an obligation to protest and to raise their voices when there are wrongs to be righted. Protest is how America came to be -- it is in our blood, it is our heritage, and it must be our legacy. When there are great inequalities in a country, they tend to grow greater not smaller. The fundamental driver of this is so obvious that I am surprised that more people do not recognize it when it happens all around them. People -- except for saints and religious zealots and a few remarkable people like Mahatma Gandhi -- are unwilling to give up any privilege or advantage that they have. This is true even when it means that they must trample on the rights of others in order to maintain their personal gain. This group of Iowans understands this dynamic, and they also get that they will benefit by supporting other people when they are in need. But rather than just seeking personal gain, they are interested in protecting a very American way of life in which community matters. It was terrific to see farmers quoting famous historical figures. Rosa Parks is a name all Americans are likely to know, but these farmers obviously read more widely than the average American history book. It seems that the Citizens for Community Improvement (ICC) not only get their group charged up, but they educate them, too. Or perhaps those who gravitate to the ICC are veterans of the civil rights the anti-war protests of the 1960s who have a clear idea of just what a determined group of people can accomplish if they set their minds to it. Larry Ginter says, "Revolution begins in a peasant hut." And John Blasingame said that, Louis Brandeis, the Supreme Court Justice is said to have asserted that "You can have great wealth concentrated in a few hands or you can have democracy -- but you can't have both." John Blasingame believes Justice Brandeis is right. And so do I.
Toulmin Model and Sherlock Holmes
The Toulmin Model of argumentation asserts that a good argument consists of six parts which intend to develop a practical argument. The first element is the "claim," or the conclusion that the argument must establish. The next part is the "data," or the facts and evidence collected and used to confirm the argument. In order to support the data, general, hypothetical, or logical statements are used, these are called "warrants." A good argument should limit itself to what can be proven and so it requires "qualifiers" which restrict the argument to a point where it can be supported by facts. In order to support the warrants made during the argument, sometimes "backing statements" are used to add credence to the statements made during the argument. These backing statements may not directly support the claim, but should always support the supporting warrants. Finally, since there are…
Validity in psychological research involves a thoroughness and precision when drafting a research study, truly considering all the strengths and weaknesses of the study before engaging in it, and how previous studies have failed before. "Validity is important because it tells you if the measure actually measures what it's supposed to measure and not something else (Goodwin, 2010). When structuring and executing a given psychological study, one needs to take into account the fact that all people are individuals and given to a certain deviation and uniqueness of thought and behavior. At the same time the study should be designed to attempt to capture a certain amount of the universality and trends of human behavior. Validity in psychological research protects the anonymity and privacy of all participants, treats all participants with dignity and respect and discloses all the details and aspects of the study to participants so that they can…
Goodwin, C.J. (2010). Methods and design. Crawfordsville: John Wiley and Sons.
Jackson, S.L. (2010). Research methods: A modular approach. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
Dadaism and Surrealism
It has been since centuries that the Art has existed in this world and has undergone various stages. In simple words, art has got its own historical periods whereby every period has its unique invention and significance. Art has acquired immense success, has reached several milestones and the reason of this tremendous development is due to the improvement in diverse historical periods. The present is always improved by taking history as a source for improvement. History narrates the earlier civilizations through which present learns for the future development. In the same way, art has continued to be the most imperative subject of all cultures; be they ancient or present. The different art periods of diverse varieties have existed since times unknown. In this essay, Dadaism and Surrealism, the two distinctive historical art periods will be elaborated along with their similarities and differences.
As mentioned in Columbia…
ART BOOKS OF THE YEAR; Van Gogh's Letters, Grayson Perry's Pots a Scholarly Study of Caravaggio and a Glimpse into the World of the Insane Henry Darger -- Just a Few of the Treats Guaranteed to Give Pleasure This Christmas. (2009, December 10). The Evening Standard (London, England), p. 48. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5038833735
Dada. (2009). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved June 27, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117013882
Essak, S. (n.d.). Dada - Art History 101 Basics: The Non-Art Movement (1916-23). Retrieved June 27, 2012 from http://arthistory.about.com/cs/arthistory10one/a/dada.htm
MobileReference. (2007). Encyclopedia of philosophy for smartphones and mobile devices - free 3 chapters in the trial version. Boston: MobileReference.com. Retrieved June 27, 2012 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=cHI3qGaX9DsC&pg=PT440&dq=dada+art+movement&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hFKWT-_dA-el4gSjr9xG&ved=0CFcQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=dada%20art%20movement&f=false